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Warren W Burggren, Nourhan A Elmonoufy
Hypoxia during embryonic growth in embryos is frequently a powerful determinant of development, but at least in avian embryos the effects appear to show considerable intra- and inter-specific variation. We hypothesized that some of this variation may arise from different protocols that may or may not result in exposure during the embryo's critical window for hypoxic effects. To test this hypothesis, quail embryos (Coturnix coturnix) in the intact egg were exposed to hypoxia (~15% O2) during "early" (Day 0 through Day 5, abbreviated as D0-D5), "middle" (D6-D10) or "late" (D11-D15) incubation or for their entire 16-18 day incubation ("continuous hypoxia") to determine critical windows for viability and growth...
2017: PloS One
Samantha R Weaver, Allan S Prichard, Noah L Maerz, Austin P Prichard, Elizabeth L Endres, Lorenzo E Hernández-Castellano, Matthew S Akins, Rupert M Bruckmaier, Laura L Hernandez
Serotonin is known to regulate energy and calcium homeostasis in several mammalian species. The objective of this study was to determine if pre-partum infusions of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), the immediate precursor to serotonin synthesis, could modulate energy homeostasis at the level of the hepatocyte in post-partum Holstein and Jersey dairy cows. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows and twelve multiparous Jersey cows were intravenously infused daily for approximately 7 d pre-partum with either saline or 1 mg/kg bodyweight of 5-HTP...
2017: PloS One
Ivanna Novotny Nuñez, Bibiana E Barrios, Lisa Macció-Maretto, Silvia G Correa
Lamina propria dendritic cells (DCs) have a permanent turnover with constitutive migration to mesenteric lymph nodes and replenishment by progenitors. Luminal bacteria and dietary constituents provide key signals that endow DCs their unique properties in vivo. Taking into account that the intestinal immune system is greatly influenced by retinoids, we evaluated in B6 mice 3, 8, 16 and 24 h after feeding a single dose of vitamin A phenotype and function of cells present in mesenteric afferent lymph nodes as well as signals involved in migration...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Linda Nguyen, Anna L Scandinaro, Rae R Matsumoto
The over-the-counter antitussive dextromethorphan (DM) may have rapid antidepressant actions based on its overlapping pharmacology with ketamine, which has shown fast antidepressant effects but whose widespread use remains limited by problematic side effects. We have previously shown that DM produces antidepressant-like effects in the forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) that are mediated in part through α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic (AMPA) and sigma-1 receptors, two protein targets associated with a faster onset of antidepressant efficacy...
September 12, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Madhu Page-Sharp, Tobias Strunk, Sam Salman, Julie Hibbert, Sanjay K Patole, Laurens Manning, Kevin T Batty
Advances in bioanalytical methods are facilitating micro-volume and dried blood spot (DBS) analysis of drugs in biological matrices for pharmacokinetic studies in children and neonates. We sought to develop a UPLC-MS/MS assay for simultaneous measurement of caffeine, pentoxifylline (PTX) and three metabolites of PTX in both plasma and DBS. Caffeine, PTX, the metabolites M1 (lisofylline), M4 and M5, and the internal standards (caffeine-d9 and PTX-d6) were separated using a Waters Aquity T3 UPLC C18 column and gradient mobile phase (water-methanol-formic acid)...
August 26, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Tanja Opriessnig, Priscilla F Gerber, Shannon R Matzinger, Xiang-Jin Meng, Patrick G Halbur
Porcine parvovirus type 1 (PPV1) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) are small single-stranded DNA viruses with high prevalence in the global pig population. The aim of this study was to compare and contrast PCV2 and PPV1 infections in high-health status pigs and to describe PCV2 long-term infection dynamics. Six caesarian-derived colostrum-deprived pigs were randomly divided into two groups and were experimentally infected with PCV2 or PPV1 at 5 weeks of age. All pigs had detectable viremia by day (D) 3 post-infection...
September 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Marcela M Fernandez-Gutierrez, Peter P J Roosjen, Eveline Ultee, Maarten Agelink, Jacques J M Vervoort, Bart Keijser, Jerry M Wells, Michiel Kleerebezem
Gingival re-epithelialization represents an essential phase of oral wound healing in which epithelial integrity is re-establish. We developed an automated high-throughput re-epithelialization kinetic model, using the gingival epithelial cell line Ca9-22. The model was employed to screen 39 lactic acid bacteria, predominantly including oral isolates, for their capacity to accelerate gingival re-epithelialization. This screen identified several strains of Streptococcus salivarius that stimulated re-epithelialization...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yoseph Atilaw, Lois Muiva-Mutisya, Albert Ndakala, Hoseah M Akala, Redemptah Yeda, Yu J Wu, Paolo Coghi, Vincent K W Wong, Máté Erdélyi, Abiy Yenesew
Four new flavones with modified prenyl groups, namely (E)-5-hydroxytephrostachin (1), purleptone (2), (E)-5-hydroxyanhydrotephrostachin (3), and terpurlepflavone (4), along with seven known compounds (5-11), were isolated from the CH₂Cl₂/MeOH (1:1) extract of the stem of Tephrosia purpurea subsp. leptostachya, a widely used medicinal plant. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric evidence. Some of the isolated compounds showed antiplasmodial activity against the chloroquine-sensitive D6 strains of Plasmodium falciparum, with (E)-5-hydroxytephrostachin (1) being the most active, IC50 1...
September 10, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Holger Joswig, Wolfgang Korte, Severin Früh, Lorenz Epprecht, Gerhard Hildebrandt, Jean-Yves Fournier, Martin Nikolaus Stienen
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers might be useful in predicting outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). It was the aim to determine whether tau and amyloid beta CSF concentrations predict functional, health-related quality of life (hrQoL), and neuropsychological outcomes after aSAH. Ventricular CSF was obtained from n = 24 aSAH patients at admission (D0), day 2 (D2), and day 6 (D6). CSF total (t)Tau, phosphorylated (p)Tau(181P), and amyloid beta(1-40 and 1-42) (Aβ40/Aβ42) levels were compared between patients with favorable and unfavorable functional (modified Rankin Scale (mRS)), hrQoL (Euro-Qol (EQ-5D)), and neuropsychological outcomes at 3 (3 m) and 12 months (12 m)...
September 10, 2017: Neurosurgical Review
Daniel P Demarque, Christian Merten
When predicting binding properties of small molecules or larger supramolecular aggregates, intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds are often considered the most important factor. Spectroscopic techniques such as 1H-NMR spectroscopy are typically utilized to characterize such binding events, but interpretation is often qualitative and follows chemical intuition. In this study, we compare the effects of intramolecular hydrogen bonding and solvation on two chiral 2,6-pyridinediyl-dialkylamides. In comparison with 1H-NMR spectroscopy, VCD spectroscopy proved to be more sensitive to conformational changes...
September 7, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Shayne Sorenson, Marina Popova, Atta M Arif, Lisa M Berreau
Metal-flavonolate compounds are of significant current interest as synthetic models for quercetinase enzymes and as bioactive compounds of importance to human health. Zinc-3-hydroxyflavonolate compounds, including those of quercetin, kampferol, and morin, generally exhibit bidentate coordination to a single Zn(II) center. The bipyridine-ligated zinc-flavonolate compound reported herein, namely bis(μ-4-oxo-2-phenyl-4H-chromen-3-olato)-κ(3)O(3):O(3),O(4);κ(3)O(3),O(4):O(3)-bis[(2,2'-bipyridine-κ(2)N,N')zinc(II)] bis(perchlorate), {[Zn2(C15H9O3)2(C10H8N2)2](ClO4)2}n, (1), provides an unusual example of bridging 3-hydroxyflavonolate ligation in a dinuclear metal complex...
September 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section C, Structural Chemistry
Shilpa P Tathe, Sanjay N Parate, Kirti N Jaiswal, Archana A Randale
Chondroblastoma is a rare, cartilage producing primary neoplasm of the bone. Although generally benign, chondroblastoma is placed in the "intermediate, rarely metastasizing" category in the 2013 World Health Organization classification of bone tumors. It typically involves the epiphysis of long tubular bones and is exceptionally located in the vertebral column. To the best of our knowledge, less than 35 cases of vertebral chondroblastoma have been reported in the literature. We report a case of chondroblastoma involving D6 -D7 vertebrae in a 17-year-old male patient, diagnosed on intraoperative crush cytology and later confirmed on histopathology...
August 23, 2017: Diagnostic Cytopathology
Thomas G Ribelli, Wahidur Rahaman, Krzysztof Matyjaszewski, Rinaldo Poli
The decomposition of the diazo initiator dimethyl 2,2'-azobis(isobutyrate) (V-601), generating the Me2C*(CO2Me) radical, affords essentially the same fraction of disproportionation and combination in media with a large range of viscosity (C6D6, DMSO-d6 and PEG 200) in the 25-100°C range. This is in stark contrast to recent results by Yamago et al. on the same radical generated from Me2C(TeMe)(CO2Me) and on other X-TeR systems (X = polymer chain or unimer model; R = Me, Ph). The discrepancy is rationalized on the basis of an unprecedented RTe*-catalyzed radical disproportionation, with support from DFT calculations and photochemical V-601 decomposition in the presence of Te2Ph2...
August 21, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Iswarduth Soojhawon, Nagarajan Pattabiraman, Arthur Tsang, Amanda L Roth, Ellen Kang, Schroeder M Noble
The recent emergence of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains and the non-efficacy of currently available antibiotics against such infections have led to an urgent need for the development of novel antibacterials. In an effort to address this problem, we have identified three novel inhibitors, namely, D5, D12 and D6 using in silico screening with a homology model of the outer membrane protein W2 (OmpW2) from A. baumannii, as the proposed new drug target. OmpW is an eight-stranded β-barrel protein involved in the transport of hydrophobic molecules across the outer membrane and maintenance of homeostasis under cellular stress...
August 9, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Frank-Dieter Kopinke, Anett Georgi, Ulf Roland
Diffusive isotope fractionation of organic compounds in aqueous solution was investigated by means of liquid-liquid and liquid-gas partitioning experiments under kinetic control. The two-film model was used to describe phase-transfer kinetics. It assumes the diffusion of solutes across a stagnant water boundary layer as the rate-controlling step. For all investigated solutes (benzene-D0 and -D6, toluene-D0, -D5, and -D8, cyclohexane-D0 and -D12), there was no significant observable fractionation effect between nondeuterated and perdeuterated isotopologues, resulting in a ratio of diffusion coefficients Dlight: Dheavy=1...
August 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Astrid Pung, Ivo Leito
The ability of the COSMO-RS method to predict the relative stability of different conformers of the same species in solution was evaluated by comparing computational results with experimental conformer data for 105 molecules from 20 literature sources. The solvents CDCl3, CD2Cl2, benzene, toluene, ethyl ether, tetrahydrofuran, acetone, dimethylformamide, DMSO (and DMSO-d6), water, and ethanol were used (dictated by the solvents used in the literature). In the case of 16 molecules the quantitative conformer abundances were also available and were compared with the data from computations...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Lena-Maria Mehling, Xin Wang, Sys-Stybe Johansen, Annika Spottke, Anna Heidbreder, Peter Young, Burkhard Madea, Cornelius Hess
Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) can be used as a knock-out drug in drug facilitated crime (DFC). Due to its rapid metabolism and resulting narrow detection window, uncovering GHB use in DFC still constitutes a problem. In this experiment we determined the GHB and GHB-β-O-glucuronide (GHB-Gluc) concentrations in hair samples after single and chronic GHB exposures. Hair samples of three narcoleptic patients therapeutically taking sodium oxybate (GHB-sodium-salt) were collected. Patients 1 (P1) and 2 (P2) took the medication for nine and six years, respectively...
September 2017: Forensic Science International
Fatma A Moharram, Rabab Abd El Moneim El Dib, Mohamed S Marzouk, Siham M El-Shenawy, Haitham A Ibrahim
BACKGROUND: Gaillardia grandiflora Hort. ex Van Houte and Gaillardia pulchella Foug are flowering plants widely cultivated in Egypt for their ornamental value. Previous reports demonstrated that sesquiterpene derivatives represent the major compounds in both species. Moreover, only few flavones were identified from genus Gaillardia and few studies on the cytotoxicity of G. pulchella were found. AIM OF THE STUDY: Investigation of the phenolic constituents of the aerial parts of both species and evaluation of their anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Ligia S C F Rabello, Pedro Póvoa, Jose R Lapa E Silva, Luciano C P Azevedo, Fernando Jose da Silva Ramos, Thiago Lisboa, Marcio Soares, Jorge I F Salluh
PURPOSE: Describe the patterns of C-reactive protein relative changes in response to antibiotic therapy in critically ill cancer patients with healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) and its ability to predict outcome. METHODS: Secondary analysis of a prospective cohort of critically ill cancer patients with HCAP. CRP was sampled every other day from D0 to D6 of antibiotic therapy. Patients were classified according to an individual pattern of CRP-ratio response: fast - CRP at D4 of therapy was <0...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
Ashim Baishya, Lokesh Kumar, Milan Kr Barman, Himansu S Biswal, Sharanappa Nembenna
A series of structurally characterized magnesium and zinc complexes of the form L(4-tBuPh)-M{N(SiMe3)2}2 [M = Mg (1) and Zn (2); L(4-tBuPh) = 1,3-diethyl-4,5-dimethylimidazolium-2-{N,N'-bis(4-tert-butylphenyl)amidinate}], L(4-iPrPh)-M{N(SiMe3)2}2 [M = Mg (3) and Zn (4); L(4-iPrPh) = 1,3-diethyl-4,5-dimethylimidazolium-2-{N,N'-bis(4-isopropylphenyl)amidinate}], and L(4-iPrPh)-ZnEt2 (5) bearing a zwitterionic-type neutral amidinate or N-heterocyclic carbene-carbodiimide ("NHC-CDI") adduct and monoanionic amido or alkyl ligands have been reported...
August 7, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
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