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Placenta JEG

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321257/class-specific-histone-deacetylase-inhibitors-promote-11-beta-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-type-2-expression-in-jeg-3-cells
#1
Katie L Togher, Louise C Kenny, Gerard W O'Keeffe
Exposure to maternal cortisol plays a crucial role in fetal organogenesis. However, fetal overexposure to cortisol has been linked to a range of short- and long-term adverse outcomes. Normally, this is prevented by the expression of an enzyme in the placenta called 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) which converts active cortisol to its inactive metabolite cortisone. Placental 11β-HSD2 is known to be reduced in a number of adverse pregnancy complications, possibly through an epigenetic mechanism...
2017: International Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292472/increased-ndrg1-expression-attenuate-trophoblast-invasion-through-erk-mmp-9-pathway-in-preeclampsia
#2
Yufen Fu, Jufeng Wei, Xueli Dai, Yuanhua Ye
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of N-myc downstream-regulated gene1(NDRG1)in the placentas of pregnancies complicated with early-onset and late-onset preeclampsia (PE) and its underlying mechanism on the pathophysiology of PE. METHODS: The expressions of NDRG-1 in placentas of pregnancies complicated with early-onset PE and late-onset PE were detected using immunohistochemistry, western blot assays and fluorescence quantitative PCR...
March 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193709/testosterone-represses-estrogen-signaling-by-upregulating-mir-22-a-mechanism-for-imbalanced-steroid-hormone-production-in-preeclampsia
#3
Xuan Shao, Yanlei Liu, Ming Liu, Yongqing Wang, Liying Yan, Hao Wang, Liyang Ma, Yu-Xia Li, Yangyu Zhao, Yan-Ling Wang
Preeclampsia, a multisystem syndrome occurring during mid- to late gestation in humans, is a leading cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Patients usually present with high circulating testosterone and reduced estradiol production, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Revealing the mechanism that modulating the imbalance of testosterone and estradiol in preeclampsia is of great value in understanding the cause of the disease. The placenta is the predominant source of steroid hormone production during gestation, and we observed markedly increased 17β-HSD3 (17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3) levels and downregulated aromatase expression, the key enzymes responsible for synthesis of testosterone and estradiol, respectively, in preeclamptic placentas compared with controls...
February 13, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189027/the-flame-retardant-2-2-4-4-tetrabromodiphenyl-ether-enhances-the-expression-of-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-in-the-placental-cell-model-jeg-3
#4
Yun Zhu, Yan Qin Tan, Chi Chiu Wang, Lai K Leung
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are chemicals used as flame retardants in household products. After disposing of these items, PBDEs leach from the products by surface water. BDE-47 is a PBDE congener commonly isolated from contaminated food and is the most studied isomer. The placenta is the major source of hormones during pregnancy, and an elevated level of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) is associated with premature delivery. In the present study, we examined changes in the placental CRH expression under BDE-47 exposure in the JEG-3 cell model system...
May 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161053/htr-8-svneo-cell-line-contains-a-mixed-population-of-cells
#5
Wassim Abou-Kheir, Joanna Barrak, Ola Hadadeh, Georges Daoud
INTRODUCTION: The placenta, a transient organ in humans, is essential for pregnancy maintenance and fetal development. Trophoblast and stromal cells are the main cell types present in human placenta. Trophoblast cells are derivatives of the trophectoderm layer and fulfill the endocrine, exchange, invasion and implantation processes of the placenta, whereas stromal cells are of extraembryonic mesenchymal origin and are important for villous formation and maintenance. Different cell lines were developed to study trophoblast functions including BeWo, JEG-3 and JAR from chorioncarcinoma while HTR-8/SVneo was developed using first trimester extravillous trophoblast infected with simian virus 40 large T antigen (SV40)...
February 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922982/mir-21-is-overexpressed-in-hydatidiform-mole-tissues-and-promotes-proliferation-migration-and-invasion-in-choriocarcinoma-cells
#6
Ya-Xin Wang, Jiu-Ru Zhao, Yue-Ying Xu, Wei-Bin Wu, Hui-Juan Zhang
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to make clear whether miR-21 was dysregulated in hydatidiform mole (HM) tissues and choriocarcinoma (CCA) cells, to elucidate whether aberrant miR-21 expression would affect the function of CCA cells, and to find out whether there was a relationship between miR-21 and AKT, PDCD4, and PTEN in CCA cells. METHODS: Fresh and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded trophoblastic tissues (normal first trimester placentas and HMs) were retrieved from the biobank in the International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University...
February 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871466/autophagy-protects-against-oxidized-low-density-lipoprotein-mediated-inflammation-associated-with-preeclampsia
#7
Yan Zhang, Xiaoyu Hu, Guoqiang Gao, Yufang Wang, Pingping Chen, Yuanhua Ye
INTRODUCTION: Inflammatory responses play an important role in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Recently, the anti-inflammatory role played by autophagy has drawn increasing attention. Our aim was to investigate variations in autophagy in preeclampsia and protection against oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-mediated inflammation by autophagy. METHODS: We used immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, quantitative real-time PCR, and western blotting to analyze the expression of autophagy proteins (beclin-1 and LC3II/LC3I) in preeclampsia placentas and in JEG-3 cells treated with oxLDL and rapamycin...
December 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825933/comparative-toxicity-oxidative-stress-and-endocrine-disruption-potential-of-plasticizers-in-jeg-3-human-placental-cells
#8
Elisabet Pérez-Albaladejo, Denise Fernandes, Silvia Lacorte, Cinta Porte
Plasticizers are suspected to be toxic and/or to modulate or disrupt the endocrine system of humans and to cross the placental barrier, being embryonic and fetal development a particularly vulnerable period. This work investigates the comparative toxicity and ability to interfere with the synthesis of steroids and to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) of a selected number of plasticizers, including bisphenol A (BPA), nonyl- (NP) and octylphenol (OP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and dimethyl phthalate (DMP), in the human placenta JEG-3 cells...
February 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818298/involvement-of-l-type-amino-acid-transporter-1-in-the-transport-of-gabapentin-into-human-placental-choriocarcinoma-cells
#9
Ayako Furugen, Yuri Ishiguro, Masaki Kobayashi, Katsuya Narumi, Ayako Nishimura, Takeshi Hirano, Ken Iseki
Gabapentin (GBP) is a widely used antiepileptic drug, with potential for use in the treatment of epilepsy in pregnant women. Although studies have examined GBP transport mechanisms across the blood-brain barrier, kidney, and intestine, the mechanism in the placenta has not been fully elucidated. We previously reported that GBP accumulates at high concentrations in human placental choriocarcinoma BeWo cells. The purpose of this study was to examine the transport mechanism of GBP in placental choriocarcinoma cells (BeWo and JEG-3), and to identify the carrier involved...
November 3, 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818125/aflatoxin-b1-disrupts-transient-receptor-potential-channel-activity-and-increases-cox-2-expression-in-jeg-3-placental-cells
#10
Yun Zhu, Yan Qin Tan, Lai K Leung
Aflatoxins are fungal metabolites which pose a major threat to food safety. Although these mycotoxins are established hepatocarcinogens, their effect on the reproductive organ is unknown. Transient Receptor Potential Channels (TRPs) are ubiquitously expressed in human tissues, including the placenta. These channels are associated with various functions in the placenta. The fetus and the placenta are especially sensitive to xenobiotic assault; therefore, exposure to the aflatoxins during gestation might lead to the undesirable outcome...
December 25, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817049/overexpression-of-endogenous-anti-oxidants-with-selenium-supplementation-protects-trophoblast-cells-from-reactive-oxygen-species-induced-apoptosis-in-a-bcl-2-dependent-manner
#11
Alisha Khera, Jessica J Vanderlelie, Olivia Holland, Anthony V Perkins
The human placenta provides life support for the developing foetus, and a healthy placenta is a prerequisite to a healthy start to life. Placental tissue is subject to oxidative stress which can lead to pathological conditions of pregnancy such as preeclampsia, preterm labour and intrauterine growth restriction. Up-regulation of endogenous anti-oxidants may alleviate placental oxidative stress and provide a therapy for these complications of pregnancy. In this study, selenium supplementation, as inorganic sodium selenite (NaSel) or organic selenomethionine (SeMet), was used to increase the protein production and cellular activity of the important redox active proteins glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and thioredoxin reductase (Thx-Red)...
November 5, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770612/let-7i-induced-atg4b-suppression-is-essential-for-autophagy-of-placental-trophoblast-in-preeclampsia
#12
Yinyan Xu, Xinyan Huang, Juan Xie, Yanni Chen, Jing Fu, Li Wang
Autophagy, identified as type II programmed cell death, has already been known to be involved in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia (PE), which is a gestational disease with high morbidity. The present study aims to investigate the functional role of let-7i, a miRNA, in trophoblastic autophagy. Placental tissue used in this study was collected from patients with severe preeclampsia (SPE) or normal pregnant women. A decreased level of let-7i was found in placenta of SPE. In addition, autophagic vacuoles were observed in SPE and the expression of microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) II/I was elevated...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697227/dna-methylation-associated-repression-of-mest-peg1-expression-contributes-to-the-invasion-of-extravillous-trophoblast-cells
#13
Wei Peng, Ying Chen, Xin Luo, Nan Shan, Xi Lan, David Olson, Hua Zhang, Yu-Bin Ding, Hong-Bo Qi
INTRODUCTION: The invasion of extravillous cytotrophoblasts (EVTs) into the maternal uterine decidua and vasculature is critical for human placenta development and pregnancy maintenance. The imprinted gene MEST/PEG1 has been implicated in trophoblast development; however, the role of MEST in EVT invasion and the accompanying early pregnancy complications are not fully understood. METHODS: Western blot, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry were used to detect MEST protein expression and localization by using antibodies recognize 2 reported isoforms...
October 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27133045/leukemia-inhibitory-factor-promote-trophoblast-invasion-via-urokinase-type-plasminogen-activator-receptor-in-preeclampsia
#14
Qin Zheng, Kuixing Dai, Xinyuan Cui, Ming Yu, Xuesong Yang, Bin Yan, Shuai Liu, Qiu Yan
Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-related syndrome which can cause perinatal mortality and morbidity. Inadequate invasion by trophoblast cells may lead to poor perfusion of the placenta, even result in preeclampsia. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying placentation facilitates the better intervention of preeclampsia. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is involved in the physiological and pathological processes. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is an important regulator in the establishment of pregnancy...
May 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27088357/msx2-induces-trophoblast-invasion-in-human-placenta
#15
Hao Liang, Qian Zhang, Junjie Lu, Genling Yang, Na Tian, Xiaojie Wang, Yi Tan, Dongmei Tan
Normal implantation depends on appropriate trophoblast growth and invasion. Inadequate trophoblast invasion results in pregnancy-related disorders, such as early miscarriage and pre-eclampsia, which are dangerous to both the mother and fetus. Msh Homeobox 2 (MSX2), a member of the MSX family of homeobox proteins, plays a significant role in the proliferation and differentiation of various cells and tissues, including ectodermal organs, teeth, and chondrocytes. Recently, MSX2 was found to play important roles in the invasion of cancer cells into adjacent tissues via the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27067917/structure-activity-relationships-of-phthalates-in-inhibition-of-human-placental-3%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-1-and-aromatase
#16
Ren-Ai Xu, Baiping Mao, Senlin Li, Jianpeng Liu, Xiaojun Li, Huitao Li, Ying Su, Guoxin Hu, Qing-Quan Lian, Ren-Shan Ge
Phthalates are associated with preterm delivery. However, the mechanism is unclear. Progesterone formed by 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (HSD3B1) and estradiol by aromatase (CYP19A1) in placenta are critical for maintaining pregnancy. In this study, we compared structure-activity relationships (SAR) of 14 phthalates varied in carbon atoms in alcohol moiety to inhibit human HSD3B1 in COS1 and CYP19A1 in JEG-3 cells. There were responses in that only diphthalates with 4-7 carbon atoms were competitive HSD3B1 inhibitors and diphthalates with 6 carbon atoms were CYP19A1 inhibitors...
June 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27023770/placenta-enriched-lincrnas-mir503hg-and-linc00629-decrease-migration-and-invasion-potential-of-jeg-3-cell-line
#17
Bruna Rodrigues Muys, Júlio Cesar Cetrulo Lorenzi, Dalila Luciola Zanette, Rafaela de Barros Lima e Bueno, Luíza Ferreira de Araújo, Anemari Ramos Dinarte-Santos, Cleidson Pádua Alves, Anelisa Ramão, Greice Andreotti de Molfetta, Daniel Onofre Vidal, Wilson Araújo Silva
LINC00629 and MIR503HG are long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) mapped on chromosome X (Xq26), a region enriched for genes associated with human reproduction. Genes highly expressed in normal reproductive tissues and cancers (CT genes) are well known as potential tumor biomarkers. This study aimed to characterize the structure, expression, function and regulation mechanism of MIR503HG and LINC00629 lincRNAs. According to our data, MIR503HG expression was almost exclusive to placenta and LINC00629 was highly expressed in placenta and other reproductive tissues...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27012474/microrna-141-is-upregulated-in-preeclamptic-placentae-and-regulates-trophoblast-invasion-and-intercellular-communication
#18
Stephanie Ospina-Prieto, Wittaya Chaiwangyen, Jörg Herrmann, Tanja Groten, Ekkehard Schleussner, Udo R Markert, Diana M Morales-Prieto
Preeclampsia (PE) is one of the leading causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Abnormal expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) occurs in several pregnancy diseases including PE. Placental trophoblast cells express a specific set of miRNAs which changes during pregnancy. These miRNAs can be released within extracellular vesicles (EVs) and mediate intercellular communication. miR-141 is a pregnancy-related miRNA which is expressed by trophoblast cells at increased levels in maternal plasma in the third trimester...
June 2016: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26973875/a-three-dimensional-culture-system-recapitulates-placental-syncytiotrophoblast-development-and-microbial-resistance
#19
Cameron A McConkey, Elizabeth Delorme-Axford, Cheryl A Nickerson, Kwang Sik Kim, Yoel Sadovsky, Jon P Boyle, Carolyn B Coyne
In eutherians, the placenta acts as a barrier and conduit at the maternal-fetal interface. Syncytiotrophoblasts, the multinucleated cells that cover the placental villous tree surfaces of the human placenta, are directly bathed in maternal blood and are formed by the fusion of progenitor cytotrophoblasts that underlie them. Despite their crucial role in fetal protection, many of the events that govern trophoblast fusion and protection from microbial infection are unknown. We describe a three-dimensional (3D)-based culture model using human JEG-3 trophoblast cells that develop syncytiotrophoblast phenotypes when cocultured with human microvascular endothelial cells...
March 2016: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26950109/expression-and-functional-activity-of-the-human-bitter-taste-receptor-tas2r38-in-human-placental-tissues-and-jeg-3-cells
#20
Ute Wölfle, Floriana A Elsholz, Astrid Kersten, Birgit Haarhaus, Udo Schumacher, Christoph M Schempp
Bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs) are expressed in mucous epithelial cells of the tongue but also outside the gustatory system in epithelial cells of the colon, stomach and bladder, in the upper respiratory tract, in the cornified squamous epithelium of the skin as well as in airway smooth muscle cells, in the testis and in the brain. In the present work we addressed the question if bitter taste receptors might also be expressed in other epithelial tissues as well. By staining a tissue microarray with 45 tissue spots from healthy human donors with an antibody directed against the best characterized bitter taste receptor TAS2R38, we observed an unexpected strong TAS2R38 expression in the amniotic epithelium, syncytiotrophoblast and decidua cells of the human placenta...
March 3, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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