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Nucleated cells

Barbara Glöckle, Wojciech J Urban, Shiori Nagahara, Ellen D Andersen, Tetsuya Higashiyama, Paul E Grini, Arp Schnittger
After meiosis, an unequal cell division generates the male gamete lineage in flowering plants. The generative cell will undergo a second division, giving rise to the two gametes, i.e. the sperm cells. The other cell will develop into the vegetative cell that plays a crucial role in pollen tube formation and sperm delivery. Recently, the vegetative cell has been implicated to be important for programming of the chromatin state in sperm cells and/or the resulting fertilization products. Blocking the initial unequal division genetically, we first highlight that the default differentiation state after male meiosis is a vegetative fate consistent with earlier work...
December 7, 2017: Development
Hirak Ranjan Dash, Surajit Das
Forensic biology is a sub-discipline of biological science with an amalgam of other branches of science used in the criminal justice system. Any nucleated cell/tissue harbouring DNA, either live or dead, can be used as forensic exhibits, a source of investigation through DNA typing. These biological materials of human origin are rich source of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, trace elements as well as water and, thus, provide a virtuous milieu for the growth of microbes. The obstinate microbial growth augments the degradation process and is amplified with the passage of time and improper storage of the biological materials...
December 6, 2017: Molecular Biotechnology
Chung-Er Huang, Gwo-Chin Ma, Hei-Jen Jou, Wen-Hsiang Lin, Dong-Jay Lee, Yi-Shing Lin, Norman A Ginsberg, Hsin-Fu Chen, Frank Mau-Chung Chang, Ming Chen
Background: Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) based on cell-free DNA in maternal circulation has been accepted worldwide by the clinical community since 2011 but limitations, such as maternal malignancy and fetoplacental mosaicism, preclude its full replacement of invasive prenatal diagnosis. We present a novel silicon-based nanostructured microfluidics platform named as "Cell Reveal™" to demonstrate the feasibility of capturing circulating fetal nucleated red blood cells (fnRBC) and extravillous cytotrophoblasts (EVT) for cell-based noninvasive prenatal diagnosis (cbNIPD)...
2017: Molecular Cytogenetics
Rajesh Arasada, Wasim A Sayyad, Julien Berro, Thomas D Pollard
To internalize nutrients and cell surface receptors via clathrin mediated endocytosis cells assemble at least 50 proteins including clathrin, clathrin-interacting proteins, actin filaments and actin binding proteins in a highly ordered and regulated fashion. The molecular mechanism by which actin filament polymerization deforms the cell membrane is unknown, largely due to lack of knowledge about the organization of the regulatory proteins and actin filaments. We used high-speed super-resolution localization microscopy (FPALM) of live fission yeast cells to improve the spatial resolution to ∼35 nm with 1 s temporal resolution...
December 6, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Varuzhan Balasanyan, Kaori Watanabe, William P Dempsey, Tommy L Lewis, Le A Trinh, Don B Arnold
The essential organization of microtubules within neurons has been described; however, less is known about how neuronal actin is arranged and the functional implications of its arrangement. Here, we describe, in live cells, an actin-based structure in the proximal axon that selectively prevents some proteins from entering the axon while allowing the passage of others. Concentrated patches of actin in proximal axons are present shortly after axonal specification in rat and zebrafish neurons imaged live, and they mark positions where anterogradely traveling vesicles carrying dendritic proteins halt and reverse...
December 5, 2017: Cell Reports
Francois Renard, Christine V Putnis, German Montes-Hernandez, Helen E King, Gijs D Breedveld, Gudny Okkenhaug
Antimony, which has damaging effects on the human body and the ecosystem, can be released into soils, ground- and surface waters either from ore minerals that weather in near surface environments, or due to anthropogenic releases from waste rich in antimony, a component used in batteries, electronics, ammunitions, plastics and many other industrial applications. Here, we show that dissolved Sb can interact with calcite, a widespread carbonate mineral, through a coupled dissolution-precipitation mechanism. The process is imaged in-situ, at room temperature, at the nanometer scale by using an atomic force microscope equipped with a flow-through cell...
December 6, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Thomas J Gniadek, Henk S P Garritsen, David Stroncek, Zbigniew M Szczepiorkowski, David H McKenna
BACKGROUND: Cell therapy products are often stored and transported between sites. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of storage temperature, solution, and cell concentration on nonmobilized, peripheral blood-derived mononuclear cells (MNCs). STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a multicenter prospective study involving healthy volunteers who underwent nonmobilized MNC collection by apheresis. Products were processed at local laboratories and concentrated to either 100 × 106 or 300 × 106 nucleated cells/mL in 5% human serum albumin (HSA) or HypoThermosol FRS (HT; BioLife Solutions)...
December 6, 2017: Transfusion
J Miot, S Bernard, M Bourreau, F Guyot, A Kish
Burial is generally detrimental to the preservation of biological signals. It has often been assumed that (bio)mineral-encrusted microorganisms are more resistant to burial-induced degradation than non-encrusted ones over geological timescales. For the present study, we submitted Sulfolobus acidocaldarius experimentally encrusted by amorphous Fe phosphates to constrained temperature conditions (150 °C) under pressure for 1 to 5 days, thereby simulating burial-induced processes. We document the molecular and mineralogical evolution of these assemblages down to the sub-micrometer scale using X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopies and synchrotron-based X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy at the carbon K-edge...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
Liv Kalbitzer, Tilo Pompe
Three-dimensional fibrillar networks reconstituted from collagen I are widely used as biomimetic scaffolds for in vitro and in vivo cell studies. Various physicochemical parameters of buffer conditions for in vitro fibril formation are well known, including pH-value, ion concentrations and temperature. However, there is a lack of a detailed understanding of reconstituting well-defined 3D network topologies, which is required to mimic specific properties of the native extracellular matrix. We screened a wide range of relevant physicochemical buffer conditions and characterized the topology of the reconstituted 3D networks in terms of mean pore size and fibril diameter...
December 2, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
Jyoti Ramnath Kini, Saraswathy Sreeram, Anupama Hegde, Sowmini Kamath, Radha Ramachandra Pai
Gaucher Disease is an autosomal recessive disease caused by the accumulation of glucocerebrosidase due to deficiency in lysosomal glucocerebrosidase. Thalassaemia trait is asymptomatic and is usually an incidental diagnosis. Both thalassaemia and Gaucher disease can have similar haematologic manifestations and hence, their coexistence causes diagnostic dilemma. Our patient presented at one-and-a-half years with weakness, pallor, failure to thrive and massive hepatosplenomegaly. Clinical examination and history pointed to a lipid storage disease...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
I Lorand-Metze, A L Longhini, G Oliveira-Duarte, R P Correia, M C Santos-Silva, M Yamamoto, A F Sandes, A F Oliveira, E X Souto, Mrv Ikoma, F G Pereira-Cunha, M Beltrame, Konradin Metze
BACKGROUND: Normal B lymphoid maturation occurs in bone marrow (BM) throughout life, but immature B-cell progenitors (BCPs) are more numerous in children than in adults. To assess the normal values according to age became important as BCPs are decreased in myelodysplastic syndromes and have been considered an important diagnostic and prognostic feature in these clonal disorders. METHODS: in a multicenter retrospective study from the Brazilian Group of Flow Cytometry we analyzed the variation of BCPs in normal BM according to age and technical peculiarities of each laboratory...
December 2, 2017: Cytometry. Part B, Clinical Cytometry
P L Newton, D R Fry, M P Best
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the correspondence between in-house direct cytological assessment of cerebrospinal fluid and results from a commercial veterinary pathology laboratory. METHODS: Prospective inclusion of samples from dogs that were presented for investigation of suspected neurological disease and had cerebrospinal fluid samples submitted to a commercial pathology laboratory for analysis. A board-certified veterinary pathologist assessed all cerebrospinal fluid samples, and a line smear was assessed in-house by two observers...
December 2017: Journal of Small Animal Practice
Jens Neu, Coleen T Nemes, Kevin P Regan, Michael R C Williams, Charles A Schmuttenmaer
dl-Norvaline is a molecular crystal at room temperature and it undergoes a phase transition when cooled below 190 K. This phase transition is believed to be Martensitic, thus making it of particular interest for molecular machines. In this paper we investigate this phase transition by measuring its terahertz (THz) spectrum over a range of temperatures. Temperature-dependent THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) measurements reveal that the transition temperature (Tβ→α) is 190 K. The influence of nucleation seeds was analyzed by determining the Tβ→α of molecular crystals with varying grain size...
December 5, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Maxim Shevtsov, Gao Huile, Gabriele Multhoff
Members of the 70 kDa stress protein family are found in nearly all subcellular compartments of nucleated cells where they fulfil a number of chaperoning functions. Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), also termed HSPA1A, the major stress-inducible member of this family is overexpressed in a large variety of different tumour types. Apart from its intracellular localization, a tumour-selective HSP70 membrane expression has been determined. A membrane HSP70-positive tumour phenotype is associated with aggressiveness and therapy resistance, but also serves as a recognition structure for targeted therapies...
January 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Fereshte Torabi, Majid Malekzadeh Shafaroudi, Nourollah Rezaei
Background: Cyclophosphamide (CP) has been known as an anticancer drug with several side effects on various organs such as a male reproductive system that can cause infertility. Objective: To evaluate the possible combined effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZno) and melatonin (Mel) on sperm parameters and histopathological changes of the testis in CP-treated rats. Materials and Methods: 42 adult male Wistar rats were divided into six groups...
July 2017: International Journal of Reproductive Biomedicine (Yazd, Iran)
Karina K Nakashima, Jochem F Baaij, Evan Spruijt
Cells can control the assembly and disassembly of membraneless organelles by enzymatic processes, but similar control has not been achieved in vitro yet. Here we develop ATP-based coacervate droplets as artificial membraneless organelles that can be fully controlled by two cooperating enzymes. Droplets can be generated within a minute following the addition of phosphoenolpyruvate as a substrate, and they can be dissolved within tens of seconds by adding glucose as the second substrate. We show how the rates of droplet generation and dissolution can be tuned by varying the enzyme and substrate concentrations, and we support our findings with a kinetic model of the underlying enzymatic reaction network...
December 4, 2017: Soft Matter
Miguel González-Pinto, Yuri Martínez-Ratón, Enrique Velasco
We use the Dynamic Density-Functional Formalism and the Fundamental Measure Theory as applied to a fluid of parallel hard squares to study the dynamics of heterogeneous growth of non-uniform phases with columnar and crystalline symmetries. The hard squares are (i) confined between soft repulsive walls with a square symmetry, or (ii) exposed to external potentials that mimic the presence of obstacles with circular, square, rectangular or triangular symmetries. For the first case the final equilibrium profile of a well commensurated cavity consists of a crystal phase with highly localized particles in concentric square layers at the nodes of a slightly deformed square lattice...
December 4, 2017: Soft Matter
Alexander Ngwube, I Celine Hanson, Jordan Orange, Nicholas L Rider, Filiz Seeborg, William Shearer, Lenora Noroski, Sarah Nicholas, Lisa Forbes, Kathryn Leung, Ghadir Sasa, Swati Naik, Meenakshi Hegde, Bilal Omer, Nabil Ahmed, Carl Allen, Stephen Gottschalk, Meng-Fen Wu, Hao Liu, Malcolm Brenner, Helen Heslop, Robert Krance, Caridad Martinez
Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is a rare X-linked disorder characterized by a triad of immunodeficiency, eczema and thrombocytopenia. Currently, hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) is the most reliable curative treatment with excellent results for patients with HLA-matched family or unrelated donors. However, even after fully myeloablative preparative regimens, mixed donor chimerism is a potential concern. We performed a retrospective chart review of twelve children who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant for WAS to report our experience...
November 28, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Gretta Stritesky, Kimberly Wadsworth, Merry Duffy, Kelly Buck, Jason Dehn
BACKGROUND: Umbilical cord blood units provide an important stem cell source for transplantation, particularly for patients of ethnic diversity who may not have suitably matched available, adult-unrelated donors. However, with the cost of cord blood unit acquisition from public banks significantly higher than that for adult-unrelated donors, attention is focused on decreasing cost yet still providing cord blood units to patients in need. Historical practices of banking units with low total nucleated cell counts, including units with approximately 90 × 107 total nucleated cells, indicates that most banked cord blood units have much lower total nucleated cell counts than are required for transplant...
December 1, 2017: Transfusion
Lianfeng Zou, Jonathan Li, Dmitri N Zakharov, Wissam A Saidi, Eric A Stach, Guangwen Zhou
Using in-situ transmission electron microscopy that spatially and temporally resolves the evolution of the atomic structure in the surface and subsurface regions, we find that the surface segregation of Au atoms in a Cu(Au) solid solution results in the nucleation and growth of a (2×1) missing-row reconstructed, half-unit-cell thick L12 Cu3Au(110) surface alloy. Our in-situ electron microscopy observations and atomistic simulations demonstrate that the (2×1) reconstruction of the Cu3Au(110) surface alloy stays as a stable surface structure as a result of the favored Cu-Au diatom configuration...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
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