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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871466/autophagy-protects-against-oxidized-low-density-lipoprotein-mediated-inflammation-associated-with-preeclampsia
#1
Yan Zhang, Xiaoyu Hu, Guoqiang Gao, Yufang Wang, Pingping Chen, Yuanhua Ye
INTRODUCTION: Inflammatory responses play an important role in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Recently, the anti-inflammatory role played by autophagy has drawn increasing attention. Our aim was to investigate variations in autophagy in preeclampsia and protection against oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-mediated inflammation by autophagy. METHODS: We used immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, quantitative real-time PCR, and western blotting to analyze the expression of autophagy proteins (beclin-1 and LC3II/LC3I) in preeclampsia placentas and in JEG-3 cells treated with oxLDL and rapamycin...
December 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825933/comparative-toxicity-oxidative-stress-and-endocrine-disruption-potential-of-plasticizers-in-jeg-3-human-placental-cells
#2
Elisabet Pérez-Albaladejo, Denise Fernandes, Silvia Lacorte, Cinta Porte
Plasticizers are suspected to be toxic and/or to modulate or disrupt the endocrine system of humans and to cross the placental barrier, being embryonic and fetal development a particularly vulnerable period. This work investigates the comparative toxicity and ability to interfere with the synthesis of steroids and to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) of a selected number of plasticizers, including bisphenol A (BPA), nonyl- (NP) and octylphenol (OP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and dimethyl phthalate (DMP), in the human placenta JEG-3 cells...
November 4, 2016: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818298/involvement-of-l-type-amino-acid-transporter-1-in-the-transport-of-gabapentin-into-human-placental-choriocarcinoma-cells
#3
Ayako Furugen, Yuri Ishiguro, Masaki Kobayashi, Katsuya Narumi, Ayako Nishimura, Takeshi Hirano, Ken Iseki
Gabapentin (GBP) is a widely used antiepileptic drug, with potential for use in the treatment of epilepsy in pregnant women. Although studies have examined GBP transport mechanisms across the blood-brain barrier, kidney, and intestine, the mechanism in the placenta has not been fully elucidated. We previously reported that GBP accumulates at high concentrations in human placental choriocarcinoma BeWo cells. The purpose of this study was to examine the transport mechanism of GBP in placental choriocarcinoma cells (BeWo and JEG-3), and to identify the carrier involved...
November 3, 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818125/aflatoxin-b1-disrupts-transient-receptor-potential-channel-activity-and-increases-cox-2-expression-in-jeg-3-placental-cells
#4
Yun Zhu, Yan Qin Tan, Lai K Leung
Aflatoxins are fungal metabolites which pose a major threat to food safety. Although these mycotoxins are established hepatocarcinogens, their effect on the reproductive organ is unknown. Transient Receptor Potential Channels (TRPs) are ubiquitously expressed in human tissues, including the placenta. These channels are associated with various functions in the placenta. The fetus and the placenta are especially sensitive to xenobiotic assault; therefore, exposure to the aflatoxins during gestation might lead to the undesirable outcome...
November 3, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817049/overexpression-of-endogenous-anti-oxidants-with-selenium-supplementation-protects-trophoblast-cells-from-reactive-oxygen-species-induced-apoptosis-in-a-bcl-2-dependent-manner
#5
Alisha Khera, Jessica J Vanderlelie, Olivia Holland, Anthony V Perkins
The human placenta provides life support for the developing foetus, and a healthy placenta is a prerequisite to a healthy start to life. Placental tissue is subject to oxidative stress which can lead to pathological conditions of pregnancy such as preeclampsia, preterm labour and intrauterine growth restriction. Up-regulation of endogenous anti-oxidants may alleviate placental oxidative stress and provide a therapy for these complications of pregnancy. In this study, selenium supplementation, as inorganic sodium selenite (NaSel) or organic selenomethionine (SeMet), was used to increase the protein production and cellular activity of the important redox active proteins glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and thioredoxin reductase (Thx-Red)...
November 5, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770612/let-7i-induced-atg4b-suppression-is-essential-for-autophagy-of-placental-trophoblast-in-preeclampsia
#6
Yinyan Xu, Xinyan Huang, Juan Xie, Yanni Chen, Jing Fu, Li Wang
Autophagy, identified as type II programmed cell death, has already been known to be involved in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia (PE), which is a gestational disease with high morbidity. The present study aims to investigate the functional role of let-7i, a miRNA, in trophoblastic autophagy. Placental tissue used in this study was collected from patients with severe preeclampsia (SPE) or normal pregnant women. A decreased level of let-7i was found in placenta of SPE. In addition, autophagic vacuoles were observed in SPE and the expression of microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) II/I was elevated...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697227/dna-methylation-associated-repression-of-mest-peg1-expression-contributes-to-the-invasion-of-extravillous-trophoblast-cells
#7
Wei Peng, Ying Chen, Xin Luo, Nan Shan, Xi Lan, David Olson, Hua Zhang, Yu-Bin Ding, Hong-Bo Qi
INTRODUCTION: The invasion of extravillous cytotrophoblasts (EVTs) into the maternal uterine decidua and vasculature is critical for human placenta development and pregnancy maintenance. The imprinted gene MEST/PEG1 has been implicated in trophoblast development; however, the role of MEST in EVT invasion and the accompanying early pregnancy complications are not fully understood. METHODS: Western blot, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry were used to detect MEST protein expression and localization by using antibodies recognize 2 reported isoforms...
October 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27133045/leukemia-inhibitory-factor-promote-trophoblast-invasion-via-urokinase-type-plasminogen-activator-receptor-in-preeclampsia
#8
Qin Zheng, Kuixing Dai, Xinyuan Cui, Ming Yu, Xuesong Yang, Bin Yan, Shuai Liu, Qiu Yan
Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-related syndrome which can cause perinatal mortality and morbidity. Inadequate invasion by trophoblast cells may lead to poor perfusion of the placenta, even result in preeclampsia. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying placentation facilitates the better intervention of preeclampsia. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is involved in the physiological and pathological processes. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is an important regulator in the establishment of pregnancy...
May 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27088357/msx2-induces-trophoblast-invasion-in-human-placenta
#9
Hao Liang, Qian Zhang, Junjie Lu, Genling Yang, Na Tian, Xiaojie Wang, Yi Tan, Dongmei Tan
Normal implantation depends on appropriate trophoblast growth and invasion. Inadequate trophoblast invasion results in pregnancy-related disorders, such as early miscarriage and pre-eclampsia, which are dangerous to both the mother and fetus. Msh Homeobox 2 (MSX2), a member of the MSX family of homeobox proteins, plays a significant role in the proliferation and differentiation of various cells and tissues, including ectodermal organs, teeth, and chondrocytes. Recently, MSX2 was found to play important roles in the invasion of cancer cells into adjacent tissues via the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27067917/structure-activity-relationships-of-phthalates-in-inhibition-of-human-placental-3%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-1-and-aromatase
#10
Ren-Ai Xu, Baiping Mao, Senlin Li, Jianpeng Liu, Xiaojun Li, Huitao Li, Ying Su, Guoxin Hu, Qing-Quan Lian, Ren-Shan Ge
Phthalates are associated with preterm delivery. However, the mechanism is unclear. Progesterone formed by 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (HSD3B1) and estradiol by aromatase (CYP19A1) in placenta are critical for maintaining pregnancy. In this study, we compared structure-activity relationships (SAR) of 14 phthalates varied in carbon atoms in alcohol moiety to inhibit human HSD3B1 in COS1 and CYP19A1 in JEG-3 cells. There were responses in that only diphthalates with 4-7 carbon atoms were competitive HSD3B1 inhibitors and diphthalates with 6 carbon atoms were CYP19A1 inhibitors...
June 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27023770/placenta-enriched-lincrnas-mir503hg-and-linc00629-decrease-migration-and-invasion-potential-of-jeg-3-cell-line
#11
Bruna Rodrigues Muys, Júlio Cesar Cetrulo Lorenzi, Dalila Luciola Zanette, Rafaela de Barros Lima e Bueno, Luíza Ferreira de Araújo, Anemari Ramos Dinarte-Santos, Cleidson Pádua Alves, Anelisa Ramão, Greice Andreotti de Molfetta, Daniel Onofre Vidal, Wilson Araújo Silva
LINC00629 and MIR503HG are long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) mapped on chromosome X (Xq26), a region enriched for genes associated with human reproduction. Genes highly expressed in normal reproductive tissues and cancers (CT genes) are well known as potential tumor biomarkers. This study aimed to characterize the structure, expression, function and regulation mechanism of MIR503HG and LINC00629 lincRNAs. According to our data, MIR503HG expression was almost exclusive to placenta and LINC00629 was highly expressed in placenta and other reproductive tissues...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27012474/microrna-141-is-upregulated-in-preeclamptic-placentae-and-regulates-trophoblast-invasion-and-intercellular-communication
#12
Stephanie Ospina-Prieto, Wittaya Chaiwangyen, Jörg Herrmann, Tanja Groten, Ekkehard Schleussner, Udo R Markert, Diana M Morales-Prieto
Preeclampsia (PE) is one of the leading causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Abnormal expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) occurs in several pregnancy diseases including PE. Placental trophoblast cells express a specific set of miRNAs which changes during pregnancy. These miRNAs can be released within extracellular vesicles (EVs) and mediate intercellular communication. miR-141 is a pregnancy-related miRNA which is expressed by trophoblast cells at increased levels in maternal plasma in the third trimester...
June 2016: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26973875/a-three-dimensional-culture-system-recapitulates-placental-syncytiotrophoblast-development-and-microbial-resistance
#13
Cameron A McConkey, Elizabeth Delorme-Axford, Cheryl A Nickerson, Kwang Sik Kim, Yoel Sadovsky, Jon P Boyle, Carolyn B Coyne
In eutherians, the placenta acts as a barrier and conduit at the maternal-fetal interface. Syncytiotrophoblasts, the multinucleated cells that cover the placental villous tree surfaces of the human placenta, are directly bathed in maternal blood and are formed by the fusion of progenitor cytotrophoblasts that underlie them. Despite their crucial role in fetal protection, many of the events that govern trophoblast fusion and protection from microbial infection are unknown. We describe a three-dimensional (3D)-based culture model using human JEG-3 trophoblast cells that develop syncytiotrophoblast phenotypes when cocultured with human microvascular endothelial cells...
March 2016: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26950109/expression-and-functional-activity-of-the-human-bitter-taste-receptor-tas2r38-in-human-placental-tissues-and-jeg-3-cells
#14
Ute Wölfle, Floriana A Elsholz, Astrid Kersten, Birgit Haarhaus, Udo Schumacher, Christoph M Schempp
Bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs) are expressed in mucous epithelial cells of the tongue but also outside the gustatory system in epithelial cells of the colon, stomach and bladder, in the upper respiratory tract, in the cornified squamous epithelium of the skin as well as in airway smooth muscle cells, in the testis and in the brain. In the present work we addressed the question if bitter taste receptors might also be expressed in other epithelial tissues as well. By staining a tissue microarray with 45 tissue spots from healthy human donors with an antibody directed against the best characterized bitter taste receptor TAS2R38, we observed an unexpected strong TAS2R38 expression in the amniotic epithelium, syncytiotrophoblast and decidua cells of the human placenta...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26899996/gata3-inhibits-gcm1-activity-and-trophoblast-cell-invasion
#15
Yueh Ho Chiu, Hungwen Chen
Development of human placenta involves the invasion of trophoblast cells from anchoring villi into the maternal decidua. Placental transcription factor GCM1 regulates trophoblast cell invasion via transcriptional activation of HtrA4 gene, which encodes a serine protease enzyme. The GATA3 transcription factor regulates trophoblast cell differentiation and is highly expressed in invasive murine trophoblast giant cells. The regulation of trophoblastic invasion by GCM1 may involve novel cellular factors. Here we show that GATA3 interacts with GCM1 and inhibits its activity to suppress trophoblastic invasion...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26790371/b-esterase-determination-and-organophosphate-insecticide-inhibitory-effects-in-jeg-3-trophoblasts
#16
Marlon Espinoza, Valeria Rivero Osimani, Victoria Sánchez, Enrique Rosenbaum, Natalia Guiñazú
The placenta and trophoblasts express several B-esterases. This family includes acethylcholinesterase (AChE), carboxylesterase (CES) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), which are important targets of organophosphate insecticide (OP) toxicity. To better understand OP effects on trophoblasts, B-esterase basal activity and kinetic behavior were studied in JEG-3 choriocarcinoma cell cultures. Effects of the OP azinphos-methyl (Am) and chlorpyrifos (Cp) on cellular enzyme activity were also evaluated. JEG-3 cells showed measurable activity levels of AChE and CES, while BChE was undetected...
April 2016: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26735933/effects-of-methoxychlor-and-its-metabolite-hydroxychlor-on-human-placental-3%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-1-and-aromatase-in-jeg-3-cells
#17
Shiwen Liu, Baiping Mao, Yanfang Bai, Jianpeng Liu, Huitao Li, Xiaoheng Li, Qingquan Lian, Ren-Shan Ge
Progesterone and estradiol produced by the human placenta are critical for maintenance of pregnancy and fetal development. In the human placenta, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (HSD3B1) is responsible for the formation of progesterone from pregnenolone and aromatase (CYP19A1) for the production of estradiol from androgen. Insecticide methoxychlor (MXC) and its metabolite hydroxychlor (HPTE) may disrupt the activities of these 2 enzymes. In this study, we investigated the effects of MXC and HPTE on steroid production in human placental JEG-3 cells and on HSD3B1 and CYP19A1 activities...
2016: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26680220/silencing-of-paternally-expressed-gene-10-inhibits-trophoblast-proliferation-and-invasion
#18
Haiying Chen, Manni Sun, Jing Liu, Chunxiao Tong, Tao Meng
Paternally expressed gene 10 (PEG10) is an imprinted and monoallelic expressed gene. Previous study using a knockout mouse model revealed a crucial role of PEG10 in placental development, yet the exact function of PEG10 during placentation remains to be elucidated. In this study, denuded chorionic villi were prepared from first trimester human placentas, and transduced with PEG10 small interference RNA (siRNA) or non-targeting control sequence by lentiviral infection. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that silencing of PEG10 in the chorionic villous explants resulted in reduced immune-reactivity to CK7, Ki67 and integrin α5, implying that silencing of PEG10 impaired the proliferation of villous trophoblasts and may interfere with the activity of extravillous trophoblasts...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26657896/new-in-vitro-biomarkers-to-detect-toxicity-in-human-placental-cells-the-example-of-benzo-a-pyrene
#19
Anaïs Wakx, Anne Regazzetti, Delphine Dargère, Nicolas Auzeil, Sophie Gil, Danièle Evain-Brion, Olivier Laprévote, Patrice Rat
Our aim was to study the toxicity of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), an environmental pollutant that can reach placenta, on two human placental models in order to propose biomarkers in risk assessment for pregnancy. Ex vivo human placental cells isolated from term placenta and JEG-3 cancer cell line were incubated with BaP at 0.1-10 μM for 48 h or 72 h. BaP induced neither loss of cell viability nor apoptosis in ex vivo placental cells. To go further, we performed experiments on JEG-3 cell line that provides near-unlimited cells...
April 2016: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26634190/expression-of-placental-members-of-the-human-growth-hormone-gene-family-is-increased-in-response-to-sequential-inhibition-of-dna-methylation-and-histone-deacetylation
#20
Esha Ganguly, Margaret E Bock, Peter A Cattini
The genes coding for human (h) chorionic somatomammotropin (CS), hCS-A and hCS-B, and placental growth hormone (GH-V), hGH-V, are located at a single locus on chromosome 17. Efficient expression of these placental genes has been linked to local regulatory (5' P and 3' enhancer) sequences and a remote locus control region (LCR), in part, through gene transfer in placental and nonplacental tumor cells. However, low levels of endogenous hCS/GH-V transcripts are reported in the same cells compared with term placenta, suggesting that chromatin structure, or regulatory region accessibility, versus transcription factor availability contributes to the relatively low levels...
2015: BioResearch Open Access
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