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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913076/formin-proteins-in-megakaryocytes-and-platelets-regulation-of-actin-and-microtubule-dynamics
#1
Malou Zuidscherwoude, Hannah L H Green, Steven G Thomas
The platelet and megakaryocyte cytoskeletons are essential for formation and function of these cells. A dynamic, properly organised tubulin and actin cytoskeleton is critical for the development of the megakaryocyte and the extension of proplatelets. Tubulin in particular plays a pivotal role in the extension of these proplatelets and the release of platelets from them. Tubulin is further required for the maintenance of platelet size, and actin is the driving force for shape change, spreading and platelet contraction during platelet activation...
June 18, 2018: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907657/microtubules-assemble-near-most-kinetochores-during-early-prometaphase-in-human-cells
#2
Vitali Sikirzhytski, Fioranna Renda, Irina Tikhonenko, Valentin Magidson, Bruce F McEwen, Alexey Khodjakov
For proper segregation during cell division, each chromosome must connect to the poles of the spindle via microtubule bundles termed kinetochore fibers (K-fibers). K-fibers form by two distinct mechanisms: (1) capture of astral microtubules nucleated at the centrosome by the chromosomes' kinetochores or (2) attachment of kinetochores to noncentrosomal microtubules with subsequent transport of the minus ends of these microtubules toward the spindle poles. The relative contributions of these alternative mechanisms to normal spindle assembly remain unknown...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903878/f-actin-nucleated-on-chromosomes-coordinates-their-capture-by-microtubules-in-oocyte-meiosis
#3
Mariia Burdyniuk, Andrea Callegari, Masashi Mori, François Nédélec, Péter Lénárt
Capture of each and every chromosome by spindle microtubules is essential to prevent chromosome loss and aneuploidy. In somatic cells, astral microtubules search and capture chromosomes forming lateral attachments to kinetochores. However, this mechanism alone is insufficient in large oocytes. We have previously shown that a contractile F-actin network is additionally required to collect chromosomes scattered in the 70-µm starfish oocyte nucleus. How this F-actin-driven mechanism is coordinated with microtubule capture remained unknown...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903865/novel-phosphorylation-states-of-the-yeast-spindle-pole-body
#4
Kimberly K Fong, Alex Zelter, Beth Graczyk, Jill M Hoyt, Michael Riffle, Richard Johnson, Michael J MacCoss, Trisha N Davis
Phosphorylation regulates yeast spindle pole body (SPB) duplication and separation and likely regulates microtubule nucleation. We report a phosphoproteomic analysis using tandem mass spectrometry of enriched Saccharomyces cerevisiae SPBs for two cell cycle arrests, G1/S and the mitotic checkpoint, expanding on previously reported phosphoproteomic data sets. We present a novel phosphoproteomic state of SPBs arrested in G1/S by a cdc4-1 temperature sensitive mutation, with particular focus on phosphorylation events on the γ-tubulin small complex (γ-TuSC)...
June 14, 2018: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903841/splitting-of-circulating-red-blood-cells-as-in-vivo-mechanism-of-erythrocyte-maturation-in-developing-zebrafish-chick-and-mouse-embryos
#5
Daniel Brönnimann, Tiziana Annese, Thomas A Gorr, Valentin Djonov
Nucleated circulating red blood cells (RBCs) of developing zebrafish, chick and mouse embryos can actively proliferate. While marrow- or organ-mediated erythropoiesis has been widely studied, transforming in vivo processes of circulating RBCs are under little scrutiny. We employed confocal, stereo- and electron microscopy to document the maturation of intravascular RBCs. In zebrafish embryos (32-72 hours post fertilization), RBC splitting in the caudal vein plexus follows a four-step program: (i) Nuclear division with continued cytoplasmic connection between somata...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903767/bone-marrow-histomorphologic-criteria-can-accurately-diagnose-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis
#6
Eric Gars, Natasha Purington, Gregory Scott, Karen Chisholm, Dita Gratzinger, Beth A Martin, Robert S Ohgami
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is a rare multi-system inflammatory disorder with diagnostic criteria based on the HLH-2004 trial. Hemophagocytosis is the only histomorphologic criterion, but in isolation is neither specific nor sensitive for the diagnosis of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. While objective thresholds for clinical and laboratory criteria have been established, specific criteria for histomorphologic evidence of hemophagocytosis in hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis have not been rigorously evaluated or established...
June 14, 2018: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901985/growth-dynamic-controllable-rapid-crystallization-boosts-the-perovskite-photovoltaics-robust-preparation-from-blade-coating-to-painting
#7
Jun Yin, Yichuan Lin, Chunquan Zhang, Jing Li, Nanfeng Zheng
Perovskite based solar cells have been developed intensively in recent years due to their attractive applications in next generation photovoltaics with low cost and high efficiency. However, the fabrication processes need to be further improved to meet the requirement in actual industrial production with reliable process and scalable fabrication. Here, thermal / solvent engineering coordinately enhanced rapid crystallization strategy is reported to realize the fast and robust preparation of perovskite films...
June 14, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900172/fluorescence-exclusion-a-simple-method-to-assess-projected-surface-volume-and-morphology-of-red-blood-cells-stored-in-blood-bank
#8
Camille Roussel, Sylvain Monnier, Michael Dussiot, Elisabeth Farcy, Olivier Hermine, Caroline Le Van Kim, Yves Colin, Matthieu Piel, Pascal Amireault, Pierre A Buffet
Red blood cells (RBC) ability to circulate is closely related to their surface area-to-volume ratio. A decrease in this ratio induces a decrease in RBC deformability that can lead to their retention and elimination in the spleen. We recently showed that a subpopulation of "small RBC" with reduced projected surface area accumulated upon storage in blood bank concentrates, but data on the volume of these altered RBC are lacking. So far, single cell measurement of RBC volume has remained a challenging task achieved by a few sophisticated methods some being subject to potential artifacts...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898917/apc-c-fzr-regulates-cardiac-and-myoblast-cell-numbers-and-plays-a-crucial-role-during-myoblast-fusion
#9
Maik Drechsler, Heiko Meyer, Ariane C Wilmes, Achim Paululat
Somatic muscles are formed by the iterative fusion of myoblasts into muscle fibres. This process is driven by the recurrent recruitment of proteins to the cell membrane to induce F-actin nucleation at the fusion site. Although various proteins involved in myoblast fusion have been identified, knowledge about their sub-cellular regulation is rather elusive. We identified the anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C) adaptor Fizzy related (Fzr) as an essential regulator of heart and muscle development. We show that APC/CFzr regulates the fusion of myoblasts as well as mitotic exit of pericardial cells, cardioblasts and myoblasts...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891944/ependymal-cilia-beating-induces-an-actin-network-to-protect-centrioles-against-shear-stress
#10
Alexia Mahuzier, Asm Shihavuddin, Clémence Fournier, Pauline Lansade, Marion Faucourt, Nikita Menezes, Alice Meunier, Meriem Garfa-Traoré, Marie-France Carlier, Raphael Voituriez, Auguste Genovesio, Nathalie Spassky, Nathalie Delgehyr
Multiciliated ependymal cells line all brain cavities. The beating of their motile cilia contributes to the flow of cerebrospinal fluid, which is required for brain homoeostasis and functions. Motile cilia, nucleated from centrioles, persist once formed and withstand the forces produced by the external fluid flow and by their own cilia beating. Here, we show that a dense actin network around the centrioles is induced by cilia beating, as shown by the disorganisation of the actin network upon impairment of cilia motility...
June 11, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891722/hrs-wash-axis-governs-actin-mediated-endosomal-recycling-and-cell-invasion
#11
Ewan MacDonald, Louise Brown, Arnaud Selvais, Han Liu, Thomas Waring, Daniel Newman, Jessica Bithell, Douglas Grimes, Sylvie Urbé, Michael J Clague, Tobias Zech
Transmembrane proteins in the sorting endosome are either recycled to their point of origin or destined for lysosomal degradation. Lysosomal sorting is mediated by interaction of ubiquitylated transmembrane proteins with the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery. In this study, we uncover an alternative role for the ESCRT-0 component hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (HRS) in promoting the constitutive recycling of transmembrane proteins. We find that endosomal localization of the actin nucleating factor Wiscott-Aldrich syndrome protein and SCAR homologue (WASH) requires HRS, which occupies adjacent endosomal subdomains...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890944/detection-of-intracellular-igd-using-flow-cytometry-could-be-a-novel-and-supplementary-method-to-diagnose-igd-multiple-myeloma
#12
Wei Wang, Chun-Xia Zhang, Zhen-Ling Li, Ming Gong, Yi-Gai Ma
BACKGROUND: We examined whether detecting the heavy chain of cytoplasmic immunoglobulin D (IgD) by flow cytometry could be used as a supplemental method to diagnose IgD multiple myeloma (MM). METHODS: Bone marrow (BM) samples of thirty-five patients with MM were collected. Five of them were IgD MM, the rest of thirty were other subtypes of MM. Antibodies to four types of heavy chains of immunoglobulin (e.g., IgA, IgG, IgM, and IgD) were analyzed by flow cytometry in each patient's BM sample...
June 11, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29889489/ch3nh3pbbr3-quantum-dots-induced-nucleation-for-high-performance-perovskite-light-emitting-solar-cells
#13
Peng Wang, Jiangsheng Xie, Ke Xiao, Haihua Hu, Can Cui, Yaping Qiang, Ping Lin, Arivazhagan V, Lingbo Xu, Zhengrui Yang, Yuxin Yao, Tao Lu, Zihan Wang, Xuegong Yu, Deren Yang
Solution-processed organometallic halide perovskites have developed rapidly in both light emitting diodes (LEDs) and solar cells (SCs). These devices are fabricated with similar materials and architectures, leading to the emergence of perovskite-based light emitting solar cells (LESCs). The high-quality perovskite layer with reduced non-radiative recombination is crucial for achieving high performance device, even though the carrier behaviors are fundamentally different in those both functions. Here, CH3NH3PbBr3 quantum dots (QDs) are first introduced into the anti-solvent in the solution phase, serving as nucleation centers and inducing the growth of CH3NH3PbI3 films...
June 11, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888254/hpv16-e6-oncoprotein-activates-tgf-%C3%AE-and-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathways-in-the-epithelium-mesenchymal-transition-of-cataracts-in-a-transgenic-mouse-model
#14
Genaro Rodríguez-Uribe, Nicolas Serafín-Higuera, Gabriela Damian-Morales, Enoc Mariano Cortés-Malagón, Vicky García-Hernández, Odette Verdejo-Torres, Jessica Paulina Campos-Blázquez, Cynthia R Trejo-Muñoz, Rubén Gerardo Contreras, Rodolfo Ocadiz-Delgado, Carmen Palacios-Reyes, Paul F Lambert, Anne E Griep, Teresa Mancilla-Percino, Jaime Escobar-Herrera, Elizabeth Álvarez-Ríos, Carlos Ugarte-Briones, José Moreno, Patricio Gariglio, José Bonilla-Delgado
Objective: This work aimed to determine if cataractous changes associated with EMT occurring in the K14E6 mice lenses are associated with TGF- β and Wnt/ β -catenin signaling activation. Materials and Methods: Cataracts of K14E6 mice were analysed histologically; and components of TGF- β and Wnt/ β -catenin signaling were evaluated by Western blot, RT-qPCR, in situ RT-PCR, IHC, or IF technics. Metalloproteinases involved in EMT were also assayed using zymography...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885252/a-microbial-role-in-the-construction-of-mono-lake-carbonate-chimneys
#15
Alexander Brasier, David Wacey, Mike Rogerson, Paul Guagliardo, Martin Saunders, Siri Kellner, Ramon Mercedes-Martin, Tim Prior, Colin Taylor, Anna Matthews, John Reijmer
Lacustrine carbonate chimneys are striking, metre-scale constructions. If these were bioinfluenced constructions, they could be priority targets in the search for early and extraterrestrial microbial life. However, there are questions over whether such chimneys are built on a geobiological framework or are solely abiotic geomorphological features produced by mixing of lake and spring waters. Here, we use correlative microscopy to show that microbes were living around Pleistocene Mono Lake carbonate chimneys during their growth...
June 9, 2018: Geobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885024/septin-regulated-actin-dynamics-promote-salmonella-invasion-of-host-cells
#16
Kirsten C Boddy, Aggie Duan Gao, Dorothy Truong, Moshe S Kim, Carol D Froese, William S Trimble, John H Brumell
Actin nucleators and their binding partners play crucial roles during Salmonella invasion, but how these factors are dynamically coordinated remains unclear. Here, we show that septins, a conserved family of GTPases, play a role during the early stages of Salmonella invasion. We demonstrate that septins are rapidly recruited to sites of bacterial entry and contribute to the morphology of invasion ruffles. Expression of Septin 2, Septin 7 and Septin 9 is required for efficient bacterial invasion. We found that septins contribute to the recruitment of ROCK2 kinase during Salmonella invasion and the downstream activation of the actin nucleating protein FHOD1...
June 8, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882653/nanoparticle-immobilization-for-controllable-experiments-in-liquid-cell-transmission-electron-microscopy
#17
Alex W Robertson, Guomin Zhu, B Layla Mehdi, Robert M J Jacobs, James J De Yoreo, Nigel D Browning
We demonstrate that silanization can control the adhesion of nanostructures to the SiN windows compatible with liquid-cell transmission electron microscopy (LC-TEM). Formation of an APTES self-assembled monolayer on a SiN window, producing a surface decorated with amino groups, permits strong adhesion of Au nanoparticles to the window. Many of these nanoparticles remain static, undergoing minimal translation or rotation during LC-TEM up to high electron beam current densities due to the strong interaction between the APTES amino group and Au...
June 8, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875259/mechanism-of-how-augmin-directly-targets-the-%C3%AE-tubulin-ring-complex-to-microtubules
#18
Jae-Geun Song, Matthew R King, Rui Zhang, Rachel S Kadzik, Akanksha Thawani, Sabine Petry
Microtubules (MTs) must be generated from precise locations to form the structural frameworks required for cell shape and function. MTs are nucleated by the γ-tubulin ring complex (γ-TuRC), but it remains unclear how γ-TuRC gets to the right location. Augmin has been suggested to be a γ-TuRC targeting factor and is required for MT nucleation from preexisting MTs. To determine augmin's architecture and function, we purified Xenopus laevis augmin from insect cells. We demonstrate that augmin is sufficient to target γ-TuRC to MTs by in vitro reconstitution...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29872517/acsdkp-is-down-regulated-in-anaemia-induced-by-trypanosoma-brucei-infection-in-mice
#19
Janelisa Musaya, Enock Matovu, Edward Senga, Moffat Nyirenda, John Chisi
Background: Anaemia commonly results from destruction of erythrocytes in the peripheral blood and failure of the bone marrow haematopoietic cells to replenish the erythrocytes. The mechanisms involved in trypanosoma-induced anaemia, including the role of the bone marrow haematopoietic cells are incompletely understood. We studied the responses of a tetrapeptide, AcSDKP, and IL-10, and their association with bone marrow nucleated cells in a Trypanosoma brucei brucei GVR35 experimental infection model...
September 2017: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29868252/treatment-of-collagenase-induced-osteoarthritis-with-a-viral-vector-encoding-tsg-6-results-in-ectopic-bone-formation
#20
Mathijs G A Broeren, Irene Di Ceglie, Miranda B Bennink, Peter L E M van Lent, Wim B van den Berg, Marije I Koenders, Esmeralda N Blaney Davidson, Peter M van der Kraan, Fons A J van de Loo
Objective: Tumor necrosis factor-inducible gene 6 (TSG-6) has anti-inflammatory and chondroprotective effects in mouse models of inflammatory arthritis. Because cartilage damage and inflammation are also observed in osteoarthritis (OA), we determined the effect of viral overexpression of TSG-6 in experimental osteoarthritis. Methods: Bone marrow-derived cells were differentiated to multinucleated osteoclasts in the presence of recombinant TSG-6 or after transduction with a lentiviral TSG-6 expression vector...
2018: PeerJ
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