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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747969/hepatotoxicity-and-nephrotoxicity-of-saponin-enriched-extract-of-asparagus-cochinchinensis-in-icr-mice
#1
Ji Eun Sung, Jun Young Choi, Ji Eun Kim, Hyun Ah Lee, Woo Bin Yun, Jin Ju Park, Hye Ryeong Kim, Bo Ram Song, Dong Seob Kim, Chung Yeoul Lee, Hee Seob Lee, Yong Lim, Dae Youn Hwang
The inhibitory effects of Asparagus cochinchinensis against inflammatory response induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), substance P and phthalic anhydride (PA) treatment were recently reported for some cell lines and animal models. To evaluate the hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity of A. cochinchinensis toward the livers and kidneys of ICR mice, alterations in related markers including body weight, organ weight, urine composition, liver pathology and kidney pathology were analyzed in male and female ICR mice after oral administration of 150, 300 and 600 mg/kg body weight/day saponin-enriched extract of A...
June 2017: Laboratory Animal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747360/cannabinoids-and-the-kidney-effects-in-health-and-disease
#2
Frank Park, Praveen K Potukuchi, Hamid Moradi, Csaba P Kovesdy
Consumption of cannabis and various related products (cannabinoids) for both medicinal and recreational use is gaining popularity. Furthermore, regulatory changes are fostering a cultural shift towards increasing liberalization of cannabis use, thereby increasing the likelihood of even larger numbers of individuals being exposed in the future. The two different types of receptors (CB1 and CB2) that are activated by the pharmacologically active ingredients of cannabis are found in numerous tissues, including the kidneys...
July 26, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746896/prenatal-developmental-toxicity-testing-of-petroleum-substances-application-of-the-mouse-embryonic-stem-cell-test-est-to-compare-in-vitro-potencies-with-potencies-observed-in-vivo
#3
Lenny Kamelia, Jochem Louisse, Laura de Haan, Ivonne M C M Rietjens, Peter J Boogaard
Prenatal developmental toxicity (PDT) as observed with some petroleum substances (PS) has been associated with the presence of 3-7 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In the present study, the applicability of ES-D3 cell differentiation assay of the EST to evaluate in vitro embryotoxicity potencies of PS and gas-to-liquid (GTL) products as compared to their in vivo potencies was investigated. DMSO-extracts of a range of PS, containing different amounts of PAHs, and GTL-products, which are devoid of PAHs, were tested in the ES-D3 cell proliferation and differentiation assays of the EST...
July 23, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745506/structure-dependent-hematological-effects-of-per-and-polyfluoroalkyl-substances-on-activation-of-plasma-kallikrein-kinin-system-cascade
#4
Qian Liu, Yuzhen Sun, Guangbo Qu, Yanmin Long, Xingchen Zhao, Aiqian Zhang, Qunfang Zhou, Ligang Hu, Guibin Jiang
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a global concern because of their ubiquitous occurrence and high persistence in human blood, and increasing amounts of unidentified fluorinated compounds are now becoming new exposure issues. This study aims to investigate the structure-related effects of PFASs on the activation of the plasma kallikrein-kinin system (KKS). The effects of 20 PFASs and the related long-chain aliphatic compounds were screened, and their binding affinities for the initial zymogen, Hagmen factor XII (FXII) in the KKS, were evaluated by molecular docking analysis...
July 26, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744880/chemical-composition-and-diuretic-natriuretic-and-kaliuretic-effects-of-extracts-of-mimosa-bimucronata-dc-kuntze-leaves-and-its-majority-constituent-methyl-gallate-in-rats
#5
Fabile Schlickmann, Priscila de Souza, Thaise Boeing, Luisa N B Mariano, Viviane M B Steimbach, Clarissa de M A Krueger, Luísa M da Silva, Sérgio F de Andrade, Valdir Cechinel-Filho
OBJECTIVES: Some species of the genus Mimosa showed promising results in previous investigations, which include diuretic effect; however, no chemical analyses or animal model has been conducted so far to evaluate the biological properties of M. bimucronata. METHODS: Male Wistar rats received the oral treatment with vehicle; hydrochlorothiazide; methanolic extract from M. bimucronata (MEMB), dichloromethane (DCM) and ethyl acetate (EA) fractions or methyl gallate (MG)...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744637/antiviral-activity-of-lady-s-mantle-alchemilla-vulgaris-l-extracts-against-orthopoxviruses
#6
E I Filippova
We studied toxicity and antiviral activity of bioactive substances extracted from the roots (ethylacetate extracts) and aerial parts (ethanol extracts) of lady's mantle (Alchemilla vilgaris L.). Plant extracts are characterized by low toxicity for continuous Vero cell culture, but inhibit the reproduction of orthopoxviruses (vaccinia virus and ectromelia virus) in these cells. Of all studied extracts, ethylacetate extract from lady's mantle roots characterized by the highest content of catechins in comparison with other samples demonstrated the highest activity in vitro towards the studied viruses (neutralization index for vaccinia and ectromelia viruses were 4...
July 25, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744630/effects-of-chronic-tobacco-smoking-on-the-distribution-of-tachykinin-receptors-in-rat-pial-arteries
#7
N V Zakharchuk, V M Chertok, V A Nevzorova, E Yu Gonchar
Pial arteries of different diameter were studied in intact rats and after 6-month modeling of chronic tobacco smoking in rats. Expression of tachykinin NK1 receptors in pial arteries was studied by biomicroscopy and immunohistochemical methods. Chronic tobacco smoking induced considerable reorganizations of the arterial bed. The intensity of changes depended on the diameter of vessels. In small pial vessels that directly participate in the blood supply to the brain, pronounced vasodilatation and enhanced expression of NK1 receptors in the endothelium mediating the effects of substance P were observed; the number of these vessels also increased...
July 25, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744120/inhibitory-effect-of-a-new-orally-active-cedrol-loaded-nanostructured-lipid-carrier-on-compound-48-80-induced-mast-cell-degranulation-and-anaphylactic-shock-in-mice
#8
Shreyasi Chakraborty, Nabanita Kar, Leena Kumari, Asit De, Tanmoy Bera
BACKGROUND: Type I hypersensitivity is an allergic reaction characterized by the overactivity of the immune system provoked by normally harmless substances. Glucocorticoids, anti-histamines, or mast cell stabilizers are the choices of treatment for type I hypersensitivity. Even though these drugs have the anti-allergic effect, they can have several side effects in prolong use. Cedrol is the main bioactive compound of Cedrus atlantica with anti-tumor, anti-oxidative, and platelet-activating factor inhibiting properties...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742416/comparisons-of-alcohol-and-drug-dependence-in-terms-of-attachments-and-clinical-issues
#9
Dana Zeid, Joshua Carter, Marc A Lindberg
BACKGROUND: Alcohol and drug dependencies are associated with different social stigmas, and some studies suggest they might exhibit different clinical presentations. Further, the treatments for each vary considerably. Alcohol versus drug use problems were compared in terms of attachment patterns and related clinical treatment issues in two interlocking studies using converging logic and designs. METHODS: In Study 1, alcohol versus drug dependence was defined in terms of a known groups design...
July 25, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742413/association-of-current-and-lifetime-dsm-iv-drug-use-disorder-diagnoses-to-6-month-changes-in-smoking-behavior-in-risky-drinking-smokers-a-pilot-study
#10
Amy Cohn, Sarah Ehlke
BACKGROUND: Alcohol and other drug use disorders co-occur with cigarette smoking and negatively impact cessation outcomes. OBJECTIVES: This study examined the differential effects of current and lifetime DSM-IV drug diagnoses on the 6-month smoking outcomes of 84 untreated heavy drinking smokers who were motivated to quit smoking in the next 6-months. METHODS: Generalized estimating equations (GEE) assessed changes in nicotine dependence, readiness to quit smoking, and prevalence of heavy smoking from baseline to 6-months as a function of time, baseline drinking severity, and drug diagnosis...
July 25, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742111/axonal-outgrowth-neuropeptides-expression-and-receptors-tyrosine-kinase-phosphorylation-in-3d-organotypic-cultures-of-adult-dorsal-root-ganglia
#11
Estrela Neto, Cecília J Alves, Luís Leitão, Daniela M Sousa, Inês S Alencastre, Francisco Conceição, Meriem Lamghari
Limited knowledge from mechanistic studies on adult sensory neuronal activity was generated, to some extent, in recapitulated adult in vivo 3D microenvironment. To fill this gap there is a real need to better characterize the adult dorsal root ganglia (aDRG) organotypic cultures to make these in vitro systems exploitable for different approaches, ranging from basic neurobiology to regenerative therapies, to address the sensory nervous system in adult stage. We conducted a direct head-to-head comparison of aDRG and embryonic DRG (eDRG) organotypic culture focusing on axonal growth, neuropeptides expression and receptors tyrosine kinase (RTK) activation associated with neuronal survival, proliferation and differentiation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741949/ph-dependence-of-%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-iontronic-transport
#12
Maria Seitanidou, Juan Felipe Franco-Gonzalez, Theresia Arbring Sjöström, Igor Zozoulenko, Magnus Berggren, Daniel T Simon
The organic electronic ion pump (OEIP) has been developed as an "iontronic" tool for delivery of biological signaling compounds. OEIPs rely on electrophoretically "pumping" charged compounds, either at neutral or shifted pH, through an ion-selective channel. Significant shifts in pH lead to an abundance of H(+) or OH(-), which are delivered along with the intended substance. While this method has been used to transport various neurotransmitters, the role of pH has not been explored. Here we present an investigation of the role of pH on OEIP transport efficiency using the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) as the model cationic delivery substance...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740730/bacteriolytic-activity-of-human-interleukin-2-chicken-egg-lysozyme-in-the-presence-of-potential-effectors
#13
P A Levashov, D A Matolygina, E D Ovchinnikova, D L Atroshenko, S S Savin, N G Belogurova, S A Smirnov, V I Tishkov, A V Levashov
The bacteriolytic activity of interleukin-2 and chicken egg lysozyme in the presence of various substances has been studied. Glycine and lysine do not affect the activity of interleukin-2 but increase that of lysozyme, showing a bell-shape concentration dependence peaking at 1.5 mM glycine and 18 mM lysine. Arginine and glutamate activate both interleukin-2 and lysozyme with a concentration dependence of the saturation type. Aromatic amino acids have almost no effect on the activity of both interleukin-2 and lysozyme...
April 2017: Acta Naturae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740404/reactive-oxygen-species-mediate-soft-corals-derived-sinuleptolide-induced-antiproliferation-and-dna-damage-in-oral-cancer-cells
#14
Yung-Ting Chang, Chiung-Yao Huang, Jen-Yang Tang, Chih-Chuang Liaw, Ruei-Nian Li, Jing-Ru Liu, Jyh-Horng Sheu, Hsueh-Wei Chang
We previously reported that the soft coral-derived bioactive substance, sinuleptolide, can inhibit the proliferation of oral cancer cells in association with oxidative stress. The functional role of oxidative stress in the cell-killing effect of sinuleptolide on oral cancer cells was not investigated as yet. To address this question, we introduced the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger (N-acetylcysteine [NAC]) in a pretreatment to evaluate the sinuleptolide-induced changes to cell viability, morphology, intracellular ROS, mitochondrial superoxide, apoptosis, and DNA damage of oral cancer cells (Ca9-22)...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740216/universality-of-maximum-work-efficiency-of-a-cyclic-heat-engine-based-on-a-finite-system-of-ultracold-atoms
#15
Zhuolin Ye, Yingying Hu, Jizhou He, Jianhui Wang
We study the performance of a cyclic heat engine which uses a small system with a finite number of ultracold atoms as its working substance and works between two heat reservoirs at constant temperatures T h and T c (<T h ). Starting from the expression of heat capacity which includes finite-size effects, the work output is optimized with respect to the temperature of the working substance at a special instant along the cycle. The maximum-work efficiency η (mw) at small relative temperature difference can be expanded in terms of the Carnot value [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], where a 0 is a function depending on the particle number N and becomes vanishing in the symmetric case...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739213/association-between-substance-use-disorder-and-polygenic-liability-to-schizophrenia
#16
Sarah M Hartz, Amy C Horton, Mary Oehlert, Caitlin E Carey, Arpana Agrawal, Ryan Bogdan, Li-Shiun Chen, Dana B Hancock, Eric O Johnson, Carlos N Pato, Michele T Pato, John P Rice, Laura J Bierut
BACKGROUND: There are high levels of comorbidity between schizophrenia and substance use disorder, but little is known about the genetic etiology of this comorbidity. METHODS: We tested the hypothesis that shared genetic liability contributes to the high rates of comorbidity between schizophrenia and substance use disorder. To do this, polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia derived from a large meta-analysis by the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium were computed in three substance use disorder datasets: the Collaborative Genetic Study of Nicotine Dependence (ascertained for tobacco use disorder; n = 918 cases; 988 control subjects), the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (ascertained for alcohol use disorder; n = 643 cases; 384 control subjects), and the Family Study of Cocaine Dependence (ascertained for cocaine use disorder; n = 210 cases; 317 control subjects)...
June 6, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738314/factors-associated-with-cognitive-impairment-in-a-cohort-of-older-homeless-adults-results-from-the-hope-home-study
#17
Emily Hurstak, Julene K Johnson, Lina Tieu, David Guzman, Claudia Ponath, Christopher T Lee, Christina Weyer Jamora, Margot Kushel
BACKGROUND: We evaluated cognitive function and factors associated with cognitive impairment in a cohort of older homeless adults. We hypothesized that substance use and a history of traumatic brain injury would be associated with cognitive impairment. METHODS: We recruited 350 homeless individuals aged ≥50 years using population-based sampling and conducted structured interviews and neuropsychological testing. We evaluated alcohol use with the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, defining high-severity alcohol use as a total score ≥16 or ≥4 on the alcohol dependency sub-scale...
July 4, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738083/the-influence-of-sex-and-trauma-impact-on-the-rupture-site-of-the-ulnar-collateral-ligament-of-the-thumb
#18
Sandra Boesmueller, Wolfgang Huf, Gregor Rettl, Falko Dahm, Alexander Meznik, Gabriela Muschitz, Hugo Kitzinger, Adam Bukaty, Christian Fialka, Martin Vierhapper
PURPOSE AND HYPOTHESIS: Although sex- and gender-specific analyses have been gaining more attention during the last years they have rarely been performed in orthopaedic literature. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate whether for injuries of the UCL the specific location of the rupture is influenced by sex. A secondary study question addressed the sex-independent effect of trauma intensity on the rupture site of the UCL. METHODS: This study is a retrospective analysis of all patients with either a proximal or distal bony avulsion or with a mid-substance tear or ligament avulsion of the UCL treated surgically between 1992 and 2015 at two level-I trauma centres...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737376/insight-into-c-di-gmp-regulation-in-anammox-aggregation-in-response-to-alternating-feed-loadings
#19
Yongzhao Guo, Sitong Liu, Xi Tang, Chao Wang, Zhao Niu, Ying Feng
Substrate concentrations generally fluctuate in wastewaters. However, how anammox biomass behaves to overcome the stress of alternating feed loadings remains unclear. Here, we combined long-term reactor operation, batch tests, 16S rRNA transcript sequencing, and metabolomics analysis to investigate the aggregation of anammox biomass under the regulation of c-di-GMP, a key second messenger, in response to alternating feed loadings. We demonstrated that the aggregation process was significantly faster under alternating loadings and was significantly correlated with higher levels of c-di-GMP and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) production...
July 24, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735592/the-prevalence-and-service-utilisation-associated-with-mental-and-substance-use-disorders-in-lao-people-s-democratic-republic-findings-from-a-cross-sectional-survey
#20
F Charlson, S Diminic, C Choulamany, D Santomauro, S Raja, H Whiteford
AIMS: An epidemiological survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of the mental and substance use disorders and ascertain patterns of mental health services utilisation in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) with the aim of evaluating existing gaps and opportunities in the provision of mental health services. METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional, household survey of adults living within Vientiane Capital province, Lao PDR. We collected data on participant demographics, mental and physical health status, family history of mental illness and exposure to potential risk factors...
July 24, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
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