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Mitochondrial dynamics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938432/mitochondrial-function-regulated-by-mitoguardin-1-2-is-crucial-for-ovarian-endocrine-functions-and-ovulation
#1
Xiao-Man Liu, Yin-Li Zhang, Shu-Yan Ji, Long-Wen Zhao, Wei-Na Shang, Dali Li, Zijiang Chen, Chao Tong, Heng-Yu Fan
The balances of mitochondrial dynamic changes, mitochondrial morphology, and mitochondrial number are critical in cell metabolism. Once disturbed, disorders in these processes generally cause diseases or even death in animals. We performed large-scale genetic screenings in fruit flies and discovered the new gene mitoguardin (miga) that encodes for a mitochondrial outer membrane protein. In order to examine the physiological functions of its mammalian homologs Miga1 and 2, we generated Miga1 and Miga2 single- and double-knockout mouse strains and found that the knockout mice were viable, but the females were subfertile...
August 23, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936802/significance-of-mitochondrial-protein-post-translational-modifications-in-pathophysiology-of-brain-injury
#2
Nina Klimova, Aaron Long, Tibor Kristian
Mitochondria are complex organelles that undergo constant fusion and fission in order to adapt to the ever-changing cellular environment. The fusion/fission proteins, localized in the inner and outer mitochondrial membrane, play critical roles under pathological conditions such as acute brain injury and neurodegenerative diseases. Post-translational modifications of these proteins tightly regulate their function and activity, ultimately impacting mitochondrial dynamics and their efficiency to generate ATP. The individual post-translational modifications that are known to affect mitochondrial dynamics include SUMOylation, ubiquitination, phosphorylation, S-nitrosylation, acetylation, O-linked N-acetyl-glucosamine glycosylation, ADP-ribosylation, and proteolytic cleavage...
September 21, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935166/mitochondrial-nanotunnels
#3
REVIEW
Amy E Vincent, Doug M Turnbull, Veronica Eisner, György Hajnóczky, Martin Picard
Insight into the regulation of complex physiological systems emerges from understanding how biological units communicate with each other. Recent findings show that mitochondria communicate at a distance with each other via nanotunnels, thin double-membrane protrusions that connect the matrices of non-adjacent mitochondria. Emerging evidence suggest that mitochondrial nanotunnels are generated by immobilized mitochondria and transport proteins. This review integrates data from the evolutionarily conserved structure and function of intercellular projections in bacteria with recent developments in mitochondrial imaging that permit nanotunnel visualization in eukaryotes...
September 18, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934388/loss-of-slc25a46-causes-neurodegeneration-by-affecting-mitochondrial-dynamics-and-energy-production-in-mice
#4
Zhuo Li, Yanyan Peng, Robert B Hufnagel, Yueh-Chiang Hu, Chuntao Zhao, Luis F Queme, Zaza Khuchua, Ashley M Driver, Fei Dong, Q Richard Lu, Diana M Lindquist, Michael P Jankowski, Rolf W Stottmann, Winston W Y Kao, Taosheng Huang
Recently, we identified biallelic mutations of SLC25A46 in patients with multiple neuropathies. Functional studies revealed that SLC25A46 may play an important role in mitochondrial dynamics by mediating mitochondrial fission. However, the cellular basis and pathogenic mechanism of the SLC25A46-related neuropathies are not fully understood. Thus, we generated a Slc25a46 knock-out mouse model. Mice lacking SLC25A46 displayed severe ataxia, mainly caused by degeneration of Purkinje cells. Increased numbers of small, unmyelinated and degenerated optic nerves as well as loss of retinal ganglion cells indicated optic atrophy...
October 1, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934263/temporal-dynamics-and-leishmania-infantum-infection-prevalence-of-phlebotomus-perniciosus-diptera-phlebotominae-in-highly-endemic-areas-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-tunisia
#5
Meriem Benabid, Jamila Ghrab, Adel Rhim, Rania Ben-Romdhane, Karim Aoun, Aïda Bouratbine
Phlebotomus perniciosus is one of the major vectors of Leishmania infantum in the Mediterranean basin. The aim of this work was (i) to provide information about abundance and temporal dynamics of this Larroussius species in a hot spot area of visceral leishmaniasis in Tunisia, (ii) to detect L. infantum DNA in wild caught female sandflies and (iii) to measure Phlebotomus perniciosus infection rate throughout the active season. Sandflies were collected monthly during one year using CDC miniature light-traps in house and in animal shelters...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933354/mitochondrial-dynamics-in-mitochondrial-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Juan M Suárez-Rivero, Marina Villanueva-Paz, Patricia de la Cruz-Ojeda, Mario de la Mata, David Cotán, Manuel Oropesa-Ávila, Isabel de Lavera, Mónica Álvarez-Córdoba, Raquel Luzón-Hidalgo, José A Sánchez-Alcázar
Mitochondria are very versatile organelles in continuous fusion and fission processes in response to various cellular signals. Mitochondrial dynamics, including mitochondrial fission/fusion, movements and turnover, are essential for the mitochondrial network quality control. Alterations in mitochondrial dynamics can cause neuropathies such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease in which mitochondrial fusion and transport are impaired, or dominant optic atrophy which is caused by a reduced mitochondrial fusion. On the other hand, mitochondrial dysfunction in primary mitochondrial diseases promotes reactive oxygen species production that impairs its own function and dynamics, causing a continuous vicious cycle that aggravates the pathological phenotype...
December 23, 2016: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930151/perk-signal-modulated-protein-translation-promotes-the-survivability-of-dengue-2-virus-infected-mosquito-cells-and-extends-viral-replication
#7
Jiun-Nan Hou, Tien-Huang Chen, Yi-Hsuan Chiang, Jing-Yun Peng, Tsong-Han Yang, Chih-Chieh Cheng, Eny Sofiyatun, Cheng-Hsun Chiu, Chuan Chiang-Ni, Wei-June Chen
Survival of mosquitoes from dengue virus (DENV) infection is a prerequisite of viral transmission to the host. This study aimed to see how mosquito cells can survive the infection during prosperous replication of the virus. In C6/36 cells, global protein translation was shut down after infection by DENV type 2 (DENV2). However, it returned to a normal level when infected cells were treated with an inhibitor of the protein kinase RNA (PKR)-like ER kinase (PERK) signaling pathway. Based on a 7-Methylguanosine 5'-triphosphate (m7GTP) pull-down assay, the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4F (eIF4F) complex was also identified in DENV2-infected cells...
September 20, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924745/hypertonia-linked-protein-trak1-functions-with-mitofusins-to-promote-mitochondrial-tethering-and-fusion
#8
Crystal A Lee, Lih-Shen Chin, Lian Li
Hypertonia is a neurological dysfunction associated with a number of central nervous system disorders, including cerebral palsy, Parkinson's disease, dystonia, and epilepsy. Genetic studies have identified a homozygous truncation mutation in Trak1 that causes hypertonia in mice. Moreover, elevated Trak1 protein expression is associated with several types of cancers and variants in Trak1 are linked to childhood absence epilepsy in humans. Despite the importance of Trak1 in health and disease, the mechanisms of Trak1 action remain unclear and the pathogenic effects of Trak1 mutation are unknown...
September 18, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924497/phylogeographic-investigation-and-ecological-niche-modelling-of-the-endemic-frog-species-nanorana-pleskei-revealed-multiple-refugia-in-the-eastern-tibetan-plateau
#9
Bin Wang, Feng Xie, Jiannan Li, Gang Wang, Cheng Li, Jianping Jiang
The largest plateau Tibetan Plateau supplied an excellent opportunity to investigate the influence of the Pleistocene events on the high-elevation species. To test for the alternative hypotheses of Pleistocene glacial refugia, we used partial sequences of two mitochondrial genes and one nuclear gene to examine the phylogeographic patterns of the endemic frog species Nanorana pleskei across its known range in the eastern Tibetan Plateau, and conducted species distribution modelling (SDM) to explore changes of its distribution range through current and paleo periods...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923829/estrogen-deprivation-aggravates-cardiac-hypertrophy-in-non-obese-type-2-diabetic-goto-kakizaki-gk-rats
#10
Nattayaporn Apaijai, Narattaphol Charoenphandhu, Jitjiroj Ittichaichareon, Panan Suntornsaratoon, Nateetip Krishnamra, Ratchaneevan Aeimlapa, Siriporn C Chattipakorn, Nipon Chattipakorn
Both type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and estrogen deprivation have been shown to be associated with the development of cardiovascular disease and adverse cardiac remodeling.  However, the role of estrogen deprivation on adverse cardiac remodeling in non-obese T2DM rats has not been clearly elucidated.  We hypothesized that estrogen-deprivation aggravates adverse cardiac remodeling in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats.  Wild-type (WT) and GK rats at the age of 9 months old were divided into 2 subgroups to have either a sham operation (WTS, GKS) or a bilateral ovariectomy (WTO, GKO) (n=6/subgroup)...
September 18, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923365/mitochondrial-dynamics-at-the-interface-of-immune-cell-metabolism-and-function
#11
REVIEW
Angelika S Rambold, Erika L Pearce
Immune cell differentiation and function are crucially dependent on specific metabolic programs dictated by mitochondria, including the generation of ATP from the oxidation of nutrients and supplying precursors for the synthesis of macromolecules and post-translational modifications. The many processes that occur in mitochondria are intimately linked to their morphology that is shaped by opposing fusion and fission events. Exciting evidence is now emerging that demonstrates reciprocal crosstalk between mitochondrial dynamics and metabolism...
September 8, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922963/lentivirus-mediating-fgf13-enhances-axon-regeneration-after-spinal-cord-injury-by-stablilizing-microtubule-and-improving-mitochondrial-function
#12
Jiawei Li, Qingqing Wang, Haoli Wang, Yanqing Wu, Jiayu Yin, Jian Chen, Zengming Zheng, Ting Jiang, Ling Xie, Fenzan Wu, Hongyu Zhang, Xiaokun Li, Huazi Xu, Jian Xiao
Fibroblast growth factor 13 (FGF13), a nonsecretory protein of the FGF family, plays a crucial role in developing cortical neurons by stabilizing the microtubule. In previous studies, we showed that regulation of microtubule dynamic was instrumental for both growth cone initiation and for promoting regrowth of injured axon. However, the expression and effect of FGF13 in spinal cord or after spinal cord injury (SCI) remains undefined. Here, we demonstrated a role of FGF13 in regulating microtubule dynamics and in enhancing axon regeneration after SCI...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922345/tilianin-post-conditioning-attenuates-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-via-mitochondrial-protection-and-inhibition-of-apoptosis
#13
Yangyang Wang, Yong Yuan, Xinchun Wang, Yanfang Wang, Jiang Cheng, Li Tian, Xinhong Guo, Dongmei Qin, Wenjiang Cao
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the role of tilianin in modulating mitochondrial functions and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis during cardio-protection. MATERIAL AND METHODS Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury was induced by 30 minutes coronary occlusion followed by two hours reperfusion in Sprague-Dawley rats. To investigate the cardio-protective effects of tilianin, apoptosis was evaluated by TUNEL. Mitochondrial ultrastructure and function were assessed by transmission electron microscopy, dynamics of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening and ATP production in the myocardium; Ca2+ content and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured to evaluated the level of damage factors in the mitochondria...
September 18, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919939/sequence-and-biochemical-analysis-of-arabidopsis-sp1-protein-a-regulator-of-organelle-biogenesis
#14
Ronghui Pan, Jianping Hu
Peroxisomes, chloroplasts, and mitochondria are essential eukaryotic organelles that host a suite of metabolic processes crucial to energy metabolism and development. Regulatory mechanisms of the dynamics and biogenesis of these important organelles have begun to be discovered in plants. We recently showed that, aside from its previously reported role in targeting chloroplast protein import proteins, the Arabidopsis ubiquitin E3 ligase SP1 (suppressor of ppi1 locus1) negatively regulates peroxisome matrix protein import by promoting the ubiquitination and destabilization of PEX13 and possibly PEX14 and other components of the peroxisome protein import apparatus...
2017: Communicative & Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918902/mtor-controls-mitochondrial-dynamics-and-cell-survival-via-mtfp1
#15
Masahiro Morita, Julien Prudent, Kaustuv Basu, Vanessa Goyon, Sakie Katsumura, Laura Hulea, Dana Pearl, Nadeem Siddiqui, Stefan Strack, Shawn McGuirk, Julie St-Pierre, Ola Larsson, Ivan Topisirovic, Hojatollah Vali, Heidi M McBride, John J Bergeron, Nahum Sonenberg
The mechanisms that link environmental and intracellular stimuli to mitochondrial functions, including fission/fusion, ATP production, metabolite biogenesis, and apoptosis, are not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that the nutrient-sensing mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) stimulates translation of mitochondrial fission process 1 (MTFP1) to control mitochondrial fission and apoptosis. Expression of MTFP1 is coupled to pro-fission phosphorylation and mitochondrial recruitment of the fission GTPase dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1)...
September 21, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918113/regulation-of-mitochondrial-bioenergetics-by-the-non-canonical-roles-of-mitochondrial-dynamics-proteins-in-the-heart
#16
REVIEW
Wang Wang, Celia Fernandez-Sanz, Shey-Shing Sheu
Recent advancement in mitochondrial research has significantly extended our knowledge on the role and regulation of mitochondria in health and disease. One important breakthrough is the delineation of how mitochondrial morphological changes, termed mitochondrial dynamics, are coupled to the bioenergetics and signaling functions of mitochondria. In general, it is believed that fusion leads to an increased mitochondrial respiration efficiency and resistance to stress-induced dysfunction while fission does the contrary...
September 13, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917260/roles-of-sigma-1-receptors-on-mitochondrial-functions-relevant-to-neurodegenerative-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Tzu-Yu Weng, Shang-Yi Anne Tsai, Tsung-Ping Su
The sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) is a chaperone that resides mainly at the mitochondrion-associated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane (called the MAMs) and acts as a dynamic pluripotent modulator in living systems. At the MAM, the Sig-1R is known to play a role in regulating the Ca(2+) signaling between ER and mitochondria and in maintaining the structural integrity of the MAM. The MAM serves as bridges between ER and mitochondria regulating multiple functions such as Ca(2+) transfer, energy exchange, lipid synthesis and transports, and protein folding that are pivotal to cell survival and defense...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915614/mitochondrial-protein-18-mtp18-plays-a-pro-apoptotic-role-in-chemotherapy-induced-gastric-cancer-cell-apoptosis
#18
Lynn H H Aung, Ruibei Li, Bellur S Prabhakar, Ajay V Maker, Peifeng Li
One of the severe limitations of chemotherapy is the development of drug resistance. However, the mechanisms underlying chemotherapy resistance remain to be elucidated. Mitochondrial mediated apoptosis is a form of cell death induced by chemotherapy. Several chemotherapeutic agents have been shown to induce mitochondrial fission, and finally activate the apoptosis cascade in various cancer cells. Here, we report that the mitochondrial membrane protein 18 (MTP18) induced mitochondrial fragmentation in gastric cancer cells under doxorubicin (DOX) exposure...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915560/pharynx-mitochondrial-ca-2-dynamics-in-live-c-elegans-worms-during-aging
#19
Pilar Alvarez-Illera, Paloma García-Casas, Jessica Arias-Del-Val, Rosalba I Fonteriz, Javier Alvarez, Mayte Montero
Progressive decline in mitochondrial function is generally considered one of the hallmarks of aging. We have expressed a Ca(2+) sensor in the mitochondrial matrix of C. elegans pharynx cells and we have measured for the first time mitochondrial [Ca(2+)] ([Ca(2+)]M) dynamics in the pharynx of live C. elegans worms during aging. Our results show that worms stimulated with serotonin display a pharynx [Ca(2+)]M oscillatory kinetics that includes both high frequency oscillations (up to about 1Hz) and very prolonged "square-wave" [Ca(2+)]M increases, indicative of energy depletion of the pharynx cells...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915329/mitophagy-as-a-protective-mechanism-against-myocardial-stress
#20
Jihoon Nah, Shigeki Miyamoto, Junichi Sadoshima
Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that can undergo fusion, fission, biogenesis, and autophagic elimination to maintain mitochondrial quality control. Since the heart is in constant need of high amounts of energy, mitochondria, as a central energy supply source, play a crucial role in maintaining optimal cardiac performance. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with the pathophysiology of heart diseases. In non-dividing, post-mitotic cells such as cardiomyocytes, elimination of dysfunctional organelles is essential to maintaining cellular function because non-dividing cells cannot dilute dysfunctional organelles through cell division...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
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