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Mitochondrial movement

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922372/reduction-of-organelle-motility-by-removal-of-potassium-and-other-solutes
#1
John W Murray, David Yin, Allan W Wolkoff
There are surprisingly few studies that describe how the composition of cell culture medium may affect the trafficking of organelles. Here we utilize time lapse multi-channel fluorescent imaging to show that short term exposure of Huh-7 cells to medium lacking potassium, sodium, or chloride strongly reduces but does not eliminate the characteristic back and forth and cell-traversing movement of fluorescent EGF (FL-EGF) containing organelles. We focused on potassium because of its relatively low abundance in media and serum and its energy requiring accumulation into cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918113/regulation-of-mitochondrial-bioenergetics-by-the-non-canonical-roles-of-mitochondrial-dynamics-proteins-in-the-heart
#2
REVIEW
Wang Wang, Celia Fernandez-Sanz, Shey-Shing Sheu
Recent advancement in mitochondrial research has significantly extended our knowledge on the role and regulation of mitochondria in health and disease. One important breakthrough is the delineation of how mitochondrial morphological changes, termed mitochondrial dynamics, are coupled to the bioenergetics and signaling functions of mitochondria. In general, it is believed that fusion leads to an increased mitochondrial respiration efficiency and resistance to stress-induced dysfunction while fission does the contrary...
September 13, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916229/japanese-leigh-syndrome-case-treated-with-epi-743
#3
Takeshi Kouga, Mariko Takagi, Akihiko Miyauchi, Hiroko Shimbo, Mizue Iai, Sumimasa Yamashita, Kei Murayama, Matthew B Klein, Guy Miller, Tomohide Goto, Hitoshi Osaka
BACKGROUND: Leigh syndrome is a mitochondrial disease caused by respiratory chain deficiency, and there are no proven effective therapies. EPI-743 is a potent cellular oxidative stress protectant and results of clinical trials for mitochondrial diseases are accumulating. CASE: At 5months, a girl presented with the scarce eye movement and diminished muscle tone. She was diagnosed with Leigh encephalopathy from blood and cerebrospinal fluid lactate elevation and MRI findings...
September 12, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912602/kinetic-adaptation-of-human-myo19-for-active-mitochondrial-transport-to-growing-filopodia-tips
#4
Marko Ušaj, Arnon Henn
Myosins are actin-based molecular motors which are enzymatically adapted for their cellular functions such as transportation and membrane tethering. Human Myo19 affects mitochondrial motility, and promotes their localization to stress-induced filopodia. Therefore, studying Myo19 enzymology is essential to understand how this motor may facilitate mitochondrial motility. Towards this goal, we have purified Myo19 motor domain (Myo19-3IQ) from a human-cell expression system and utilized transient kinetics to study the Myo19-3IQ ATPase cycle...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902452/mgrn1-mediated-ubiquitination-of-%C3%AE-tubulin-regulates-microtubule-dynamics-and-intracellular-transport
#5
Rukmini Mukherjee, Priyanka Majumder, Oishee Chakrabarti
MGRN1 mediated ubiquitination of α-tubulin regulates microtubule stability and mitotic spindle positioning in mitotic cells. This study elucidates the effect of MGRN1 mediated ubiquitination of α-tubulin in interphase cells. Here, we show that MGRN1 mediated ubiquitination regulates dynamics of EB1 labelled plus ends of microtubules. Intracellular transport of mitochondria and endosomes are affected in cultured cells where functional MGRN1 is depleted. Defects in microtubule-dependent organellar transport are evident in cells where noncanonical K6 mediated ubiquitination of α-tubulin by MGRN1 is compromised...
September 13, 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901595/movement-disorders-in-genetically-confirmed-mitochondrial-disease-and-the-putative-role-of-the-cerebellum
#6
Sebastian R Schreglmann, Franz Riederer, Marian Galovic, Christos Ganos, Georg Kägi, Daniel Waldvogel, Zane Jaunmuktane, Andre Schaller, Ute Hidding, Ernst Krasemann, Lars Michels, Christian R Baumann, Kailash Bhatia, Hans H Jung
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial disease can present as a movement disorder. Data on this entity's epidemiology, genetics, and underlying pathophysiology, however, is scarce. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to describe the clinical, genetic, and volumetric imaging data from patients with mitochondrial disease who presented with movement disorders. METHODS: In this retrospective analysis of all genetically confirmed mitochondrial disease cases from three centers (n = 50), the prevalence and clinical presentation of video-documented movement disorders was assessed...
September 13, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899959/impaired-malate-and-fumarate-accumulation-due-the-mutation-of-tonoplast-dicarboxylate-transporter
#7
David B Medeiros, Kallyne Barros, Jessica As Barros, Rebeca P Omena-Garcia, Stéphanie Arrivault, Lilian Vincis Pereira Sanglard, Kelly C Detmann, Willian Batista Silva, Danilo M Daloso, Fabio DaMatta, Adriano Nunes-Nesi, Alisdair R Fernie, Wagner L Araújo
Malate is a central metabolite involved in a multiplicity of plant metabolic pathways, being associated with mitochondrial metabolism and playing significant roles in stomatal movements. Vacuolar malate transport has been characterized at the molecular level and is performed by at least one carrier protein and two channels in Arabidopsis vacuoles. The absence of the Arabidopsis thaliana tonoplast Dicarboxylate Transporter (tDT) in tdt knockout mutant was previously associated with an impaired accumulation of malate and fumarate in leaves...
September 12, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891816/syntaphilin-controls-a-mitochondrial-rheostat-for-proliferation-motility-decisions-in-cancer
#8
M Cecilia Caino, Jae Ho Seo, Yuan Wang, Dayana B Rivadeneira, Dmitry I Gabrilovich, Eui Tae Kim, Ashani T Weeraratna, Lucia R Languino, Dario C Altieri
Tumors adapt to an unfavorable microenvironment by controlling the balance between cell proliferation and cell motility, but the regulators of this process are largely unknown. Here, we show that an alternatively spliced isoform of syntaphilin (SNPH), a cytoskeletal regulator of mitochondrial movements in neurons, is directed to mitochondria of tumor cells. Mitochondrial SNPH buffers oxidative stress and maintains complex II-dependent bioenergetics, sustaining local tumor growth while restricting mitochondrial redistribution to the cortical cytoskeleton and tumor cell motility...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882593/real-time-subpixel-accuracy-tracking-of-single-mitochondria-in-neurons-reveals-heterogeneous-mitochondrial-motion
#9
Adolfo Alsina, Wu Ming Lai, Wai Kin Wong, Xianan Qin, Min Zhang, Hyokeun Park
Mitochondria are essential for cellular survival and function. In neurons, mitochondria are transported to various subcellular regions as needed. Thus, defects in the axonal transport of mitochondria are related to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, and the movement of mitochondria has been the subject of intense research. However, the inability to accurately track mitochondria with subpixel accuracy has hindered this research. Here, we report an automated method for tracking mitochondria based on the center of fluorescence...
September 4, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855143/lack-of-genetic-structure-in-pinworm-populations-from-new-world-primates-in-forest-fragments
#10
Brenda Solórzano-García, Jaime Gasca-Pineda, Robert Poulin, Gerardo Pérez-Ponce de León
Microevolutionary processes in parasites are driven by factors related to parasite biology, host abundance and dispersal, and environmental conditions. Here, we test the prediction that isolation of host populations results in reduced genetic diversity and high differentiation among parasite populations. We conducted a population genetic analysis of two pinworms, Trypanoxyuris minutus and Trypanoxyuris atelis, commonly found parasitizing howler and spider monkeys in tropical rainforests across south-eastern Mexico, whose populations are currently isolated due to anthropogenic habitat loss and fragmentation...
August 30, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819888/paraquat-induced-movement-disorder-in-relation-to-oxidative-stress-mediated-neurodegeneration-in-the-brain-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#11
S Niveditha, S R Ramesh, T Shivanandappa
Exposure to pesticides like paraquat (PQ) is considered as a risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD). PQ has been shown to induce PD-like phenotype in experimental animals. Drosophila, a valuable laboratory model organism, is widely used to study neurodegenerative disorders including PD. The acute (single dose) PQ model of PD in Drosophila is associated with high mortality as well as reversibility of locomotor deficits and, therefore, does not replicate the disease phenotype. We have investigated the relevance of the acute and multiple (sublethal) dose of PQ to induce PD-like symptoms in Drosophila and shown that multiple-dose of PQ induces irreversible locomotor impairment without significant mortality...
August 18, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801915/manganese-and-1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-mpp-induced-neurotoxicity-indicate-differences-in-morphological-electrophysiological-and-genome-wide-alterations-implications-for-idiopathic-parkinson-s-disease
#12
Rajeswara Babu Mythri, Narayana Reddy Raghunath, Santosh Chandrakant Narwade, Mirazkar DasharathaRao Pandareesh, Kollarkandi Rajesh Sabitha, Mohamad Aiyaz, Bipin Chand, Manas Sule, Krittika Ghosh, Senthil Kumar, Bhagyalakshmi Shankarappa, Soundarya Soundararajan, Phalguni Anand Alladi, Meera Purushottam, Narayanappa Gayathri, Deepti Dileep Deobagkar, Thenkanidiyoor Rao Laxmi, Srinivas Bharath Muchukunte Mukunda
Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (iPD) and manganese-induced atypical Parkinsonism are characterized by movement disorder and nigrostriatal pathology. Although clinical features, brain region involved and responsiveness to levodopa distinguish both, differences at the neuronal level are largely unknown. We studied the morphological, neurophysiological and molecular differences in dopaminergic neurons exposed to the PD toxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP(+) ) and manganese (Mn) followed by validation in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and Mn mouse models...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770388/parkinson-s-disease-pathogenesis-from-the-viewpoint-of-small-fish-models
#13
REVIEW
Hideaki Matsui, Ryosuke Takahashi
Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that involves movement discloses, degeneration of dopaminergic neurons, and presence of cytoplasmic inclusion bodies. Various animal models have been developed and small fish including zebrafish and medaka fish have recently been employed as a new model for Parkinson disease. In this review, we summarize fish models of Parkinson's disease mainly using our own findings and explain two major hypotheses of PD: lysosome dysfunction theory and mitochondrial dysfunction theory...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767395/prohibitin-relocated-to-the-front-ends-can-control-the-migration-directionality-of-colorectal-cancer-cells
#14
Li-Li Ma, Lan Shen, Gui-Hui Tong, Na Tang, Yang Luo, Li-Li Guo, Chun-Ting Hu, Ying-Xin Huang, Guan Huang, Fang-Yan Jing, Chao Liu, Zhuo-Yi Li, Na Zhou, Qian-Wen Yan, Yan Lei, Shi-Jie Zhu, Zhi-Qiang Cheng, Guang-Wen Cao, Yong-Jian Deng, Yan-Qing Ding
Directional migration is a cost-effective movement allowing invasion and metastatic spread of cancer cells. Although migration related to cytoskeletal assembly and microenvironmental chemotaxis has been elucidated, little is known about interaction between extracellular and intracellular molecules for controlling the migrational directionality. A polarized expression of prohibitin (PHB) in the front ends of CRC cells favors metastasis and is correlated with poor prognosis for 545 CRC patients. A high level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the interstitial tissue of CRC patients is associated with metastasis...
July 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749416/anti-oxidative-stress-activity-is-essential-for-amanita-caesarea-mediated-neuroprotection-on-glutamate-induced-apoptotic-ht22-cells-and-an-alzheimer-s-disease-mouse-model
#15
Zhiping Li, Xia Chen, Wenqian Lu, Shun Zhang, Xin Guan, Zeyu Li, Di Wang
Amanita caesarea, an edible mushroom found mainly in Asia and southern Europe, has been reported to show good antioxidative activities. In the present study, the neuroprotective effects of A. caesarea aqueous extract (AC) were determined in an l-glutamic acid (l-Glu) induced HT22 cell apoptosis model, and in a d-galactose (d-gal) and AlCl₃-developed experimental Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse model. In 25 mM of l-Glu-damaged HT22 cells, a 3-h pretreatment with AC strongly improved cell viability, reduced the proportion of apoptotic cells, restored mitochondrial function, inhibited the over-production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca(2+), and suppressed the high expression levels of cleaved-caspase-3, calpain 1, apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and Bax...
July 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746407/prehistoric-mitochondrial-dna-of-domesticate-animals-supports-a-13th-century-exodus-from-the-northern-us-southwest
#16
Brian M Kemp, Kathleen Judd, Cara Monroe, Jelmer W Eerkens, Lindsay Hilldorfer, Connor Cordray, Rebecca Schad, Erin Reams, Scott G Ortman, Timothy A Kohler
The 13th century Puebloan depopulation of the Four Corners region of the US Southwest is an iconic episode in world prehistory. Studies of its causes, as well as its consequences, have a bearing not only on archaeological method and theory, but also social responses to climate change, the sociology of social movements, and contemporary patterns of cultural diversity. Previous research has debated the demographic scale, destinations, and impacts of Four Corners migrants. Much of this uncertainty stems from the substantial differences in material culture between the Four Corners vs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742834/contacts-in-the-last-90-000-years-over-the-strait-of-gibraltar-evidenced-by-genetic-analysis-of-wild-boar-sus-scrofa
#17
Carmen Soria-Boix, Maria P Donat-Torres, Vicente Urios
Contacts across the Strait of Gibraltar in the Pleistocene have been studied in different research papers, which have demonstrated that this apparent barrier has been permeable to human and fauna movements in both directions. Our study, based on the genetic analysis of wild boar (Sus scrofa), suggests that there has been contact between Africa and Europe through the Strait of Gibraltar in the Late Pleistocene (at least in the last 90,000 years), as shown by the partial analysis of mitochondrial DNA. Cytochrome b and the control region from North African wild boar indicate a close relationship with European wild boar, and even some specimens belong to a common haplotype in Europe...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723911/male-reproductive-system-and-spermatogenesis-of-limodromus-assimilis-paykull-1790
#18
Lea F Schubert, Stephanie Krüger, Gerald B Moritz, Veit Schubert
Based on advanced light and electron microscopy, we describe the male reproductive system and sperm development of Limodromus assimilis. The genital tract consists of pairs of uni-follicular testes, spermatic ducts with diverticula regions, seminal vesicles, accessory glands, an unpaired ejaculatory duct and an aedeagus containing an internal sac equipped with sclerotic scales. Based on their morphology, we draw conclusions about their functions. After spermatogenesis within the follicle, the spermatozoa become released from the sperm cysts...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702760/regulation-of-long-distance-transport-of-mitochondria-along-microtubules
#19
REVIEW
Anna Melkov, Uri Abdu
Mitochondria are cellular organelles of crucial importance, playing roles in cellular life and death. In certain cell types, such as neurons, mitochondria must travel long distances so as to meet metabolic demands of the cell. Mitochondrial movement is essentially microtubule (MT) based and is executed by two main motor proteins, Dynein and Kinesin. The organization of the cellular MT network and the identity of motors dictate mitochondrial transport. Tight coupling between MTs, motors, and the mitochondria is needed for the organelle precise localization...
July 12, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701513/the-prion-protein-regulates-glutamate-mediated-ca-2-entry-and-mitochondrial-ca-2-accumulation-in-neurons
#20
Agnese De Mario, Caterina Peggion, Maria Lina Massimino, Francesca Viviani, Angela Castellani, Marta Giacomello, Dmitry Lim, Alessandro Bertoli, Maria Catia Sorgato
The cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) whose conformational misfolding leads to the production of deadly prions, has a still-unclarified cellular function despite decades of intensive research. Following our recent finding that PrP(C) limits Ca(2+) entry via store-operated Ca(2+) channels in neurons, we investigated whether the protein could also control the activity of ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs). To this end, we compared local Ca(2+) movements in primary cerebellar granule neurons and cortical neurons transduced with genetically encoded Ca(2+) probes and expressing, or not expressing, PrP(C) Our investigation demonstrated that PrP(C) downregulates Ca(2+) entry through each specific agonist-stimulated iGluR and after stimulation by glutamate...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
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