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Mitochondrial dynamics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444372/quantifying-the-number-of-independent-organelle-dna-insertions-in-genome-evolution-and-human-health
#1
Einat Hazkani-Covo, William F Martin
Fragments of organelle genomes are often found as insertions in nuclear DNA. These fragments of mitochondrial DNA (numts) and plastid DNA (nupts) are ubiquitous components of eukaryotic genomes. They are, however, often edited out during the genome assembly process, leading to systematic underestimation of their frequency. Numts and nupts, once inserted, can become further fragmented through subsequent insertion of mobile elements or other recombinational events that disrupt the continuity of the inserted sequence relative to the genuine organelle DNA copy...
April 21, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444332/mitochondrial-recombination-and-introgression-during-speciation-by-hybridization
#2
Jean-Baptiste Leducq, Mathieu Henault, Guillaume Charron, Lou Nielly-Thibault, Yves Terrat, Heather L Fiumera, B Jesse Shapiro, Christian R Landry
Genome recombination is a major source of genotypic diversity and contributes to adaptation and speciation following inter-species hybridization. The contribution of recombination in these processes has been thought to be largely limited to the nuclear genome because organelles are mostly uniparentally inherited in animals and plants, which prevents recombination. Unicellular eukaryotes such as budding yeasts do, however, transmit mitochondria bi-parentally, suggesting that during hybridization, both parents could provide alleles that contribute to mitochondrial functions such as respiration and metabolism in hybrid populations or hybrid species...
April 21, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443516/synergistic-effect-of-graphene-oxide-coated-nanotised-apigenin-with-paclitaxel-go-na-ptx-a-ros-dependent-mitochondrial-mediated-apoptosis-in-ovarian-cancer
#3
Manish Kumar Pal, Shyam Pyari Jaiswar, Ashish Dwivedi, Shruti Goyal, Vinay Nand Dwivedi, Anumesh Kumar Pathak, Vinod Kumar, Pushp Lata Sankhwar, Ratan Singh Ray
Ovarian cancer is most lethal among all gynecologic malignancies. Paclitaxel (PTX) is well used chemotherapeutic regimen for cancer control; however its undesired toxicity has been always a matter of concern for clinicians. Here we used the graphene oxide coated nanotised apigenin (GO-NA) as chemo sensitizing agent to enhance the efficacy of paclitaxel to overcome the limitations of chemotherapy. GO and GO-Apigenin was prepared by modified Hummers method and the nanoparticles were characterized by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy Human ovarian adenocarcinomas (SKOV-3) cells was treated by DMSO, Group I (Control)-McCoy's 5A Medium, Group II-Paclitaxel (5nM) alone, Group III- Nanotised Apigenin (GO-NA-10μM) Group IV- Paclitaxel (5nM) + GO-NA (10μM)...
April 24, 2017: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443030/mitochondrial-reactive-oxygen-species-and-kidney-hypoxia-in-the-development-of-diabetic-nephropathy
#4
REVIEW
Tomas A Schiffer, Malou Friederich-Persson
The underlying mechanisms in the development of diabetic nephropathy are currently unclear and likely consist of a series of dynamic events from the early to late stages of the disease. Diabetic nephropathy is currently without curative treatments and it is acknowledged that even the earliest clinical manifestation of nephropathy is preceded by an established morphological renal injury that is in turn preceded by functional and metabolic alterations. An early manifestation of the diabetic kidney is the development of kidney hypoxia that has been acknowledged as a common pathway to nephropathy...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440746/dual-interaction-of-scaffold-protein-tim44-of-mitochondrial-import-motor-with-channel-forming-translocase-subunit-tim23
#5
See-Yeun Ting, Nicholas L Yan, Brenda A Schilke, Elizabeth A Craig
Proteins destined for the mitochondrial matrix are targeted to the inner membrane Tim17/23 translocon by their presequences. Inward movement is driven by the matrix-localized, Hsp70-based motor. The scaffold Tim44, interacting with the matrix face of the translocon, recruits other motor subunits and binds incoming presequence. The basis of these interactions and their functional relationships remains unclear. Using site-specific in vivo crosslinking and genetic approaches in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we found that both domains of Tim44 interact with the major matrix-exposed loop of Tim23, with the C-terminal domain (CTD) binding Tim17 as well...
April 25, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436966/microbial-metabolites-regulate-host-lipid-metabolism-through-nr5a-hedgehog-signalling
#6
Chih-Chun Janet Lin, Meng C Wang
Microorganisms and their hosts share the same environment, and microbial metabolic molecules (metabolites) exert crucial effects on host physiology. Environmental factors not only shape the composition of the host's resident microorganisms, but also modulate their metabolism. However, the exact molecular relationship among the environment, microbial metabolites and host metabolism remains largely unknown. Here, we discovered that environmental methionine tunes bacterial methyl metabolism to regulate host mitochondrial dynamics and lipid metabolism in Caenorhabditis elegans through an endocrine crosstalk involving NR5A nuclear receptor and Hedgehog signalling...
April 24, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434889/depletion-of-tm6sf2-disturbs-membrane-lipid-composition-and-dynamics-in-huh7-hepatoma-cells
#7
Hanna Ruhanen, P A Nidhina Haridas, Eeva-Liisa Eskelinen, Ove Eriksson, Vesa M Olkkonen, Reijo Käkelä
A polymorphism of TM6SF2 associates with hepatic lipid accumulation and reduction of triacylglycerol (TAG) secretion, but the function of the encoded protein has remained enigmatic. We studied the effect of stable TM6SF2 knock-down on the lipid content and composition, mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and organelle structure of HuH7 hepatoma cells. Knock-down of TM6SF2 resulted in intracellular accumulation of TAGs, cholesterol esters, phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine. In all of these lipid classes, polyunsaturated lipid species were significantly reduced while saturated and monounsaturated species increased their proportions...
April 18, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432755/mitochondria-and-ageing-role-in-heart-skeletal-muscle-and-adipose-tissue
#8
REVIEW
Kerstin Boengler, Maik Kosiol, Manuel Mayr, Rainer Schulz, Susanne Rohrbach
Age is the most important risk factor for most diseases. Mitochondria play a central role in bioenergetics and metabolism. In addition, several lines of evidence indicate the impact of mitochondria in lifespan determination and ageing. The best-known hypothesis to explain ageing is the free radical theory, which proposes that cells, organs, and organisms age because they accumulate reactive oxygen species (ROS) damage over time. Mitochondria play a central role as the principle source of intracellular ROS, which are mainly formed at the level of complex I and III of the respiratory chain...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432484/complete-mitochondrial-genome-sequences-of-korean-native-horse-from-jeju-island-uncovering-the-spatio-temporal-dynamics
#9
Sook Hee Yoon, Jaemin Kim, Donghyun Shin, Seoae Cho, Woori Kwak, Hak-Kyo Lee, Kyoung-Do Park, Heebal Kim
The Korean native horse (Jeju horse) is one of the most important animals in Korean historical, cultural, and economical viewpoints. In the early 1980s, the Jeju horse was close to extinction. The aim of this study is to explore the phylogenomics of Korean native horse focusing on spatio-temporal dynamics. We determined complete mitochondrial genome sequences for the first Korean native (n = 6) and additional Mongolian (n = 2) horses. Those sequences were analyzed together with 143 published ones using Bayesian coalescent approach as well as three different phylogenetic analysis methods, Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood, and neighbor-joining methods...
April 21, 2017: Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428851/screening-mitochondrial-dna-sequence-variation-as-an-alternative-method-for-tracking-established-and-outbreak-populations-of-queensland-fruit-fly-at-the-species-southern-range-limit
#10
Mark J Blacket, Mali B Malipatil, Linda Semeraro, Peter S Gillespie, Bernie C Dominiak
Understanding the relationship between incursions of insect pests and established populations is critical to implementing effective control. Studies of genetic variation can provide powerful tools to examine potential invasion pathways and longevity of individual pest outbreaks. The major fruit fly pest in eastern Australia, Queensland fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), has been subject to significant long-term quarantine and population reduction control measures in the major horticulture production areas of southeastern Australia, at the species southern range limit...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428083/the-roles-of-subcellularly-located-egfr-in-autophagy
#11
REVIEW
Hongsen Li, Liangkun You, Jiansheng Xie, Hongming Pan, Weidong Han
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a well-studied receptor-tyrosine kinase that serves vital roles in regulation of organ development and cancer progression. EGFR not only exists on the plasma membrane, but also widely expressed in the nucleus, endosomes, and mitochondria. Most recently, several lines of evidences indicated that autophagy is regulated by EGFR in kinase-active and -independent manners. In this review, we summarized recent advances in our understanding of the functions of different subcellularly located EGFR on autophagy...
April 18, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427560/stress-adaptive-response-in-ovarian-cancer-drug-resistance-role-of-trap1-in-oxidative-metabolism-driven-inflammation
#12
Maria Rosaria Amoroso, Danilo Swann Matassa, Ilenia Agliarulo, Rosario Avolio, Francesca Maddalena, Valentina Condelli, Matteo Landriscina, Franca Esposito
Metabolic reprogramming is one of the most frequent stress-adaptive response of cancer cells to survive environmental changes and meet increasing nutrient requirements during their growth. These modifications involve cellular bioenergetics and cross talk with surrounding microenvironment, in a dynamic network that connect different molecular processes, such as energy production, inflammatory response, and drug resistance. Even though the Warburg effect has long been considered the main metabolic feature of cancer cells, recent reports identify mitochondrial oxidative metabolism as a driving force for tumor growth in an increasing number of cellular contexts...
2017: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425971/%C3%AF-%C3%A2-cells-feature-de-ubiquitination-of-slc-transporters-and-increased-levels-and-fluxes-of-amino-acids
#13
André Bordinassi Medina, Marcin Banaszczak, Yang Ni, Ina Aretz, David Meierhofer
Solute carrier (SLC) transporters are a diverse group of membrane transporter proteins that regulate the cellular flux and distribution of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. Post-translational modifications (PTMs), such as ubiquitination, have recently emerged as one of the major regulatory mechanisms in protein function and localization. Previously, we showed that SLC amino acid transporters were on average 6-fold de-ubiquitinated and increased amino acid levels were detected in ρ⁰ cells (lacking mitochondrial DNA, mtDNA) compared to parental cells...
April 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425914/epstein-barr-virus-ensures-b-cell-survival-by-uniquely-modulating-apoptosis-at-early-and-late-times-after-infection
#14
Alexander M Price, Joanne Dai, Quentin Bazot, Luv Patel, Pavel A Nikitin, Reza Djavadian, Peter S Winter, Cristina A Salinas, Ashley Perkins Barry, Kris C Wood, Eric C Johannsen, Anthony Letai, Martin J Allday, Micah A Luftig
Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is causally linked to several human cancers. EBV expresses viral oncogenes that promote cell growth and inhibit the apoptotic response to uncontrolled proliferation. The EBV oncoprotein LMP1 constitutively activates NFB and is critical for survival of EBV-immortalized B cells. However, during early infection EBV induces rapid B cell proliferation with low levels of LMP1 and little apoptosis. Therefore, we sought to define the mechanism of survival in the absence of LMP1/NFB early after infection...
April 20, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424629/molecular-and-cellular-mechanisms-of-apoptosis-during-dissociated-spermatogenesis
#15
Tengfei Liu, Lingling Wang, Hong Chen, Yufei Huang, Ping Yang, Nisar Ahmed, Taozhi Wang, Yi Liu, Qiusheng Chen
Apoptosis is a tightly controlled process by which tissues eliminate unwanted cells. Spontaneous germ cell apoptosis in testis has been broadly investigated in mammals that have an associated spermatogenesis pattern. However, the mechanism of germ cell apoptosis in seasonally breeding reptiles following a dissociated spermatogenesis has remained enigmatic. In the present study, morphological evidence has clearly confirmed the dissociated spermatogenesis pattern in Pelodiscus sinensis. TUNEL and TEM analyses presented dynamic changes and ultrastructural characteristics of apoptotic germ cells during seasonal spermatogenesis, implying that apoptosis might be one of the key mechanisms to clear degraded germ cells...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424375/mitochondria-a-central-target-for-sex-differences-in-pathologies
#16
REVIEW
Renée Ventura-Clapier, Maryline Moulin, Jérôme Piquereau, Christophe Lemaire, Mathias Mericskay, Vladimir Veksler, Anne Garnier
It is increasingly acknowledged that a sex and gender specificity affects the occurrence, development, and consequence of a plethora of pathologies. Mitochondria are considered as the powerhouse of the cell because they produce the majority of energy-rich phosphate bonds in the form of adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) but they also participate in many other functions like steroid hormone synthesis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, ionic regulation, and cell death. Adequate cellular energy supply and survival depend on mitochondrial life cycle, a process involving mitochondrial biogenesis, dynamics, and quality control via mitophagy...
May 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424233/cluh-couples-mitochondrial-distribution-to-the-energetic-and-metabolic-status
#17
Jamal Wakim, David Goudenege, Rodolphe Perrot, Naig Gueguen, Valerie Desquiret-Dumas, Juan Manuel Chao de la Barca, Ilaria Dalla Rosa, Florence Manero, Morgane Le Mao, Stephanie Chupin, Arnaud Chevrollier, Vincent Procaccio, Dominique Bonneau, David C Logan, Pascal Reynier, Guy Lenaers, Salim Khiati
Mitochondrial dynamics and distribution are critical in supplying ATP in response to energy demand. CLUH is a protein involved in mitochondrial distribution, whose dysfunction leads to mitochondrial clustering, the metabolic consequences of which remain unknown. To gain insight into the role of CLUH on mitochondrial energy production and cellular metabolism, we have generated CLUH knockout cells using CRISPR/Cas9. Mitochondrial clustering was associated with a smaller cell size, and with decreased abundance of respiratory complexes, resulting in OXPHOS defects...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423950/hepatoprotective-and-free-radical-scavenging-actions-of-quercetin-nanoparticles-on-a%C3%AF-atoxin-b1-induced-liver-damage-in-vitro-in-vivo-studies
#18
Aziz Eftekhari, Elham Ahmadian, Vahid Panahi-Azar, Hedayat Hosseini, Mahnaz Tabibiazar, Solmaz Maleki Dizaj
The objective of present study was in vitro and in vivo evaluation of hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of Quercetin nanoparticles (Q NPs) against toxicity induced by aflatoxin B1. The Q NPs were prepared using precipitation method. Hepatocytes were prepared by the method of collagenase enzyme perfusion via portal vein. The NPs were characterized in terms of size and morphology using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. The level of parameters, such as cell death, ROS formation, lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial membrane potential and cellular glutathione (GSH) content, in the aflatoxin B1-treated and non-treated hepatocytes were determined and the mentioned markers were assessed in the presence of Q NPs...
April 20, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423551/metabolic-reprogramming-of-the-premalignant-colonic-mucosa-is-an-early-event-in-carcinogenesis
#19
Mart Dela Cruz, Sarah Ledbetter, Sanjib Chowdhury, Ashish K Tiwari, Navneet Momi, Ramesh K Wali, Charles Bliss, Christopher Huang, David Lichtenstein, Swati Bhattacharya, Anisha Varma-Wilson, Vadim Backman, Hemant K Roy
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the United States. There is an increasing need for the identification of biomarkers of pre-malignant and early stage CRC to improve risk-stratification and screening recommendations. In this study, we investigated the possibility of metabolic and mitochondrial reprogramming early in the pre-malignant colorectal field. METHODS: Rectal biopsies were taken from 81 patients undergoing screening colonoscopy, and gene expression of metabolic and mitochondrial markers were assessed using real time quantitative PCR...
March 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423313/power-grid-protection-of-the-muscle-mitochondrial-reticulum
#20
Brian Glancy, Lisa M Hartnell, Christian A Combs, Armel Fenmou, Junhui Sun, Elizabeth Murphy, Sriram Subramaniam, Robert S Balaban
Mitochondrial network connectivity enables rapid communication and distribution of potential energy throughout the cell. However, this connectivity puts the energy conversion system at risk, because damaged elements could jeopardize the entire network. Here, we demonstrate the mechanisms for mitochondrial network protection in heart and skeletal muscle (SKM). We find that the cardiac mitochondrial reticulum is segmented into subnetworks comprising many mitochondria linked through abundant contact sites at highly specific intermitochondrial junctions (IMJs)...
April 18, 2017: Cell Reports
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