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Maxwell S Barnish, Nara Tagiyeva, Graham Devereux, Lorna Aucott, Steve Turner
BACKGROUND: Childhood asthma is a common condition whose prevalence is changing. We hypothesised that the relationship between asthma and associated risk factors has changed over a 50-year period. METHODS: An ecological study design was used. Children aged 8-13 attending schools in Aberdeen city were surveyed on seven occasions between 1964 and 2014. The following were determined: history of asthma, history of eczema, parental smoking, parental asthma, sex and socioeconomic status...
October 25, 2016: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Sara J Marsteller, Natalya Zolotova, Kelly J Knudson
OBJECTIVES: Hypothetical models of socioeconomic organization in pre-Columbian societies generated from the rich ethnohistoric record in the New World require testing against the archaeological and bioarchaeological record. Here, we test ethnohistorian Maria Rostworowski's horizontality model of socioeconomic specialization for the Central Andean coast by reconstructing dietary practices in the Late Intermediate Period (c. AD 900-1470) Ychsma polity to evaluate complexities in social behaviors prior to Inka imperial influence...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Jeffery C Strickler, Kenneth K Lopiano
OBJECTIVE: This study profiles an innovative approach to capture patient satisfaction data from emergency department (ED) patients by implementing an electronic survey method. This study compares responders to nonresponders. BACKGROUND: Our hypothesis is that the cohort of survey respondents will be similar to nonresponders in terms of the key characteristics of age, gender, race, ethnicity, ED disposition, and payor status. METHODS: This study is a cross-sectional design using secondary data from the database and provides an opportunity for univariate analysis of the key characteristics for each group...
November 2016: Journal of Nursing Administration
Jaqueline C Avila, Yong-Fang Kuo, Ana M Rodriguez, Rebeca Wong, Sapna Kaul
PURPOSE: Examine preventive services utilization among female survivors of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer compared with women without cancer in the USA. METHODS: A total of 1017 women diagnosed with cancer at AYA ages (15-39 years) who were at least 5 years since diagnosis were identified from 2008 to 2012 Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys. A comparison group without cancer was matched on age and other characteristics. General preventive services included dental, medical, blood pressure, and cholesterol checkups, and flu shots in the previous year...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Cancer Survivorship: Research and Practice
Kusum Mehla, Jayashree Ramana
Campylobacter jejuni remains a major cause of human gastroenteritis with estimated annual incidence rate of 450 million infections worldwide. C. jejuni is a major burden to public health in both socioeconomically developing and industrialized nations. Virulence determinants involved in C. jejuni pathogenesis are multifactorial in nature and not yet fully understood. Despite the completion of the first C. jejuni genome project in 2000, there are currently no vaccines in the market against this pathogen. Traditional vaccinology approach is an arduous and time extensive task...
October 24, 2016: Functional & Integrative Genomics
Bernadette Brennan, Charles Stiller, Robert Grimer, Nicola Dennis, John Broggio, Matthew Francis
BACKGROUND: The role of age as a prognostic factor has been examined in single institutional studies and in larger data sets from the SEER database, showing a survival advantage for younger versus adult patients with synovial sarcoma (SS). To further assess the role of age, socioeconomic status and other prognostic factors on outcome for SS, we analysed a contemporary all-age population-based cohort of patients with SS registered in England. METHODS: The data on 1318 synovial sarcomas diagnosed in England between 1985 and 2009 were retrospectively analysed for incidence, and the effect of age, patient characteristics and deprivation on outcome using both univariate and multivariate analysis...
2016: Clinical Sarcoma Research
Carmen Moyer, Olga Roldan Reoyo, Linda May
Research has continued to demonstrate that exercise during pregnancy is safe. Growing evidence supports that exercise during pregnancy is beneficial for mother and fetus during gestation, with benefits persisting for the child into adulthood. Regardless of income or socioeconomic status, exercise during pregnancy is associated with increased incidence of full-term delivery. Additionally, normalization of birth measures, such as birth weight, occurs when women perform regular exercise throughout gestation. Measures of growth and development further indicate that exercise during pregnancy does not harm and may stimulate healthy growth throughout childhood...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Women's Health
Tuomas P Kilpeläinen, Kirsi Talala, Jani Raitanen, Kimmo Taari, Paula Kujala, Teuvo L J Tammela, Anssi Auvinen
Prostate cancer (PC) screening remains controversial. We investigated whether screening reduces the difference in prostate cancer risk by socioeconomic status (SES). In 1996-2011, a total of 72,139 men from the Finnish Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer were analyzed. Outcome measures were PC incidence, mortality, and participation in screening. SES indicators were educational level, income, and home ownership status (data obtained from the Statistics Finland registry). The mean duration of follow-up was 12...
October 24, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
Abdulla Watad, Shmuel Tiosano, Dana Yahav, Doron Comaneshter, Yehuda Shoenfeld, Arnon D Cohen, Howard Amital
BACKGROUND: Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a genetic disease, characterized by attacks of fever, arthritis, serositis and pain. Behçet's disease (BD) is an inflammatory disorder with a genetic basis, characterized by oral and genital ulcers, uveitis, pustular erythematous cutaneous lesions, arthritis, central nervous system involvement and possible vascular manifestations such as venous thrombosis, arteritis and aneurysms. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association and actual differentiation between these two entities in a large-scale population-based study...
October 21, 2016: European Journal of Internal Medicine
Steven L Bernstein, June-Marie Weiss, Benjamin Toll, Susan M Zbikowski
INTRODUCTION: Quitlines (QL) are an effective means for smoking cessation, but a paucity of data exist examining the dose-response relationship between use of QL services and quit rates, especially among low-income smokers. The purpose of this study was to study the relationship between tobacco abstinence and use of QL services among low-income smokers. METHODS: Secondary analysis of a randomized trial of every- or some-day smokers aged 18 years or older visiting an urban emergency department...
December 2016: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
T H Mina, M Lahti, A J Drake, K Räikkönen, H Minnis, F C Denison, J E Norman, R M Reynolds
BACKGROUND: Prenatal maternal obesity has been linked to adverse childhood neuropsychiatric outcomes, including increased symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), internalizing and externalizing problems, affective disorders and neurodevelopmental problems but few studies have studied neuropsychiatric outcomes among offspring born to very severely obese women or assessed potential familial confounding by maternal psychological distress. METHOD: We evaluated neuropsychiatric symptoms in 112 children aged 3-5 years whose mothers had participated in a longitudinal study of obesity in pregnancy (50 very severe obesity, BMI ⩾40 kg/m2, obese class III and 62 lean, BMI 18...
October 25, 2016: Psychological Medicine
Silvia Beatriz Gorban de Lapertosa, Gustavo Frechtel, Elise Hardy, Leobardo Sauque-Reyna
AIMS: Socioeconomic changes in Latin American countries have led to an increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We examined the effects of exenatide twice daily (BID) or insulin lispro, each added to insulin glargine, in Latin American patients with T2D. METHODS: This was a subgroup analysis of patients from Argentina and Mexico in the 4B study (N=114). Patients with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) of 7.0-10.0% (53-86mmol/mol) after 12weeks of intensive basal insulin optimization were randomized to exenatide BID or thrice-daily insulin lispro added to insulin glargine and metformin...
October 8, 2016: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Ping Ma, Darla E Kendzor, Insiya B Poonawalla, David S Balis, Michael S Businelle
INTRODUCTION: Individuals who use the nicotine patch are more likely to quit smoking than those who receive placebo or no medication. However, studies have not yet examined the association between actual daily nicotine patch wear time during the early phase of a smoking cessation attempt and later smoking abstinence. The purpose of this study was to address this gap in the literature. METHODS: Participants who enrolled in a safety-net hospital smoking cessation program were followed for 13 weeks (i...
October 18, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
(no author information available yet)
Current sexuality education programs vary widely in the accuracy of content, emphasis, and effectiveness. Data have shown that not all programs are equally effective for all ages, races and ethnicities, socioeconomic groups, and geographic areas. Studies have demonstrated that comprehensive sexuality education programs reduce the rates of sexual activity, sexual risk behaviors (eg, number of partners and unprotected intercourse), sexually transmitted infections, and adolescent pregnancy. One key component of an effective program is encouraging community-centered efforts...
November 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
(no author information available yet)
Current sexuality education programs vary widely in the accuracy of content, emphasis, and effectiveness. Data have shown that not all programs are equally effective for all ages, races and ethnicities, socioeconomic groups, and geographic areas. Studies have demonstrated that comprehensive sexuality education programs reduce the rates of sexual activity, sexual risk behaviors (eg, number of partners and unprotected intercourse), sexually transmitted infections, and adolescent pregnancy. One key component of an effective program is encouraging community-centered efforts...
November 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Adewale L Oyeyemi, Terry L Conway, Rufus A Adedoyin, Kingsley K Akinroye, Richmond Aryeetey, Felix Assah, Kelli L Cain, Kavita A Gavand, Sandra S Kasoma, Tracy L Kolbe-Alexander, Estelle V Lambert, Richard Larouche, Sarah J Mos, Reginald Ocansey, Vincent O Onywera, Antonio Prista, Mark S Tremblay, James F Sallis
PURPOSE: Development of valid measures of built environments relevant for physical activity is an important step toward controlling the global epidemic of physical inactivity-related non-communicable diseases and deaths. This study assessed the construct validity of a self-report neighborhood environment walkability scale adapted for Africa (NEWS-Africa), by examining relationships with self-reported walking for transportation and recreation using pooled data from six sub-Saharan African countries...
October 21, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Zhenjie Wang, Gong Chen, Chao Guo, Lihua Pang, Xiaoying Zheng
Socioeconomic inequalities associated with multiple disabilities have not been explored in China. This is the first study to explore changes in multiple disabilities among persons aged 15-64 years in China. Data were derived from the 1987 and 2006 China National Sample Surveys on Disability, which are nationally representative population-based surveys. Both surveys used multistage, stratified, cluster random sampling with probability proportional to size to derive nationally representative samples. We used standard weighting procedures to construct sample weights considering the multistage stratified cluster sampling survey scheme...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
César González-Ramírez, Jesús Montanero-Fernández, Diego Peral-Pacheco
BACKGROUND: The extreme variability of Temporary disability duration causes a deep impact in Public Health. We try to understand what factors does duration of disability depend on. METHODS: Through cohort study with data of temporal disabilities collected by Ibermutuamur from 2008 to 2012, we use statistical multivariate methods. RESULTS: The most reliable and convenient algorithm to predict duration was a categorical classification tree that distinguished between brief and long disabilities, taking into account both medical-biological and socioeconomic factors...
October 24, 2016: Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health
Oscar Patterson-Lomba, Muntaser Safan, Sherry Towers, Jay Taylor
Urban areas, with large and dense populations, offer conditions that favor the emergence and spread of certain infectious diseases. One common feature of urban populations is the existence of large socioeconomic inequalities which are often mirrored by disparities in access to healthcare. Recent empirical evidence suggests that higher levels of socioeconomic inequalities are associated with worsened public health outcomes, including higher rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STD's) and lower life expectancy...
October 1, 2016: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
Young Hoon Gong, Seok Jun Yoon, Min Woo Jo, Arim Kim, Young Ae Kim, Jihyun Yoon, Hyeyoung Seo, Dongwoo Kim
Cancer causes a significant deterioration in health and premature death and is a national socioeconomic burden. This study aimed to measure the burden of cancer using the disability-adjusted life year (DALY) metric based on the newly adopted methodology from the Global Burden of Disease Study in 2010. This study was conducted based on data from the Korean National Cancer Registry. The DALYs were calculated using a prevalence-based method instead of the incidence-based method used by previous studies. The total burden of cancer in 2012 was 3,470...
November 2016: Journal of Korean Medical Science
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