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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619466/drosophila-mitotypes-determine-developmental-time-in-a-diet-and-temperature-dependent-manner
#1
Samuel G Towarnicki, J William O Ballard
It is well known that specific mitochondrial (mt) DNA mutations can reduce organismal fitness and influence mitochondrial-nuclear interactions. However, determining specific mtDNA mutations that are beneficial has been elusive. In this study, we vary the diet and environmental temperature to study larval development time of two Drosophila melanogaster mitotypes (Alstonville and Dahomey), in two nuclear genetic backgrounds, and investigate developmental differences through weight, feeding rate, and movement...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615318/miro1-mediated-mitochondrial-positioning-shapes-intracellular-energy-gradients-required-for-cell-migration
#2
Max-Hinderk Schuler, Agnieszka Lewandowska, Giuseppe Di Caprio, Wesley Skillern, Srigokul Upadhyayula, Tom Kirchhausen, Janet M Shaw, Brian Cunniff
It has long been postulated, though never directly demonstrated that mitochondria are strategically positioned in the cytoplasm to meet local requirements for energy production. Here we show that positioning of mitochondria in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) determines the shape of intracellular energy gradients in living cells. Specifically, the ratio of ATP to ADP was highest at perinuclear areas of dense mitochondria and gradually declined approaching more peripheral sites. Furthermore, the majority of mitochondria were positioned at the ventral surface of the cell, correlating with high ATP:ADP ratios close to the ventral membrane that rapidly decreased towards the dorsal surface...
June 14, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613308/on-chip-cryo-anesthesia-of-drosophila-larvae-for-high-resolution-in-vivo-imaging-applications
#3
Amrita Ray Chaudhury, Ryan Insolera, Ran-Der Hwang, Yih-Woei Fridell, Catherine Collins, Nikos Chronis
We present a microfluidic chip for immobilizing Drosophila melanogaster larvae for high resolution in vivo imaging. The chip creates a low-temperature micro-environment that anaesthetizes and immobilizes the larva in under 3 minutes. We characterized the temperature distribution within the chip and analyzed the resulting larval body movement using high resolution fluorescence imaging. Our results indicate that the proposed method minimizes submicron movements of internal organs and tissue without affecting the larva physiology...
June 14, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610652/novel-insights-into-the-role-of-cell-free-seminal-mrnas-on-semen-quality-and-cryotolerance-of-spermatozoa-in-bulls-bos-taurus
#4
Munivenkatappa Shilpa, Sellappan Selvaraju, Venkataswamy GirishKumar, Sivashanmugam Parthipan, Krishnan B Binsila, Arunachalam Arangasamy, Janivara Parameshwaraiah Ravindra
The aim of the present study was to ascertain the effectiveness of seminal plasma mRNAs as markers to assess the reproductive performance of bulls. Semen samples (33 ejaculates) from 11 bulls were evaluated for sperm kinematic and functional parameters. Total RNA was isolated from cell-free seminal (cfs) using TRIzol LS reagent and the concentration of cfs-RNA was 24.4±2.3µgmL-1 seminal plasma. The cfs-RNA was fragmented to a size of 25-500bp. Of the cfs-mRNAs screened using real time PCR, expression of protamine 1 (PRM1) was positively (P<0...
June 14, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599249/important-medicinal-herbs-in-parkinson-s-disease-pharmacotherapy
#5
REVIEW
Saurabh Srivastav, Mahino Fatima, Amal Chandra Mondal
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common progressive neurodegenerative movement disorder affecting more than 10 million people worldwide. The characteristic hallmark of PD involves progressive loss of dopaminergic (DA-ergic) neuron in Substantia Nigra pars compacta (SNpc) region of the brain, however, aetiology of the disease still remains unclear. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative insult are considered to be the key culprit. The current therapy available for PD primarily relies on Levodopa that offers the potential of slowing down disease progression to some extent but includes lot of side effects...
June 6, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595321/mitochondrial-deficits-and-abnormal-mitochondrial-retrograde-axonal-transport-play-a-role-in-the-pathogenesis-of-mutant-hsp27-induced-charcot-marie-tooth-disease
#6
Bernadett Kalmar, Amy Innes, Klaus Wanisch, Alicia Koyen Kolaszynska, Amelie Pandraud, Gavin Kelly, Andrey Y Abramov, Mary M Reilly, Giampietro Schiavo, Linda Greensmith
Mutations in the small heat shock protein Hsp27, encoded by the HSPB1 gene, have been shown to cause Charcot Marie Tooth Disease type 2 (CMT-2) or distal hereditary motor neuropathy (dHMN). Protein aggregation and axonal transport deficits have been implicated in the disease. In this study, we conducted analysis of bidirectional movements of mitochondria in primary motor neuron axons expressing wild type and mutant Hsp27. We found significantly slower retrograde transport of mitochondria in Ser135Phe, Pro39Leu and Arg140Gly mutant Hsp27 expressing motor neurons than in wild type Hsp27 neurons, although anterograde movement velocities remained normal...
June 8, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589083/the-concerted-action-of-mitochondrial-dynamics-and-positioning-new-characters-in-cancer-onset-and-progression
#7
REVIEW
Diana Pendin, Riccardo Filadi, Paola Pizzo
Mitochondria are dynamic organelles whose morphology and activity are extremely variable, depending on the metabolic state of the cell. In particular, their shape and movements within the cell are finely regulated by an increasing number of proteins, which take part in the process of mitochondrial fission/fusion and connect the organelles to the cytoskeleton. As to their activities, mitochondria are considered to be at the crossroad between cell life and death since, on the one hand, they are essential in ATP production and in multiple metabolic pathways but, on the other, they are involved in the intrinsic apoptotic cascade, triggered by different stress conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588746/the-stimulated-glycolytic-pathway-is-able-to-maintain-atp-levels-and-kinetic-patterns-of-bovine-epididymal-sperm-subjected-to-mitochondrial-uncoupling
#8
João D A Losano, Juan Fernando Padín, Iago Méndez-López, Daniel S R Angrimani, Antonio G García, Valquiria H Barnabe, Marcilio Nichi
Studies have reported the importance of mitochondria in sperm functionality. However, for some species, the glycolytic pathway appears to be as important as oxidative phosphorylation in ATP synthesis and sperm kinetics. These mechanisms have not been fully elucidated for bovine spermatozoa. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the role of mitochondria and the glycolytic pathway in ATP synthesis, sperm movement patterns, and oxidative homeostasis of epididymal spermatozoa in bovine specimens. We observed that mitochondrial uncoupling with protonophores significantly reduced ATP levels...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575393/t7-rna-polymerase-translocation-is-facilitated-by-a-helix-opening-on-the-fingers-domain-that-may-also-prevent-backtracking
#9
Lin-Tai Da, Chao E, Yao Shuai, Shaogui Wu, Xiao-Dong Su, Jin Yu
Here, we studied the complete process of a viral T7 RNA polymerase (RNAP) translocation on DNA during transcription elongation by implementing extensive all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to construct a Markov state model (MSM). Our studies show that translocation proceeds in a Brownian motion, and the RNAP thermally transits among multiple metastable states. We observed non-synchronized backbone movements of the nucleic acid (NA) chains with the RNA translocation accomplished first, while the template DNA lagged...
May 31, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551786/mitochondrial-bioenergetics-during-ischemia-and-reperfusion
#10
Alicia E Consolini, María I Ragone, Patricia Bonazzola, Germán A Colareda
During ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) mitochondria suffer a deficiency to supply the cardiomyocyte with chemical energy, but also contribute to the cytosolic ionic alterations especially of Ca(2+). Their free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]m) mainly depends on mitochondrial entrance through the uniporter (UCam) and extrusion in exchange with Na(+) (mNCX) driven by the electrochemical gradient (ΔΨm). Cardiac energetic is frequently estimated by the oxygen consumption, which determines metabolism coupled to ATP production and to the maintaining of ΔΨm...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527629/p62-sequestosome-1-knockout-delays-neurodegeneration-induced-by-drp1-loss
#11
Tatsuya Yamada, Yoshihiro Adachi, Toru Yanagawa, Miho Iijima, Hiromi Sesaki
Purkinje neurons, one of the largest neurons in the brain, are critical for controlling body movements, and the dysfunction and degeneration of these cells cause ataxia. Purkinje neurons require a very efficient energy supply from mitochondria because of their large size and extensive dendritic arbors. We have previously shown that mitochondrial division mediated by dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) is critical for the development and survival of Purkinje neurons. Drp1 deficiency has been associated with one of the major types of ataxia: autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix Saguenay...
May 17, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507584/effects-of-adenosine-receptor-antagonists-in-mptp-mouse-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-mitochondrial-dna-integrity
#12
Soha S Essawy, Mona Kamal Tawfik, Horya Erfan Korayem
INTRODUCTION: In Parkinson's disease (PD), compelling data indicate a functional link between adenosine/dopamine receptors and the progression of the neurodegenerative process. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of the non-selective adenosine receptor (ADR) antagonist caffeine, as well as the selective antagonists 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX), an ADRsA1 antagonist, and ((E)-1,3-diethyl-8-(3,4-dimethoxystyryl)-7-methyl-3,7-dihydro-1H-purine-2,6-dione) (KW-6002), an ADRsA2A antagonist, on the prevention of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced Parkinsonism in mice...
April 1, 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506426/heterogeneity-of-fhf1-related-phenotype-novel-case-with-early-onset-severe-attacks-of-apnea-partial-mitochondrial-respiratory-chain-complex-ii-deficiency-neonatal-onset-seizures-without-neurodegeneration
#13
Nathalie Villeneuve, Affef Abidi, Pierre Cacciagli, Cécile Mignon-Ravix, Brigitte Chabrol, Laurent Villard, Mathieu Milh
INTRODUCTION/OBJECTIVES: We report the case of a child prospectively followed in our institution for a severe, neonatal onset epilepsy presenting with severe attacks of apnea that were not initially recognized as seizure since they were not associated with any abnormal movement and since interictal EEG was normal. Recording of attacks using prolonged video-EEG recording allowed to confirm the diagnosis of epileptic seizures. RESULTS: Using whole exome sequencing we found a de novo heterozygous, missense mutation of FHF1 (p...
April 29, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498971/deletion-of-rhoa-in-progesterone-receptor-expressing-cells-leads-to-luteal-insufficiency-and-infertility-in-female-mice
#14
Ahmed E El Zowalaty, Rong Li, Yi Zheng, John P Lydon, Francesco J DeMayo, Xiaoqin Ye
RhoA is widely expressed throughout the female reproductive system. To assess its role in progesterone receptor (Pgr) expressing cells, we generated RhoA conditional knockout mice RhoAd/d (RhoAf/f-Pgr-Cre+/-). RhoAd/d females had comparable mating activity, serum LH, prolactin, and estradiol levels and ovulation with control but were infertile with progesterone insufficiency, indicating impaired steroidogenesis in RhoAd/d corpus luteum (CL). RhoA was highly expressed in wild type luteal cells and conditionally deleted in RhoAd/d CL...
May 11, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495532/new-insights-into-the-role-of-mitochondrial-calcium-homeostasis-in-cell-migration
#15
Vincent Paupe, Julien Prudent
Mitochondria are dynamic organelles involved in numerous physiological functions. Beyond their function in ATP production, mitochondria regulate cell death, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, immunity and metabolism. Mitochondria also play a key role in the buffering of cytosolic calcium, and calcium transported into the matrix regulates mitochondrial metabolism. Recently, the identification of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) and associated regulators has allowed the characterization of new physiological roles for calcium in both mitochondrial and cellular homeostasis...
May 8, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484149/the-genetic-diversity-of-d-loop-sequences-in-eastern-bent-winged-bats-miniopterus-fuliginosus-living-in-wakayama-prefecture-japan
#16
Keisuke Iida, Ryosuke Kobayashi, Yupadee Hengjan, Nao Nagata, Kenzo Yonemitsu, Mitsuo Nunome, Ryusei Kuwata, Kazuo Suzuki, Kenji Ichiyanagi, Ken Maeda, Yasushige Ohmori, Eiichi Hondo
The eastern bent-winged bat (Miniopterus fuliginosus) is an insectivorous bat that lives in the caves, throughout Japan. The bats aggregate in cave in populations of tens to thousands of individuals. We examined the mitochondrial D-loop sequences of bats in Wakayama, Japan, and divided them into 35 haplotypes. The sequences of 3 haplotypes in Wakayama were the same as those of 10 Miniopterus fuliginosus individuals living in China. Given the substitution rate of the D-loop region, we speculated that the bats had moved between Japan and China within the last 16,000 years...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479995/genetic-structure-among-greater-white-fronted-goose-populations-of-the-pacific-flyway
#17
Craig R Ely, Robert E Wilson, Sandra L Talbot
An understanding of the genetic structure of populations in the wild is essential for long-term conservation and stewardship in the face of environmental change. Knowledge of the present-day distribution of genetic lineages (phylogeography) of a species is especially important for organisms that are exploited or utilize habitats that may be jeopardized by human intervention, including climate change. Here, we describe mitochondrial (mtDNA) and nuclear genetic (microsatellite) diversity among three populations of a migratory bird, the greater white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons), which breeds discontinuously in western and southwestern Alaska and winters in the Pacific Flyway of North America...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476494/diversity-and-phylogeography-of-northeast-asian-brown-frogs-allied-to-rana-dybowskii-anura-ranidae
#18
Bao-Tian Yang, Yu Zhou, Mi-Sook Min, Masafumi Matsui, Bing-Jun Dong, Pi-Peng Li, Jonathan J Fong
We investigated the species diversity and phylogeography of the Northeast Asian brown frogs allied to Rana dybowskii (the R. dybowskii species complex: R. dybowskii, R. pirica, and R. uenoi) using four mitochondrial and three nuclear loci. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the existence of three distinct species in this complex; using extensive molecular data, we confirm the validity of Rana uenoi recognized as a distinct species, and infer R. dybowskii and R. pirica to be sister species. Also, we included populations from previously unsampled regions in Northeast China, and identified them to be R...
May 2, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473328/tnf%C3%AE-decreases-mitochondrial-movement-in-human-airway-smooth-muscle
#19
Philippe F Delmotte, Vanessa A Zavaletta, Michael A Thompson, Y S Prakash, Gary C Sieck
In airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells, excitation-contraction coupling is accomplished via a cascade of events which connect an elevation of cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]cyt) with cross-bridge attachment and ATP-consuming mechanical work. Excitation-energy coupling is mediated by linking the elevation in [Ca(2+)]cyt to an increase in mitochondrial Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]mito) which in turn stimulates ATP production. Mitochondria proximity with the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and plasma membrane is thought to be an important mechanism to facilitate mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake...
May 4, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461171/connecting-mitochondrial-dynamics-and-life-or-death-events-via-bcl-2-family-proteins
#20
REVIEW
Abdel Aouacheria, Stephen Baghdiguian, Heather M Lamb, Jason D Huska, Fernando J Pineda, J Marie Hardwick
The morphology of a population of mitochondria is the result of several interacting dynamical phenomena, including fission, fusion, movement, elimination and biogenesis. Each of these phenomena is controlled by underlying molecular machinery, and when defective can cause disease. New understanding of the relationships between form and function of mitochondria in health and disease is beginning to be unraveled on several fronts. Studies in mammals and model organisms have revealed that mitochondrial morphology, dynamics and function appear to be subject to regulation by the same proteins that regulate apoptotic cell death...
April 28, 2017: Neurochemistry International
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