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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821660/contribution-of-astroglial-cx43-hemichannels-to-the-modulation-of-glutamatergic-currents-by-d-serine-in-the-mouse-prefrontal-cortex
#1
Claire Meunier, Nan Wang, Chenju Yi, Glenn Dallerac, Pascal Ezan, Annette Koulakoff, Luc Leybaert, Christian Giaume
Astrocytes interact dynamically with neurons by modifying synaptic activity and plasticity. This interplay occurs through a process named gliotransmission, meaning that neuroactive molecules are released by astrocytes. Acting as a gliotransmitter, D-serine co-agonist of the NMDA receptor at the glycine binding site, can be released by astrocytes in a calcium [Ca(2+)]i-dependent manner. A typical feature of astrocytes is their high expression level of connexin43 (Cx43), a protein forming gap junction channels and hemichannels associated with dynamic neuroglial interactions...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821651/role-of-somatostatin-positive-cortical-interneurons-in-the-generation-of-sleep-slow-waves
#2
Chadd M Funk, Kayla Peelman, Michele Bellesi, William Marshall, Chiara Cirelli, Giulio Tononi
During non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep cortical and thalamic neurons oscillate every second or so between ON periods characterized by membrane depolarization and wake-like tonic firing, and OFF periods characterized by membrane hyperpolarization and neuronal silence. Cortical slow waves - the hallmark of NREM sleep - reflect near-synchronous OFF periods in cortical neurons. However, the mechanisms triggering such OFF periods are unclear, as there is little evidence for somatic inhibition. We studied cortical inhibitory interneurons that express somatostatin (SOM), because ∼70% of them are Martinotti cells that target diffusely layer I and can block excitatory transmission presynaptically, at glutamatergic terminals, and postsynaptically, at apical dendrites, without inhibiting the soma...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820053/neurobiological-mechanisms-of-stress-resilience-and-implications-for-the-aged-population
#3
Charlène Faye, Josephine C Mcgowan, Christine A Denny, Denis J David
Stress is a common reaction to an environmental adversity, but a dysregulation of the stress response can lead to psychiatric illnesses such as major depressive disorder (MDD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and anxiety disorders. Yet, not all individuals exposed to stress will develop psychiatric disorders; those with enhanced stress resilience mechanisms have the ability to adapt successfully to stress without developing persistent psychopathology. Notably, the potential to enhance stress resilience in at-risk populations may prevent the onset of stress-induced psychiatric disorders...
August 17, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819456/therapeutic-effect-of-astroglia-like-mesenchymal-stem-cells-expressing-glutamate-transporter-in-a-genetic-rat-model-of-depression
#4
Amit Shwartz, Oshra Betzer, Noam Kronfeld, Gila Kazimirsky, Simona Cazacu, Susan Finniss, Hae Kyung Lee, Menachem Motiei, Shani Yael Dagan, Rachela Popovtzer, Chaya Brodie, Gal Yadid
Recent studies have proposed that abnormal glutamatergic neurotransmission and glial pathology play an important role in the etiology and manifestation of depression. It was postulated that restoration of normal glutamatergic transmission, by enhancing glutamate uptake, may have a beneficial effect on depression. We examined this hypothesis using unique human glial-like mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which in addition to inherent properties of migration to regions of injury and secretion of neurotrophic factors, were differentiated to express high levels of functional glutamate transporters (excitatory amino acid transporters; EAAT)...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819097/the-non-coding-rna-bc1-regulates-experience-dependent-structural-plasticity-and-learning
#5
Victor Briz, Leonardo Restivo, Emanuela Pasciuto, Konrad Juczewski, Valentina Mercaldo, Adrian C Lo, Pieter Baatsen, Natalia V Gounko, Antonella Borreca, Tiziana Girardi, Rossella Luca, Julie Nys, Rogier B Poorthuis, Huibert D Mansvelder, Gilberto Fisone, Martine Ammassari-Teule, Lutgarde Arckens, Patrik Krieger, Rhiannon Meredith, Claudia Bagni
The brain cytoplasmic (BC1) RNA is a non-coding RNA (ncRNA) involved in neuronal translational control. Absence of BC1 is associated with altered glutamatergic transmission and maladaptive behavior. Here, we show that pyramidal neurons in the barrel cortex of BC1 knock out (KO) mice display larger excitatory postsynaptic currents and increased spontaneous activity in vivo. Furthermore, BC1 KO mice have enlarged spine heads and postsynaptic densities and increased synaptic levels of glutamate receptors and PSD-95...
August 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818946/a-central-neural-circuit-for-itch-sensation
#6
Di Mu, Juan Deng, Ke-Fei Liu, Zhen-Yu Wu, Yu-Feng Shi, Wei-Min Guo, Qun-Quan Mao, Xing-Jun Liu, Hui Li, Yan-Gang Sun
Although itch sensation is an important protective mechanism for animals, chronic itch remains a challenging clinical problem. Itch processing has been studied extensively at the spinal level. However, how itch information is transmitted to the brain and what central circuits underlie the itch-induced scratching behavior remain largely unknown. We found that the spinoparabrachial pathway was activated during itch processing and that optogenetic suppression of this pathway impaired itch-induced scratching behaviors...
August 18, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817416/nicotinic-modulation-of-descending-pain-control-circuitry
#7
Iboro C Umana, Claire A Daniele, Brooke A Miller, Keith Gallagher, Meghan A Brown, Chandrika Abburi, Peggy Mason, Daniel S McGehee
Along with the well-known rewarding effects, activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) can also relieve pain, and some nicotinic agonists have analgesic efficacy similar to opioids. A major target of analgesic drugs is the descending pain modulatory pathway, including the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) and the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM). Although activating nAChRs within this circuitry can be analgesic, little is known about the subunit composition and cellular effects of these receptors, particularly within the vlPAG...
July 3, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815446/a-human-pet-study-of-11-c-hms011-a-potential-radioligand-for-ampa-receptors
#8
Keisuke Takahata, Yasuyuki Kimura, Chie Seki, Masaki Tokunaga, Masanori Ichise, Kazunori Kawamura, Maiko Ono, Soichiro Kitamura, Manabu Kubota, Sho Moriguchi, Tatsuya Ishii, Yuhei Takado, Fumitoshi Niwa, Hironobu Endo, Tomohisa Nagashima, Yoko Ikoma, Ming-Rong Zhang, Tetsuya Suhara, Makoto Higuchi
BACKGROUND: α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA) receptor is a primary mediator of fast glutamatergic excitatory signaling in the brain and has been implicated in diverse neuropsychiatric diseases. We recently developed a novel positron emission tomography (PET) ligand, 2-(1-(3-([(11)C]methylamino)phenyl)-2-oxo-5-(pyrimidin-2-yl)-1,2-dihydropyridin-3-yl) benzonitrile ([(11)C]HMS011). This compound is a radiolabelled derivative of perampanel, an antiepileptic drug acting on AMPA receptors, and was demonstrated to have promising in vivo properties in the rat and monkey brains...
August 16, 2017: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814327/neocortical-sox9-radial-glia-generate-glutamatergic-neurons-for-all-layers-but-lack-discernible-evidence-of-early-laminar-fate-restriction
#9
E S Kaplan, K A Ramos-Laguna, A B Mihalas, R A M Daza, R F Hevner
Glutamatergic neurons in the cerebral cortex are derived from embryonic neural stem cells known as radial glial progenitors (RGPs). Early RGPs, present at the onset of cortical neurogenesis, are classically thought to produce columnar clones of glutamatergic neurons spanning the cortical layers. Recently, however, it has been reported that a subset of early RGPs may undergo early commitment to upper layer neuron fates, thus bypassing genesis of deep layer neurons. However, the latter mode of early RGP differentiation was not confirmed in some other studies, and remains controversial...
August 16, 2017: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809922/increased-signaling-by-the-autism-related-engrailed-2-protein-enhances-dendritic-branching-and-spine-density-alters-synaptic-structural-matching-and-exaggerates-protein-synthesis
#10
Asma Soltani, Solène Lebrun, Gilles Carpentier, Giulia Zunino, Sandrine Chantepie, Auriane Maïza, Yuri Bozzi, Claire Desnos, François Darchen, Olivier Stettler
Engrailed 1 (En1) and 2 (En2) code for closely related homeoproteins acting as transcription factors and as signaling molecules that contribute to midbrain and hindbrain patterning, to development and maintenance of monoaminergic pathways, and to retinotectal wiring. En2 has been suggested to be an autism susceptibility gene and individuals with autism display an overexpression of this homeogene but the mechanisms remain unclear. We addressed in the present study the effect of exogenously added En2 on the morphology of hippocampal cells that normally express only low levels of Engrailed proteins...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808978/the-role-of-negative-conductances-in-neuronal-subthreshold-properties-and-synaptic-integration
#11
REVIEW
Cesar C Ceballos, Antonio C Roque, Ricardo M Leão
Based on passive cable theory, an increase in membrane conductance produces a decrease in the membrane time constant and input resistance. Unlike the classical leak currents, voltage-dependent currents have a nonlinear behavior which can create regions of negative conductance, despite the increase in membrane conductance (permeability). This negative conductance opposes the effects of the passive membrane conductance on the membrane input resistance and time constant, increasing their values and thereby substantially affecting the amplitude and time course of postsynaptic potentials at the voltage range of the negative conductance...
August 14, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808323/stress-hormone-rapidly-tunes-synaptic-nmda-receptor-through-membrane-dynamics-and-mineralocorticoid-signalling
#12
Lenka Mikasova, Hui Xiong, Amber Kerkhofs, Delphine Bouchet, Harm J Krugers, Laurent Groc
Stress hormones, such as corticosteroids, modulate the transmission of hippocampal glutamatergic synapses and NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-dependent synaptic plasticity, favouring salient behavioural responses to the environment. The corticosterone-induced synaptic adaptations partly rely on changes in NMDAR signalling, although the cellular pathway underlying this effect remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate, using single molecule imaging and electrophysiological approaches in hippocampal neurons, that corticosterone specifically controls GluN2B-NMDAR surface dynamics and synaptic content through mineralocorticoid signalling...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807676/crf-modulates-glutamate-transmission-in-the-central-amygdala-of-na%C3%A3-ve-and-ethanol-dependent-rats
#13
Florence P Varodayan, Diego Correia, Dean Kirson, Sophia Khom, Christopher S Oleata, George Luu, Paul Schweitzer, Marisa Roberto
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) signaling in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) is hypothesized to drive the development of alcohol dependence, as it regulates ethanol intake and several anxiogenic behaviors linked to withdrawal. Excitatory glutamatergic neurotransmission contributes to alcohol reinforcement, tolerance and dependence. Therefore, in this study we used in vitro slice electrophysiology to investigate the effects of CRF and its receptor subtype (CRF1 and CRF2) antagonists on both evoked and spontaneous action potential-independent glutamatergic transmission in the CeA of naive and ethanol-dependent Sprague-Dawley rats...
August 11, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803978/intraperitoneal-injection-of-d-serine-inhibits-high-fat-diet-intake-and-preference-in-male-mice
#14
Tsutomu Sasaki, Yasunobu Yasoshima, Sho Matsui, Hiromi Yokota-Hashimoto, Masaki Kobayashi, Tadahiro Kitamura
d-serine is a co-agonist of the N-methyl d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, an important modulator of glutamatergic excitatory synaptic transmission. We previously reported that oral d-serine ingestion inhibited the intake of highly preferred food and promoted the intake of less preferred food in mice. Here, we analyzed the effects of intraperitoneal (IP) d-serine injections on feeding behavior in mice. We assessed the effects of d-serine during both the acquisition and maintenance of a preference for high-fat diets (HFDs)...
August 10, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802899/a-species-dependent-response-to-the-pro-epileptic-drug-pentylentetrazole-in-birds
#15
Faiq Amin, Asim H Dar, Khan Osama, Faezah Khan, Rida Mitha, Arsal Tharwani, Ghulam Haider, Prem Chand, Fazal M Arain
Epilepsy is common disorder that affects over 50 million people worldwide. Birds remain a promising yet largely under-explored model of epilepsy. This study reports the comparison of the response of two species of birds, Australian Parrots (APs) and Sparrows (SPs), to a pro-epileptic drug, Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). PTZ injections caused myoclonic jerks (MCJs) and tonic clonic seizures (TCSs) in both species. The frequency of MCJs in APs was greater at the dose of 75mg/kg compared to both 50mg/kg and 25mg/kg while it was not significantly different in SPs...
August 9, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802861/contrasting-effects-of-vortioxetine-and-paroxetine-on-pineal-gland-biochemistry-in-a-tryptophan-depletion-model-of-depression-in-female-rats
#16
M Franklin, N Hlavacova, Y Li, I Bermudez, A Csanova, C Sanchez, D Jezova
We studied the effects of the multi-modal antidepressant, vortioxetine and the SSRI, paroxetine on pineal melatonin and monoamine synthesis in a sub-chronic tryptophan (TRP) depletion model of depression based on a low TRP diet. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomised to groups a) control, b) low TRP diet, c) low TRP diet+paroxetine and d) low TRP diet+vortioxetine. Vortioxetine was administered via the diet (0.76mg/kg of food weight) and paroxetine via drinking water (10mg/kg/day) for 14days. Both drugs resulted in SERT occupancies >90%...
August 10, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801866/neurosecretion-what-can-we-learn-from-chromaffin-cells
#17
REVIEW
Erwin Neher
Many of the molecular players in the stimulus-secretion chain are similarly active in neurosecretion and catecholamine release. Therefore, studying chromaffin cells uncovered many details of the processes of docking, priming, and exocytosis of vesicles. However, morphological specializations at synapses, called active zones (AZs), confer extra speed of response and another layer of control to the fast release of vesicles by action potentials. Work at the Calyx of Held, a glutamatergic nerve terminal, has shown that in addition to such rapidly released vesicles, there is a pool of "Slow Vesicles," which are held to be perfectly release-competent, but lack a final step of tight interaction with the AZ...
August 11, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800956/adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-is-it-the-alpha-and-omega-of-antidepressant-action
#18
REVIEW
Hoda Eliwa, Catherine Belzung, Alexandre Surget
It is now well established that all clinically available antidepressants share a common aptitude: they increase the production of adult-generated neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. This was first observed in animal models and subsequently in human populations, highlighting the clinical relevance of this finding. Later, it was suggested that hippocampal neurogenesis was not an epiphenomenal correlate of antidepressant action but was causally involved. Indeed, when neurogenesis is suppressed, antidepressant compounds can no longer achieve remission...
August 8, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800869/the-role-of-ca3-gabab-receptors-on-anxiolytic-like-behaviors-and-avoidance-memory-deficit-induced-by-d-ap5-with-respect-to-ca-2-ions
#19
Shahram Zarrabian, Mohammad Nasehi, Maryam Farrahizadeh, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast
Glutamatergic and GABAergic systems play key roles in the hippocampus and affect the pathogenesis of anxiety- and memory-related processes. Some investigations have assessed the role of balancing the function of these two systems in different areas of the central nervous system (CNS) as an approach to manage the related disorders. We investigated the anxiety and avoidance memory states using the test-retest protocol in the elevated plus maze to understand the role of GABAB receptors (GABABRs) in relation to the NMDA receptor blockade by D-AP5 (an NMDA receptor antagonist)...
August 8, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800512/metabotropic-glutamate-receptors-as-emerging-research-targets-in-bipolar-disorder
#20
REVIEW
Caren J Blacker, Charles P Lewis, Mark A Frye, Marin Veldic
Glutamatergic dysregulation is implicated in the neuropathology of bipolar disorder (BD). There is increasing interest in investigating the role of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) in BD and as a target for treatment intervention. Bipolar mGluR studies (published January 1992-April 2016) were identified via PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Scopus. Full-text screening, data extraction, and quality appraisal were conducted in duplicate, with strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. The initial literature search for mGluRs in BD, including non-bipolar mood disorders and primary psychotic disorders, identified 1544 articles...
July 31, 2017: Psychiatry Research
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