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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786898/adults-with-comorbid-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-alcohol-use-disorder-and-opioid-use-disorder-the-effectiveness-of-modified-prolonged-exposure
#1
Kelly R Peck, Julie A Schumacher, Paul R Stasiewicz, Scott F Coffey
Opioid use disorders (OUDs) are a growing problem in the United States. When OUDs co-occur with problematic drinking and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), negative drug-related mental and physical health outcomes may be exacerbated. Thus, it is important to establish whether PTSD treatments with established efficacy for dually diagnosed individuals also demonstrate efficacy in individuals who engage in problematic drinking and concurrent opioid misuse. Adults who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for PTSD and alcohol dependence were recruited from a substance use treatment facility and were randomly assigned to receive either modified prolonged exposure (mPE) therapy for PTSD or a non-trauma-focused comparison treatment...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781639/tobacco-use-and-smoking-behaviors-of-individuals-with-a-serious-mental-illness
#2
Donna Pettey, Tim Aubry
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of tobacco use and overall smoking behaviors within a sample of individuals with a serious mental illness who were homeless or vulnerably housed and receiving community mental health services. METHODS: In 2010, individuals (N = 639) were interviewed, and identified smokers completed the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) and additional questions related to their smoking behaviors...
May 21, 2018: Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780303/closed-loop-deep-brain-stimulation-for-ptsd-addiction-and-disorders-of-affective-facial-interpretation-review-and-discussion-of-potential-biomarkers-and-stimulation-paradigms
#3
REVIEW
Robert W Bina, Jean-Phillipe Langevin
The treatment of psychiatric diseases with Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is becoming more of a reality as studies proliferate the indications and targets for therapies. Opinions on the initial failures of DBS trials for some psychiatric diseases point to a certain lack of finesse in using an Open Loop DBS (OLDBS) system in these dynamic, cyclical pathologies. OLDBS delivers monomorphic input into dysfunctional brain circuits with modulation of that input via human interface at discrete time points with no interim modulation or adaptation to the changing circuit dynamics...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779198/redeveloping-substance-abuse-treatment-for-military-personnel
#4
REVIEW
Christian Schrader, Antoinette Lenton, Peter Gertonson, Alexander Rahimi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review the prevailing evidence surrounding treatment of substance use disorder (SUD), with specific focus on alcohol, tobacco, and prescription opiates, and how it informs guidelines for treating active duty military. We survey the evidence regarding preventive screening, treatment, and relapse prevention in substance misuse as it pertains to patient-centered care of the service member. RECENT FINDINGS: Holistic, patient-centered care with an emphasis on identifying maladaptive use or dependence prior to progression to chronic disease is now recognized as the evidenced approach to treating substance use disorders...
May 19, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779160/an-event-level-analysis-of-condomless-anal-intercourse-with-a-hiv-discordant-or-hiv-status-unknown-partner-among-black-men-who-have-sex-with-men-from-a-multi-site-study
#5
Cui Yang, Carl Latkin, Karin Tobin, David Seal, Beryl Koblin, Geetanjali Chander, Daniel Siconolfi, Stephen Flores, Pilgrim Spikes
Despite the high HIV incidence and prevalence among black men who have sex with men (BMSM), little research has examined partner characteristics, partner seeking venue, sexual position, substance use, and sexual risk behavior at the sex event-level among BMSM. Using the baseline data from a multi-site study of 807 BMSM stratified by their HIV status, the goal of this study was to conduct a detailed event-level analysis of 1577 male anal sex events to assess the factors associated with condomless anal intercourse (CLAI) with a HIV-discordant or HIV status-unknown partner...
May 19, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778981/walking-the-line-the-fate-of-nanomaterials-at-biological-barriers
#6
REVIEW
Huan Meng, Wei Leong, Kam W Leong, Chunying Chen, Yuliang Zhao
Biological systems have developed an efficient multi-tiered defense system to block foreign substances such as engineered nanomaterials (NMs) from causing damage. In a pathological scenario, the disease itself may also pose additional barriers due to the imbalance between abnormal cells and their surrounding microenvironment, and NMs could behave similarly or differently to classic foreign substances, depending on their unique characteristics. Thus, understanding the mechanisms that govern the fate of NMs against these biological barriers, including the strategies that can be used to shift their fate between access and blockage, become key information for NMs design...
May 5, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778704/spectrophotometric-resolution-of-the-severely-overlapped-spectra-of-clotrimazole-with-dexamethasone-in-cream-dosage-form-by-mathematical-manipulation-steps
#7
Hayam Mahmoud Lotfy, Yasmin Mohammed Fayez, Shereen Mostafa Tawakkol, Nesma Mahmoud Fahmy, Mostafa Abd El-Atty Shehata
Several spectrophotometric techniques were recently conducted for the determination of binary mixtures of clotrimazole (CLT) and dexamethasone acetate (DA) without any separation procedure. The methods were based on generation of ratio spectra of mixture then applying simple mathematic manipulation. The zero order absorption spectra of both drugs could be obtained by the constant center (CC) method. The concentration of both CLT and DA could be obtained by constant value via amplitude difference (CV-AD) method depending on ratio spectra, Ratio difference (RD) method where the difference between the amplitudes at two wavelengths (ΔP) on the ratio spectra could eliminate the contribution of the interfering substance and bring the concentration of the other, and the derivative ratio (DD1 ) method where the derivative of the ratio spectra was able to determine the drug of interest without any interference of the other one...
May 10, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776535/multi-residue-analysis-of-pesticides-in-surface-water-by-liquid-chromatography-quadrupole-orbitrap-high-resolution-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#8
J Casado, D Santillo, P Johnston
A quantitative targeted screening method for the determination of residues of a broad group of more than 250 pesticides in surface water samples was developed and validated. Substances were isolated from the sample matrix by solid-phase extraction (SPE), using hydrophilic-lipophilic balanced polymeric sorbents (HLB), and analysed by reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC) - Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). Compounds were quantified in full scan acquisition mode, while accurate data dependant MS2 analysis was simultaneously triggered for the unambiguous identification of the targeted substances...
September 18, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776355/can-deep-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-dtms-be-used-to-treat-substance-use-disorders-sud-a-systematic-review
#9
Karina Karolina Kedzior, Imke Gerkensmeier, Maria Schuchinsky
BACKGROUND: Deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (DTMS) is a non-invasive method of stimulating widespread cortical areas and, presumably, deeper neural networks. The current study assessed the effects of DTMS in the treatment of substance use disorders (SUD) using a systematic review. METHODS: Electronic literature search (PsycInfo, Medline until April 2017) identified k = 9 studies (k = 4 randomized-controlled trials, RCTs, with inactive sham and k = 5 open-label studies)...
May 18, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776349/randomised-controlled-trial-rct-of-cannabinoid-replacement-therapy-nabiximols-for-the-management-of-treatment-resistant-cannabis-dependent-patients-a-study-protocol
#10
Anjali K Bhardwaj, David J Allsop, Jan Copeland, Iain S McGregor, Adrian Dunlop, Marian Shanahan, Raimondo Bruno, Nghi Phung, Mark Montebello, Craig Sadler, Jessica Gugusheff, Melissa Jackson, Jennifer Luksza, Nicholas Lintzeris
BACKGROUND: The cannabis extract nabiximols (Sativex®) effectively supresses withdrawal symptoms and cravings in treatment resistant cannabis dependent individuals, who have high relapse rates following conventional withdrawal treatments. This study examines the efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness of longer-term nabiximols treatment for outpatient cannabis dependent patients who have not responded to previous conventional treatment approaches. METHODS/DESIGN: A phase III multi-site outpatient, randomised, double-blinded, placebo controlled parallel design, comparing a 12-week course of nabiximols to placebo, with follow up at 24 weeks after enrolment...
May 18, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775957/how-treatment-improvement-in-adhd-and-cocaine-dependence-are-related-to-one-another-a-secondary-analysis
#11
Frances R Levin, C Jean Choi, Martina Pavlicova, John J Mariani, Amy Mahony, Daniel J Brooks, Edward V Nunes, John Grabowski
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is overrepresented among individuals seeking treatment for substance use disorders. We previously reported that treatment with extended release mixed amphetamine salts (MAS-XR) increased abstinence, compared to placebo, among patients with co-occurring ADHD and cocaine dependence. This secondary analysis investigates the temporal relationship between ADHD improvement and cocaine abstinence in the first six weeks of the trial...
May 1, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773910/the-l-type-calcium-channel-blocker-isradipine-attenuates-cue-induced-cocaine-seeking-by-enhancing-dopaminergic-activity-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area-to-nucleus-accumbens-pathway
#12
Nii A Addy, Eric J Nunes, Shannon M Hughley, Keri M Small, Sarah J Baracz, Joshua L Haight, Anjali M Rajadhyaksha
Previous preclinical and clinical investigations have focused on the L-type calcium channel (LTCC) as a potential therapeutic target for substance abuse. While some clinical studies have examined the ability of LTCC blockers to alter cocaine's subjective effects, very few LTCC studies have examined cocaine relapse. Here, we examined whether ventral tegmental area (VTA)-specific or systemic administration of the LTCC inhibitor, isradipine, altered cocaine-seeking behavior in a rat model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats first received 10 days of cocaine self-administration training (2 h sessions), where active lever depression resulted in delivery of a ∼0...
May 3, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773184/oral-administration-of-cadmium-depletes-intratesticular-and-epididymal-iron-levels-and-inhibits-lipid-peroxidation-in-the-testis-and-epididymis-of-adult-rats
#13
Sunny O Abarikwu, Sarah Oruitemeka, Ifeyinwa A Uwadileke, Stephen I Omeodu, Ngozi F Okoye, Chidimma J Mgbudom-Okah, Robinson Ohanador
Cadmium (Cd)-induced tissue injury depends on the accumulated Cd which differentially affects endogenous iron (Fe). To investigate this, adult rats were treated by oral gavage with Cd (50 mg/kg body wt.) once a week for 15, 30 and 60 days and sacrificed a day after last administration. After the 15th and 30th day of treatment, Cd had no effect on thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and endogenous Fe levels but exhibited anti-androgenic effects (p < 0.05) and caused histological damages...
July 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772427/the-dif2ferent-behaviors-of-glyphosate-and-ampa-in-compost-amended-soil
#14
Tomas Erban, Martin Stehlik, Bruno Sopko, Martin Markovic, Marcela Seifrtova, Tatana Halesova, Pavel Kovaricek
The broad-spectrum herbicide glyphosate is one of the most widely used pesticides. Both glyphosate and its major metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), persist in waters; thus, their environmental fates are of interest. We investigated the influence of compost dose, sampling depth, moisture and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks ) on the persistence of these substances. The amounts of AMPA quantified by triple quadrupole liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-QqQ-MS/MS) using isotopically labeled extraction standards were higher than those of glyphosate and differed among the samples...
May 4, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771559/body-mass-index-across-adolescence-and-substance-use-problems-in-early-adulthood
#15
Ashley N Gearhardt, Rebecca Waller, Jennifer M Jester, Luke W Hyde, Robert A Zucker
Excessive substance use and obesity are underpinned by a number of shared risk factors (e.g., reward dysfunction, impulsivity). Food and drugs of abuse engage similar reward-related neural circuitry and the food-drug competition hypothesis proposes that excess consumption of food may diminish desire for drugs of abuse by competing for neural receptors associated with reward and motivation. Adolescence is a high-risk period for both increased substance use and excessive weight gain. In the present study, the authors tested whether, consistent with the food-drug competition hypothesis, elevated body mass index (BMI) across adolescence predicted fewer substance use problems in young adulthood...
May 2018: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771557/distress-tolerance-associations-with-trauma-and-substance-cue-reactivity-in-low-income-inner-city-adults-with-substance-use-disorders-and-posttraumatic-stress
#16
Anka A Vujanovic, Margaret C Wardle, Jafar Bakhshaie, Lia J Smith, Charles E Green, Scott D Lane, Joy M Schmitz
Cue reactivity has great potential to advance our understanding of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance use disorder (SUD), and PTSD/SUD comorbidity. The present investigation examined distress tolerance (DT) with regard to trauma and substance cue reactivity. Participants included 58 low-income, inner-city adults (49.1% women; Mage = 45.73, SD = 10.00) with substance dependence and at least 4 symptoms of PTSD. A script-driven cue reactivity paradigm was utilized. Four DT measures were administered, including the Distress Tolerance Scale (DTS), Mirror-Tracing Persistence Task (MTPT), Breath-Holding Task (BH), and Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT)...
May 2018: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771504/revisiting-the-contributions-of-far-and-near-field-routes-to-aggregate-human-exposure-to-polychlorinated-biphenyls-pcbs
#17
Li Li, Jon Arnot, Frank Wania
The general population is exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by both consuming food from far-field contaminated agricultural and aquatic environments, and inhalation and non-dietary ingestion in near-field indoor or residential environments. Here, we seek to evaluate the relative importance of far- and near-field routes by simulating the time-variant aggregate exposure of Swedish females to PCB congeners from 1930 to 2030. We rely on a mechanistic model, which integrates a food-chain bioaccumulation module and a human toxicokinetic module with dynamic substance flow analysis and nested indoor-urban-rural environmental fate modeling...
May 17, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770947/when-marijuana-is-used-before-cigarettes-or-alcohol-demographic-predictors-and-associations-with-heavy-use-cannabis-use-disorder-and-other-drug-related-outcomes
#18
Brian J Fairman, C Debra Furr-Holden, Renee M Johnson
Recent loosening of state and federal policy restrictions on marijuana, along with changes in social norms regarding marijuana use and decreases in prevalence of other types of substance use, may lead to increases in youth initiating marijuana before other types of substances such as alcohol and tobacco. We investigated predictors and potential consequences of initiating marijuana before other drugs for youth aged 12-21-years in the USA. Nationally representative, cross-sectional survey data from the US National Survey on Drug Use and Health supplied self-reported age of first marijuana, cigarettes, alcohol, other tobacco, and other illegal drug use among 12-21-year-old samples from 2004 to 2014 (n = 275,559)...
May 17, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769666/an-unexpected-and-persistent-increase-in-global-emissions-of-ozone-depleting-cfc-11
#19
Stephen A Montzka, Geoff S Dutton, Pengfei Yu, Eric Ray, Robert W Portmann, John S Daniel, Lambert Kuijpers, Brad D Hall, Debra Mondeel, Carolina Siso, J David Nance, Matt Rigby, Alistair J Manning, Lei Hu, Fred Moore, Ben R Miller, James W Elkins
The Montreal Protocol was designed to protect the stratospheric ozone layer by enabling reductions in the abundance of ozone-depleting substances such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in the atmosphere1-3 . The reduction in the atmospheric concentration of trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11) has made the second-largest contribution to the decline in the total atmospheric concentration of ozone-depleting chlorine since the 1990s 1 . However, CFC-11 still contributes one-quarter of all chlorine reaching the stratosphere, and a timely recovery of the stratospheric ozone layer depends on a sustained decline in CFC-11 concentrations 1 ...
May 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769620/carvacrol-and-linalool-co-loaded-in-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-grafted-chitosan-nanoparticles-as-sustainable-biopesticide-aiming-pest-control
#20
Estefânia V R Campos, Patrícia L F Proença, Jhones L Oliveira, Anderson E S Pereira, Lígia Nunes de Morais Ribeiro, Fabrício O Fernandes, Kelly C Gonçalves, Ricardo A Polanczyk, Tatiane Pasquoto-Stigliani, Renata Lima, Cirano C Melville, Jaqueline F Della Vechia, Daniel J Andrade, Leonardo F Fraceto
Pesticides are the main tactics for pest control because they reduce the pest population very fast and their efficiency does not depend on abiotic factors. However, the indiscriminate use of these substances can speed up the development of resistant populations and causing environmental contamination. Therefore, alternative methods of pest control are sought, such as the use of botanical compounds. Nanoencapsulation of volatile compounds has been shown to be an important tool that can be used to overcome the lack of stability of these compounds...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
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