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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429550/parathyroid-hormone-targets-in-chronic-kidney-disease-and-managing-severe-hyperparathyroidism
#1
Carmel M Hawley, Stephen G Holt
Appropriate targets for parathyroid hormone (PTH) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 3-5D are controversial, as are the means by which these targets might be achieved. Secondary hyperparathyroidism is linked to symptoms like bone pain and itch, in addition to less clinically overt issues like bone fragility as well as vascular and soft tissue calcification which may lead to adverse hard endpoints, particularly fracture and death. Recognized therapies for managing a rising PTH include vitamin D analogues, with or without calcimimetic (where available), in addition to management of serum mineral concentrations with diet, binders and dialysis...
March 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429545/do-the-benefits-of-using-calcitriol-and-other-vitamin-d-receptor-activators-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-outweigh-the-harms
#2
Nigel D Toussaint, Matthew J Damasiewicz
The primary indication for administration of calcitriol or other vitamin D receptor activators (VDRA) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). Prevention and treatment of SHPT appears important, as imbalances in mineral metabolism are associated with renal osteodystrophy, and higher parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels are associated with increased rates of mortality and morbidity in CKD patients. There is, however, a lack of controlled trial data that show lowering PTH with calcitriol/VDRA equates to improved clinical outcomes...
March 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427101/tanshinol-alleviates-osteoporosis-and-myopathy-in-glucocorticoid-treated-rats
#3
Guanghua Chen, Xinle Zhang, Han Lin, Guizhi Huang, Yahui Chen, Liao Cui
Tanshinol is a major water-soluble active component of Salvia miltiorrhiza. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether tanshinol has potential therapeutic effects against glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis and glucocorticoid-induced myopathy. Ninety-six female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to five groups: a control group, a model group, and three model groups treated with 25 or 50 mg/kg of tanshinol, or calcitriol. All model groups received prednisone acetate for 90 days to induce glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis...
April 20, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418509/association-of-preoperative-calcium-and-calcitriol-therapy-with-postoperative-hypocalcemia-after-total-thyroidectomy
#4
Anne K Maxwell, David C Shonka, Derek J Robinson, Paul A Levine
Importance: Hypocalcemia is the most common complication after total thyroidectomy and can result in prolonged hospital admissions and increased hospital charges. Objective: To determine the effectiveness of preoperative calcium and calcitriol supplementation in reducing hypocalcemia following total thyroidectomy. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective cohort study was conducted at a tertiary care center in 65 patients undergoing total thyroidectomy by a single surgeon...
April 13, 2017: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390950/reduced-ability-of-calcitriol-to-promote-augmented-dopamine-release-in-the-lesioned-striatum-of-aged-rats
#5
Wayne A Cass, Laura E Peters
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive and debilitating neurodegenerative disorder that affects over one million people in the United States. Previous studies, carried out in young adult rats, have shown that calcitriol, the active metabolite of vitamin D, can be neuroprotective in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) models of PD. However, as PD usually affects older individuals, the ability of calcitriol to promote dopaminergic recovery was examined in lesioned young adult (4 month old), middle-aged (14 month old) and aged (22 month old) rats...
April 5, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390010/vitamin-d-supplementation-in-the-prevention-and-management-of-major-chronic-diseases-not-related-to-mineral-homeostasis-in-adults-research-for-evidence-and-a-scientific-statement-from-the-european-society-for-clinical-and-economic-aspects-of-osteoporosis-and
#6
Luisella Cianferotti, Francesco Bertoldo, Heike A Bischoff-Ferrari, Olivier Bruyere, Cyrus Cooper, Maurizio Cutolo, John A Kanis, Jean-Marc Kaufman, Jean-Yves Reginster, Rene Rizzoli, Maria Luisa Brandi
INTRODUCTION: Optimal vitamin D status promotes skeletal health and is recommended with specific treatment in individuals at high risk for fragility fractures. A growing body of literature has provided indirect and some direct evidence for possible extraskeletal vitamin D-related effects. PURPOSE AND METHODS: Members of the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis have reviewed the main evidence for possible proven benefits of vitamin D supplementation in adults at risk of or with overt chronic extra-skeletal diseases, providing recommendations and guidelines for future studies in this field...
April 7, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381354/1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-prevents-deleterious-effects-of-homocysteine-on-mitochondrial-function-and-redox-status-in-heart-slices
#7
Aline Longoni, Janaina Kolling, Cassiana Siebert, João Paulo Dos Santos, Jussemara Souza da Silva, Letícia F Pettenuzzo, Leo Anderson Meira-Martins, Carlos-Alberto Gonçalves, Adriano M de Assis, Angela T S Wyse
Because homocysteine (Hcy) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and vitamin D deficiency can contribute to cardiovascular pathologies. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that Hcy could impair energy metabolism, mitochondrial function, and redox status in heart slices of Wistar rats and that 1,25-dihydroxivitamin D3 (calcitriol) treatment could prevent such effects. Heart slices were first pretreated with 3 different concentrations of calcitriol (50, 100, and 250nmol/L) for 30minutes at 37°C, after which Hcy was added to promote deleterious effects on metabolism...
February 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380670/improved-regeneration-and-de-novo-bone-formation-in-a-diabetic-zebrafish-model-treated-with-paricalcitol-and-cinacalcet
#8
Filipe R Carvalho, Ana R Fernandes, M Leonor Cancela, Paulo J Gavaia
Bone changes related to diabetes have been well stablished, but few strategies have been developed to prevent this growing health problem. In our work we propose to investigate the effects of calcitriol as well as of a vitamin D analog (paricalcitol) and a calcimimetic (cinacalcet), in fin regeneration and de novo mineralization in a zebrafish model of diabetes. Following exposure of diabetic transgenic Tg(ins:nfsb-mCherry) zebrafish to calcitriol, paricalcitol and cinacalcet, caudal fins were amputated to assess their effects on tissue regeneration...
April 5, 2017: Wound Repair and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375869/hungry-bone-syndrome
#9
Nishank Jain, Robert F Reilly
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In the United States, the number of parathyroidectomies among patients with chronic dialysis has remained stable in the last decade. A fall in serum calcium concentration is common postparathyroidectomy in patients with hyperparathyroidism, which usually resolves in 2-4 days. A severe drop in serum total calcium concentration less than 2.1 mmol/L and/or prolonged hypocalcemia for more than 4 days postparathyroidectomy is called hungry bone syndrome (HBS). Concomitant hypophosphatemia, hypomagnesemia, and hyperkalemia can be seen...
April 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370465/pharmacologic-calcitriol-inhibits-osteoclast-lineage-commitment-via-the-bmp-smad1-i%C3%AE%C2%BAb-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#10
Anna Li, Qian Cong, Xuechun Xia, Wai Fook Leong, James Yeh, Dengshun Miao, Yuji Mishina, Huijuan Liu, Baojie Li
Vitamin D is involved in a range of physiological processes and its active form and analogs have been used to treat diseases such as osteoporosis. Yet how vitamin D executes its function remains unsolved. Here we show that the active form of vitamin D calcitriol increases the peak bone mass in mice by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. Although calcitriol modestly promoted osteoclast maturation, it strongly inhibited osteoclast lineage commitment from its progenitor monocyte by increasing Smad1 transcription via vitamin D receptor and enhancing BMP-Smad1 activation, which in turn led to increased IκBα expression and decreased NF-κB activation and NFATc1 expression, with IκBα being a Smad1 target gene...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352923/-diagnostic-approach-and-management-of-hypercalcaemia-in-dogs-exemplary-of-primary-hyperparathyroidism
#11
Bianca Désirée Ballhausen, Astrid Wehner, Martin Zöllner, Katrin Hartmann, Stefan Unterer
Hypercalcaemia can be caused by many different diseases. This article summarizes the causes, pathophysiologic mechanisms and diagnostic procedures as well as treatment recommendations. The main focus is on hypercalcaemia in primary hyperparathyroidism (PH), complemented by a case report. An elevated total calcium level should generally be investigated and verified by measurement of ionized calcium concentration. The further diagnostic approach depends on the phosphate level. Tumour screening, measurement of parathormone and parathromone-related protein and sonography of parathyroid glands may be necessary...
March 29, 2017: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346348/vitamin-d-in-chronic-kidney-disease-and-dialysis-patients
#12
REVIEW
Guillaume Jean, Jean Claude Souberbielle, Charles Chazot
Vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/mL) and insufficiency (20-29 ng/mL) are common among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) or undergoing dialysis. In addition to nutritional and sunlight exposure deficits, factors that affect vitamin D deficiency include race, sex, age, obesity and impaired vitamin D synthesis and metabolism. Serum 1,25(OH)₂D levels also decrease progressively because of 25(OH)D deficiency, together with impaired availability of 25(OH)D by renal proximal tubular cells, high fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23 and decreased functional renal tissue...
March 25, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341272/kidney-fibroblast-growth-factor-23-does-not-contribute-to-elevation-of-its-circulating-levels-in-uremia
#13
Maria L Mace, Eva Gravesen, Anders Nordholm, Jacob Hofman-Bang, Thomas Secher, Klaus Olgaard, Ewa Lewin
Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) secreted by osteocytes is a circulating factor essential for phosphate homeostasis. High plasma FGF23 levels are associated with cardiovascular complications and mortality. Increases of plasma FGF23 in uremia antedate high levels of phosphate, suggesting a disrupted feedback regulatory loop or an extra-skeletal source of this phosphatonin. Since induction of FGF23 expression in injured organs has been reported we decided to examine the regulation of FGF23 gene and protein expressions in the kidney and whether kidney-derived FGF23 contributes to the high plasma levels of FGF23 in uremia...
March 21, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339837/vitamin-d-treatment-attenuates-cardiac-fgf23-fgfr4-signaling-and-hypertrophy-in-uremic-rats
#14
Maren Leifheit-Nestler, Alexander Grabner, Laura Hermann, Beatrice Richter, Karin Schmitz, Dagmar-Christiane Fischer, Christopher Yanucil, Christian Faul, Dieter Haffner
Background.: Vitamin D deficiency and excess of circulating fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) contribute to cardiovascular mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). FGF23 activates FGF receptor 4 and (FGFR4) calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) signaling in cardiac myocytes, thereby causing left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Here, we determined if 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (calcitriol) inhibits FGF23-induced cardiac signaling and LVH. Methods...
February 23, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325259/vitamin-d-analogues-potential-use-in-cancer-treatment
#15
REVIEW
Michael J Duffy, Alyson Murray, Naoise C Synnott, Norma O'Donovan, John Crown
The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a member of the thyroid-steroid family of nuclear transcription factors. Following binding of the active form of vitamin D, i.e., 1,25(OH)2D3 (also known as calcitriol) and interaction with co-activators and co-repressors, VDR regulates the expression of several different genes. Although relatively little work has been carried out on VDR in human cancers, several epidemiological studies suggest that low circulating levels of vitamin D are associated with both an increased risk of developing specific cancer types and poor outcome in patients with specific diagnosed cancers...
April 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324108/hypoparathyroidism-less-severe-hypocalcemia-with-treatment-with-vitamin-d2-compared-to-calcitriol
#16
Elizabeth A Streeten, Yasaman Mohtasebi, Manige Konig, Lisa Davidoff, Kathleen Ryan
Context: Options for chronic treatment of hypoparathyroidism include calcitriol, recombinant human parathyroid hormone and high dose vitamin D (D2). D2 is used in a minority because of fear of prolonged hypercalcemia and renal toxicity. There is a paucity of recent data about D2 use in hypoparathyroidism. Objective: Compare renal function, hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia in patients with hypoparathyroidism treated chronically with either D2 or calcitriol. Design, setting, patients: A retrospective study of patients with hypoparathyroidism treated at University of Maryland Hospital...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303937/vitamin-d-inhibits-lymphangiogenesis-through-vdr-dependent-mechanisms
#17
Saleh Yazdani, Fariba Poosti, Luis Toro, Johannes Wedel, Rik Mencke, Katarina Mirković, Martin H de Borst, J Steven Alexander, Gerjan Navis, Harry van Goor, Jacob van den Born, Jan-Luuk Hillebrands
Excessive lymphangiogenesis is associated with cancer progression and renal disease. Attenuation of lymphangiogenesis might represent a novel strategy to target disease progression although clinically approved anti-lymphangiogenic drugs are not available yet. VitaminD(VitD)-deficiency is associated with increased cancer risk and chronic kidney disease. Presently, effects of VitD on lymphangiogenesis are unknown. Given the apparently protective effects of VitD and the deleterious associations of lymphangiogenesis with renal disease, we here tested the hypothesis that VitD has direct anti-lymphangiogenic effects in vitro and is able to attenuate lymphangiogenesis in vivo...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293271/a-mouse-model-of-vitamin-d-insufficiency-is-there-a-relationship-between-25-oh-vitamin-d-levels-and-obesity
#18
Kenneth L Seldeen, Manhui Pang, Maria Rodríguez-Gonzalez, Mireya Hernandez, Zachary Sheridan, Ping Yu, Bruce R Troen
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D insufficiency (serum 25-OH vitamin D > 10 ng/ml and < 30 ng/ml) is prevalent in the obese (body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m(2)), yet relationships between the two are poorly understood. Objectives of this study include identification of the impact of obesity on reducing serum 25-OH vitamin D concentration, particularly in response to altered vitamin D3 supplementation, and to elucidate the longitudinal impact of serum 25-OH vitamin D on body mass index...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281103/current-evidence-on-vitamin-d-deficiency-and-kidney-transplant-what-s-new
#19
REVIEW
Gerardo Sarno, Riccardo Nappi, Barbara Altieri, Giacomo Tirabassi, Emanuele Muscogiuri, Gianmaria Salvio, Stavroula A Paschou, Aristide Ferrara, Enrico Russo, Daniela Vicedomini, Cerbone Vincenzo, Andromachi Vryonidou, Silvia Della Casa, Giancarlo Balercia, Francesco Orio, Paride De Rosa
Kidney transplant is the treatment of choice for end-stage chronic kidney disease. Kidneys generate 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (calcitriol) from 25-hydroxyvitamin D (calcidiol) for circulation in the blood to regulate calcium levels. Transplant patients with low calcidiol levels have an increased risk of metabolic and endocrine problems, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, poor graft survival, bone disorders, cancer, and mortality rate. The recommended calcidiol level after transplant is at least 30 ng/mL (75 nmol/L), which could require 1000-3000 IU/d vitamin D3 to achieve...
March 9, 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276596/impact-of-calcium-and-two-doses-of-vitamin-d-on-bone-metabolism-in-the-elderly-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Maya Rahme, Sima-Lynn Sharara, Rafic Baddoura, Robert H Habib, Georges Halaby, Asma Arabi, Ravinder J Singh, Moustapha Kassem, Ziyad Mahfoud, Maha Hoteit, Rose T Daher, Darina Bassil, Karim El Ferkh, Ghada El-Hajj Fuleihan
The optimal dose of vitamin D to optimize bone metabolism in the elderly is unclear. We tested the hypothesis a vitamin D, at a dose higher than recommended by the Institute of Medicine (IOM), has a beneficial effect on bone remodeling and mass. In this double blind trial we randomized 257 overweight elderly subjects to receive 1000 mg of elemental calcium citrate/day, and the daily equivalent of 3,750IU/day or 600 IU/day of vitamin D3 for one year. The subjects' mean age was 71 ± 4 years, body mass index 30 ± 4 kg/m(2) , 55% were women, and 222 completed the 12-months follow-up...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
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