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clostridum difficil

Hung Chan, Shan Zhao, Lin Zhang, Jeffery Ho, Czarina C H Leung, Wai T Wong, Yuanyuan Tian, Xiaodong Liu, Thomas N Y Kwong, Raphael C Y Chan, Sidney S B Yu, Maggie H T Wang, Gary Tse, Sunny H Wong, Matthew T V Chan, William K K Wu
Toxin B (TcdB) is a major pathogenic factor of Clostridum difficile. However, the mechanism by which TcdB exerts its cytotoxic action in host cells is still not completely known. Herein, we report for the first time that TcdB induced autophagic cell death in cultured human colonocytes. The induction of autophagy was demonstrated by the increased levels of LC3-II, formation of LC3+ autophagosomes, accumulation of acidic vesicular organelles and reduced levels of the autophagic substrate p62/SQSTM1. TcdB-induced autophagy was also accompanied by the repression of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 activity...
April 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Paula Ferrada, Rachael Callcut, Martin D Zielinski, Brandon Bruns, Daniel Dante Yeh, Tanya L Zakrison, Jonathan P Meizoso, Babak Sarani, Richard D Catalano, Peter Kim, Valerie Plant, Amelia Pasley, Linda A Dultz, Asad J Choudhry, Elliott R Haut
OBJECTIVES: The mortality of patients with Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD) requiring surgery continues to be very high. Loop ileostomy (LI) was introduced as an alternative procedure to total colectomy (TC) for CDAD by a single-center study. To date, no reproducible results have been published. The objective of this study was to compare these two procedures in a multicentric approach to help the surgeon decide what procedure is best suited for the patient in need. METHODS: This was a retrospective multicenter study conducted under the sponsorship of the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma...
July 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Z D Jiang, N J Ajami, J F Petrosino, G Jun, C L Hanis, M Shah, L Hochman, V Ankoma-Sey, A W DuPont, M C Wong, A Alexander, S Ke, H L DuPont
BACKGROUND: Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has become routine in managing recurrent C. difficile infection (CDI) refractory to antibiotics. AIM: To compare clinical response and improvements in colonic microbiota diversity in subjects with recurrent CDI using different donor product. METHODS: Seventy-two subjects with ≥3 bouts of CDI were randomised in a double-blind study to receive fresh, frozen or lyophilised FMT product via colonoscopy from 50 g of stool per treatment from eight healthy donors...
April 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Triana Lobatón, Eugeni Domènech
Besides genetics and environmental factors, intestinal microbiota seem to play a major role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases. For many decades, it has been said that some enteropathogens may even trigger both inflammatory bowel disease development and disease flares. For this reason, stool testing had been performed in inflammatory bowel disease flares but current guidelines only recommend to rule out Clostridium difficile infection and there is no clear advice for other enteropathogens given that the scarce available evidence points at a low prevalence of this sort of intestinal superinfections with no clear impact on disease course...
July 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Lynne Vernice McFarland, Metehan Ozen, Ener Cagri Dinleyici, Shan Goh
Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) and Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) have been well studied for adult cases, but not as well in the pediatric population. Whether the disease process or response to treatments differs between pediatric and adult patients is an important clinical concern when following global guidelines based largely on adult patients. A systematic review of the literature using databases PubMed (June 3, 1978-2015) was conducted to compare AAD and CDI in pediatric and adult populations and determine significant differences and similarities that might impact clinical decisions...
March 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Jiang-Chen Peng, Jun Shen, Qi Zhu, Zhi-Hua Ran
There is growing recognition of the impact of Clostridum difficile infection (CDI) on patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Clostridium difficile infection causes greater morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of C. difficile on surgical risk among ulcerative colitis (UC) patients. We searched the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ACP Journal Club, DARE, CMR, and HTA. Studies were included if fulfilled the following criteria: (1) Cohort or case-control studies, which involved a comparison group that lacked CDI, (2) Patients were given a primary diagnosis of UC, (3) Comorbidity of CDI was evaluated by enzyme immunoassay of stool for C...
July 2015: Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2015: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
Joseph D Forrester, Niaz Banaei, Patricia Buchner, David A Spain, Kristan L Staudenmayer
BACKGROUND: Clostridum difficile is a gram-positive, spore-forming anaerobic bacillus that has substantial associated morbidity, mortality, and associated healthcare burdens. Clostridium difficile spores are not destroyed by alcohol. Alcohol gel dispensers are used commonly as the hand sanitization method of choice in hospitals. It is possible that gel dispensers are fomites for C. difficile. METHODS: Thirty alcohol-based gel dispenser handles outside of rooms of patients with active C...
October 2014: Surgical Infections
Esther van Kleef, Julie V Robotham, Mark Jit, Sarah R Deeny, William J Edmunds
BACKGROUND: Dynamic transmission models are increasingly being used to improve our understanding of the epidemiology of healthcare-associated infections (HCAI). However, there has been no recent comprehensive review of this emerging field. This paper summarises how mathematical models have informed the field of HCAI and how methods have developed over time. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, CINAHL plus and Global Health databases were systematically searched for dynamic mathematical models of HCAI transmission and/or the dynamics of antimicrobial resistance in healthcare settings...
2013: BMC Infectious Diseases
S A Hassan, R A Rahman, N Huda, W M Wan Bebakar, Y Y Lee
BACKGROUND: Clostridum difficile (C. difficile) infection is increasingly seen among hospitalised patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus but its rate and associated risk factors are not known. We aimed to determine the rate and characteristics of hospital-acquired C. difficile infection in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus admitted into acute medical wards. METHODS: Our prospective cross-sectional study involved 159 patients with established type 2 diabetes mellitus admitted into acute medical wards who developed a hospital-acquired C...
2013: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
Steven R Vidrine, Chandler Cortina, Marissa Black, Steven B Vidrine
Acute appendicitis is a common cause for pediatric surgery, with an increasing incidence as this population ages. Pseudomembranous colitis (PMC) from Clostridum difficle is being seen more frequently in pediatric patients, especially after treatment with antibiotics and in those with Hirschsprung's disease. Only three prior cases of appendicitis associated with PMC have been described in the literature, and all of them occurred in adult patients. Here, we describe the first documented pediatric case: a 16-year-old female who developed acute appendicitis while concomitantly being treated for suspected pseudomembranous colitis...
September 2012: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
Matthew J Hamilton, Alexa R Weingarden, Tatsuya Unno, Alexander Khoruts, Michael J Sadowsky
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is becoming a more widely used technology for treatment of recurrent Clostridum difficile infection (CDI). While previous treatments used fresh fecal slurries as a source of microbiota for FMT, we recently reported the successful use of standardized, partially purified and frozen fecal microbiota to treat CDI. Here we report that high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed stable engraftment of gut microbiota following FMT using frozen fecal bacteria from a healthy donor...
March 2013: Gut Microbes
Ewa Skopińska, Dominika Lachowicz, Dorota Wultańska, Jolanta Pawłowska, Anna Jedrzejewska, Piotr Obuch-Woszczatyński, Hanna Pituch
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antagonistic activity of Lactobacillus strains against clinical C. difficile strains isolated from faecal samples of adults patients with diarrhea. A total 61 strains of C. difficile randomly selected isolated in the period 2007-2008 from the gastrointestinal tract of hospitalized patients in three hospitals province Mazovia, Poland. To determination of antagonistic activity ofprobiotic Lactobacillus spp. strains used four reference strains: Lactobacillus plantarum 2017405, Lactobacillus fermentum 353, Lactobacillus acidophilus DSM 21007 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG...
2012: Medycyna Doświadczalna i Mikrobiologia
Nimalie D Stone, Muhammad S Ashraf, Jennifer Calder, Christopher J Crnich, Kent Crossley, Paul J Drinka, Carolyn V Gould, Manisha Juthani-Mehta, Ebbing Lautenbach, Mark Loeb, Taranisia Maccannell, Preeti N Malani, Lona Mody, Joseph M Mylotte, Lindsay E Nicolle, Mary-Claire Roghmann, Steven J Schweon, Andrew E Simor, Philip W Smith, Kurt B Stevenson, Suzanne F Bradley
(See the commentary by Moro, on pages 978-980 .) Infection surveillance definitions for long-term care facilities (ie, the McGeer Criteria) have not been updated since 1991. An expert consensus panel modified these definitions on the basis of a structured review of the literature. Significant changes were made to the criteria defining urinary tract and respiratory tract infections. New definitions were added for norovirus gastroenteritis and Clostridum difficile infections.
October 2012: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Sandra Dial
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2012: Gut
Amee R Manges, Aurelie Labbe, Vivian G Loo, Juli K Atherton, Marcel A Behr, Luke Masson, Patricia A Tellis, Roland Brousseau
This study investigated the relationship between hospital exposures, intestinal microbiota, and subsequent risk of Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD), with use of a nested case-control design. The study included 599 patients, hospitalized from September 2006 through May 2007 in Montreal, Quebec, from whom fecal samples were obtained within 72 h after admission; 25 developed CDAD, and 50 matched controls were selected for analysis. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and antibiotic use were associated with CDAD...
December 15, 2010: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Alex B Ryder, Ying Huang, Haijing Li, Min Zheng, Xiaobo Wang, Charles W Stratton, Xiao Xu, Yi-Wei Tang
We explored the use of a real-time cell analysis (RTCA) system for the assessment of Clostridium difficile toxins in human stool specimens by monitoring the dynamic responses of the HS27 cells to tcdB toxins. The C. difficile toxin caused cytotoxic effects on the cells, which resulted in a dose-dependent and time-dependent decrease in cell impedance. The RTCA assay possessed an analytical sensitivity of 0.2 ng/ml for C. difficile toxin B with no cross-reactions with other enterotoxins, nontoxigenic C. difficile, or other Clostridum species...
November 2010: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
C Vaishnavi
Clostridium difficile is the aetiological agent for almost all cases of pseudo membranous colitis and 15-25% of antibiotic associated diarrhoea. In recent years, C. difficile associated disease (CDAD) has been increasing in frequency and severity due to the emergence of virulent strains. Severe cases of toxic mega colon may be associated with mortality rates of 24-38%. The prevalence of CDAD is global and the incidence varies considerably from place to place. In the initial stages of its discovery, C. difficile infection was regarded mainly as an outcome of antibiotic intake and not as a life threatening disease...
October 2009: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Adrián Camacho-Ortiz, Alfredo Ponce-de-León, José Sifuentes-Osornio
Clostridium difficile associated disease (CDAD) has shown a sustained increase worldwide over the last ten years. However, there are few studies on this topic in Latin America. We conducted a comprehensive literature review using medical databases of Latin American countries. We found only seven recent papers in which clinical characteristics and risk factors were analyzed; some included outcome variables. Of these articles, only one was prospective, while the rest were either retrospective, cross-sectional or case-control studies...
May 2009: Gaceta Médica de México
M Kamboj, C N Mihu, K Sepkowitz, N A Kernan, G A Papanicolaou
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is a common complication of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Microbiologic stool studies are frequently ordered to rule out infectious etiology. The utility of examining multiple stool specimens per diarrheal episode has not been examined. METHODS: . We performed a retrospective review of 169 adult and pediatric patients who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center from January 1, 2000 though December 31, 2001, who had at least 1 microbiologic stool study...
December 2007: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
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