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Lena-Maria Mehling, Xin Wang, Sys-Stybe Johansen, Annika Spottke, Anna Heidbreder, Peter Young, Burkhard Madea, Cornelius Hess
Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) can be used as a knock-out drug in drug facilitated crime (DFC). Due to its rapid metabolism and resulting narrow detection window, uncovering GHB use in DFC still constitutes a problem. In this experiment we determined the GHB and GHB-β-O-glucuronide (GHB-Gluc) concentrations in hair samples after single and chronic GHB exposures. Hair samples of three narcoleptic patients therapeutically taking sodium oxybate (GHB-sodium-salt) were collected. Patients 1 (P1) and 2 (P2) took the medication for nine and six years, respectively...
July 31, 2017: Forensic Science International
Fatma A Moharram, Rabab Abd El Moneim El Dib, Mohamed S Marzouk, Siham M El-Shenawy, Haitham A Ibrahim
BACKGROUND: Gaillardia grandiflora Hort. ex Van Houte and Gaillardia pulchella Foug are flowering plants widely cultivated in Egypt for their ornamental value. Previous reports demonstrated that sesquiterpene derivatives represent the major compounds in both species. Moreover, only few flavones were identified from genus Gaillardia and few studies on the cytotoxicity of G. pulchella were found. AIM OF THE STUDY: Investigation of the phenolic constituents of the aerial parts of both species and evaluation of their anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Ligia S C F Rabello, Pedro Póvoa, Jose R Lapa E Silva, Luciano C P Azevedo, Fernando Jose da Silva Ramos, Thiago Lisboa, Marcio Soares, Jorge I F Salluh
PURPOSE: Describe the patterns of C-reactive protein relative changes in response to antibiotic therapy in critically ill cancer patients with healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) and its ability to predict outcome. METHODS: Secondary analysis of a prospective cohort of critically ill cancer patients with HCAP. CRP was sampled every other day from D0 to D6 of antibiotic therapy. Patients were classified according to an individual pattern of CRP-ratio response: fast - CRP at D4 of therapy was <0...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
Ashim Baishya, Lokesh Kumar, Milan Kr Barman, Himansu S Biswal, Sharanappa Nembenna
A series of structurally characterized magnesium and zinc complexes of the form L(4-tBuPh)-M{N(SiMe3)2}2 [M = Mg (1) and Zn (2); L(4-tBuPh) = 1,3-diethyl-4,5-dimethylimidazolium-2-{N,N'-bis(4-tert-butylphenyl)amidinate}], L(4-iPrPh)-M{N(SiMe3)2}2 [M = Mg (3) and Zn (4); L(4-iPrPh) = 1,3-diethyl-4,5-dimethylimidazolium-2-{N,N'-bis(4-isopropylphenyl)amidinate}], and L(4-iPrPh)-ZnEt2 (5) bearing a zwitterionic-type neutral amidinate or N-heterocyclic carbene-carbodiimide ("NHC-CDI") adduct and monoanionic amido or alkyl ligands have been reported...
August 7, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Zhe Lu, Pamela A Martin, Neil M Burgess, Louise Champoux, John E Elliott, Enzo Baressi, Amila O De Silva, Shane de Solla, Robert J Letcher
Volatile methylsiloxanes (VMSs) and organophosphate esters (OPEs) are two suites of chemicals that are of environmental concern as organic contaminants, but little is known about the exposure of wildlife to these contaminants, particularly in birds, in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The present study investigates the spatial distributions of nine cyclic and linear VMSs and seventeen OPEs in the eggs of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), and three congeneric gull species (i.e., herring gull (Larus argentatus), glaucous-winged gull (L...
August 3, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Eswar K Aratikatla, Tushar R Valkute, Sunil K Puri, Kumkum Srivastava, Asish K Bhattacharya
Syncarpamide 1, a norepinephrine alkaloid isolated from the leaves of Zanthoxylum syncarpum (Rutaceae) exhibited promising antiplasmodial activities against Plasmodium falciparum with reported IC50 values of 2.04 μM (D6 clone), 3.06 μM (W2 clone) and observed by us 3.90 μM (3D7 clone) and 2.56 μM (K1 clone). In continuation of our work on naturally occurring antimalarial compounds, synthesis of syncarpamide 1 and its enantiomer, (R)-2 using Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation as a key step has been accomplished...
July 25, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Ryo Matsui, Naruki Amano, Kosaku Takahashi, Yodai Taguchi, Wataru Saburi, Hideharu Mori, Norio Kondo, Kazuhiko Matsuda, Hideyuki Matsuura
In plants, cis-jasmone (CJ) is synthesized from α-linolenic acid (LA) via two biosynthetic pathways using jasmonic acid (JA) and iso-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (iso-OPDA) as key intermediates. However, there have been no reports documenting CJ production by microorganisms. In the present study, the production of fungal-derived CJ by Lasiodiplodia theobromae was observed for the first time, although this production was not observed for Botrytis cinerea, Verticillium longisporum, Fusarium oxysporum, Gibberella fujikuroi, and Cochliobolus heterostrophus...
July 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
Francesco Pacifico, Alessio Lepore, Stefano Mellone, Luca Sanguigno, Giorgia Federico, Adelaide Greco, Arturo Brunetti, Antonio Leonardi
We have previously shown that miR-146a, a NF-κB-regulated microRNA, is strongly expressed in human specimens and cell lines derived from anaplastic thyroid carcinomas (ATC) where it mediates some of the NF-κB pro-tumorigenic functions. By using a bioinformatic analysis, we identified the chemokine scavenger receptor D6/ ACKR2 as a target of miR146a in human ATC. We found that the expression of D6/ ACKR2 was up-regulated in miR-146a-null ATC cell lines and that the 3' UTR of D6/ ACKR2 mRNA was able to inhibit its expression in parental, but not in miR-146a-null ATC cells...
May 2017: Genes & Cancer
Korey M Reid, Punnepalli Sunanda, S Raghothama, V V Krishnan
Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDP) lack a well-defined 3D-structure under physiological conditions, yet, the inherent disorder represented by an ensemble of conformation plays a critical role in many cellular and regulatory processes. Nucleoporins, or Nups, are the proteins found in the nuclear pore complex (NPC). The central pore of the NPC is occupied by Nups, which have phenylalanine-glycine domain repeats and are intrinsically disordered, and therefore are termed FG-Nups. These FG-domain repeats exhibit differing cohesiveness character and differ from least (FG) to most (GLFG) cohesive...
July 22, 2017: Biopolymers
Yuzhu Wang, Song Han, Ruquan Han, Yue Su, Junfa Li
BACKGROUND: Thousands of infants and children are undergoing anesthesia around the world every day. But impacts of anesthetics on the developing neural system remain unclear yet. Previous evidence showed that anesthesia might affect the developing neural system. Thus, early-life anesthesia becomes a critical issue in clinical pediatric practice. Hence, propofol, a short-acting and widely applied intravenous anesthetic, has been gaining focus upon neonatal anesthesia. METHODS: Fifty-four male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into following three groups: group D6 intraperitoneally (i...
July 2017: Brain and Behavior
Robert C Murphy, Toshiaki Okuno, Christopher A Johnson, Robert M Barkley
The positions of double bonds along the carbon chain of methylene interrupted polyunsaturated fatty acids are unique identifiers of specific fatty acids derived from biochemical reactions that occur in cells. It is possible to obtain direct structural information as to these double bond positions using tandem mass spectrometry after collisional activation of the carboxylate anions of an acetone adduct at each of the double bond positions formed by the photochemical Paternò-Büchi reaction with acetone. This reaction can be carried out by exposing a small portion of an inline fused silica capillary to UV photons from a mercury vapor lamp as the sample is infused into the electrospray ion source of a mass spectrometer...
August 2, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Lois M Muiva-Mutisya, Yoseph Atilaw, Matthias Heydenreich, Andreas Koch, Hoseah M Akala, Agnes C Cheruiyot, Matthew L Brown, Beatrice Irungu, Faith A Okalebo, Solomon Derese, Charles Mutai, Abiy Yenesew
The CH2Cl2/MeOH (1:1) extract of the aerial parts of Tephrosia subtriflora afforded a new flavanonol, named subtriflavanonol (1), along with the known flavanone spinoflavanone B, and the known flavanonols MS-II (2) and mundulinol. The structures were elucidated by the use of NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The absolute configuration of the flavanonols was determined based on quantum chemical ECD calculations. In the antiplasmodial assay, compound 2 showed the highest activity against chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum reference clones (D6 and 3D7), artemisinin-sensitive isolate (F32-TEM) as well as field isolate (KSM 009) with IC50 values 1...
July 16, 2017: Natural Product Research
Wesley J Transue, Alexandra Velian, Matthew Nava, Cristina García-Iriepa, Manuel Temprado, Christopher C Cummins
Dibenzo-7-phosphanorbornadiene compounds, RPA (A = C14H10 or anthracene), are investigated as phosphinidene sources upon thermally induced (70-90 °C) anthracene elimination. Analysis of substituent effects reveals that π-donating dialkylamide groups are paramount to successful phosphinidene transfer; poorer π-donors give reduced or no transfer. Substituent steric bulk is also implicated in successful transfer. Molecular beam mass spectrometry (MBMS) studies of each derivative reveal dialkylamide derivatives to be promising precursors for further gas-phase spectroscopic studies of phosphinidenes; in particular, we present evidence of direct detection of the dimethylamide derivative, [Me2N═P]...
July 27, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Wenxuan Zhang, Jun Wu, Bo Li, Xu Lian, Jie Xia, Qi Zhou, Song Wu
Two conformationally restricted salinomycin derivatives by tethering the hydroxyl groups at C1 and C20 with different chain length were designed and synthesized. The cyclic derivatives showed better biological activities than C1/C20 modified derivatives, indicating the importance of the compact conformation for the ion binding capacity. In addition, the length of the connective chain plays critical role in the biological activities, thus cyclic the derivative 7 preserved some pharmacological activity but derivative 5 with two carbon atom shorter chain showed significantly reduced activity...
June 29, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Miran Aswad, Simaan Assi, Sagie Schif-Zuck, Amiram Ariel
The engulfment of apoptotic polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) during the resolution of inflammation leads to macrophage reprogramming culminating in reduced proinflammatory and increased anti-inflammatory mediator secretion. The atypical chemokine receptor D6/ACKR2 is expressed on apoptotic PMN and plays an important role in regulating macrophage properties during and after engulfment. In this study, we found that the inflammatory chemokine CCL5 is mostly retained (75%) during the resolution of zymosan A peritonitis in mice...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Jane C Fenelon, Bruce D Murphy
Embryonic diapause is a common reproductive strategy amongst mammals, requiring an intimate cross-talk between the endometrium and the blastocyst. To date, the precise molecular signals responsible are unknown in the mouse or any other mammal. Previous studies in the mink implicate polyamines as major regulators of the control of diapause. In the mouse, inhibiting the rate-limiting enzyme of polyamine synthesis, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC1) during early pregnancy largely prevents implantation, but the fate of the non-implanted embryos is unknown...
June 16, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
Sara Díaz-Triviño, Yuchen Long, Ben Scheres, Ikram Blilou
In plant biology, transient expression systems have become valuable approaches used routinely to rapidly study protein expression, subcellular localization, protein-protein interactions, and transcriptional activity prior to in vivo studies. When studying transcriptional regulation, luciferase reporter assays offer a sensitive readout for assaying promoter behavior in response to different regulators or environmental contexts and to confirm and assess the functional relevance of predicted binding sites in target promoters...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Valentina Salvi, Francesca Sozio, Silvano Sozzani, Annalisa Del Prete
Inflammatory reactions occurring in the central nervous system (CNS), known as neuroinflammation, are key components of the pathogenic mechanisms underlying several neurological diseases. The chemokine system plays a crucial role in the recruitment and activation of immune and non-immune cells in the brain, as well as in the regulation of microglia phenotype and function. Chemokines belong to a heterogeneous family of chemotactic agonists that signal through the interaction with G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Ahmed H Mageed, Brian W Skelton, Murray V Baker
Gold(iii) N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes of form [Au(NHC)4Cl2]Cl were synthesized by reaction of KAuCl4 with bis- and tetrakis(imidazolium) salts in the presence of a mild base. Treatment of these complexes with KPF6 afforded four-coordinate Au(III) complexes of form [Au(NHC)4](PF6)3. X-Ray crystallography showed the [Au(III)(NHC)4](3+) cations in the hexafluorophosphate salts to have a square planar Au(NHC)4 moiety [AuCNHC 2.024(4)-2.082(7) Å]. In the [Au(III)(NHC)4Cl2](+) cations in the chloride salts, coordination about Au was tetragonally-distorted octahedral, the axial Au-Cl bonds being substantially longer [AuCl 3...
June 8, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Haoxu Dong, Zhiyan Zhong, Wei Chen, Xiao Wu, Qing Zhang, Guangying Huang, Wei Yang
This study was to explore the mechanism of acupuncture on regulating the endometrial angiogenesis and uterus dendritic cells (uDCs) during the peri-implantation period. Rats, in early pregnancy, were randomized into five groups: normal (N), model (M), acupuncture (A), progesterone (P), and A + P groups. The COH model was established using pregnant mare serum, combined with human chorionic gonadotrophin. Endometrium was collected on days 4, 6, and 8 (D4, D6, and D8) of gestation. Compared with group M, both VEGF and FGF-2 protein and mRNA levels were significantly lower on D4 and higher on D6 and D8 (P < 0...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
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