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Mitochondrial movement

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147575/cell-death-and-cell-lysis-are-separable-events-during-pyroptosis
#1
Lucian DiPeso, Daisy X Ji, Russell E Vance, Jordan V Price
Although much insight has been gained into the mechanisms by which activation of the inflammasome can trigger pyroptosis in mammalian cells, the precise kinetics of the end stages of pyroptosis have not been well characterized. Using time-lapse fluorescent imaging to analyze the kinetics of pyroptosis in individual murine macrophages, we observed distinct stages of cell death and cell lysis. Our data demonstrate that cell membrane permeability resulting from gasdermin D pore formation is coincident with the cessation of cell movement, loss of mitochondrial activity, and cell swelling, events that can be uncoupled from cell lysis...
2017: Cell Death Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139642/matrilineal-heritage-in-southern-iberia-reveals-deep-genetic-links-between-continents
#2
Candela L Hernández, Rosario Calderón
Within the Mediterranean Basin, the Iberian Peninsula has been a focus of attraction for several cultures and civilizations from its prehistory and history, making it a target territory for studying human migration patterns and peopling processes using a wide and heterogeneous spectrum of genomic markers. While its Cantabrian fringe represents the most regularly analysed area in terms of its mitochondrial diversity, the absence of monographic surveys on the maternal genetic composition of southern Iberians (i...
March 2017: Collegium Antropologicum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136012/regional-knockdown-of-ndufs4-implicates-a-thalamocortical-circuit-mediating-anesthetic-sensitivity
#3
Renjini Ramadasan-Nair, Jessica Hui, Pavel I Zimin, Leslie S Itsara, Philip G Morgan, Margaret M Sedensky
Knockout of the mitochondrial complex I protein, NDUFS4, profoundly increases sensitivity of mice to volatile anesthetics. In mice carrying an Ndufs4lox/lox gene, adeno-associated virus expressing Cre recombinase was injected into regions of the brain postulated to affect sensitivity to volatile anesthetics. These injections generated otherwise phenotypically wild type mice with region-specific, postnatal inactivation of Ndufs4, minimizing developmental effects of gene loss. Sensitivities to the volatile anesthetics isoflurane and halothane were measured using loss of righting reflex (LORR) and movement in response to tail clamp (TC) as endpoints...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132391/nadph-oxidases-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Karim Belarbi, Elodie Cuvelier, Alain Destée, Bernard Gressier, Marie-Christine Chartier-Harlin
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive movement neurodegenerative disease associated with a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the brain. Oxidative stress, a condition that occurs due to imbalance in oxidant and antioxidant status, is thought to play an important role in dopaminergic neurotoxicity. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases are multi-subunit enzymatic complexes that generate reactive oxygen species as their primary function. Increased immunoreactivities for the NADPH oxidases catalytic subunits Nox1, Nox2 and Nox4 have been reported in the brain of PD patients...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109116/mitochondrial-dynamics-and-respiration-within-cells-with-increased-open-pore-cytoskeletal-meshes
#5
David H Jang, Sarah C Seeger, Martha E Grady, Frances C Shofer, David M Eckmann
The cytoskeletal architecture directly affects the morphology, motility, and tensional homeostasis of the cell. In addition, the cytoskeleton is important for mitosis, intracellular traffic, organelle motility, and even cellular respiration. The organelle responsible for a majority of the energy conversion for the cell, the mitochondrion, has a dependence on the cytoskeleton for mobility and function. In previous studies, we established that cytoskeletal inhibitors altered the movement of the mitochondria, their morphology, and their respiration in human dermal fibroblasts...
November 6, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100808/mitochondrial-bioenergetics-and-locomotor-activity-are-altered-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio-after-exposure-to-the-bipyridylium-herbicide-diquat
#6
Xiao H Wang, Christopher L Souders, Yuan H Zhao, Christopher J Martyniuk
Diquat is a non-selective bipyridylium herbicide which has replaced its sister compound paraquat, as paraquat is associated to an increased risk for Parkinson's disease. However, the propensity of diquat to propagate reactive oxygen species ensures that diquat remains an exposure risk in non-target organisms. In this study, zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were exposed to diquat (1, 10, 100μM) beginning at ∼6hours post fertilization for up to 7days to learn more about the mechanisms underlying diquat toxicity during vertebrate development...
October 31, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100316/prohibitin-relocated-to-the-front-ends-can-control-the-migration-directionality-of-colorectal-cancer-cells
#7
Li-Li Ma, Lan Shen, Gui-Hui Tong, Na Tang, Yang Luo, Li-Li Guo, Chun-Ting Hu, Ying-Xin Huang, Guan Huang, Fang-Yan Jing, Chao Liu, Zhuo-Yi Li, Na Zhou, Qian-Wen Yan, Yan Lei, Shi-Jie Zhu, Zhi-Qiang Cheng, Guang-Wen Cao, Yong-Jian Deng, Yan-Qing Ding
Directional migration is a cost-effective movement allowing invasion and metastatic spread of cancer cells. Although migration related to cytoskeletal assembly and microenvironmental chemotaxis has been elucidated, little is known about interaction between extracellular and intracellular molecules for controlling the migrational directionality. A polarized expression of prohibitin (PHB) in the front ends of CRC cells favors metastasis and is correlated with poor prognosis for 545 CRC patients. A high level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the interstitial tissue of CRC patients is associated with metastasis...
September 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098734/regulation-of-mitochondrial-dynamics-in-astrocytes-mechanisms-consequences-and-unknowns
#8
Joshua G Jackson, Michael B Robinson
Astrocytes are the major glial cell in the central nervous system. These polarized cells possess numerous processes that ensheath the vasculature and contact synapses. Astrocytes play important roles in synaptic signaling, neurotransmitter synthesis and recycling, control of nutrient uptake, and control of local blood flow. Many of these processes depend on local metabolism and/or energy utilization. While astrocytes respond to increases in neuronal activity and metabolic demand by upregulating glycolysis and glycogenolysis, astrocytes also possess significant capacity for oxidative (mitochondrial) metabolism...
November 3, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081897/mitochondrial-respiration-in-intact-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-and-sirtuin-3-activity-in-patients-with-movement-disorders
#9
Slawomir Michalak, Jolanta Florczak-Wyspiańska, Joanna Rybacka-Mossakowska, Wojciech Ambrosius, Krystyna Osztynowicz, Aleksandra Baszczuk, Wojciech Kozubski, Ewa Wysocka
OBJECTIVE: Mitochondrial dysfunction is considered a unifying pathophysiological explanation for movement disorders. Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) exhibits deacetylase activity and antioxidant properties. The aim of the study was to analyze the mitochondrial respiration in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and the SIRT3 activity in patients with movement disorders. METHODS: Mitochondrial respiration was analyzed in intact PBMCs using the ROUTINE, LEAK, electron transfer system (ETS), and residual oxygen consumption (ROX) protocol by means of high-resolution respirometry...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081887/pharmacological-basis-for-use-of-armillaria-mellea-polysaccharides-in-alzheimer-s-disease-antiapoptosis-and-antioxidation
#10
Shengshu An, Wenqian Lu, Yongfeng Zhang, Qingxia Yuan, Di Wang
Armillaria mellea, an edible fungus, exhibits various pharmacological activities, including antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties. However, the effects of A. mellea on Alzheimer's disease (AD) have not been systemically reported. The present study aimed to explore the protective effects of mycelium polysaccharides (AMPS) obtained from A. mellea, especially AMPSc via 70% ethanol precipitation in a L-glutamic acid- (L-Glu-) induced HT22 cell apoptosis model and an AlCl3 plus D-galactose- (D-gal-) induced AD mouse model...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076529/high-resolution-mitochondrial-dna-analysis-sheds-light-on-human-diversity-cultural-interactions-and-population-mobility-in-northwestern-amazonia
#11
Leonardo Arias, Chiara Barbieri, Guillermo Barreto, Mark Stoneking, Brigitte Pakendorf
OBJECTIVES: Northwestern Amazonia (NWA) is a center of high linguistic and cultural diversity. Several language families and linguistic isolates occur in this region, as well as different subsistence patterns, with some groups being foragers and others agriculturalists. In addition, speakers of Eastern Tukanoan languages are known for practicing linguistic exogamy, a marriage system in which partners are taken from different language groups. In this study, we use high-resolution mitochondrial DNA sequencing to investigate the impact of this linguistic and cultural diversity on the genetic relationships and population structure of NWA groups...
October 27, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070484/epigenetics-regulates-gene-expression-patterns-of-skeletal-muscle-induced-by-physical-exercise
#12
Chen-Dong Liu, Lu Yang, Hong-Zhou Pu, Qiong Yang, Wen-Yao Huang, Xue Zhao, Li Zhu, Shun-Hua Zhang
As it is well known, proper exercise benefits our mind and body, especially the skeletal muscle. Exercise increases the capacity of muscle metabolism, enhances the biological function of mitochondria, regulates the transformation of muscle fiber types and increases the muscle power. In recent years, more and more researches show that epigenetic regulation plays an important role in strengthening the muscle, and these studies mainly include DNA methylation, histone modification, and regulation of miRNA expression...
October 20, 2017: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065293/genetics-ancient-dna-clarifies-population-histories-of%C3%A2-the-northeastern-margin-of-north-america
#13
Jennifer Raff
A new study of ancient mitochondrial DNA from Newfoundland and Labrador indicates that this region at the northeastern margin of North America was populated three times in succession by different indigenous groups. This research helps shed light on the movement of populations across the continent, following the initial peopling of the Americas.
October 23, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060877/motion-estimation-of-subcellular-structures-from-fluorescence-microscopy-images
#14
A Vallmitjana, A Civera-Tregon, J Hoenicka, F Palau, R Benitez
We present an automatic image processing framework to study moving intracellular structures from live cell fluorescence microscopy. The system includes the identification of static and dynamic structures from time-lapse images using data clustering as well as the identification of the trajectory of moving objects with a probabilistic tracking algorithm. The method has been successfully applied to study mitochondrial movement in neurons. The approach provides excellent performance under different experimental conditions and is robust to common sources of noise including experimental, molecular and biological fluctuations...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027761/oxidative-stress-and-mitochondrial-dynamics-malfunction-are-linked-in-pelizaeus-merzbacher-disease
#15
Montserrat Ruiz, Mélina Bégou, Nathalie Launay, Pablo Ranea-Robles, Patrizia Bianchi, Jone López-Erauskin, Laia Morató, Cristina Guilera, Bérengère Petit, Catherine Vaurs-Barriere, Céline Guéret-Gonthier, Marie-Noëlle Bonnet-Dupeyron, Stéphane Fourcade, Johan Auwerx, Odile Boespflug-Tanguy, Aurora Pujol
Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) is a fatal hypomyelinating disorder characterized by early impairment of motor development, nystagmus, choreoathetotic movements, ataxia and progressive spasticity. PMD is caused by variations in the proteolipid protein gene PLP1, which encodes the two major myelin proteins of the central nervous system, PLP and its spliced isoform DM20, in oligodendrocytes. Large duplications including the entire PLP1 gene are the most frequent causative mutation leading to the classical form of PMD...
October 13, 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019056/physical-exercise-modulates-l-dopa-regulated-molecular-pathways-in-the-mptp-mouse-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#16
Cornelius J H M Klemann, Helena Xicoy, Geert Poelmans, Bas R Bloem, Gerard J M Martens, Jasper E Visser
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), resulting in motor and non-motor dysfunction. Physical exercise improves these symptoms in PD patients. To explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of physical exercise, we exposed 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyrimidine (MPTP)-treated mice to a four-week physical exercise regimen, and subsequently explored their motor performance and the transcriptome of multiple PD-linked brain areas...
October 10, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985001/gbf1-and-arf1-function-in-vesicular-trafficking-lipid-homeostasis-and-organelle-dynamics
#17
REVIEW
Beata Kaczmarek, Jean-Marc Verbavatz, Catherine L Jackson
The Arf small G proteins act as molecular switches to coordinate multiple downstream pathways that regulate membrane dynamics. Their activation is spatially and temporally controlled by the guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). Members of the evolutionarily conserved GBF/Gea family of Arf GEFs are well known for their roles in formation of coat protein complex I (COPI) vesicles, essential for maintaining the structure and function of the Golgi apparatus. However, studies over the past ten years have found new functions for these GEFs, along with their substrate Arf1, in lipid droplet metabolism, clathrin-independent endocytosis, signaling at the plasma membrane, mitochondrial dynamics and transport along microtubules...
October 6, 2017: Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984366/metabolism-within-the-specialized-guard-cells-of-plants
#18
REVIEW
Danilo M Daloso, David B Medeiros, Letícia Dos Anjos, Takuya Yoshida, Wagner L Araújo, Alisdair R Fernie
I. II. III. IV. V. VI. References SUMMARY: Stomata are leaf epidermal structures consisting of two guard cells surrounding a pore. Changes in the aperture of this pore regulate plant water-use efficiency, defined as gain of C by photosynthesis per leaf water transpired. Stomatal aperture is actively regulated by reversible changes in guard cell osmolyte content. Despite the fact that guard cells can photosynthesize on their own, the accumulation of mesophyll-derived metabolites can seemingly act as signals which contribute to the regulation of stomatal movement...
October 6, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981101/reciprocal-amplification-of-caspase-3-activity-by-nuclear-export-of-a-putative-human-rna-modifying-protein-pus10-during-trail-induced-apoptosis
#19
Sujata Jana, Andrew C Hsieh, Ramesh Gupta
Pus10 is a pseudouridine synthase present in Archaea and Eukarya, but not in Bacteria and yeast. It has been suggested that the human PUS10 (DOBI) gene is needed during TRAIL-induced apoptosis. We analyzed the role of PUS10 in TRAIL-induced apoptosis by immunofluorescence, immunoblotting and several indicators of apoptosis. We examined several TRAIL-sensitive cell lines and we also examined some resistant cell lines after treatment with cycloheximide. PUS10 is mainly present in the nucleus. Early during apoptosis, PUS10 translocates to mitochondria via CRM1-mediated export with the concurrent release of cytochrome c and SMAC...
October 5, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974757/phylogeographic-and-genome-wide-investigations-of-vietnam-ethnic-groups-reveal-signatures-of-complex-historical-demographic-movements
#20
S Pischedda, R Barral-Arca, A Gómez-Carballa, J Pardo-Seco, M L Catelli, V Álvarez-Iglesias, J M Cárdenas, N D Nguyen, H H Ha, A T Le, F Martinón-Torres, C Vullo, A Salas
The territory of present-day Vietnam was the cradle of one of the world's earliest civilizations, and one of the first world regions to develop agriculture. We analyzed the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) complete control region of six ethnic groups and the mitogenomes from Vietnamese in The 1000 Genomes Project (1000G). Genome-wide data from 1000G (~55k SNPs) were also investigated to explore different demographic scenarios. All Vietnamese carry South East Asian (SEA) haplotypes, which show a moderate geographic and ethnic stratification, with the Mong constituting the most distinctive group...
October 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
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