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Cardiac apoptosis

Xiao-Fen Ruan, Cheng-Wei Ju, Yan Shen, Yu-Tao Liu, Il-Man Kim, Hong Yu, Neal Weintraub, Xiao-Long Wang, Yao-Liang Tang
Cardiac mesenchymal stem cells (C-MSCs) are endogenous cardiac stromal cells that play a role in heart repair after injury. C-MSC-derived exosomes (Exo) have shown protective effects against apoptosis induced by acute myocardial ischemia/reperfusion. Suxiao Jiuxin pill (SJP) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula used in China for the treatment of acute myocardial ischemia, which contains tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) and borneol (BOR) as major components. In this study, we investigated whether SJP treatment affected exosome release from C-MSCs in vitro...
March 15, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Hao Zhou, Pingjun Zhu, Jin Wang, Hong Zhu, Jun Ren, Yundai Chen
Disturbed mitochondrial homeostasis contributes to the pathogenesis of cardiac ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury, although the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here, we demonstrated that casein kinase 2α (CK2α) was upregulated following acute cardiac IR injury. Increased CK2α was shown to be instrumental to mitochondrial damage, cardiomyocyte death, infarction area expansion and cardiac dysfunction, whereas cardiac-specific CK2α knockout (CK2αCKO ) mice were protected against IR injury and mitochondrial damage...
March 14, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
Fan Wu, Jinying Zhang
Epidemiological studies have confirmed that ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) exposure is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the underlying mechanisms in PM2.5 exposure-induced heart injury are largely unknown. It has been acknowledged that NADPH oxidase (Nox) 4 plays a critical role in CVD development. To investigate the acute effects of PM2.5 on the mouse heart and the role of Nox4 in PM2.5 exposure-induced cardiac injury, C57BL/6J mice were instilled with saline or 1.5, 3.0, 6...
2018: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Shunying Hu, Pingjun Zhu, Hao Zhou, Ying Zhang, Yundai Chen
BACKGROUND: Melatonin is a neuroendocrine hormone synthesized primarily by the pineal gland that is indicated to effectively prevent myocardial reperfusion injury. It is unclear whether melatonin protects cardiac function from reperfusion injury by modulating intracellular calcium homeostasis. OBJECTIVE: Demonstrate that melatonin protect against myocardial reperfusion injury through modulating IP3R and SERCA2a to maintain calcium homeostasis via activation of ERK1 in cardiomyocytes...
January 2018: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
Cheng Zeng, Wen Jiang, Ruifang Zheng, Chenghui He, Jianguang Li, Jianguo Xing
Our previous research demonstrated that tilianin protects the myocardium in a myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury (MIRI) rat model and has prominent pharmacological potential as a cardiovascular drug. Our study aimed to investigate the molecular signaling implicated in the improvement of myocardial survival induced by tilianin, a flavonoid antioxidant. Tilianin (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg/d) or saline was orally administered to rats for 14 days. On the 15th day, ischemia was induced by ligating the left anterior descending artery for 45 min, followed by 4 h of reperfusion...
2018: PloS One
Shuo Yang, Tao Fan, Qi Hu, Weipan Xu, Jian Yang, Changwu Xu, Bofang Zhang, Jing Chen, Hong Jiang
MicroRNA-17-5p (miR-17-5p) was indicated to suppress the formation of blood vessels, which is associated with cardiac function after myocardial infarction. In this study, the relationship between miR-17-5p and cardiac function was researched. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were infected with adenoviruses. Apoptosis was determined by Annexin V-7AAD/PI. Real-time RT-PCR was used to evaluate miR-17-5p and ERK levels. Western blotting was used to determine the levels of ERK, the anti-apoptosis protein bcl-2 and apoptosis proteins, including bax, caspase 3, and caspase 9...
March 13, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Nabeel Quryshi, Laura E Norwood Toro, Karima Ait-Aissa, Amanda Kong, Andreas M Beyer
Although chemotherapeutics can be highly effective at targeting malignancies, their ability to trigger cardiovascular morbidity is clinically significant. Chemotherapy can adversely affect cardiovascular physiology, resulting in the development of cardiomyopathy, heart failure and microvascular defects. Specifically, anthracyclines are known to cause an excessive buildup of free radical species and mitochondrial DNA damage (mt DNA) that can lead to oxidative stress-induced cardiovascular apoptosis. Therefore, oncologists and cardiologists maintain a network of communication when dealing with patients during treatment in order to treat and prevent chemotherapy-induced cardiovascular damage; however, there is a need to discover more accurate biomarkers and therapeutics to combat and predict the onset of cardiovascular side effects...
March 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Y Han, T B Fan, B T Peng, B Li, J T Cheng, H D Xu, C Y Gao, Z Y Cheng
Objective: To explore the effect of miR-19b on the function of P19CL6 cells and its molecular mechanism. Methods: Overexpression of miR-19b was carried out by transfecting miR-19b plasmid into the P19CL6 cells. MTT assay and flow cytometry were used to determine cell growth and apoptosis, respectively. Western blot was used to detect the expression level of Sox6 in P19CL6 cells. ELISA assay was used to detect the expression levels of apoptosis-related genes (Bax, Bcl-2) in P19CL6 cells at late-stage cardiac differentiation...
February 27, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Natalia Pascuali, Leopoldina Scotti, Mariana Di Pietro, Gonzalo Oubiña, Diana Bas, María May, Antonio Gómez Muñoz, Patricia S Cuasnicú, Débora J Cohen, Marta Tesone, Dalhia Abramovich, Fernanda Parborell
STUDY QUESTION: Is ceramide-1-phosphate (C1P) an ovarian protective agent during alkylating chemotherapy? SUMMARY ANSWER: Local administration of C1P drastically reduces ovarian damage induced by cyclophosphamide (Cy) via protection of follicular reserve, restoration of hormone levels, inhibition of apoptosis and improvement of stromal vasculature, while protecting fertility, oocyte quality and uterine morphology. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Cancer-directed therapies cause accelerated loss of ovarian reserve and lead to premature ovarian failure (POF)...
March 9, 2018: Human Reproduction
Meiling Yan, Kankai Chen, Li He, Shuai Li, Dong Huang, Jingbo Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hyperuricemia is associated with an increased risk for multiple cardiovascular diseases, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely elusive. Calpain-1 is a protease that is implicated in several pathological conditions that affect the heart. The aim of this current study was to test the effects of uric acid (UA) on cardiomyocyte survival and cardiac function and to investigate the role of calpain-1 in the UA-induced effects in the heart and their underlying mechanisms...
March 7, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Pengzhou Hang, Jing Zhao, Zhenli Su, Hanqi Sun, Tingting Chen, Lihui Zhao, Zhimin Du
Backgroud/Aims: Growing evidence suggests that both cardiomyocyte apoptosis and excessive autophagy exacerbates cardiac dysfunction during myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR). As a precursor of acetylcholine, choline has been found to protect the heart by repressing ischemic cardiomyocyte apoptosis. However, the relationship between choline and cardiomyocyte autophagy is unclear. The present study aimed to investigate whether autophagy was involved in the cardioprotection of choline during IR. METHODS: Rats were subjected to 30 min reversible ischemia by ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery followed by reperfusion for 2 h...
March 7, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Xiaoni Ai, Wenbo Lu, Kewu Zeng, Chun Li, Yong Jiang, Peng-Fei Tu
Emerging awareness of cardiac macrophages' role in inflammation after myocardial infarction indicates that overabundant pro-inflammatory macrophages induce accentuated myocardial injury. The investigation of macrophages-cardiomyocytes interaction and inflammation-induced dynamic damage in myocardial infarction, especially in a spatiotemporally controlled manner, remains a huge challenge. Here, we developed an in vitro model using a microfluidic co-culture system to mimic inflammatory cardiac injury. To our knowledge, on-chip pathological models focused on inflammation-induced myocardial injury have not been reported...
March 13, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Qixiang Zhao, Zhiwei Liu, Bing Huang, Yanliang Yuan, Xiucheng Liu, Hu Zhang, Fan Qiu, Yiqian Zhang, Yufeng Li, Haoran Miao, Hongyan Dong, Zhongming Zhang
The prevention and management of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury is an essential part of coronary heart disease surgery and is becoming a major clinical problem in the treatment of ischemic heart disease. Previous studies by our group have demonstrated that pigment epithelium‑derived factor (PEDF) improves cardiac function in rats with acute myocardial infarction and reduces hypoxia‑induced cell injury. However, the protective function and mechanisms underlying the effect of PEDF in MI/R injury remain to be fully understood...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Yuan Dai, Weijia Luo, Jiang Chang
Rho kinases (ROCKs) are the first discovered RhoA effectors that are now widely known for their effects on actin organization. Recent studies have shown that ROCKs play important roles in cardiac physiology. Abnormal activation of ROCKs participate in multiple cardiovascular pathological processes, including cardiac hypertrophy, apoptosis, fibrosis, systemic hypertension, and pulmonary hypertension. ROCK inhibitors, fasudil and statins, have shown beneficial cardiovascular effects in many animal studies, clinical trials, and applications...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Physiology
Xu Chen, Xuan Li, Wenyan Zhang, Jie He, Bo Xu, Bin Lei, Zhenhua Wang, Courtney Cates, Thomas Rousselle, Ji Li
BACKGROUND: AMP-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) is a stress-activated kinase that protects against cardiomyocyte injury during ischemia and reperfusion. c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), a mitogen activated protein kinase, is activated by ischemia and reperfusion. NF-κB is an important transcription factor involved in ischemia and reperfusion injury. METHODS AND RESULTS: The intrinsic activation of AMPK attenuates the inflammation which occurred during ischemia/reperfusion through the modulation of the JNK mediated NF-κB signaling pathway...
March 8, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Jing Ni, Yuxi Sun, Zheng Liu
In recent years, the cardiac protective mechanisms of stem cells have become a research focus. Increasing evidence has suggested that stem cells release vesicles, including exosomes and micro-vesicles. The content of these vesicles relies on an extracellular stimulus, and active ingredients are extensively being studied. Previous studies have confirmed that stem cell-derived exosomes have a cardiac protective function similar to that of stem cells, and promote angiogenesis, decrease apoptosis, and respond to stress...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
Kavisa Ghosh, Indra N
Cadmium (Cd), a potent carcinogen present in almost all foods, poses a major health risk to humans. Major routes of exposure to Cd for humans are occupation, diet, and tobacco use. Cd elicits various deleterious effects on cellular molecules mainly by causing oxidant-antioxidant imbalance. Cd has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many cancers, Itai-itai disease, diabetic nephropathy, hypertension, peripheral artery disease, and myocardial infarction. This study was designed to investigate the effects of Cd intake on erythrocytes and cardiac tissue in male albino Wistar rats...
February 27, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
N Zhao, L Mi, X J Zhang, M Y Xu, H Y Yu, Z W Liu, X J Liu, G C Guan, W Gao, J K Wang
MicroRNA 711 (miR-711) levels in the heart change dynamically after myocardial infarction (MI). As peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) can upregulate miR-711 in adipocytes and cardiac fibroblasts, this study examined the precise mechanism of PPARγ-mediated miR-711 upregulation and its role in the heart in the early stages after MI. In a rat model of MI induced by left anterior descending coronary artery ligation, immunohistochemical and western blot analyses revealed increased PPARγ expression in cardiomyocyte nuclei after MI...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
Ni Yang, Liuzhong Wu, Ying Zhao, Ning Zou, Chunfeng Liu
It is generally accepted that insulin exerts an antiapoptotic effect against ischemia/reperfusion through the activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. MicroRNAs involve in multiple cardiac pathophysiological processes, including ischemia/reperfusion-induced cardiac injury. However, the regulation of microRNAs in the cardioprotective effect of insulin is rarely discussed. In this study, using a cell model of ischemia through culturing H9C2 cardiac myocytes in serum-free medium with hypoxia, we demonstrated that pretreatment with insulin significantly inhibited cell apoptosis and downregulated microRNA-320 (miR-320) expression...
March 9, 2018: Cell Biochemistry and Function
Lucio Barile, Elisabetta Cervio, Vincenzo Lionetti, Giuseppina Milano, Alessandra Ciullo, Vanessa Biemmi, Sara Bolis, Claudia Altomare, Marco Matteucci, Dario Disilvestre, Tudor Emanuel Fertig, Tiziano Torre, Stefanos Demertzis, Pierluigi Mauri, Tiziano Moccetti, Giuseppe Vassalli
Aims: Cell therapy trials using cardiac-resident progenitor cells (CPCs) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (BMCs) in patients after myocardial infarction have provided encouraging results. Exosomes, nanosized extracellular vesicles of endosomal origin, figure prominently in the bioactivities of these cells. However, a head-to-head comparison of exosomes from the two cell types has not been performed yet. Methods and Results: CPCs and BMCs were derived from cardiac atrial appendage specimens and sternal bone marrow, respectively, from patients (n=20; age, 69...
March 5, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
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