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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338146/a-gold-nanoparticle-mediated-rapid-in-vitro-assay-of-anti-aggregation-reagents-for-amyloid-%C3%AE-and-its-validation
#1
Hye Young Kim, Donghee Lee, Kwon-Yul Ryu, Inhee Choi
Herein, we report a rapid in vitro assay of amyloid β anti-aggregation reagents using gold nanoparticles as nucleation cores and optical reporters. Based on the colorimetric responses observed with the naked eye, effective anti-aggregation reagents were rapidly (<15 min) distinguished. For these reagents, conventional methods showed fewer amyloid β aggregates and an increased viability of neuroblastoma cells after treatment. We envision that our proposed method will facilitate the discovery of efficient drug components for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease...
March 24, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337763/automatic-washing-of-thawed-haematopoietic-progenitor-cell-grafts-a-preclinical-evaluation
#2
M Abonnenc, B Pesse, J-D Tissot, S Barelli, N Lion
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Autologous haematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) is a prerequisite for high-dose chemotherapy in treatment of several haematologic and non-haematologic malignancies. HPCs are collected by apheresis and cryopreserved until infusion. Postinfusion adverse events have been in part related to the dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) used as cryoprotectant. The aim was to evaluate (i) an automated sequential washing procedure for DMSO removal in thawed HPC grafts and (ii) washing solutions in replacement of hydroxyethyl starch (HES)-based solutions...
March 23, 2017: Vox Sanguinis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336233/roles-for-rack1-in-cancer-cell-migration-and-invasion
#3
Deirdre Duff, Aideen Long
Migration and invasion of cancer cells into surrounding tissue and vasculature is an important initial step in cancer metastasis. Metastasis is the leading cause of cancer related death and thus it is crucial that we improve our understanding of the mechanisms that promote this life-threatening phenomenon. Cell migration involves a complex, multistep process that leads to the actin-driven movement of cells on or through the tissues of the body. The multifunctional scaffolding protein RACK1 plays important roles in nucleating cell signalling hubs, anchoring proteins at specific subcellular locations and regulating protein activity...
March 21, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332566/a-conformational-change-within-the-wave2-complex-regulates-its-degradation-following-cellular-activation
#4
Noah Joseph, Guy Biber, Sophia Fried, Barak Reicher, Omer Levy, Batel Sabag, Elad Noy, Mira Barda-Saad
WASp family Verprolin-homologous protein-2 (WAVE2), a member of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) family of actin nucleation promoting factors, is a central regulator of actin cytoskeleton polymerization and dynamics. Multiple signaling pathways operate via WAVE2 to promote the actin-nucleating activity of the actin-related protein 2/3 (Arp2/3) complex. WAVE2 exists as a part of a pentameric protein complex known as the WAVE regulatory complex (WRC), which is unstable in the absence of its individual proteins...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331073/stability-and-function-of-a-putative-microtubule-organizing-center-in-the-human-parasite-toxoplasma-gondii
#5
Jacqueline M Leung, Yudou He, Fangliang Zhang, Yu-Chen Hwang, Eiji Nagayasu, Jun Liu, John M Murray, Ke Hu
The organization of the microtubule cytoskeleton is dictated by microtubule nucleators or organizing centers.  Toxoplasma gondii, an important human parasite, has an array of 22 regularly spaced cortical microtubules stemming from a hypothesized organizing center, the apical polar ring. Here, we examine the functions of the apical polar ring by characterizing two of its components, KinesinA and APR1, and discovered that its putative role in templating can be separated from its mechanical stability. Parasites that lack both KinesinA and APR1 (ΔkinesinAΔapr1) are capable of generating 22 cortical microtubules...
March 22, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331069/efficiency-of-lamellipodia-protrusion-is-determined-by-the-extent-of-cytosolic-actin-assembly
#6
Georgi Dimchev, Anika Steffen, Frieda Kage, Vanessa Dimchev, Julien Pernier, Marie-France Carlier, Klemens Rottner
Cell migration and cell-cell communication involves the protrusion of actin-rich cell surface projections such as lamellipodia and filopodia. Lamellipodia are networks of actin filaments generated and turned over by filament branching through Arp2/3 complex. Inhibition of branching is commonly agreed to eliminate formation and maintenance of lamellipodial actin networks, but the regulation of nucleation or elongation of Arp2/3-independent filament populations within the network e.g. by formins or Ena/VASP family members and its impact on the effectivity of protrusion have remained unclear...
March 22, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327838/-evaluation-of-minimum-thresholds-of-cellularity-in-units-of-umbilical-cord-blood-at-instituto-nacional-materno-perinatal-in-peru
#7
Diana Torres, Willy Cerón, Belinda Córdova, Ricardo Rodríguez, Efraín Cabrera, Raúl Alegría, José M Cóndor
A cross-sectional study that included 100 units of umbilical cord blood (UCB) was conducted to evaluate the minimum criteria of cellularity in UCB units, according to NetCord standards at Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal in Lima, Peru. The volume, total count of nucleated cells by hematological tests and total number of CD34+ as well as cell viability by flow cytometry were determined. The study revealed that 56% of UCB units do not fulfill the minimum criteria of cellularity to be cryopreserved in an umbilical cord blood bank...
October 2016: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327544/fmnl-formins-boost-lamellipodial-force-generation
#8
Frieda Kage, Moritz Winterhoff, Vanessa Dimchev, Jan Mueller, Tobias Thalheim, Anika Freise, Stefan Brühmann, Jana Kollasser, Jennifer Block, Georgi Dimchev, Matthias Geyer, Hans-Joachim Schnittler, Cord Brakebusch, Theresia E B Stradal, Marie-France Carlier, Michael Sixt, Josef Käs, Jan Faix, Klemens Rottner
Migration frequently involves Rac-mediated protrusion of lamellipodia, formed by Arp2/3 complex-dependent branching thought to be crucial for force generation and stability of these networks. The formins FMNL2 and FMNL3 are Cdc42 effectors targeting to the lamellipodium tip and shown here to nucleate and elongate actin filaments with complementary activities in vitro. In migrating B16-F1 melanoma cells, both formins contribute to the velocity of lamellipodium protrusion. Loss of FMNL2/3 function in melanoma cells and fibroblasts reduces lamellipodial width, actin filament density and -bundling, without changing patterns of Arp2/3 complex incorporation...
March 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326960/placental-pathologic-features-in-fetomaternal-hemorrhage-detected-by-flow-cytometry
#9
Natasha E Lewis, Laura Marszalek, Linda M Ernst
Background Fetomaternal hemorrhage (FMH) is a poorly understood entity that can have significant clinical effects. Flow cytometry is a reliable and relatively new method for FMH diagnosis. The objective of this study was to correlate placental pathology with FMH detected by flow cytometry. Methods All patients with available placentas and FMH flow cytometric testing performed from 2009 to 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Cases were defined as ≥0.10% fetal red blood cells (RBCs) in the maternal circulation while controls contained <0...
March 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326762/facile-synthesis-of-hierarchical-porous-three-dimensional-free-standing-mnco2o4-cathodes-for-long-life-li-o2-batteries
#10
Haitao Wu, Wang Sun, Yan Wang, Fang Wang, Junfei Liu, Xinyang Yue, Zhenhua Wang, Jinshuo Qiao, David W Rooney, Kening Sun
Hierarchical porous three-dimensional MnCo2O4 nanowire bundles were obtained by a universal and low-cost hydrothermal method, which subsequently as a carbon-free and binder-free cathode for Li-O2 cell applications. This system showed a large discharge capacity up to 12919 mAh g-1 at 0.1 mA cm-2 as well as an outstanding rate capability. Under a constrained specific capacity of 500 and 1000 mAh g-1, the Li-O2 batteries could be successfully operated for over 300 and 144 cycles, respectively. Moreover, the charge voltage was markedly decreased to about 3...
March 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323244/itraq-based-differential-proteomic-analysis-in-mongolian-gerbil-brains-chronically-infected-with-toxoplasma-gondii
#11
Lin Lv, Yapei Wang, Weili Feng, Jorge A Hernandez, Wanyi Huang, Yuxiang Zheng, Xue Zhou, Shumei Lv, Yajun Chen, Zi-Guo Yuan
The aim of our study was to detect differentially regulated proteins and specific signaling pathways in Mongolian gerbil brains during chronic Toxoplasma gondii (T.gondii) PRU strain infection. We use a iTRAQ-based strategy to detecte 4935 proteins, out of which 110 proteins were differentially expressed (>/=2.0-fold, p value <0.05) when the brain of gerbils infected with T.gondii was compared to control brain tissues. We confirmed the authenticity and the accuracy of iTRAQ results through quantitative real-time PCR and western blot (WB), which was consistent with mass spectrometry analysis...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319098/irap-endosomes-restrict-tlr9-activation-and-signaling
#12
Joel Babdor, Delphyne Descamps, Aimé Cézaire Adiko, Mira Tohmé, Sophia Maschalidi, Irini Evnouchidou, Luiz Ricardo Vasconcellos, Mariacristina De Luca, Francois-Xavier Mauvais, Meriem Garfa-Traore, Melanie M Brinkmann, Michel Chignard, Bénédicte Manoury, Loredana Saveanu
The retention of intracellular Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the endoplasmic reticulum prevents their activation under basal conditions. TLR9 is activated by sensing ligands in specific endosomal-lysosomal compartments. Here we identified IRAP(+) endosomes as major cellular compartments for the early steps of TLR9 activation in dendritic cells (DCs). Both TLR9 and its ligand, the dinucleotide CpG, were present as cargo in IRAP(+) endosomes. In the absence of the aminopeptidase IRAP, the trafficking of CpG and TLR9 to lysosomes and signaling via TLR9 were enhanced in DCs and in mice following bacterial infection...
March 20, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302713/family-cord-blood-banking-for-sickle-cell-disease-a-twenty-year-experience-in-two-dedicated-public-cord-blood-banks
#13
Hanadi Rafii, Françoise Bernaudin, Helene Rouard, Valérie Vanneaux, Annalisa Ruggeri, Marina Cavazzana, Valerie Gauthereau, Aurélie Stanislas, Malika Benkerrou, Mariane De Montalembert, Christele Ferry, Robert Girot, Cecile Arnaud, Annie Kamdem, Joelle Gour, Claudine Touboul, Audrey Cras, Mathieu Kuentz, Claire Rieux, Fernanda Volt, Barbara Cappelli, Karina T Maio, Annalisa Paviglianiti, Chantal Kenzey, Jerome Larghero, Eliane Gluckman
Efforts to implement family cord blood banking have been developed in the past decades for siblings requiring stem cell transplantation for conditions such as sickle cell disease. However, public banks are faced with challenging decisions about the units to be stored, discarded, or used for other endeavors. We report here 20 years of experience in family cord blood banking for sickle cell disease in two dedicated public banks. Participants were pregnant women who had previous child diagnosed with homozygous sickle cell disease...
March 16, 2017: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292905/computational-investigation-of-surface-freezing-in-a-molecular-model-of-water
#14
Amir Haji-Akbari, Pablo G Debenedetti
Water freezes in a wide variety of low-temperature environments, from meteors and atmospheric clouds to soil and biological cells. In nature, ice usually nucleates at or near interfaces, because homogenous nucleation in the bulk can only be observed at deep supercoolings. Although the effect of proximal surfaces on freezing has been extensively studied, major gaps in understanding remain regarding freezing near vapor-liquid interfaces, with earlier experimental studies being mostly inconclusive. The question of how a vapor-liquid interface affects freezing in its vicinity is therefore still a major open question in ice physics...
March 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289098/molecular-mechanisms-governing-differential-type-i-interferons-signaling
#15
Gideon Schreiber
Type I interferons (IFN-I) are cytokines that affect the expression of thousands of genes, resulting in profound cellular changes. IFN-I activates the cell by dimerizing its two-receptor chains, IFNAR1 and IFNAR2, which are expressed on all nucleated cells. Despite a similar mode of binding, the different IFN-Is activate a variety of outcomes. The causes for differential activation may stem from differences in IFN-I binding affinity, duration of binding, number of surface receptors, induction of feedback loops and cell-type specific variations...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287537/visualization-of-cell-cycle-variations-and-determination-of-nucleation-in-postnatal-cardiomyocytes
#16
Alexandra Raulf, Nadine Voeltz, Daniel Korzus, Bernd K Fleischmann, Michael Hesse
Cardiomyocytes are prone to variations of the cell cycle, such as endoreduplication (continuing rounds of DNA synthesis without karyokinesis and cytokinesis) and acytokinetic mitosis (karyokinesis but no cytokinesis). Such atypical cell cycle variations result in polyploid and multinucleated cells rather than in cell division. Therefore, to determine cardiac turnover and regeneration, it is of crucial importance to correctly identify cardiomyocyte nuclei, the number of nuclei per cell, and their cell cycle status...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281928/amyloid-cores-in-prion-domains-key-regulators-for-prion-conformational-conversion
#17
María Rosario Fernández, Cristina Batlle, Marcos Gil-García, Salvador Ventura
Despite the significant efforts devoted to decipher the particular protein features that encode for a prion or prion-like behavior, they are still poorly understood. The well-characterized yeast prions constitute an ideal model system to address this question, because, in these proteins, the prion activity can be univocally assigned to a specific region of their sequence, known as the prion forming domain (PFD). These PFDs are intrinsically disordered, relatively long and, in many cases, of low complexity, being enriched in glutamine/asparagine residues...
January 2, 2017: Prion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279710/satellite-like-cells-contribute-to-pax7-dependent-skeletal-muscle-repair-in-adult-zebrafish
#18
Michael A Berberoglu, Thomas L Gallagher, Zachary T Morrow, Jared C Talbot, Kimberly J Hromowyk, Inês M Tenente, David M Langenau, Sharon L Amacher
Satellite cells, also known as muscle stem cells, are responsible for skeletal muscle growth and repair in mammals. Pax7 and Pax3 transcription factors are established satellite cell markers required for muscle development and regeneration, and there is great interest in identifying additional factors that regulate satellite cell proliferation, differentiation, and/or skeletal muscle regeneration. Due to the powerful regenerative capacity of many zebrafish tissues, even in adults, we are exploring the regenerative potential of adult zebrafish skeletal muscle...
March 7, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278131/microvesicles-from-the-plasma-of-elderly-subjects-and-from-senescent-endothelial-cells-promote-vascular-calcification
#19
Matilde Alique, María Piedad Ruíz-Torres, Guillermo Bodega, María Victoria Noci, Nuria Troyano, Lourdes Bohórquez, Carlos Luna, Rafael Luque, Andrés Carmona, Julia Carracedo, Rafael Ramírez
Vascular calcification is commonly seen in elderly people, though it can also appear in middle-aged subjects affected by premature vascular aging. The aim of this work is to test the involvement of microvesicles (MVs) produced by senescent endothelial cells (EC) and from plasma of elderly people in vascular calcification. The present work shows that MVs produced by senescent cultured ECs, plus those found in the plasma of elderly subjects, promote calcification in vascular smooth muscle cells. Only MVs from senescent ECs, and from elderly subjects' plasma, induced calcification...
March 8, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277677/long-range-order-in-snse-1-2-1-tise2-1-prepared-from-designed-precursors
#20
Danielle M Hamann, Devin R Merrill, Sage R Bauers, Gavin Mitchson, Jeffrey Ditto, Sven P Rudin, David C Johnson
Self-assembly of designed precursors has enabled the synthesis of novel heterostructures that exhibit extensive rotational disorder between constituents. In (SnSe)1.2TiSe2 nanoscale regions of long-range order were observed in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) cross sectional images. Here a combination of techniques are used to determine the structure of this compound, and the information is used to infer the origin of the order. In-plane X-ray diffraction indicates that the SnSe basal plane distorts to match TiSe2...
March 9, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
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