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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441030/measuring-cardiac-output-during-cardiopulmonary-exercise-testing
#1
Carlo Vignati, Gaia Cattadori
Cardiac output is a key parameter in the assessment of cardiac function, and its measurement is fundamental to the diagnosis, treatment, and prognostic evaluation of all heart diseases. Until recently, cardiac output determination during exercise had been only possible through invasive methods, which were not practical in the clinical setting. Since oxygen uptake (V.O2) is cardiac output times arteriovenous content difference [C(a-v)O2)], evaluation of cardiac output is usually included its measurement. Because of the difficulty of directly measuring peak exercise cardiac output, indirect surrogate parameters have been proposed, but with only modest clinical usefulness...
April 25, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440716/exercise-reduced-pentraxin-3-levels-produced-by-endotoxin-stimulated-human-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-in-obese-individuals
#2
Aaron L Slusher, Yoshimi Shibata, Michael Whitehurst, Arun Maharaj, Justin M Quiles, Chun-Jung Huang
The purpose of this study was to determine whether obesity would reduce the capacity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to produce the anti-inflammatory protein pentraxin 3 (PTX3) in response to ex vivo stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and if acute aerobic exercise would enhance this PTX3 production capacity. In addition, the inter-relationships of LPS-induced PTX3 with the inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 6 [IL-6], IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor alpha) were examined. Twenty-one healthy subjects (10 obese and 11 normal-weight) performed an acute bout of aerobic exercise at 75% VO2max...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439848/the-janus-head-of-oxidative-stress-in-metabolic-diseases-and-during-physical-exercise
#3
REVIEW
Dominik Pesta, Michael Roden
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Oxidative stress describes an imbalance between production and degradation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can damage macromolecules. However, ROS may also serve as signaling molecules activating cellular pathways involved in cell proliferation and adaptation. This review describes alterations in metabolic diseases including obesity, insulin resistance, and/or diabetes mellitus as well as responses to acute and chronic physical exercise. RECENT FINDINGS: Chronic upregulation of oxidative stress associates with the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D)...
June 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439712/cochrane-in-corr-%C3%A2-manual-therapy-and-exercise-for-rotator-cuff-disease
#4
Moin Khan, Jon J P Warner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 24, 2017: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439567/sarcopenia-obesity-and-mortality-in-us-adults-with-and-without-chronic-kidney-disease
#5
Lagu Androga, Deep Sharma, Afolarin Amodu, Matthew K Abramowitz
INTRODUCTION: In pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD), the association of muscle mass with mortality is poorly defined, and no study has examined outcomes related to the co-occurrence of low muscle mass and excess adiposity (sarcopenic-obesity). Methods: We examined abnormalities of muscle and fat mass in adult participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004. We determined whether associations of body composition with all-cause mortality differed between participants with CKD compared to those without...
March 2017: KI Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439059/-calcium-and-bone-metabolism-across-women-s-life-stages-nutritive-therapy-for-improvement-of-bone-and-calcium-metabolism-according-to-life-stage-in-women
#6
Kazuya Makita
Postmenopausal osteoporosis is mainly caused by decreased estrogen levels, and progression of disease is associated with irreversible changes. It is therefore extremely important to maintain or improve healthy bone and calcium metabolism during and before the climacteric from a preventive medicine viewpoint. The specific preventive measures are appropriate calcium intake and regular physical exercise. In recent years, women in their twenties are considerably thinner and have a lower calcium intake than women in other age groups, which may lead to a further increase in the number of women with osteoporosis in the future...
2017: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438892/brain-metabolism-in-health-aging-and%C3%A2-neurodegeneration
#7
REVIEW
Simonetta Camandola, Mark P Mattson
Brain cells normally respond adaptively to bioenergetic challenges resulting from ongoing activity in neuronal circuits, and from environmental energetic stressors such as food deprivation and physical exertion. At the cellular level, such adaptive responses include the "strengthening" of existing synapses, the formation of new synapses, and the production of new neurons from stem cells. At the molecular level, bioenergetic challenges result in the activation of transcription factors that induce the expression of proteins that bolster the resistance of neurons to the kinds of metabolic, oxidative, excitotoxic, and proteotoxic stresses involved in the pathogenesis of brain disorders including stroke, and Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases...
April 24, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438042/ethnic-differences-in-the-cardiac-responses-to-aerobic-exercise
#8
Heather J A Foulds, Shannon S D Bredin, Darren E R Warburton
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease disproportionately affects North American Indigenous populations. Ethnic differences in cardiac responses to exercise are known, though Indigenous populations response is unknown. To evaluate cardiac responses to aerobic exercise among Canadian Indigenous and European adults. METHODS: Indigenous (N = 12, 4 females, 1 male incomplete) and European (N = 12, all completed) Canadian age and sex-matched adults 19-40 years and free of cardiovascular disease or diabetes completed a cycle ergometer maximal aerobic power test and 30 min at 60% maximal aerobic capacity on two separate days...
April 24, 2017: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437655/peripheral-artery-disease-redox-signaling-oxidative-stress-basic-and-clinical-aspects
#9
REVIEW
Sebastian Steven, Andreas Daiber, Jörn F Dopheide, Thomas Münzel, Christine Espinola-Klein
Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS, e.g. H2O2, nitric oxide) confer redox regulation of essential cellular signaling pathways such as cell differentiation, proliferation, migration and apoptosis. At higher concentrations, ROS and RNS lead to oxidative stress and oxidative damage of biomolecules (e.g. via formation of peroxynitrite, fenton chemistry). Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is characterized by severe ischemic conditions in the periphery leading to intermittent claudication and critical limb ischemia (end stage)...
April 13, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437576/irisin-and-musculoskeletal-health
#10
Graziana Colaianni, Saverio Cinti, Silvia Colucci, Maria Grano
Irisin is a hormone-like myokine produced in abundance by skeletal muscle in response to exercise, both in mice and humans. Once released into the circulation, irisin acts on white adipocytes to induce the browning response and subsequently activates nonshivering thermogenesis. We have examined the premise that irisin produced during exercise may subserve further functions in the musculoskeletal system. We review evidence for its possible skeletal effects, including the central role that irisin plays in the control of bone mass, with positive effects on cortical mineral density and geometry in mice...
April 24, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437445/knowledge-and-perception-of-cardiovascular-disease-risk-among-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#11
Sunjoo Boo, Hyunjin Oh, Erika S Froelicher, Chang-Hee Suh
Patients with rheumatoid arthritis are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease. The prerequisites for reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease are adequate levels of knowledge and being aware of the risk. In this study, the levels of knowledge about cardiovascular disease among patients with rheumatoid arthritis and the perception were evaluated in relation to their actual 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease. This cross-sectional study of 200 patients with rheumatoid arthritis was conducted in a university-affiliated hospital in South Korea...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437144/framingham-risk-score-and-estimated-10-year-cardiovascular-disease-risk-reduction-by-a-short-term-yoga-based-life-style-intervention
#12
Rashmi Yadav, Raj Kumar Yadav, Kumar Sarvottam, Ritesh Netam
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a short-term yoga-based life-style intervention program in lowering Framingham Risk Score (FRS) and estimated 10-year cardiovascular risk. METHODS: This was a single-arm, pre-post interventional study including data from a historical cohort with low to moderate risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). It was conducted in a tertiary-care hospital. Participants with low (0 or 1 CVD risk factors) to moderately high risk (10-year risk between 10% and 20% and two or more CVD risk factors) were included...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436723/asymptomatic-peripheral-artery-disease-can-limit-maximal-exercise-capacity-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-patients-regardless-of-airflow-obstruction-and-lung-hyperinflation
#13
Ernesto Crisafulli, Chiara Scelfo, Panagiota Tzani, Marina Aiello, Giuseppina Bertorelli, Alfredo Chetta
Background Silent/asymptomatic peripheral artery disease may occur in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but it is poorly investigated. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients the impact of asymptomatic/silent peripheral artery disease on maximal exercise capacity; the secondary aim was to search for predictors of peripheral artery disease. Methods We prospectively enrolled chronic obstructive pulmonary disease outpatients. Data on anthropometric characteristics, lung function, cardiopulmonary exercise test and ankle-brachial index were recorded...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436549/atrial-undersensing-secondary-to-quiet-timer-blanking-in-pediatric-and-congenital-heart-disease-patients
#14
Johannes C von Alvensleben, Michael Schaffer, Caitlin Brateng, Kathryn K Collins
BACKGROUND: Atrial undersensing despite normal atrial lead parameters and high amplitude electrograms has been described in adult patients as a consequence of atrial amplifier saturation. Repetitive inputs cause amplifier ringing and undersensing occurs as consequence of quiet timer blanking. High amplitude ventricular electrograms can also result in atrial blanking secondary to cross chamber effect. This has not been described in pediatric patients or epicardial pacing systems and specific risk factors are not known...
April 24, 2017: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436099/review-of-nutrition-guidelines-relevant-for-adolescents-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#15
REVIEW
Zohra S Lassi, Tarab Mansoor, Rehana A Salam, Shereen Z Bhutta, Jai K Das, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
The economic and social well-being of any country will one day depend on its current adolescent population. To provide a good foundation for healthy adolescent development, healthy diet, along with physical activity and adequate nutrients, is necessary. Therefore, addressing the nutrition needs of adolescents could be an important step toward breaking the vicious cycle of intergenerational malnutrition, chronic diseases, and poverty. These problems could be addressed with timely recognition and appropriately delivered interventions...
April 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436097/the-vaginal-microbiome-and-gynaecological-cancer-exercise-caution-when-considering-causation
#16
Neal C Ramchander, Emma J Crosbie
Genital infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is extremely common in young, sexually active women, but most infections are transient and clear without ever causing disease. Persistent infection causes premalignant cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), which, if left untreated, can undergo malignant transformation and become invasive cancer. Cervical cancer is thus considered a late, rare consequence of persistent high-risk HPV infection (Crosbie et al. Lancet 2013; 382:889-99). Factors that influence the acquisition of genital HPV and the rate of its natural clearance are therefore important in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer...
April 24, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435687/an-evaluation-of-low-volume-high-intensity-intermittent-training-hiit-for-health-risk-reduction-in-overweight-and-obese-men
#17
Benjamin M Kelly, Soteris Xenophontos, James A King, Myra A Nimmo
ᅟ: Both sprint interval training (SIT) and high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) have been described as time-efficient strategies for inducing favourable metabolic and cardiorespiratory adaptations in healthy and diseased participants. BACKGROUND: To date, little attention has been given to profiling the potential health benefits of HIIT or modified HIIT training within overweight and obese cohorts with particular focus on inflammation. Within this pilot trial, we tested the hypothesis that 6 sessions of HIIT performed over 2 weeks with 1-2 days' rest would improve aerobic capacity, glucose metabolism and inflammatory profile in an overweight and obese male cohort...
2017: BMC Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435685/quantification-and-physiological-significance-of-the-rightward-shift-of-the-v-slope-during-incremental-cardiopulmonary-exercise-testing
#18
Hirotaka Nishijima, Kazuo Kondo, Kazuya Yonezawa, Hiroki Hashimoto, Masayuki Sakurai
BACKGROUND: Ventilatory anaerobic threshold (VAT) is frequently used as a measure of exercise tolerance, with the V-slope method being the standard; however, this needs to be visually determined. Over the years, we have observed that the V-slope itself often appears to shift rightward before the appearance of the VAT (RtShift: rightward shift of V-slope). This phenomenon has long been known to occur during the first 1-2 min of steady-state exercise and disappears thereafter; it is attributed to CO2 storage, presumably in active muscle...
2017: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435658/sex-differences-in-insular-cortex-gyri-responses-to-a-brief-static-handgrip-challenge
#19
Paul M Macey, Nicholas S Rieken, Jennifer A Ogren, Katherine E Macey, Rajesh Kumar, Ronald M Harper
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease varies between sexes, suggesting male-female autonomic control differences. Insular gyri help coordinate autonomic regulation and show a sex-dependent response to a sympathetic challenge. METHODS: We examined sex-related insular gyral responses to a short static handgrip exercise challenge eliciting parasympathetic withdrawal with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during four 16-s challenges (80% maximum strength) in 23 healthy females (age; mean ± std 50 ± 8 years) and 40 males (46 ± 9 years)...
2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435339/compulsive-exercise-links-risks-and-challenges-facedent
#20
REVIEW
Mia Beck Lichtenstein, Cecilie Juul Hinze, Bolette Emborg, Freja Thomsen, Simone Daugaard Hemmingsen
Compulsive exercise is a condition described since 1970s. It is characterized by a craving for physical training, resulting in uncontrollable excessive exercise behavior with harmful consequences, such as injuries and impaired social relations. It has not been accepted as a mental disorder in either International Classification of Diseases or Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The aim of this literature review was to critically examine the research on links (comorbidity), risks (negative consequences), and challenges faced (problems in a treatment context)...
2017: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
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