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Robert C Murphy, Toshiaki Okuno, Christopher A Johnson, Robert M Barkley
The position of double bonds along the carbon chain of methylene interrupted polyunsaturated fatty acids are unique identifiers of specific fatty acids derived from biochemical reactions that occur in cells. It is possible to obtain direct structural information as to these double bond positions using tandem mass spectrometry after collisional activation of the carboxylate anions of an acetone adduct at each of the double bond positions formed by the photochemical Paternò-Büchi reaction with acetone. This reaction can be carried out by exposing a small portion of an inline fused silica capillary to UV photons from a mercury vapor lamp as the sample is infused into the electrospray ion source of a mass spectrometer...
July 18, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Lois M Muiva-Mutisya, Yoseph Atilaw, Matthias Heydenreich, Andreas Koch, Hoseah M Akala, Agnes C Cheruiyot, Matthew L Brown, Beatrice Irungu, Faith A Okalebo, Solomon Derese, Charles Mutai, Abiy Yenesew
The CH2Cl2/MeOH (1:1) extract of the aerial parts of Tephrosia subtriflora afforded a new flavanonol, named subtriflavanonol (1), along with the known flavanone spinoflavanone B, and the known flavanonols MS-II (2) and mundulinol. The structures were elucidated by the use of NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The absolute configuration of the flavanonols was determined based on quantum chemical ECD calculations. In the antiplasmodial assay, compound 2 showed the highest activity against chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum reference clones (D6 and 3D7), artemisinin-sensitive isolate (F32-TEM) as well as field isolate (KSM 009) with IC50 values 1...
July 16, 2017: Natural Product Research
Wenxuan Zhang, Jun Wu, Bo Li, Xu Lian, Jie Xia, Qi Zhou, Song Wu
Two conformationally restricted salinomycin derivatives by tethering the hydroxyl groups at C1 and C20 with different chain length were designed and synthesized. The cyclic derivatives showed better biological activities than C1/C20 modified derivatives, indicating the importance of the compact conformation for the ion binding capacity. In addition, the length of the connective chain plays critical role in the biological activities, thus cyclic the derivative 7 preserved some pharmacological activity but derivative 5 with two carbon atom shorter chain showed significantly reduced activity...
June 29, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Miran Aswad, Simaan Assi, Sagie Schif-Zuck, Amiram Ariel
The engulfment of apoptotic polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) during the resolution of inflammation leads to macrophage reprogramming culminating in reduced proinflammatory and increased anti-inflammatory mediator secretion. The atypical chemokine receptor D6/ACKR2 is expressed on apoptotic PMN and plays an important role in regulating macrophage properties during and after engulfment. In this study, we found that the inflammatory chemokine CCL5 is mostly retained (75%) during the resolution of zymosan A peritonitis in mice...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Jane C Fenelon, Bruce D Murphy
Embryonic diapause is a common reproductive strategy amongst mammals, requiring an intimate cross-talk between the endometrium and the blastocyst. To date, the precise molecular signals responsible are unknown in the mouse or any other mammal. Previous studies in the mink implicate polyamines as major regulators of the control of diapause. In the mouse, inhibiting the rate-limiting enzyme of polyamine synthesis, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC1) during early pregnancy largely prevents implantation, but the fate of the non-implanted embryos is unknown...
June 16, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
Sara Díaz-Triviño, Yuchen Long, Ben Scheres, Ikram Blilou
In plant biology, transient expression systems have become valuable approaches used routinely to rapidly study protein expression, subcellular localization, protein-protein interactions, and transcriptional activity prior to in vivo studies. When studying transcriptional regulation, luciferase reporter assays offer a sensitive readout for assaying promoter behavior in response to different regulators or environmental contexts and to confirm and assess the functional relevance of predicted binding sites in target promoters...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Valentina Salvi, Francesca Sozio, Silvano Sozzani, Annalisa Del Prete
Inflammatory reactions occurring in the central nervous system (CNS), known as neuroinflammation, are key components of the pathogenic mechanisms underlying several neurological diseases. The chemokine system plays a crucial role in the recruitment and activation of immune and non-immune cells in the brain, as well as in the regulation of microglia phenotype and function. Chemokines belong to a heterogeneous family of chemotactic agonists that signal through the interaction with G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Ahmed H Mageed, Brian W Skelton, Murray V Baker
Gold(iii) N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes of form [Au(NHC)4Cl2]Cl were synthesized by reaction of KAuCl4 with bis- and tetrakis(imidazolium) salts in the presence of a mild base. Treatment of these complexes with KPF6 afforded four-coordinate Au(III) complexes of form [Au(NHC)4](PF6)3. X-Ray crystallography showed the [Au(III)(NHC)4](3+) cations in the hexafluorophosphate salts to have a square planar Au(NHC)4 moiety [AuCNHC 2.024(4)-2.082(7) Å]. In the [Au(III)(NHC)4Cl2](+) cations in the chloride salts, coordination about Au was tetragonally-distorted octahedral, the axial Au-Cl bonds being substantially longer [AuCl 3...
June 8, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Haoxu Dong, Zhiyan Zhong, Wei Chen, Xiao Wu, Qing Zhang, Guangying Huang, Wei Yang
This study was to explore the mechanism of acupuncture on regulating the endometrial angiogenesis and uterus dendritic cells (uDCs) during the peri-implantation period. Rats, in early pregnancy, were randomized into five groups: normal (N), model (M), acupuncture (A), progesterone (P), and A + P groups. The COH model was established using pregnant mare serum, combined with human chorionic gonadotrophin. Endometrium was collected on days 4, 6, and 8 (D4, D6, and D8) of gestation. Compared with group M, both VEGF and FGF-2 protein and mRNA levels were significantly lower on D4 and higher on D6 and D8 (P < 0...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Chin-Pang Lee, Chia-Yih Liu, Ching-I Hung
BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether the 6-item Melancholia subscale of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D6 ) has better psychometric properties than the parental 17-item version (HAM-D17 ) in the Chinese populations. METHODS: The study was to check the Chinese HAM-D17 and HAM-D6 for reliability and validity with Mokken scale analysis and item analysis. We reanalyzed a clinical sample of adult psychiatric outpatients (N = 214; age, mean (SD) = 38.3 (10...
June 6, 2017: Asia-Pacific Psychiatry: Official Journal of the Pacific Rim College of Psychiatrists
Xiaolin Chen, Chuangang Ning
It was believed that the rhenium anion Re(-) was not stable, just like Mn(-). We report the observation of Re(-) in the laser ablation ion source and the further confirmation via the high-resolution photoelectron spectra of Re(-). The ground state of Re(-) ions is 5d(6)6s(2 5)D4. The electron affinity of rhenium is determined to be 487.13(51) cm(-1) or 60.396(63) meV.
June 15, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
M C Max, C B Silva, S M González, A G Lindquist, I Búfalo, R G Gomes, F Morotti, C B Costa, Trr Barreiros, L A Lisboa, M M Seneda
This study investigated the effects of different concentrations of FSH (10, 50, 100 and 200 ng/ml) in supplemented MEM+ on the development of equine pre-antral follicles that were cultured in vitro for 2 or 6 days. The ovaries (n = 5) from mares in seasonal anoestrus were collected from a local abattoir. Ten ovarian tissue fragments of approximately 3 × 3 × 1 mm were obtained from each animal. The fragments were cultured in situ for 2 days (D2) or 6 days (D6) in MEM+ or MEM+ supplemented with FSH at four different concentrations, establishing the following 11 groups: control (D0); MEM + (D2); MEM + (D6); MEM + 10 ng/ml of FSH (D2); MEM + 10 ng/ml of FSH (D6); MEM + 50 ng/ml of FSH (D2); MEM + 50 ng/ml of FSH (D6); MEM + 100 ng/ml of FSH (D2); MEM + 100 ng/ml of FSH (D6); MEM + 200 ng/ml of FSH (D2); and MEM + 200 ng/ml of FSH (D6)...
June 4, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Jagrati Jain, Surendra K Jain, Larry A Walker, Babu L Tekwani
BACKGROUND: Protein ubiquitylation is an important post-translational regulation, which has been shown to be necessary for life cycle progression and survival of Plasmodium falciparum. Ubiquitin is a highly conserved 76 amino acid polypeptide, which attaches covalently to target proteins through combined action of three classes of enzymes namely, the ubiquitin-activating enzyme (E1), ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) and ubiquitin-protein ligase (E3). Ubiquitin E1 and E2 are highly conserved within eukaryotes...
June 2, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Yaxi Hu, Shuo Wang, Shenlin Wang, Xiaonan Lu
Carcinogenic Sudan I has been added illegally into spices for an apparent freshness. (1)H solution and solid-state (SS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies were applied and compared for determination of Sudan I in paprika powders (PPs). For solution NMR, PPs spiked with Sudan I were extracted with acetonitrile, centrifuged, rotor-evaporated, and re-dissolved in DMSO-d6 for spectral collection. For SSNMR, Sudan I contaminated PPs were mixed with DMSO-d6 solution and used for spectral collection. Linear regression models constructed for quantitative analyses resulted in the average accuracies for unknown samples as 98% and 105%, respectively...
June 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
David A Marsh, William S Elliott, Rachel M Smith, Meredith C Sharps, Mary K Baumeister, Matthew E Carnes, Lev N Zakharov, William H Casey, Darren W Johnson
Large aqueous ions are interesting because they are useful in materials science (for example to generate thin films) but also because they serve as molecular models for the oxide-aqueous mineral interface where spectroscopy is difficult. Here we show that new clusters of the type M[(μ-OH)2 Co(NH3 )4 ]3 (NO3 )6 (M=Al, Ga) can be synthesized using Werner's century-old cluster as a substitutable framework. We substituted Group 13 metals into the hexol Co[(μ-OH)2 Co(NH3 )4 ]3(6+) ion to make diamagnetic heterometallic ions...
June 1, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Takashi Ishizu, Hiroyuki Tsutsumi, Emi Yokoyama, Haruka Kawamoto, Runa Yokota
In water, diketopiperazines cyclo(L-Pro-L-Xxx) and cyclo(L-Pro-D-Xxx) (Xxx=Phe, Tyr) formed an intramolecular hydrophobic interaction between the main skeleton part and their benzene ring, and both cyclo(L-Pro-L-Xxx) and cyclo(L-Pro-D-Xxx) took a folded conformation. The conformational changes from folded to extended conformation by addition of several deuterated organic solvents (acetone-d6, metanol-d4, dimethyl sulfoxide-d6 (DMSO-d6)) and the temperature rise were investigated using (1)H-NMR spectra. The results suggested that the intrarmolecular hydrophobic interaction of cyclo(L-Pro-D-Xxx) formed more strongtly than that of cyclo(L-Pro-L-Xxx)...
2017: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Ying Liu, Andrea Lucas-Hahn, Bjoern Petersen, Rong Li, Doris Hermann, Petra Hassel, Maren Ziegler, Knud Larsen, Heiner Niemann, Henrik Callesen
The "Dolly" based cloning (classical nuclear transfer, [CNT]) and the handmade cloning (HMC) are methods that are nowadays routinely used for somatic cloning of large domestic species. Both cloning protocols share several similarities, but differ with regard to the required in vitro culture, which in turn results in different time intervals until embryo transfer. It is not yet known whether the differences between cloned embryos from the two protocols are due to the cloning methods themselves or the in vitro culture, as some studies have shown detrimental effects of in vitro culture on conventionally produced embryos...
June 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
Eun-Kyung Choi, Jae-Hyung Lee, Seung-Hak Baek, Su-Jung Kim
INTRODUCTION: We explored the gene expression profile altered by orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) during the healing of surgical alveolar defects in beagles. METHODS: An OTM-related healing model was established where a maxillary second premolar was protracted into the critical-sized defect for 6 weeks (group DT6). As controls, natural healing models without OTM were set at 2 weeks (group D2) and at 6 weeks (group D6) after surgery. Total RNAs were extracted from dissected tissue blocks containing the regenerated defects and additionally from sound alveolar bone as a baseline (group C)...
June 2017: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
Xuemeng Xie, Jinfu Tu, Heyi You, Bingren Hu
Given the important role that inhibitory kappa B (IκB) kinase β (IKKβ) plays in pancreatic cancer (PC) development and progression, inhibitors targeting IKKβ are believed to be increasingly popular as novel anti-PC therapies. Two synthetic molecules, named EF24 and EF31, exhibited favorable potential in terms of inhibition of both IKKβ activity and PC cell proliferation. Aiming to enhance their cellular efficacy and to analyze their structure-activity relationship, four series of EF24 and EF31 analogs were designed and synthesized...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Agnieszka Cholewiak, Agnieszka Tycz, Janusz Jurczak
The DITIPIRAM (8-propyldithieno[3,2-b:2',3'-e]pyridine-3,5-diamine)-based receptors 11 and 12 were readily synthesized, and their anion-binding properties were studied both in solution and in the solid-state. (1)H NMR titrations revealed that receptor 12 equipped with two phenyl-urea groups preferentially binds carboxylates, even in the highly competitive DMSO-d6/CD3OH solvent mixture. X-ray analysis showed that receptor 12 exhibited great complementarity for benzoate, which is cooperatively bound by the means of four highly directional hydrogen bonds from the two urea groups...
May 24, 2017: Organic Letters
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