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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944993/evaluation-of-prolonged-exposure-to-varenicline-in-adult-rats-hematological-biochemical-and-anatomopathological-studies
#1
Julia Zaccarelli-Magalhães, Natalia Moreira, Thaisa Meira Sandini, Gabriel Ramos de Abreu, Angélica Maria Sánchez-Sarmiento, Esther Lopes Ricci, André Rinaldi Fukushima, Helenice de Souza Spinosa
Varenicline is a synthetic chemical substance produced from the alkaloid cytisine, used for smoking treatment, which acts as a partial agonist for α4β2 and α3β4 nicotinic cholinergic receptors and as a total agonist for α7 receptor. While there are studies regarding varenicline's non-smoking-related effects, as in treatment for drug dependence, there are no studies in the literature evaluating the long-term toxicity of varenicline through a physiological approach. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate possible toxicity through hematological, biochemical and anatomopathological parameters of prolonged exposure (30 days) to varenicline in rats...
September 25, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943276/detection-of-anabolic-androgenic-steroid-use-by-elite-athletes-and-by-members-of-the-general-public
#2
REVIEW
Bradley D Anawalt
Because national and international sports competitions are sources of community pride and financial revenue, there have been great efforts to prevent and detect the use of performance-enhancing drugs such as anabolic androgenic steroids by elite athletes. The World Anti-Doping Agency and its national affiliate anti-doping agencies have created sophisticated monitoring systems and advanced testing techniques to detect the use of banned substances including anabolic androgenic steroids by participants in international and national athletic competitions...
September 21, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943065/nicotine-dependence-internalizing-symptoms-mood-variability-and-daily-tobacco-use-among-young-adult-smokers
#3
Cristina B Bares, Danielle M Dick, Kenneth S Kendler
INTRODUCTION: Cigarette use among young adults continues to rise. As young adults transition to college and assume other adult roles and responsibilities, they are at risk for the development of mental health problems and for the progression of substance use problems. Previous studies suggest that individual differences in negative and positive mood contribute to cigarette use in established college-aged smokers, but less is known whether fluctuations in mood influence daily cigarette use, controlling for trait levels of internalizing symptoms and nicotine dependence...
September 18, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942596/the-multidimensional-therapeutic-potential-of-targeting-the-brain-oxytocin-system-for-the-treatment-of-substance-use-disorders
#4
Michael T Bowen, Inga D Neumann
The neuropeptide oxytocin is released both into the blood and within the brain in response to reproductive stimuli, such as birth, suckling and sex, but also in response to social interaction and stressors. Substance use disorders, or addictions, are chronic, relapsing brain disorders and are one of the major causes of global burden of disease. Unfortunately, current treatment options for substance use disorders are extremely limited and a treatment breakthrough is sorely needed. There is mounting preclinical evidence that targeting the brain oxytocin system may provide that breakthrough...
September 24, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942238/transgender-youth-substance-use-disparities-results-from-a-population-based-sample
#5
Jack K Day, Jessica N Fish, Amaya Perez-Brumer, Mark L Hatzenbuehler, Stephen T Russell
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine rates of substance use between transgender and nontransgender youth using a representative population-based sample and to examine mediating risk factors. METHODS: A statewide cross-sectional sample of California middle and high schools collected between 2013 and 2015. This representative sample of students in California included 335 transgender and 31,737 nontransgender youth. Using multivariate linear and logistic regression, we assessed differences between transgender and nontransgender youth in substance use behaviors related to alcohol, cigarette, marijuana, other illicit drugs, polysubstance use, and heavy episodic drinking...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942132/toxicological-evaluation-of-an-aqueous-suspension-from-leaves-and-stems-of-petiveria-alliacea-l-phytolaccaceae
#6
Martha-Estrella García-Pérez, Alfredo Alfonso-Castillo, Onel Fong Lores, Alexander Batista-Duharte, Zoe Lemus-Rodríguez
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Petiveria alliacea L. (Phytolaccaceae) is used in folk medicine due to its antispasmodic, diuretic, hypoglycemic, abortive, anti-inflammatory and anticancerogenic properties. Although P. alliacea is considered toxic by people, its toxicity remains a concern since it is strongly dependent on the extraction method and the part of the plant used during tests. Even if some healers prefer to use the aerial parts in a liquefied form or by chewing them, instead of decoctions or infusions, no toxicological studies exist using whole dried stems and leaves...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941624/the-biodistribution-and-pharmacokinetics-of-the-oxime-acetylcholinesterase-reactivator-rs194b-in-guinea-pigs
#7
Michael A Malfatti, Heather A Enright, Nicholas A Be, Edward A Kuhn, Saphon Hok, M Windy McNerney, Victoria Lao, Tuan H Nguyen, Felice C Lightstone, Timothy S Carpenter, Brian J Bennion, Carlos A Valdez
Organophosphorus-based (OP) nerve agents represent some of the most toxic substances known to mankind. The current standard of care for exposure has changed very little in the past decades, and relies on a combination of atropine to block receptor activity and oxime-type acetylcholinesterase (AChE) reactivators to reverse the OP binding to AChE. Although these oximes can block the effects of nerve agents, their overall efficacy is reduced by their limited capacity to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). RS194B, a new oxime developed by Radic et al...
September 20, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941090/estimating-treatment-coverage-for-people-with-substance-use-disorders-an-analysis-of-data-from-the-world-mental-health-surveys
#8
Louisa Degenhardt, Meyer Glantz, Sara Evans-Lacko, Ekaterina Sadikova, Nancy Sampson, Graham Thornicroft, Sergio Aguilar-Gaxiola, Ali Al-Hamzawi, Jordi Alonso, Laura Helena Andrade, Ronny Bruffaerts, Brendan Bunting, Evelyn J Bromet, José Miguel Caldas de Almeida, Giovanni de Girolamo, Silvia Florescu, Oye Gureje, Josep Maria Haro, Yueqin Huang, Aimee Karam, Elie G Karam, Andrzej Kiejna, Sing Lee, Jean-Pierre Lepine, Daphna Levinson, Maria Elena Medina-Mora, Yosikazu Nakamura, Fernando Navarro-Mateu, Beth-Ellen Pennell, José Posada-Villa, Kate Scott, Dan J Stein, Margreet Ten Have, Yolanda Torres, Zahari Zarkov, Somnath Chatterji, Ronald C Kessler
Substance use is a major cause of disability globally. This has been recognized in the recent United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), in which treatment coverage for substance use disorders is identified as one of the indicators. There have been no estimates of this treatment coverage cross-nationally, making it difficult to know what is the baseline for that SDG target. Here we report data from the World Health Organization (WHO)'s World Mental Health Surveys (WMHS), based on representative community household surveys in 26 countries...
October 2017: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940769/thermodynamic-properties-of-la2-o3-zro2-system-by-knudsen-effusion-mass-spectrometry-at-high-temperature
#9
S M Shugurov, O Yu Kurapova, S I Lopatin, V G Konakov, E A Vasil'eva
RATIONALE: Zirconia doped with a lanthanum oxide system is of high interest due to its exceptional thermal stability for the development of high performance ceramics. It possesses the beneficial properties of pure zirconia, such as heat resistance, mechanical strength and inertness, but also eliminates its main disadvantage, i.e. brittleness. At high temperatures, components of such systems may vaporize selectively, leading to significant change in composition, and hence, the thermal resistance, phase stability and performance of the ceramic materials...
September 20, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940593/a-closer-look-into-the-nitrogen-blank-in-elemental-analyser-isotope-ratio-mass-spectrometry-measurements
#10
Reinhard Langel, Jens Dyckmans
RATIONALE: One important limitation for the precise measurement of minute amounts of N in solid samples by elemental analyser/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA/IRMS) is the accurate determination of the analyser blank value. This study was performed to identify different sources, amounts and isotopic composition of N blanks in EA/IRMS in order to identify measures for minimizing the effect of the N blank on N isotopic data quality. METHODS: Different types of autosamplers, with and without zero-blank functionality, were tested by analysing different amounts of substances of varying isotopic composition by EA/IRMS...
September 21, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940173/liquiritigenin-ameliorates-memory-and-cognitive-impairment-through-cholinergic-and-bdnf-pathways-in-the-mouse-hippocampus
#11
Yong-Hyun Ko, Seung-Hwan Kwon, Seok-Yong Lee, Choon-Gon Jang
Liquiritigenin (LQ), a flavonoid extracted from the radix of Glycyrrhiza, has anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. In this study, we evaluated the cognitive enhancing effects of LQ on learning and memory impairments induced by scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.), a muscarinic antagonist, using the Y-maze, passive avoidance, and novel object recognition tests. A single administration of LQ significantly improved scopolamine-induced cognitive impairments in these behavioral tests. In addition, LQ dramatically inhibited acetylcholinesterase and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance activities in the hippocampus of scopolamine-induced mice in a dose-dependent manner...
September 22, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939731/petitioning-for-involuntary-commitment-for-chemical-dependency-by-medical-services
#12
Ian C Lamoureux, Paul E Schutt, Keith G Rasmussen
Patients who have chemical dependency (CD) are commonly encountered on medical and surgical wards, often for illnesses and injuries sustained as a direct result of their substance abuse. When these patients are repeatedly admitted to the hospital in certain states that provide a legal framework to commit chemically dependent persons to a treatment facility, clinicians often wonder whether they should initiate that process. Should consulting psychiatrists choose to initiate the commitment process, they put into motion a resource-intensive, time-consuming mechanism, with uncertain outcomes, both in the courtroom and at the bedside...
September 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939188/neural-and-psychological-characteristics-of-college-students-with-alcoholic-parents-differ-depending-on-current-alcohol-use
#13
Kathleen A Brown-Rice, Jamie L Scholl, Kelene A Fercho, Kami Pearson, Noah A Kallsen, Gareth E Davies, Erik A Ehli, Seth Olson, Amy Schweinle, Lee A Baugh, Gina L Forster
A significant proportion of college students are adult children of an alcoholic parent (ACoA), which can confer greater risk of depression, poor self-esteem, alcohol and drug problems, and greater levels of college attrition. However, some ACoA are resilient to these negative outcomes. The goal of this study was to better understand the psychobiological factors that distinguish resilient and vulnerable college-aged ACoAs. To do so, scholastic performance and psychological health were measured in ACoA college students not engaged in hazardous alcohol use (resilient) and those currently engaged in hazardous alcohol use (vulnerable)...
September 19, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937863/bullying-victimization-binge-drinking-and-marijuana-use-among-adolescents-results-from-the-2013-national-youth-risk-behavior-survey
#14
Emily Priesman, Rameika Newman, Jason A Ford
The current research examines the association between bullying victimization, binge drinking, and marijuana use among adolescents. We seek to determine if this association varies based on the type of bullying experienced, traditional or cyberbullying. We used data from the 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationally representative sample of high school students in the United States. The dependent variables were binge drinking and marijuana use. Our key independent variable, bullying victimization, included both traditional and cyberbullying...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937306/biocompatibility-assessment-of-functionalized-magnetic-mesoporous-silica-nanoparticles-in-human-heparg-cells
#15
Cédric Pisani, Estelle Rascol, Christophe Dorandeu, Clarence Charnay, Yannick Guari, Joël Chopineau, Jean-Marie Devoisselle, Odette Prat
Magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles (M-MSNs) are a promising class of nanoparticles for drug delivery. However, a deep understanding of the toxicological mechanisms of action of these nanocarriers is essential, especially in the liver. The potential toxicity on HepaRG cells of pristine, pegylated (PEG), and lipid (DMPC) M-MSNs were compared. Based on MTT assay and real-time cell impedance, none of these NPs presented an extensive toxicity on hepatic cells. However, we observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) that the DMPC and pristine M-MSNs were greatly internalized...
September 22, 2017: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936609/a-hierarchical-testing-strategy-for-micropollutants-in-drinking-water-regarding-their-potential-endocrine-disrupting-effects-towards-health-related-indicator-values
#16
Jochen Kuckelkorn, Regine Redelstein, Timon Heide, Jennifer Kunze, Sibylle Maletz, Petra Waldmann, Tamara Grummt, Thomas-Benjamin Seiler, Henner Hollert
In Germany, micropollutants that (may) occur in drinking water are assessed by means of the health-related indicator value (HRIV concept), developed by the German Federal Environment Agency. This concept offers five threshold values (≤ 0.01 to ≤ 3 μg l(-1)) depending on availability and completeness of data regarding genotoxicity, neurotoxicity, and germ cell-damaging potential. However, the HRIV concept is yet lacking integration of endocrine disruptors as one of the most prominent toxicological concerns in water bodies, including drinking water...
September 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935419/red-near-infrared-light-stimulates-release-of-an-endothelium-dependent-vasodilator-and-rescues-vascular-dysfunction-in-a-diabetes-model
#17
Agnes Keszler, Brian Lindemer, Dorothee Weihrauch, Deron Jones, Neil Hogg, Nicole L Lohr
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a morbid condition whereby ischemic peripheral muscle causes pain and tissue breakdown. Interestingly, PAD risk factors, e.g. diabetes mellitus, cause endothelial dysfunction secondary to decreased nitric oxide (NO) levels, which could explain treatment failures. Previously, we demonstrated 670nm light (R/NIR) increased NO from nitrosyl-heme stores, therefore we hypothesized R/NIR can stimulate vasodilation in healthy and diabetic blood vessels. Vasodilation was tested by ex vivo pressure myography in wild type C57Bl/6, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) knockout, and db/db mice (10mW/cm(2) for 5min with 10min dark period)...
September 18, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935058/n-o-349-consommation-de-substances-psychoactives-pendant-la-grossesse
#18
Alice Ordean, Suzanne Wong, Lisa Graves
OBJECTIFS: Accroître la sensibilisation à la consommation problématique de substances psychoactives pendant la grossesse et les connaissances à ce sujet, et formuler des recommandations factuelles relatives à la prise en charge de cet épineux problème clinique à l'intention de l'ensemble des fournisseurs de soins. OPTIONS: La présente directive clinique analyse l'utilisation d'outils de dépistage, l'approche générale de soins et les recommandations pour la prise en charge clinique de la consommation problématique de substances psychoactives pendant la grossesse...
October 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934711/alterations-of-larval-photo-dependent-swimming-responses-pdr-new-endpoints-for-rapid-and-diagnostic-screening-of-aquatic-contamination
#19
Luis Colón-Cruz, Lauren Kristofco, Jonathan Crooke-Rosado, Agnes Acevedo, Aranza Torrado, Bryan W Brooks, María A Sosa, Martine Behra
Detection and toxicity assessment of waterborne contaminants are crucial for protecting human health and the environment. Development of easy-to-implement, rapid and cost-effective tools to measure anthropogenic effects on watersheds are critical for responsible management, particularly in times of increasing development and urbanization. Traditionally, environmental toxicology has focused on limited endpoints, such as lethality and fertility, which are directly affecting population levels. However, more sensitive readings are needed to assess sub-lethal effects...
September 18, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934666/behavioral-approach-and-orbitofrontal-cortical-activity-during-decision-making-in-substance-dependence
#20
Dorothy J Yamamoto, Marie T Banich, Michael F Regner, Joseph T Sakai, Jody Tanabe
Behavioral approach, defined as behavior directed toward a reward or novel stimulus, when elevated, may increase one's vulnerability to substance use disorder. Behavioral approach has been associated with relatively greater left compared to right frontal activity; behavioral inhibition may be associated with relatively greater right compared to left frontal brain activity. We hypothesized that substance dependent individuals (SDI) would have higher behavioral approach than controls and greater prefrontal cortical activity during decision-making involving reward...
September 14, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
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