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Mitochondrial dynamics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713989/effects-of-proton-beam-irradiation-on-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-a-human-colorectal-adenocarcinoma-cell-line
#1
Byung Geun Ha, Sung Suk Jung, Yun Hee Shon
Proton beam therapy has recently been used to improve local control of tumor growth and reduce side-effects by decreasing the global dose to normal tissue. However, the regulatory mechanisms underlying the physiological role of proton beam radiation are not well understood, and many studies are still being conducted regarding these mechanisms. To determine the effects of proton beams on mitochondrial biogenesis, we investigated: mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mass; the gene expression of mitochondrial transcription factors, functional regulators, and dynamic-related regulators; and the phosphorylation of the signaling molecules that participate in mitochondrial biogenesis...
July 5, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713932/human-trypsin-inhibitor-reduces-the-apoptosis-of-lipopolysaccharide%C3%A2-induced-human-kidney%C3%A2-2-cells-by-promoting-mitochondrial-fusion
#2
Ning Liu, Zhiyi Jiang, Yongjun Liu, Yao Nie, Juan Chen, Bin Ouyang, Xiangdong Guan, Minying Chen
Imbalance in mitochondrial fusion/fission is one of the mechanisms leading to sepsis‑induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cell apoptosis. The present study examined the effects of human trypsin inhibitor (UTI), a well‑known antioxidant and anti‑inflammatory substance, on mitochondrial dynamics and cell apoptosis in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑induced human kidney‑2 (HK‑2) cells. The HK‑2 cells were incubated for 24 h either with LPS (800 ng/ml) or LPS (800 ng/ml) mixed with UTI (250 U/ml). Cell viability was assessed using a3‑(4,5‑dimethyl‑2‑thiazolyl)‑2, 5‑diphenyl‑2‑H‑tetrazolium bromide assay...
July 5, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711655/ubiquitination-at-the-mitochondria-in-neuronal-health-and-disease
#3
REVIEW
Christian Covill-Cooke, Jack Howden, Nicol Birsa, Josef Kittler
The preservation of mitochondrial function is of particular importance in neurons given the high energy requirements of action potential propagation and synaptic transmission. Indeed, disruptions in mitochondrial dynamics and quality control are linked to cellular pathology in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Here, we will discuss the role of ubiquitination by the E3 ligases: Parkin, MARCH5 and Mul1, and how they regulate mitochondrial homeostasis. Furthermore, given the role of Parkin and Mul1 in the formation of mitochondria-derived vesicles we give an overview of this area of mitochondrial homeostasis...
July 12, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708998/profiling-ssb-nascent-chain-interactions-reveals-principles-of-hsp70-assisted-folding
#4
Kristina Döring, Nabeel Ahmed, Trine Riemer, Harsha Garadi Suresh, Yevhen Vainshtein, Markus Habich, Jan Riemer, Matthias P Mayer, Edward P O'Brien, Günter Kramer, Bernd Bukau
The yeast Hsp70 chaperone Ssb interacts with ribosomes and nascent polypeptides to assist protein folding. To reveal its working principle, we determined the nascent chain-binding pattern of Ssb at near-residue resolution by in vivo selective ribosome profiling. Ssb associates broadly with cytosolic, nuclear, and hitherto unknown substrate classes of mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) nascent proteins, supporting its general chaperone function. Ssb engages most substrates by multiple binding-release cycles to a degenerate sequence enriched in positively charged and aromatic amino acids...
July 13, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708000/reactive-oxygen-species-and-mitochondrial-homeostasis-as-regulators-of-stem-cell-fate-and-function
#5
Darren Qiancheng Tan, Toshio Suda
SIGNIFICANCE: The precise role and impact of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in stem cells, which are essential for lifelong tissue homeostasis and regeneration, remains of significant interest to the field. The long-term regenerative potential of a stem cell compartment is determined by the delicate balance between quiescence, self-renewal and differentiation; all of which can be influenced by ROS levels. Recent advances: The past decade has seen a growing appreciation for the importance of ROS and redox homeostasis in various stem cell compartments; particularly those of hematopoietic, neural and muscle tissues...
July 14, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705993/effects-of-%C3%AE-hydroxy-%C3%AE-methylbutyrate-hmb-on-skeletal-muscle-mitochondrial-content-and-dynamics-and-lipids-after-10-days-of-bed-rest-in-older-adults
#6
Robert A Standley, Giovanna Distefano, Suzette L Pereira, Min Tian, Owen J Kelly, Paul M Coen, Nicolaas E P Deutz, Robert R Wolfe, Bret H Goodpaster
Loss of muscle mass during periods of disuse likely has negative health consequences for older adults. We have previously shown that β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation during 10 days of strict bed rest (BR) attenuates the loss of lean mass in older adults. To elucidate potential molecular mechanisms of HMB effects on muscle during bed rest and resistance training rehabilitation (RT), we examined mediators of skeletal muscle mitochondrial dynamics, autophagy and atrophy, and intramyocellular lipids...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705612/cardiac-mitochondrial-dynamics-mir-mediated-regulation-during-cardiac-injury
#7
Anusha Sivakumar, Ramasamy Subbiah, Rekha Balakrishnan, Jeyaprakash Rajendhran
Mitochondrial integrity is indispensable for cardiac health. With the advent of modern imaging technologies, mitochondrial motility and dynamics within the cell are extensively studied. Terminally differentiated and well-structured cardiomyocytes depict little mitochondrial division and fusion, questioning the contribution of mitochondrial fusion proteins (Mitofusin 1/2 and Optic Atrophy 1 protein) and fission factors (Dynamin-like protein 1 and mitochondrial fission 1 protein) in cardiomyocyte homeostasis...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705116/alex3-suppresses-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-invasion-via-akt-slug-e-cadherin-pathway
#8
Jiang Du, Xiupeng Zhang, Haijing Zhou, Yuan Miao, Yong Han, Qiang Han, Enhua Wang
Alex3, is a newly identified mitochondrial protein, regulates mitochondrial dynamics and is involved in neural development. However, its expression pattern and clinicopathological relevance in human tumors are still unclear. In this study, Immunohistochemistry assay was performed in 109 cases of lung cancer samples and found that Alex 3 expression in lung cancer tissues was significantly lower than adjacent normal lung tissues (28.4% vs 52.6%, p < 0.001). Sequent statistical analysis indicated that negative Alex3 expression was significantly associated with advanced tumor-node-metastasis stages (p = 0...
July 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702823/etoposide-and-doxorubicin-enhance-the-sensitivity-of-triple-negative-breast-cancers-through-modulation-of-trail-dr5-axis
#9
Sarita Das, Neha Tripathi, Sumit Siddharth, Anmada Nayak, Deepika Nayak, Chinmayee Sethy, Prasad V Bharatam, Chanakya Nath Kundu
Death receptor 5 (DR5) is an important target for development of anticancer agents against triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Recently, we reported the molecular level details for the modulation of TRAIL-DR5 axis by quinacrine (QC) in breast cancer cells. In this work, the DR5 mediated anticancer potential of topoisomerase inhibitor etoposide (ET) and doxorubicin (DOX) against TNBC has been evaluated. ET and DOX enhanced the DR5 expression in TNBC cells, whereas non-topoisomerase inhibitors pifithrin-α (PIF) and dexamethasone (DEX) failed to do so...
July 12, 2017: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701340/cenp-f-couples-cargo-to-growing-and-shortening-microtubule-ends
#10
Gil Kanfer, Martin Peterka, Vladimir K Arzhanik, Alexei L Drobyshev, Fazly I Ataullakhanov, Vladimir A Volkov, Benoît Kornmann
Dynamic microtubule ends exert pulling and pushing forces on intracellular membranes and organelles. However, the mechanical linkage of microtubule tips to their cargoes is poorly understood. CENP-F is a non-motor microtubule-binding protein that participates in microtubule binding at kinetochores and in the mitotic redistribution of the mitochondrial network. CENP-F-driven mitochondrial transport is linked to growing microtubule tips, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are unknown. Here we show that CENP-F tracks growing microtubule ends in living cells...
July 12, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698153/curcumin-prevents-cisplatin-induced-renal-alterations-in-mitochondrial-bioenergetics-and-dynamic
#11
Bibiana Ortega-Domínguez, Omar Emiliano Aparicio-Trejo, Fernando E García-Arroyo, Juan Carlos León-Contreras, Edilia Tapia, Eduardo Molina-Jijón, Rogelio Hernández-Pando, Laura Gabriela Sánchez-Lozada, Diana Barrera-Oviedo, José Pedraza-Chaverri
Cisplatin is widely used as chemotherapeutic agent for treatment of diverse types of cancer, however, acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important side effect of this treatment. Diverse mechanisms have been involved in cisplatin-induced AKI, such as oxidative stress, apoptosis and mitochondrial damage. On the other hand, curcumin is a polyphenol extracted from the rhizome of Curcuma longa L. Previous studies have shown that curcumin protects against the cisplatin-induced AKI; however, it is unknown whether curcumin can reduce alterations in mitochondrial bioenergetics and dynamic in this model...
July 8, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698145/increase-in-proteins-involved-in-mitochondrial-fission-mitophagy-proteolysis-and-antioxidant-response-in-type-i-endometrial-cancer-as-an-adaptive-response-to-respiratory-complex-i-deficiency
#12
Antonella Cormio, Clara Musicco, Giuseppe Gasparre, Gennaro Cormio, Vito Pesce, AnnaMaria Sardanelli, Maria Nicola Gadaleta
Pathogenic mtDNA mutations associated with alterations of respiratory complex I, mitochondrial proliferation (oncocytic-like phenotype) and increase in antioxidant response were previously reported in type I endometrial carcinoma (EC). To evaluate whether in the presence of pathogenic mtDNA mutations other mitochondrial adaptive processes were triggered by cancer cells, the expression level of proteins involved in mitochondrial dynamics, mitophagy, proteolysis and apoptosis were evaluated in type I ECs harboring pathogenic mtDNA mutations and complex I deficiency...
July 8, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696104/wide-acidity-range-ph-fluorescence-probes-for-evaluation-of-acidification-in-mitochondria-and-digestive-tract-mucosa
#13
Guang Chen, Qiang Fu, Fabiao Yu, Rui Ren, Yuxia Liu, Ziping Cao, Guoliang Li, Xian-En Zhao, Lingxin Chen, Hua Wang, Jinmao You
The cells control their pH change in a very accurate range. pH plays important roles in cell autophagy and apoptosis. Evidences imply that the internal milieu of tumor is acidified. Although the acidification in cells is investigated, the biological effects from multiple stimulating factors under the complex intracellular environment have not been thoroughly elaborated yet. Hitherto, there is few pH probe performs in wide acidity range, which needs to be urgently developed. Herein, we report two new fluorescent probes (BHNBD and CM-BHNBD) for the detection of mitochondrial and intramucosal acidification...
July 11, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695547/human-immunodeficiency-virus-promotes-mitochondrial-toxicity
#14
REVIEW
Summer J Rozzi, Valeria Avdoshina, Jerel A Fields, Margarita Trejo, Hoai T Ton, Gerard P Ahern, Italo Mocchetti
Combined antiretroviral therapies (cART) have had remarkable success in reducing morbidity and mortality among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, mild forms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), characterized by loss of synapses, remain. cART may maintain an undetectable HIV RNA load but does not eliminate the expression of viral proteins such as trans-activator of transcription (Tat) and the envelope glycoprotein gp120 in the brain. These two viral proteins are known to promote synaptic simplifications by several mechanisms, including alteration of mitochondrial function and dynamics...
July 10, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695374/impact-of-aromaticity-on-anticancer-activity-of-polypyridyl-ruthenium-ii-complexes-synthesis-structure-dna-protein-binding-lipophilicity-and-anticancer-activity
#15
Petar Čanović, Ana Rilak Simović, Snežana Radisavljević, Ioannis Bratsos, Nicola Demitri, Marina Mitrović, Ivanka Zelen, Živadin D Bugarčić
With the aim of assessing how the aromaticity of the inert chelating ligand can influence the activity of ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes, two new monofunctional ruthenium(II) complexes, [Ru(Cl-Ph-tpy)(phen)Cl]Cl (1) and [Ru(Cl-Ph-tpy)(o-bqdi)Cl]Cl (2) (where Cl-Ph-tpy = 4'-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2':6',2″-terpyridine, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, o-bqdi = o-benzoquinonediimine), were synthesized. All complexes were fully characterized by elemental analysis and spectroscopic techniques (IR, UV-Vis, 1D and 2D NMR, XRD)...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694839/gene-expression-profiling-of-whole-blood-cells-supports-a-more-efficient-mitochondrial-respiration-in-hypoxia-challenged-gilthead-sea-bream-sparus-aurata
#16
Juan Antonio Martos-Sitcha, Azucena Bermejo-Nogales, Josep Alvar Calduch-Giner, Jaume Pérez-Sánchez
BACKGROUND: Acclimation to abiotic challenges, including decreases in O2 availability, requires physiological and anatomical phenotyping to accommodate the organism to the environmental conditions. The retention of a nucleus and functional mitochondria in mature fish red blood cells makes blood a promising tissue to analyse the transcriptome and metabolic responses of hypoxia-challenged fish in an integrative and non-invasive manner. METHODS: Juvenile gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) were reared at 20-21 °C under normoxic conditions (> 85% O2 saturation) followed by exposure to a gradual decrease in water O2 concentration to 3...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694451/polymorphic-regulation-of-mitochondrial-fission-and-fusion-modifies-phenotypes-of-microglia-in-neuroinflammation
#17
Mitsuhiko Katoh, Bao Wu, Huy Bang Nguyen, Truc Quynh Thai, Ryo Yamasaki, Haiyan Lu, Anna M Rietsch, Musab M Zorlu, Youichi Shinozaki, Yurika Saitoh, Sei Saitoh, Takashi Sakoh, Kazuhiro Ikenaka, Schuichi Koizumi, Richard M Ransohoff, Nobuhiko Ohno
Microglia are the resident macrophages of the central nervous system and play complex roles in the milieu of diseases including the primary diseases of myelin. Although mitochondria are critical for cellular functions and survival in the nervous system, alterations in and the roles of mitochondrial dynamics and associated signaling in microglia are still poorly understood. In the present study, by combining immunohistochemistry and 3D ultrastructural analyses, we show that mitochondrial fission/fusion in reactive microglia is differentially regulated from that in monocyte-derived macrophages and the ramified microglia of normal white matter in myelin disease models...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694191/on-the-role-of-subunit-m-in-cytochrome-cbb3-oxidase
#18
Catarina A Carvalheda, Andrei V Pisliakov
Cytochrome cbb3 (or C-type) oxidases are a highly divergent group and the least studied members of the heme-copper oxidases (HCOs) superfamily. HCOs couple the reduction of oxygen at the end of the respiratory chain to the active proton translocation across the membrane, contributing to establishment of an electrochemical gradient essential for ATP synthesis. Cbb3 oxidases exhibit unique structural and functional features and have an essential role in the metabolism of many clinically relevant human pathogens...
July 7, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692856/nutrient-scavenging-and-energy-management-acclimation-responses-in-nitrogen-and-sulfur-deprived-chlamydomonas
#19
REVIEW
Shai Saroussi, Emanuel Sanz-Luque, Rick G Kim, Arthur R Grossman
Photosynthetic organisms have evolved to modulate their metabolism to accommodate the highly dynamic light and nutrient conditions in nature. In this review we discuss ways in which the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii acclimates to nitrogen and sulfur deprivation, conditions that would limit the anabolic use of excitation energy because of a markedly reduced capacity for cell growth and division. Major aspects of this acclimation process are stringently regulated and involve scavenging the limited nutrient from internal and external sources, and the redirection of fixed carbon toward energy storage (e...
July 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692422/mitochondrial-flashes-regulate-atp-homeostasis-in-the-heart
#20
Xianhua Wang, Xing Zhang, Di Wu, Zhanglong Huang, Tingting Hou, Chongshu Jian, Peng Yu, Fujian Lu, Rufeng Zhang, Tao Sun, Jinghang Li, Wenfeng Qi, Yanru Wang, Feng Gao, Heping Cheng
The maintenance of a constant ATP level ('set-point') is a vital homeostatic function shared by eukaryotic cells. In particular, mammalian myocardium exquisitely safeguards its ATP set-point despite 10-fold fluctuations in cardiac workload. However, the exact mechanisms underlying this regulation of ATP homeostasis remain elusive. Here we show mitochondrial flashes (mitoflashes), recently discovered dynamic activity of mitochondria, play an essential role for the auto-regulation of ATP set-point in the heart...
July 10, 2017: ELife
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