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Mitochondrial dynamics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098754/drp1-dependent-mitochondrial-fission-plays-critical-roles-in-physiological-and-pathological-progresses-in-mammals
#1
REVIEW
Chenxia Hu, Yong Huang, Lanjuan Li
Current research has demonstrated that mitochondrial morphology, distribution, and function are maintained by the balanced regulation of mitochondrial fission and fusion, and perturbation of the homeostasis between these processes has been related to cell or organ dysfunction and abnormal mitochondrial redistribution. Abnormal mitochondrial fusion induces the fragmentation of mitochondria from a tubular morphology into pieces; in contrast, perturbed mitochondrial fission results in the fusion of adjacent mitochondria...
January 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096338/mitochondrial-fusion-dynamics-is-robust-in-the-heart-and-depends-on-calcium-oscillations-and-contractile-activity
#2
Verónica Eisner, Ryan R Cupo, Erhe Gao, György Csordás, William S Slovinsky, Melanie Paillard, Lan Cheng, Jessica Ibetti, S R Wayne Chen, J Kurt Chuprun, Jan B Hoek, Walter J Koch, György Hajnóczky
Mitochondrial fusion is thought to be important for supporting cardiac contractility, but is hardly detectable in cultured cardiomyocytes and is difficult to directly evaluate in the heart. We overcame this obstacle through in vivo adenoviral transduction with matrix-targeted photoactivatable GFP and confocal microscopy. Imaging in whole rat hearts indicated mitochondrial network formation and fusion activity in ventricular cardiomyocytes. Promptly after isolation, cardiomyocytes showed extensive mitochondrial connectivity and fusion, which decayed in culture (at 24-48 h)...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095487/dna-metabarcoding-of-amazonian-ichthyoplankton-swarms
#3
M E Maggia, Y Vigouroux, J F Renno, F Duponchelle, E Desmarais, J Nunez, C García-Dávila, F M Carvajal-Vallejos, E Paradis, J F Martin, C Mariac
Tropical rainforests harbor extraordinary biodiversity. The Amazon basin is thought to hold 30% of all river fish species in the world. Information about the ecology, reproduction, and recruitment of most species is still lacking, thus hampering fisheries management and successful conservation strategies. One of the key understudied issues in the study of population dynamics is recruitment. Fish larval ecology in tropical biomes is still in its infancy owing to identification difficulties. Molecular techniques are very promising tools for the identification of larvae at the species level...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095372/impaired-mitochondrial-respiration-in-large-cerebral-arteries-of-rats-with-type-2-diabetes
#4
Ivan Merdzo, Ibolya Rutkai, Venkata N L R Sure, Catherine A McNulty, Prasad V G Katakam, David W Busija
Mitochondrial dysfunction has been suggested as a potential underlying cause of pathological conditions associated with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). We have previously shown that mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial protein levels were similar in the large cerebral arteries of insulin-resistant Zucker obese rats and their lean controls. In this study, we extend our investigations into the mitochondrial dynamics of the cerebral vasculature of 14-week-old Zucker diabetic fatty obese (ZDFO) rats with early T2DM...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Vascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092092/domains-of-daily-physical-activity-in-children-with-mitochondrial-disease-a-3d-accelerometry-approach
#5
Saskia Koene, Ilse Dirks, Esmee van Mierlo, Pascal R de Vries, Anjo J W M Janssen, Jan A M Smeitink, Arjen Bergsma, Hans Essers, Kenneth Meijer, Imelda J M de Groot
Feasible, sensitive and clinically relevant outcome measures are of extreme importance when designing clinical trials. For paediatric mitochondrial disease, no robust end point has been described to date. The aim of this study was to select the domains of daily physical activity, which can be measured by 3D accelerometry, that could serve as sensitive end points in future clinical trials in children with mitochondrial disorders.In this exploratory observational study, 17 patients with mitochondrial disease and 16 age- and sex-matched controls wore 3D accelerometers at the upper leg, upper arm, lower arm and chest during one weekend...
January 17, 2017: JIMD Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087770/mitochondrial-mutation-rate-spectrum-and-heteroplasmy-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-spontaneous-mutation-accumulation-lines-of-differing-population-size
#6
Anke Konrad, Owen Thompson, Robert H Waterston, Donald G Moerman, Peter D Keightley, Ulfar Bergthorsson, Vaishali Katju
Mitochondrial genomes of metazoans, given their elevated rates of evolution, have served as pivotal markers for phylogeographic studies and recent phylogenetic events. In order to determine the dynamics of spontaneous mitochondrial mutations in small populations in the absence and presence of selection, we evolved mutation accumulation (MA) lines of Caenorhabditis elegans in parallel over 409 consecutive generations at three varying population sizes of N = 1, 10 and 100 hermaphrodites. The N =1 populations should have a minimal influence of natural selection to provide the spontaneous mutation rate and the expected rate of neutral evolution, whereas larger population sizes should experience increasing intensity of selection...
January 12, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087269/mitochondrial-roles-of-the-psychiatric-disease-risk-factor-disc1
#7
REVIEW
R Norkett, S Modi, J T Kittler
Ion transport during neuronal signalling utilizes the majority of the brain's energy supply. Mitochondria are key sites for energy provision through ATP synthesis and play other important roles including calcium buffering. Thus, tightly regulated distribution and function of these organelles throughout the intricate architecture of the neuron is essential for normal synaptic communication. Therefore, delineating mechanisms coordinating mitochondrial transport and function is essential for understanding nervous system physiology and pathology...
January 10, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087256/manganese-superoxide-dismutase-and-glutathione-peroxidase-1-contribute-to-the-rise-and-fall-of-mitochondrial-reactive-oxygen-species-which-drive-oncogenesis
#8
REVIEW
Dede N Ekoue, Chenxia He, Alan M Diamond, Marcelo G Bonini
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) largely originating in the mitochondria play essential roles in the metabolic and (epi)genetic reprogramming of cancer cell evolution towards more aggressive phenotypes. Recent studies have indicated that the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD2) may promote tumor progression by serving as a source of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). H2O2 is a form of ROS that is particularly active as a redox agent affecting cell signaling due to its ability to freely diffuse out of the mitochondria and alter redox active amino acid residues on regulatory proteins...
January 10, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075229/altered-mitochondrial-dynamics-as-a-consequence-of-venezuelan-equine-encephalitis-virus-infection
#9
Forrest Keck, Taryn Brooks-Faulconer, Tyler Lark, Pavitra Ravishankar, Charles Bailey, Carolina Salvador-Morales, Aarthi Narayanan
Mitochondria are sentinel organelles that are impacted by various forms of cellular stress, including viral infections. While signaling events associated with mitochondria, including those activated by pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), are widely studied, alterations in mitochondrial distribution and changes in mitochondrial dynamics are also beginning to be associated with cellular insult. Cells of neuronal origin have been demonstrated to display remarkable alterations in several instances, including neurodegenerative disorders...
January 11, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074058/intracellular-atp-in-balance-of-pro-and-anti-inflammatory-cytokines-in-adipose-tissue-with-and-without-tissue-expansion
#10
J H Lee, Y Zhang, Z Zhao, X Ye, X Zhang, H Wang, J Ye
OBJECTIVES: To understand the mechanism of white fat expansion in the presence of inflammation, we examined the balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in epididymal fat during weight gain in DIO mice. METHODS: The pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines were examined in white fat of diet-induced obese mice and lean mice. The mechanism of gene expression was investigated with a focus on intracellular ATP (iATP). ATP activity was tested in cellular and non-cellular systems in activation of serine kinases (IKKβ, JNK and ERK)...
January 11, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073120/nano-pelargonidin-protects-hyperglycemic-induced-l6-cells-against-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#11
Asmita Samadder, Debojyoti Tarafdar, Suresh K Abraham, Kumaresh Ghosh, Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh
Nano-encapsulation of several natural products has become an important tool in enhancing the bioavailability of some modern drugs against many diseases. Pelargonidin is an anthocyanidin found in many fruits and vegetables. Pelargonidin is loaded with poly-lactide-co-glycolic-acid, a non-toxic biodegradable polymer, to produce nano-pelargonidin. Size, morphology, zeta potential, and planar uniformity of formulated nano-pelargonidin were determined by atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The time required for cellular entry, folds of nano-pelargonidin, and drug encapsulation efficiency of poly-lactide-co-glycolic-acid were also ascertained...
January 10, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069524/atg14-facilitated-lipophagy-in-cancer-cells-induce-er-stress-mediated-mitoptosis-through-a-ros-dependent-pathway
#12
Subhadip Mukhopadhyay, Isabel R Schlaepfer, Bryan C Bergman, Prashanta Kumar Panda, Prakash Priyadarshi Praharaj, Prajna Paramita Naik, Rajesh Agarwal, Sujit Kumar Bhutia
Understanding the dynamics of autophagy and apoptosis crosstalk in cancer progression remains a challenging task. Here, we reported how the autophagy protein ATG14 induces lipophagy-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis. The overexpression of ATG14 in HeLa cells inhibited cell viability and increased mitochondrial apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Furthermore, inhibition of this ATG14-induced autophagy promoted apoptosis. ATG14 overexpression resulted in the accumulation of stearic acid and oleic acid free fatty acids (FFA), with a concomitant decrease in the number of lipid droplets...
January 6, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065847/a-drosophila-model-of-gdap1-function-reveals-the-involvement-of-insulin-signalling-in-the-mitochondria-dependent-neuromuscular-degeneration
#13
Víctor López Del Amo, Martina Palomino-Schätzlein, Marta Seco-Cervera, José Luis García-Giménez, Federico Vicente Pallardó, Antonio Pineda-Lucena, Máximo Ibo Galindo
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is a rare peripheral neuropathy for which there is no specific treatment. Some forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth are due to mutations in the GDAP1 gene. A striking feature of mutations in GDAP1 is that they have a variable clinical manifestation, according to disease onset and progression, histology and mode of inheritance. Studies in cellular and animal models have revealed a role of GDAP1 in mitochondrial morphology and distribution, calcium homeostasis and oxidative stress. To get a better understanding of the disease mechanism we have generated models of over-expression and RNA interference of the Drosophila Gdap1 gene...
January 6, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065319/xenopus-extract-approaches-to-studying-microtubule-organization-and-signaling-in-cytokinesis
#14
C M Field, J F Pelletier, T J Mitchison
We report optimized methods for preparing actin-intact Xenopus egg extract. This extract is minimally perturbed, undiluted egg cytoplasm where the cell cycle can be experimentally controlled. It contains abundant organelles and glycogen and supports active metabolism and cytoskeletal dynamics that closely mimic egg physiology. The concentration of the most abundant ∼11,000 proteins is known from mass spectrometry. Actin-intact egg extract can be used for analysis of actin dynamics and interaction of actin with other cytoplasmic systems, as well as microtubule organization...
2017: Methods in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064403/knockdown-of-clusterin-alters-mitochondrial-dynamics-facilitates-necrosis-in-camptothecin-induced-cancer-stem-cells
#15
Parthasarathy Arumugam, Annie Samson, Jieun Ki, Joon Myong Song
The existence of a well-established drug resistance mechanism in cancer stem cells (CSC) complicates the cancer treatment. Clusterin (CLU) plays a key role in maintaining the integrity of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) during drug-induced stress. Hence, silencing the CLU could significantly reduce the inherent drug resistance mechanism of CSC. The combination of drug-induced cytotoxicity, as well as the suppression of drug resistance in CSC, could circumvent the recurrence capability of the tumor. In the present study, camptothecin (CPT)-induced apoptosis and necrosis in CSC with and without siCLU treatment were simultaneously measured using Qdot-based total internal reflection fluorescence microscope (TIRF)...
January 7, 2017: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064190/cytoplasmic-nuclear-incompatibility-between-wild-isolates-of-caenorhabditis-nouraguensis
#16
Piero Lamelza, Michael Ailion
How species arise is a fundamental question in biology. Species can be defined as populations of interbreeding individuals that are reproductively isolated from other such populations. Therefore, understanding how reproductive barriers evolve between populations is essential for understanding the process of speciation. Hybrid incompatibility (for example, hybrid sterility or lethality) is a common and strong reproductive barrier in nature. Here we report a lethal incompatibility between two wild isolates of the nematode Caenorhabditis nouraguensis Hybrid inviability results from the incompatibility between a maternally inherited cytoplasmic factor from each strain and a recessive nuclear locus from the other...
January 6, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062752/arabidopsis-seed-mitochondria-are-bioenergetically-active-immediately-upon-imbibition-and-specialize-via-biogenesis-in-preparation-for-autotrophic-growth
#17
Gael Paszkiewicz, Jose Manuel Gualberto, Abdelilah Benamar, David Macherel, David C Logan
Seed germination is a vital developmental transition for production of progeny by sexual reproduction in spermatophytes. Quiescent cells in non-dormant dry embryos are reawakened first by imbibition and then by perception of germination triggers. Reanimated tissues enter into a germination program requiring energy for expansion growth. However, germination requires that embryonic tissues develop to support the more energy-demanding processes of cell division and organogenesis of the new seedling. Reactivation of mitochondria to supply the required energy is thus a key process underpinning germination and seedling survival...
January 6, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060865/agent-based-modeling-of-mitochondria-links-sub-cellular-dynamics-to-cellular-homeostasis-and-heterogeneity
#18
Giovanni Dalmasso, Paula Andrea Marin Zapata, Nathan Ryan Brady, Anne Hamacher-Brady
Mitochondria are semi-autonomous organelles that supply energy for cellular biochemistry through oxidative phosphorylation. Within a cell, hundreds of mobile mitochondria undergo fusion and fission events to form a dynamic network. These morphological and mobility dynamics are essential for maintaining mitochondrial functional homeostasis, and alterations both impact and reflect cellular stress states. Mitochondrial homeostasis is further dependent on production (biogenesis) and the removal of damaged mitochondria by selective autophagy (mitophagy)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060261/study-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-and-mitochondria-interactions-by-in-situ-proximity-ligation-assay-in-fixed-cells
#19
Emily Tubbs, Jennifer Rieusset
Structural interactions between the endoplasmic reticular (ER) and mitochondrial membranes, in domains known as mitochondria-associated membranes (MAM), are crucial hubs for cellular signaling and cell fate. Particularly, these inter-organelle contact sites allow the transfer of calcium from the ER to mitochondria through the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC)/glucose-regulated protein 75 (GRP75)/inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (IP3R) calcium channeling complex. While this subcellular compartment is under intense investigation in both physiological and pathological conditions, no simple and sensitive method exists to quantify the endogenous amount of ER-mitochondria contact in cells...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059794/oxidative-stress-synaptic-dysfunction-and%C3%A2-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Eric Tönnies, Eugenia Trushina
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder without a cure. Most AD cases are sporadic where age represents the greatest risk factor. Lack of understanding of the disease mechanism hinders the development of efficacious therapeutic approaches. The loss of synapses in the affected brain regions correlates best with cognitive impairment in AD patients and has been considered as the early mechanism that precedes neuronal loss. Oxidative stress has been recognized as a contributing factor in aging and in the progression of multiple neurodegenerative diseases including AD...
December 3, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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