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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445759/pulsatile-lipid-vesicles-under-osmotic-stress
#1
Morgan Chabanon, James C S Ho, Bo Liedberg, Atul N Parikh, Padmini Rangamani
The response of lipid bilayers to osmotic stress is an important part of cellular function. Recent experimental studies showed that when cell-sized giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) are exposed to hypotonic media, they respond to the osmotic assault by undergoing a cyclical sequence of swelling and bursting events, coupled to the membrane's compositional degrees of freedom. Here, we establish a fundamental and quantitative understanding of the essential pulsatile behavior of GUVs under hypotonic conditions by advancing a comprehensive theoretical model of vesicle dynamics...
April 25, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442535/multiple-kinesin-14-family-members-drive-microtubule-minus-end-directed-transport-in-plant-cells
#2
Moé Yamada, Yohko Tanaka-Takiguchi, Masahito Hayashi, Momoko Nishina, Gohta Goshima
Minus end-directed cargo transport along microtubules (MTs) is exclusively driven by the molecular motor dynein in a wide variety of cell types. Interestingly, during evolution, plants have lost the genes encoding dynein; the MT motors that compensate for dynein function are unknown. Here, we show that two members of the kinesin-14 family drive minus end-directed transport in plants. Gene knockout analyses of the moss Physcomitrella patens revealed that the plant-specific class VI kinesin-14, KCBP, is required for minus end-directed transport of the nucleus and chloroplasts...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433794/detection-of-melanoma-metastases-with-pet-comparison-of-18-f-5-fpn-with-18-f-fdg
#3
Yichun Wang, Mengting Li, Yingying Zhang, Fengzhen Zhang, Chunbao Liu, Yiling Song, Yongxue Zhang, Xiaoli Lan
INTRODUCTION: (18)F-5-fluoro-N-(2-(Diethylamino)ethyl)picolinamide ((18)F-5-FPN) is a new positron-emission tomography (PET) radiopharmaceutical with potential for the detection of lymph node (LN) and pulmonary metastatic lesions of melanoma. We compared its performance with that of (18)F-deoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG). METHODS: Cervical LN and lung melanoma metastasis models were established in C57BL/6 mice. Primary tumors were created by injection of melanoma cells into the pinna, and the resulting cervical LN metastases were evaluated...
April 7, 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433027/potential-of-mean-force-for-insertion-of-antimicrobial-peptide-melittin-into-a-pore-in-mixed-dopc-dopg-lipid-bilayer-by-molecular-dynamics-simulation
#4
Yuan Lyu, Ning Xiang, Xiao Zhu, Ganesan Narsimhan
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) inactivate microorganisms by forming transmembrane pores in a cell membrane through adsorption and aggregation. Energetics of addition of an AMP to a transmembrane pore is important for evaluation of its formation and growth. Such information is essential for the characterization of pore forming ability of peptides in cell membranes. This study quantifies the potential of mean force through molecular dynamics (MD) simulation for the addition of melittin, a naturally occurring AMP, into a DOPC/DOPG mixed bilayer, a mimic of bacterial membrane, for different extents of insertion into either a bilayer or a pore consisting of three to six transmembrane peptides...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431003/intracoronary-autologous-bone-marrow-cell-transfer-after-myocardial-infarction-the-boost-2-randomised-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#5
Kai C Wollert, Gerd P Meyer, Jochen Müller-Ehmsen, Carsten Tschöpe, Vernon Bonarjee, Alf Inge Larsen, Andreas E May, Klaus Empen, Emmanuel Chorianopoulos, Ulrich Tebbe, Johannes Waltenberger, Heiko Mahrholdt, Benedikta Ritter, Jens Pirr, Dieter Fischer, Mortimer Korf-Klingebiel, Lubomir Arseniev, Hans-Gert Heuft, Jan E Brinchmann, Diethelm Messinger, Bernd Hertenstein, Arnold Ganser, Hugo A Katus, Stephan B Felix, Meinrad P Gawaz, Kenneth Dickstein, Heinz-Peter Schultheiss, Dennis Ladage, Simon Greulich, Johann Bauersachs
Aims: Intracoronary infusion of autologous nucleated bone marrow cells (BMCs) enhanced the recovery of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in the randomised-controlled, open-label BOOST trial. We reassessed the therapeutic potential of nucleated BMCs in the randomised placebo-controlled, double-blind BOOST-2 trial conducted in 10 centres in Germany and Norway. Methods and results: Using a multiple arm design, we investigated the dose-response relationship and explored whether γ-irradiation which eliminates the clonogenic potential of stem and progenitor cells has an impact on BMC efficacy...
April 19, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428831/cord-blood-hematopoietic-cells-from-preterm-infants-display-altered-dna-methylation-patterns
#6
Olivia M de Goede, Pascal M Lavoie, Wendy P Robinson
BACKGROUND: Premature infants are highly vulnerable to infection. This is partly attributable to the preterm immune system, which differs from that of the term neonate in cell composition and function. Multiple studies have found differential DNA methylation (DNAm) between preterm and term infants' cord blood; however, interpretation of these studies is limited by the confounding factor of blood cell composition. This study evaluates the epigenetic impact of preterm birth in isolated hematopoietic cell populations, reducing the concern of cell composition differences...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426163/lipid-flip-flop-and-pore-nucleation-on-zwitterionic-bilayers-are-asymmetric-under-ionic-imbalance
#7
Jiaqi Lin, Roozbeh Dargazany, Alfredo Alexander-Katz
Lipid flip-flop and its associated transient pore formation are key thermodynamic properties of living cell membranes. However, there is a lack of understanding of whether ionic imbalance that exists ubiquitously across cell membranes affects lipid flip-flop and its associated functions. Potential of mean force calculations show that the free-energy barrier of lipid flip-flop on the extracellular leaflet reduces with the presence of ionic imbalance, whereas the barrier on the intracellular leaflet is generally not affected...
April 20, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425516/mechanical-and-vibrational-characterization-of-amyloid-like-het-s-nanosheets-based-on-the-skewed-plate-theory
#8
Hyun Joon Chang, Myeongsang Lee, Jae In Kim, Gwonchan Yoon, Sungsoo Na
Pathological amyloidogenic prion proteins have a toxic effect on functional cells in the human cerebrum because of poor degradability and the tendency to accumulate in an uncontrolled manner under physiological conditions. HET-s, a fungal prion protein, is known to undergo conformational variations from fibrillar to nanosheet structures during a change from low to high pH conditions. It has been said that this conformational change can lead to self-propagation by nucleating on the lateral surface of singlet fibrils...
April 20, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422403/blood-chimerism-in-dizygotic-monochorionic-twins-during-five-years-observation
#9
Morten Hanefeld Dziegiel, Morten Høgh Hansen, Sofie Haedersdal, Angela Natalie Barrett, Klaus Rieneck, Katharina Maria Main, Anne Todsen Hansen, Frederik Banch Clausen
Dizygotic monochorionic twin pregnancies can result in blood chimerism due to in utero twin-to-twin exchange of stem cells. In this case, we examined the proportion of allogeneic red blood cells (RBCs) by flow cytometry and the proportion of allogeneic nucleated cells by digital PCR at seven months and again at five years. We found an increase in the proportion of allogeneic cells from 63% to 89% in one twin, and a similar increase in autologous cells in the other twin from 57% to 84%. A paradigm for stem cell therapy could be modelled on this case: induction of tolerance and chimerism by antenatal transfusion of donor stem cells...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422092/hierarchical-assembly-of-centriole-subdistal-appendages-via-centrosome-binding-proteins-ccdc120-and-ccdc68
#10
Ning Huang, Yuqing Xia, Donghui Zhang, Song Wang, Yitian Bao, Runsheng He, Junlin Teng, Jianguo Chen
In animal cells, the centrosome is the main microtubule-organizing centre where microtubules are nucleated and anchored. The centriole subdistal appendages (SDAs) are the key structures that anchor microtubules in interphase cells, but the composition and assembly mechanisms of SDAs are not well understood. Here, we reveal that centrosome-binding proteins, coiled-coil domain containing (CCDC) 120 and CCDC68 are two novel SDA components required for hierarchical SDA assembly in human cells. CCDC120 is anchored to SDAs by ODF2 and recruits CEP170 and Ninein to the centrosome through different coiled-coil domains at its N terminus...
April 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420812/isolation-of-mesenchymal-stromal-stem-cells-from-cryopreserved-umbilical-cord-blood-cells
#11
Sumie Fujii, Yasuo Miura, Masaki Iwasa, Satoshi Yoshioka, Aya Fujishiro, Noriko Sugino, Hitomi Kaneko, Yoko Nakagawa, Hideyo Hirai, Akifumi Takaori-Kondo, Tatsuo Ichinohe, Taira Maekawa
Umbilical cord blood (UCB) has advantages over other tissues because it can be obtained without an invasive procedure and complex processing. We explored the availability of cryopreserved UCB cells as a source of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs). MSCs were successfully isolated from six of 30 UCB units (median volume, 34.0 mL; median nucleated cell number, 4.4×10(8)) that were processed and cryopreserved using CP-1/human serum albumin. This isolation rate was lower than that (57%) from non-cryopreserved UCB cells...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hematopathology: JCEH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418651/electrodeposition-of-highly-porous-pt-nanoparticles-studied-by-quantitative-3d-electron-tomography-influence-of-growth-mechanisms-and-potential-cycling-on-the-active-surface-area
#12
Jon Ustarroz, Bart Geboes, Hans Vanrompay, Kadir Sentosun, Sara Bals, Tom Breugelmans, Annick Hubin
Nanoporous Pt nanoparticles (NPs) are promising fuel cell catalysts due to their large surface area and increased electrocatalytic activity towards the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Herein, we report on the influence of the growth mechanisms on the surface properties of electrodeposited Pt dendritic NPs with large surface areas. The electrochemically active surface was studied by hydrogen underpotential deposition (H UPD) and compared for the first time to high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) quantitative 3D electron tomography of individual nanoparticles...
April 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416664/three-dimensional-stable-lithium-metal-anode-with-nanoscale-lithium-islands-embedded-in-ionically-conductive-solid-matrix
#13
Dingchang Lin, Jie Zhao, Jie Sun, Hongbin Yao, Yayuan Liu, Kai Yan, Yi Cui
Rechargeable batteries based on lithium (Li) metal chemistry are attractive for next-generation electrochemical energy storage. Nevertheless, excessive dendrite growth, infinite relative dimension change, severe side reactions, and limited power output severely impede their practical applications. Although exciting progress has been made to solve parts of the above issues, a versatile solution is still absent. Here, a Li-ion conductive framework was developed as a stable "host" and efficient surface protection to address the multifaceted problems, which is a significant step forward compared with previous host concepts...
April 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416477/actin-filament-assembly-by-bacterial-factors-vopl-f-which-end-is-up
#14
Christina L Vizcarra, Margot E Quinlan
Competing models have been proposed for actin filament nucleation by the bacterial proteins VopL/F. In this issue, Burke et al. (2017. J. Cell Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201608104) use direct observation to demonstrate that VopL/F bind the barbed and pointed ends of actin filaments but only nucleate new filaments from the pointed end.
April 17, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407864/birth-of-cloned-mice-from-vaginal-smear-cells-after-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer
#15
Hiroki Kuwayama, Yoshiaki Tanabe, Teruhiko Wakayama, Satoshi Kishigami
Less invasive methods for donor cell collection will facilitate reproduction of wild animals using somatic-cell nuclear transfer. Stages of the estrous cycle in mice have long been studies using somatic cells that can be collected from vaginal walls using cotton tipped swabs in a relatively non-invasive manner. In this study, we examined the feasibility of these cells as sources of nuclei for somatic-cell cloning using nuclear transfer. Estrous cycles generally comprise proestrus, estrus, metestrus, and diestrus stages...
May 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403163/impact-of-human-monocyte-and-macrophage-polarization-on-nlr-expression-and-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation
#16
Fawaz Awad, Eman Assrawi, Claire Jumeau, Sophie Georgin-Lavialle, Laetitia Cobret, Philippe Duquesnoy, William Piterboth, Lucie Thomas, Katia Stankovic-Stojanovic, Camille Louvrier, Irina Giurgea, Gilles Grateau, Serge Amselem, Sonia-Athina Karabina
Inflammasomes are multiprotein complexes nucleating around an NLR (Nucleotide-binding domain and Leucine-rich Repeat containing protein), which regulate the secretion of the pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 cytokines. Monocytes and macrophages, the main cells expressing the inflammasome genes, adapt to their surrounding microenvironment by a phenotypic polarization towards a pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype that promotes inflammation or an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype important for resolution of inflammation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401890/ultra-high-open-circuit-voltage-of-perovskite-solar-cells-induced-by-nucleation-thermodynamics-on-rough-substrates
#17
Yan Li, Bin Ding, Qian-Qian Chu, Guan-Jun Yang, Mingkui Wang, Chang-Xin Li, Chang-Jiu Li
To obtain high performance CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells, it is highly important to realise a high open-circuit voltage. Calculation results based on a modified diode model have indicated that a low bare ratio ϕ of the perovskite film is the most important factor determining the open-circuit voltage, where ϕ is defined as the ratio of the projection of the uncovered area of the perovskite film to the apparent area of the total substrate surface. To realise a low ϕ, we investigate the nucleation behaviour of crystals on rough substrates...
April 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397937/alignment-control-and-atomically-scaled-heteroepitaxial-interface-study-of-gan-nanowires
#18
Qingyun Liu, Baodan Liu, Wenjin Yang, Bing Yang, Xinglai Zhang, Christophe Labbé, Xavier Portier, Vladimir An, Xin Jiang
Well-aligned GaN nanowires are promising candidates for building high-performance optoelectronic nanodevices. In this work, we demonstrate the epitaxial growth of well-aligned GaN nanowires on a [0001]-oriented sapphire substrate in a simple catalyst-assisted chemical vapor deposition process and their alignment control. It is found that the ammonia flux plays a key role in dominating the initial nucleation of GaN nanocrystals and their orientation. Typically, significant improvement of the GaN nanowire alignment can be realized at a low NH3 flow rate...
April 20, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395431/-nix-mediated-mitochondrial-autophagy-in-pathogenesis-of-myelodysplastic-syndrome-anemia
#19
L Y Yang, N B Cui, H Q Wang, R Fu, W Qu, E B Ruan, X M Wang, G J Wang, Y H Wu, H Liu, J Song, J Guan, L M Xing, L J Li, H J Jiang, H Liu, Y H Wang, C Y Liu, W Zhang, Z H Shao
Objective: To investigate the change of NIX level of bone marrow nucleated red blood cells in anemia patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), to explore the significance of NIX-mediated mitochondrial autophagy in the pathogenesis of MDS anemia. Methods: A total of 54 patients with MDS diagnosed in the Department of Hematology of General Hospital, Tianjin Medical University from July 2015 to July 2016 were enrolled into the MDS group, 33 cases of immune thrombocytopenia or idiopathic leukopenia as controls...
April 11, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392136/analysis-of-cell-therapies-used-in-clinical-trials-for-the-treatment-of-osteonecrosis-of-the-femoral-head-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#20
REVIEW
Nicolas S Piuzzi, Jorge Chahla, Hao Jiandong, Morad Chughtai, Robert F LaPrade, Michael A Mont, George F Muschler, Cecilia Pascual-Garrido
BACKGROUND: Osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) is associated with regional loss of cells within bone, often resulting in pain and mechanical collapse. Our purpose was to analyze the cell-therapies used in clinical trials for the treatment of ONFH with regard to (1) cell-sources, (2) collection techniques, (3) cell-processing, (4) qualitative and quantitative characterizations, and (5) delivery methods. METHODS: A systematic review of the current literature on the use of cell therapies for the treatment of ONFH was performed...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
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