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Mitochondrial dynamics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783198/toxicity-assessment-of-metal-oxide-nano-pollutants-on-tomato-solanum-lycopersicon-a-study-on-growth-dynamics-and-plant-cell-death
#1
Bilal Ahmed, Mohammad Saghir Khan, Javed Musarrat
The present study for the first time demonstrated the interactions of metal oxide (MO) nano-pollutants (CuO and Al2 O3 -NPs) with tissues and cellular DNA of tomato plants grown in soil sand: silt: clay (667:190:143) and Hoagland-hydroponic system and assessed the hazardous effects of NPs on cell physiology and biochemistry. Results of SEM equipped with EDX revealed attachment of variably shaped CuO-NPs (18 nm) and Al2 O3 -NPs (21 nm) on roots, and internalization followed by translocation in plants by ICP-MS and TEM...
May 18, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778937/copper-ii-and-or-arsenite-induced-oxidative-stress-cascades-apoptosis-and-autophagy-in-the-skeletal-muscles-of-chicken
#2
Yu Wang, Hongjing Zhao, Yizhi Shao, Juanjuan Liu, Jinglun Li, Liyang Luo, Mingwei Xing
Arsenic (As) is a ubiquitous environmental toxin and robust inducer of oxidative stress (OxS). Copper (Cu) is an essential microelement, which participates in OxS as a cofactor for certain enzymes, with narrow optimal range between essential and toxic concentrations. However, their effects are rarely studied in chicken skeletal muscles, which have soaring per capita consumption andare susceptible to oxidative damage. In the present study, we demonstrated that the administration of copper sulfate (300 mg kg-1 ) or arsenite (30 mg kg-1 ) individually or their co-administration leads to varying degrees of OxS in the skeletal muscles of chickens...
May 11, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778689/network-analysis-of-a-proposed-exit-pathway-for-protons-to-the-p-side-of-cytochrome-c-oxidase
#3
Xiuhong Cai, Kamran Haider, Jianxun Lu, Slaven Radic, Chang Yun Son, Qiang Cui, M R Gunner
Cytochrome c Oxidase (CcO) reduces O2 , the terminal electron acceptor, to water in the aerobic respiration electron transport chain. The energy released by O2 reductions is stored by removing eight protons from the high pH, N-side, of the membrane with four used for chemistry in the active site and four pumped to the low pH, P-side. The proton transfers must occur along controllable proton pathways that prevent energy dissipating movement towards the N-side. The CcO N-side has well established D- and K-channels to deliver protons to the protein interior...
May 17, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777913/the-tp53-induced-glycolysis-and-apoptosis-regulator-mediates-cooperation-between-htlv-1-p30-ii-and-the-retroviral-oncoproteins-tax-and-hbz-and-is-highly-expressed-in-an-in-vivo-xenograft-model-of-htlv-1-induced-lymphoma
#4
Tetiana Hutchison, Aditi Malu, Laçin Yapindi, Rachel Bergeson, Kendra Peck, Megan Romeo, Carolyn Harrod, Jordan Pope, Louisa Smitherman, Wesleigh Gwinn, Lee Ratner, Courtney Yates, Robert Harrod
The human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) is an oncoretrovirus that infects and transforms CD4+ T-cells and causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) -an aggressive lymphoproliferative disease that is highly refractive to most anticancer therapies. The HTLV-1 proviral genome encodes several regulatory products within a conserved 3' nucleotide sequence, known as pX; however, it remains unclear how these factors might cooperate or dynamically interact in virus-infected cells. Here we demonstrate that the HTLV-1 latency-maintenance factor p30II induces the TP53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR) and counters the oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage, and cytotoxicity caused by the viral oncoproteins Tax and HBZ...
May 16, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774990/searching-for-a-mitochondrial-root-to-the-decline-in-muscle-function-with-ageing
#5
EDITORIAL
Marta Gonzalez-Freire, Fatemeh Adelnia, Ruin Moaddel, Luigi Ferrucci
Sarcopenia, the age-related loss of muscle mass and strength, is linked to a range of adverse outcomes, such as impaired physical performance, cognitive function, and mortality. Preventing sarcopenia may reduce the burden of functional decline with aging and its impact on physiological and economic well-being in older adults. Mitochondria in muscle cells lose their intrinsic efficiency and capacity to produce energy during aging, and it has been hypothesized that such a decline is the main driver of sarcopenia...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773865/perlecan-a-heparan-sulfate-proteoglycan-regulates-systemic-metabolism-with-dynamic-changes-in-adipose-tissue-and-skeletal-muscle
#6
Yuri Yamashita, Satoshi Nakada, Toshinori Yoshihara, Takeshi Nara, Norihiko Furuya, Takashi Miida, Nobutaka Hattori, Eri Arikawa-Hirasawa
Perlecan (HSPG2), a heparan sulfate proteoglycan, is a component of basement membranes and participates in a variety of biological activities. Here, we show physiological roles of perlecan in both obesity and the onset of metabolic syndrome. The perinatal lethality-rescued perlecan knockout (Hspg2-/- -Tg) mice showed a smaller mass and cell size of white adipose tissues than control (WT-Tg) mice. Abnormal lipid deposition, such as fatty liver, was not detected in the Hspg2-/- -Tg mice, and those mice also consumed more fat as an energy source, likely due to their activated fatty acid oxidation...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770425/dynamic-microfluidic-nanocalorimetry-system-for-measuring-caenorhabditis-elegans-metabolic-heat
#7
Roger Krenger, Thomas Lehnert, Martin A M Gijs
Basal heat production is a key phenotype for assessing the metabolic activity of small living organisms. Here, we present a new nanocalorimetric system, based on thin film thermopile sensors combined with microfluidic chips for measuring metabolic heat signals generated by Caenorhabditis elegans larval populations (60 to 220 organisms). In addition to versatile on-chip fluidic manipulation, our microfluidic approach allows confining worm populations close to the sensor surface, thus increasing the sensitivity of the assays...
May 17, 2018: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761268/towards-a-comprehensive-picture-of-c-to-u-rna-editing-sites-in-angiosperm-mitochondria
#8
Alejandro A Edera, Carolina L Gandini, M Virginia Sanchez-Puerta
Our understanding of the dynamic and evolution of RNA editing in angiosperms is in part limited by the few editing sites identified to date. This study identified 10,217 editing sites from 17 diverse angiosperms. Our analyses confirmed the universality of certain features of RNA editing, and offer new evidence behind the loss of editing sites in angiosperms. RNA editing is a post-transcriptional process that substitutes cytidines (C) for uridines (U) in organellar transcripts of angiosperms. These substitutions mostly take place in mitochondrial messenger RNAs at specific positions called editing sites...
May 14, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760122/perturbations-in-mitochondrial-dynamics-by-p66shc-lead-to-renal-tubular-oxidative-injury-in-human-diabetic-nephropathy
#9
Ming Zhan, Irtaza Usman, Jingbo Yu, Liemin Ruan, Xueyan Bian, Jun Yang, Shikun Yang, Lin Sun, Yashpal S Kanwar
Renal tubular injury is increasingly being recognized as an early characteristic of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Mitochondrial dynamic alterations and redox protein p66Shc-mediated oxidative stress are both critical for ensuing diabetic tubular cell injury and apoptosis; whether these two processes are interlinked remains unclear. In this study, we observed changes in mitochondrial morphology and expression of associated proteins in tubules of patients with DN. We demonstrated mitochondrial fragmentation as an important pathogenic feature of tubular cell injury that is linked to oxidative stress and p66Shc up-regulation...
May 14, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760081/the-genome-wide-rate-and-spectrum-of-spontaneous-mutations-differ-between-haploid-and-diploid-yeast
#10
Nathaniel P Sharp, Linnea Sandell, Christopher G James, Sarah P Otto
By altering the dynamics of DNA replication and repair, alternative ploidy states may experience different rates and types of new mutations, leading to divergent evolutionary outcomes. We report a direct comparison of the genome-wide spectrum of spontaneous mutations arising in haploids and diploids following a mutation-accumulation experiment in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Characterizing the number, types, locations, and effects of thousands of mutations revealed that haploids were more prone to single-nucleotide mutations (SNMs) and mitochondrial mutations, while larger structural changes were more common in diploids...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755415/mitochondrial-dynamics-in-type-2-diabetes-and-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Michelle Williams, M Cecilia Caino
Mitochondria are bioenergetic, biosynthetic, and signaling organelles that control various aspects of cellular and organism homeostasis. Quality control mechanisms are in place to ensure maximal mitochondrial function and metabolic homeostasis at the cellular level. Dysregulation of these pathways is a common theme in human disease. In this mini-review, we discuss how alterations of the mitochondrial network influences mitochondrial function, focusing on the molecular regulators of mitochondrial dynamics (organelle's shape and localization)...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748634/gene-by-environment-interactions-that-disrupt-mitochondrial-homeostasis-cause-neurodegeneration-in-c-elegans-parkinson-s-models
#12
Hanna Kim, Rylee J Perentis, Guy A Caldwell, Kim A Caldwell
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex multifactorial disorder where environmental factors interact with genetic susceptibility. Accumulating evidence suggests that mitochondria have a central role in the progression of neurodegeneration in sporadic and/or genetic forms of PD. We previously reported that exposure to a secondary metabolite from the soil bacterium, Streptomyces venezuelae, results in age- and dose-dependent dopaminergic (DA) neurodegeneration in Caenorhabditis elegans and human SH-SY5Y neurons...
May 10, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748379/sod1-a4v-aggregation-alters-ubiquitin-homeostasis-in-a-cell-model-of-als
#13
Natalie E Farrawell, Isabella Lambert-Smith, Kristen Mitchell, Jessie McKenna, Luke McAlary, Prajwal Ciryam, Kara L Vine, Darren N Saunders, Justin J Yerbury
A hallmark of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) pathology is the accumulation of ubiquitinated protein inclusions within motor neurons. Recent studies suggest the sequestration of ubiquitin (Ub) into inclusions reduces the availability of free Ub, which is essential for cellular function and survival. However, the dynamics of the Ub landscape in ALS have not yet been described. Here we show that Ub homeostasis is altered in a SOD1 cell model of ALS. Monitoring the distribution of Ub in SOD1-expressing cells, we show that Ub is present at the earliest stages of SOD1 aggregation and cells containing mutant SOD1 aggregates have greater ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) dysfunction...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748033/predominant-asymmetrical-stem-cell-fate-outcome-limits-the-rate-of-niche-succession-in-human-colonic-crypts
#14
Craig Stamp, Anze Zupanic, Ashwin Sachdeva, Elizabeth A Stoll, Daryl P Shanley, John C Mathers, Thomas B L Kirkwood, Rakesh Heer, Benjamin D Simons, Doug M Turnbull, Laura C Greaves
Stem cell (SC) dynamics within the human colorectal crypt SC niche remain poorly understood, with previous studies proposing divergent hypotheses on the predominant mode of SC self-renewal and the rate of SC replacement. Here we use age-related mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) defects to trace clonal lineages within human colorectal crypts across the adult life-course. By resolving the frequency and size distribution of OXPHOS-deficient clones, quantitative analysis shows that, in common with mouse, long-term maintenance of the colonic epithelial crypt relies on stochastic SC loss and replacement mediated by competition for limited niche access...
April 25, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747572/multiple-independent-structural-dynamic-events-in-the-evolution-of-snake-mitochondrial-genomes
#15
Lifu Qian, Hui Wang, Jie Yan, Tao Pan, Shanqun Jiang, Dingqi Rao, Baowei Zhang
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial DNA sequences have long been used in phylogenetic studies. However, little attention has been paid to the changes in gene arrangement patterns in the snake's mitogenome. Here, we analyzed the complete mitogenome sequences and structures of 65 snake species from 14 families and examined their structural patterns, organization and evolution. Our purpose was to further investigate the evolutionary implications and possible rearrangement mechanisms of the mitogenome within snakes...
May 10, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744667/vagus-nerve-stimulation-exerts-cardioprotection-against-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-predominantly-through-its-efferent-vagal-fibers
#16
Watthana Nuntaphum, Wanpitak Pongkan, Suwakon Wongjaikam, Savitree Thummasorn, Pongpan Tanajak, Juthamas Khamseekaew, Kannaporn Intachai, Siriporn C Chattipakorn, Nipon Chattipakorn, Krekwit Shinlapawittayatorn
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has been shown to exert cardioprotection against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, whether the cardioprotection of VNS is mainly due to direct activation through its ipsilateral efferent fibers (motor) rather than indirect effects mediated by the afferent fibers (sensory) have not been clearly understood. We hypothesized that VNS exerts cardioprotection predominantly through its efferent vagal fibers. Thirty swine (30-35 kg) were randomized into five groups: I/R no VNS (I/R), and left mid-cervical VNS with both vagal trunks intact (LC-VNS), with left vagus nerve transection (LtVNX), with right vagus nerve transection (RtVNX) and with atropine pretreatment (Atropine), respectively...
May 9, 2018: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743663/drp-1-mediated-apoptosis-induces-muscle-degeneration-in-dystrophin-mutants
#17
Charlotte Scholtes, Stéphanie Bellemin, Edwige Martin, Maïté Carre-Pierrat, Bertrand Mollereau, Kathrin Gieseler, Ludivine Walter
Mitochondria are double-membrane subcellular organelles with highly conserved metabolic functions including ATP production. Mitochondria shapes change continually through the combined actions of fission and fusion events rendering mitochondrial network very dynamic. Mitochondria are largely implicated in pathologies and mitochondrial dynamics is often disrupted upon muscle degeneration in various models. Currently, the exact roles of mitochondria in the molecular mechanisms that lead to muscle degeneration remain poorly understood...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743590/loss-of-function-of-ift88-determines-metabolic-phenotypes-in-thyroid-cancer
#18
Junguee Lee, Shinae Yi, Minho Won, Young Shin Song, Hyon-Seung Yi, Young Joo Park, Ki Cheol Park, Jung Tae Kim, Joon Young Chang, Min Joung Lee, Hae Joung Sul, Ji Eun Choi, Koon Soon Kim, Jukka Kero, Joon Kim, Minho Shong
Primary cilia are microtubule-based, dynamic organelles characterized by continuous assembly and disassembly. The intraflagellar transport (IFT) machinery, including IFT88 in cilia, is involved in the maintenance of bidirectional motility along the axonemes, which is required for ciliogenesis and functional competence. Cancer cells are frequently associated with loss of primary cilia and IFT functions. However, there is little information on the role of IFT88 or primary cilia in the metabolic remodeling of cancer cells...
May 10, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743378/horizontal-transmission-of-the-ectoparasite-gyrodactylus-arcuatus-monogenea-gyrodactylidae-to-the-next-generation-of-the-three-spined-stickleback-gasterosteus-aculeatus
#19
Jaakko Lumme, Marek S Zietara
In the parthenogenetic monogeneans of the genus Gyrodactylus Nordmann, 1832, the genetic diversity within or between hosts is determined by the relative roles of lateral transmission and clonal propagation. Clonality and limited transmission lead to high-amplitude metapopulation dynamics and strong genetic drift. In Baltic populations of the three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus, the local mitochondrial diversity of Gyrodactylus arcuatus Bychowsky, 1933 is very high, and spatial differentiation weak...
April 19, 2018: Folia Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742430/manipulation-of-mitochondria-dynamics-reveals-separate-roles-for-form-and-function-in-mitochondria-distribution
#20
Tatiana Trevisan, Diana Pendin, Aldo Montagna, Sergio Bova, Anna Maria Ghelli, Andrea Daga
Mitochondria shape is controlled by membrane fusion and fission mediated by mitofusins, Opa1, and Drp1, whereas mitochondrial motility relies on microtubule motors. These processes govern mitochondria subcellular distribution, whose defects are emphasized in neurons because of their polarized structure. We have studied how perturbation of the fusion/fission balance affects mitochondria distribution in Drosophila axons. Knockdown of Marf or Opa1 resulted in progressive loss of distal mitochondria and in a distinct oxidative phosphorylation and membrane potential deficit...
May 8, 2018: Cell Reports
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