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Placenta JEG

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246089/expression-and-regulation-of-retinoic-acid-receptor-responders-in-the-human-placenta
#1
Hanna Huebner, Andrea Hartner, Wolfgang Rascher, Reiner Strick R, Sven Kehl, Felix Heindl, David L Wachter, Matthias W Beckmann, Fabian B Fahlbusch, Matthias Ruebner
INTRODUCTION: Retinoic acid (RA) signaling through its receptors (RARA, RARB, RARG, and the retinoic X receptor RXRA) is essential for healthy placental and fetal development. An important group of genes regulated by RA are the RA receptor responders (RARRES1, 2, and 3). We set out to analyze their expression and regulation in healthy and pathologically altered placentas of preeclampsia (PE) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) as well as in trophoblast cell lines. METHODS: We performed immunohistochemical staining on placental sections and analyzed gene expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228121/low-dose-bisphenol-a-activates-the-erk-signaling-pathway-and-attenuates-steroidogenic-gene-expression-in-human-placental-cells
#2
Po-Wei Chu, Zhi-Jie Yang, Huei-Shing Huang, Ai-An Chang, Yu-Chen Cheng, Gwo-Jang Wu, Hsin-Chieh Lan
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an industrial material used for many plastic products and is considered an endocrine disruptor. BPA can be released into the environment and can spread through the food chain. It is well known that BPA exposure leads to lesions, especially in the reproductive system. According to previous studies, BPA reduces newborn numbers in pregnant mice and affects placentation. The placenta is a special endocrine organ during pregnancy. It secretes important hormones, such as progesterone and estrogen, to maintain gestation...
December 4, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223574/evaluation-of-the-effects-of-antiepileptic-drugs-on-folic-acid-uptake-by-human-placental-choriocarcinoma-cells
#3
Yuko Kurosawa, Ayako Furugen, Ayako Nishimura, Katsuya Narumi, Masaki Kobayashi, Ken Iseki
Folate status during pregnancy is important for fetal development and health. The placenta plays an important role in supplying the fetus with folate. Most women with epilepsy continue their medication during pregnancy. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of 16 antiepileptic drugs, clinically used for treatment of epilepsy, on folic acid uptake in two in vitro placental models, BeWo and JEG-3 cells. Short-term exposure to antiepileptic drugs had no effects on [3H]-folic acid uptake by BeWo cells...
December 6, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169400/hypermethylation-and-loss-of-retinoic-acid-receptor-responder-1-expression-in-human-choriocarcinoma
#4
H Huebner, R Strick, D L Wachter, S Kehl, P L Strissel, R Schneider-Stock, A Hartner, W Rascher, L C Horn, M W Beckmann, M Ruebner, F B Fahlbusch
BACKGROUND: Human placental development resembles tumorigenesis, due to the invasive and fusogenic potential of trophoblasts. However, these features are tightly controlled in trophoblasts. Disturbance of this spatial and temporal regulation is thought to contribute to the rare formation of choriocarcinomas. Promoter hypermethylation and loss of the tumor suppressor Retinoic acid receptor responder 1 (RARRES1) were shown to contribute to cancer progression. Our study investigated the epigenetic and transcriptional regulation of RARRES1 in healthy human placenta in comparison to choriocarcinoma cell lines and cases...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155142/microrna-30a-3p-is-overexpressed-in-the-placentas-of-patients-with-preeclampsia-and-affects-trophoblast-invasion-and-apoptosis-by-its-effects-on-igf-1
#5
Zi-Ru Niu, Tao Han, Xiao-Luan Sun, Li-Xia Luan, Wen-Li Gou, Xiao-Ming Zhu
BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia (PE) affects many women globally and remains as a primary cause for neonatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Aberrant placental microRNAs (miRNAs) expression might associated with PE. Previously, thirty-three PE-related miRNAs, with eleven up-regulated and twenty-three down-regulated were detected in severe-PE placentas when compared with normal patients. One of the most up-regulated miRNAs in PE is miR-30a-3p. The predicted target of it, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), which has been reported to have a relatively low expression level in PE patients...
November 16, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135079/cigarette-smoke-extract-and-isoprene-resulted-in-the-induction-of-apoptosis-and-autophagy-in-human-placenta-choriocarcinoma-jeg-3-cells
#6
Hae-Miru Lee, Kyung-Chul Choi
In this study, the effects of cigarette smoke (CS) on the induction of apoptosis via reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) of JEG-3 human choriocarcinoma cells were examined to confirm the relationship between CS and placenta development. Upon TUNEL assay, CS extract (3R4F; 0.3 and 2.1 μM) increased JEG-3 apoptosis. Western blot assay revealed that the protein expressions of p53, Bax, and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) increased, while the levels of Bcl-2 were reduced following CS extract treatment...
November 14, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104621/abnormal-expression-of-microrna-575-leads-to-missed-abortion-through-regulating-apoptosis-and-angiogenesis
#7
Shuqin Xia, Yihui Zhen, Hongsheng Ma, Aiming Wang
Numerous microRNA (miR) are important for placental development and function. miR-575 has been demonstrated to be upregulated in maternal placenta in patients who have experienced a miscarriage. The present study aimed to explore the role of abnormal expression of miR-575 in missed abortion (MA) and to further analyze the potential molecular mechanisms. Embryo villus tissue samples were extracted from 10 childless women with MA and 10 fertile women without a history of MA. Additionally, human choriocarcinoma cells, JEG-3, were used in the present study, which were transfected with miR-575 mimic, inhibitor and scramble...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052908/hbxag-suppresses-cell-apoptosis-and-promotes-the-secretion-of-placental-hormones-in-human-placental-trophoblasts-via-activation-of-the-egfr-akt-pathway
#8
Weimin Wang, Guiqin Bai, Yuting Zhang, Ting Zhang, Chen Li, Yongxing Yuan, Sixue Liu, Caili Wang
The aim of this study is to investigate the role of Hepatitis B virus x (HBx) in the growth and secretion of human placental trophoblasts. Firstly, placenta tissues were collected from pregnant HBV carriers with various viral loads. The results of immunohistochemical technique showed that the HBx protein and pEGFR protein levels were both markedly increased with the viral load elevation. Then, a placental trophoblast cell strain (JEG-3-HBx), which stablly expressed HBx mRNA and protein, was established with the pcDNA-HBx transfection followed by the G418 selection...
October 20, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965292/co-culture-of-jeg-3-bewo-and-syncbewo-cell-lines-with-adrenal-h295r-cell-line-an-alternative-model-for-examining-endocrine-and-metabolic-properties-of-the-fetoplacental-unit
#9
Eliza Drwal, Agnieszka Rak, Ewa Gregoraszczuk
Monocultures of different placental cells are used for many physiological and toxicological studies; however, they are not a true reflection of the interaction between placenta and fetus. To develop the most appropriate model to study endocrine and metabolic properties of fetoplacental unit we used three co-culture models of placental cells nonfusogenic JEG-3, unsyncytialised BeWo (BeWo) and syncytialised BeWo (syncBeWo) cultured with adrenal (H295R) cells. As an end point of endocrine properties we investigated steroids receptors expression and steroid secretion, while as metabolic properties AhR, CYP1A1and COMT expression...
September 30, 2017: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951168/ziram-inhibits-aromatase-activity-in-human-placenta-and-jeg-3-cell-line
#10
Lanlan Chen, Xiaomin Chen, Xiaozhen Chen, Zhiyan Hu, Xiaoheng Li, Ying Su, Xingwang Li, Ren-Shan Ge
Placenta produces progesterone and estradiol for maintaining pregnancy. Two critical enzymes are responsible for their production: 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (HSD3B1) that catalyzes the formation of progesterone from pregnenolone and aromatase that catalyzes the production of estradiol from testosterone. Fungicide ziram may disrupt the placental steroid production. In the present study, we investigated the effects of ziram on steroid formation in human placental cell line JEG-3 cells and on HSD3B1 and aromatase in the human placenta...
September 23, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935403/suppression-of-progesterone-synthesis-in-human-trophoblast-cells-by-fine-particulate-matter-primarily-derived-from-industry
#11
Cui Wang, Jinhuan Yang, Zhengliang Hao, Chenxue Gong, Lihua Tang, Yingling Xu, Dezhao Lu, Zhuoyu Li, Meirong Zhao
Epidemiological studies have exhibited a positive association between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure and adverse pregnancy outcome (APO). However, source-related effect and the potential mechanism have not been thoroughly elucidated in toxicology. In this study, PM2.5 was collected during a severe winter haze episode in an energy-base city of China. We coupled this approach with the source appointment by applying the Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory and Concentration Weighted Trajectory model. We observed that the primary trajectory with high polluted air mass came from the northwest of the sampling site...
December 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758930/treatment-of-human-placental-choriocarcinoma-cells-with-formaldehyde-and-benzene-induced-growth-and-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-via-induction-of-an-antioxidant-effect
#12
Hae-Miru Lee, Soo-Min Kim, Kyung-Chul Choi
Cigarette smoke (CS) causes about 480,000 deaths each year worldwide, and it is well-known to have harmful effects on the human body, leading to heart disease, stroke, lung cancer, and cardiovascular problems. In this study, the effects of formaldehyde (FA) and benzene (Bz), the main components of CS, on cell proliferation and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) of JEG-3 human choriocarcinoma cells were examined to confirm the relationship between CS components and placenta carcinoma. Upon MTT assay, FA (10(-8) M to 10(-5) M) and Bz (10(-11) M to 10(-8) M) increased JEG-3 cell proliferation...
July 29, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724925/a-comparative-study-of-five-physiological-key-parameters-between-four-different-human-trophoblast-derived-cell-lines
#13
Mario Rothbauer, Nilaykumar Patel, Hajnalka Gondola, Monika Siwetz, Berthold Huppertz, Peter Ertl
The human placenta plays a crucial role as the interface between mother and fetus. It represents a unique tissue that undergoes morphological as well as functional changes on the cellular and tissue level throughout pregnancy. To better understand how the placenta works, a variety of techniques has been developed to re-create this complex physiological barrier in vitro. However, due to the low availability of freshly isolated primary cells, choriocarcinoma cell lines remain the usual suspects as in vitro models for placental research...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655875/proximal-gata-binding-sites-are-essential-for-human-hsd3b1-gene-transcription-in-the-placenta
#14
Tsai-Chun Lai, Hsiao-Fang Li, Yu-Shian Li, Pei-Yu Hung, Ming-Kwang Shyu, Meng-Chun Hu
The enzyme 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/isomerase (3β-HSD) is involved in the synthesis of active steroid hormones. Two human 3β-HSD isoforms are expressed in a tissue-specific pattern. HSD3B1 (type I) expression is essential to produce progesterone for pregnancy maintenance. To understand the mechanisms of human HSD3B1 activation in the placenta, 2.2 kb of 5'-flanking sequence and 5'-deletions were fused to the luciferase reporter gene and transfected into human JEG-3 cells. The proximal -238/+337 sequence had the highest promoter activity...
June 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637041/the-effects-of-fungicides-on-human-3%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-1-and-aromatase-in-human-placental-cell-line-jeg-3
#15
Shuyan Cao, Leping Ye, Ying Wu, Baiping Mao, Lanlan Chen, Xiudi Wang, Ping Huang, Ying Su, Ren-Shan Ge
Placenta secretes a large amount of progesterone and estradiol, which are critical for maintaining pregnancy. In human placenta, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (HSD3B1) catalyzes pregnenolone to form progesterone, and aromatase (CYP19A1) catalyzes testosterone into estradiol. Fungicides display antifungal activities and are widely used to prevent fungal infections in agricultural plants. These chemicals include azoles, such as tebuconazole (TEB), triadimefon (TRI), and vinclozolin (VCZ) or organotins, such as tributyltin (TBT) and tetrabutyltin (TTBT)...
2017: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434777/the-heat-shock-protein-60-promotes-progesterone-synthesis-in-mitochondria-of-jeg-3-cells
#16
Jessica Monreal-Flores, María Teresa Espinosa-García, Alejandro García-Regalado, Fabian Arechavaleta-Velasco, Federico Martínez
Progesterone synthesis in human placenta is essential to maintain pregnancy. The limiting step in placental progesterone synthesis is cholesterol transport from the cytoplasm to the inner mitochondrial membrane. Multiple proteins located in mitochondrial contact sites seem to play a key role in this process. Previously, our group identified the heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) as part of mitochondrial contact sites in human placenta, suggesting its participation in progesterone synthesis. Here, we examined the role of HSP60 in progesterone synthesis...
April 20, 2017: Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385533/molecular-analysis-of-sequence-and-splice-variants-of-the-human-slc13a4-sulfate-transporter
#17
Zhe Zhang, Zin Thu Aung, David G Simmons, Paul A Dawson
The solute linked carrier 13A4 gene (SLC13A4) is abundantly expressed in the human and mouse placenta where it is proposed to transport nutrient sulfate to the fetus. In mice, targeted disruption of placental Slc13a4 leads to severe and lethal fetal phenotypes, however the involvement of SLC13A4 in human development is unknown. A search of the NCBI and Ensembl gene databases identified two alternatively spliced SLC13A4 mRNA transcripts and 98 SLC13A4 gene variants, including 85 missense, 4 splice site, 5 frameshift and 2 nonsense variants, as well as 2 in-frame deletions...
April 1, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321257/class-specific-histone-deacetylase-inhibitors-promote-11-beta-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-type-2-expression-in-jeg-3-cells
#18
Katie L Togher, Louise C Kenny, Gerard W O'Keeffe
Exposure to maternal cortisol plays a crucial role in fetal organogenesis. However, fetal overexposure to cortisol has been linked to a range of short- and long-term adverse outcomes. Normally, this is prevented by the expression of an enzyme in the placenta called 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) which converts active cortisol to its inactive metabolite cortisone. Placental 11β-HSD2 is known to be reduced in a number of adverse pregnancy complications, possibly through an epigenetic mechanism...
2017: International Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292472/increased-ndrg1-expression-attenuate-trophoblast-invasion-through-erk-mmp-9-pathway-in-preeclampsia
#19
Yufen Fu, Jufeng Wei, Xueli Dai, Yuanhua Ye
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of N-myc downstream-regulated gene1(NDRG1)in the placentas of pregnancies complicated with early-onset and late-onset preeclampsia (PE) and its underlying mechanism on the pathophysiology of PE. METHODS: The expressions of NDRG-1 in placentas of pregnancies complicated with early-onset PE and late-onset PE were detected using immunohistochemistry, western blot assays and fluorescence quantitative PCR...
March 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193709/testosterone-represses-estrogen-signaling-by-upregulating-mir-22-a-mechanism-for-imbalanced-steroid-hormone-production-in-preeclampsia
#20
Xuan Shao, Yanlei Liu, Ming Liu, Yongqing Wang, Liying Yan, Hao Wang, Liyang Ma, Yu-Xia Li, Yangyu Zhao, Yan-Ling Wang
Preeclampsia, a multisystem syndrome occurring during mid- to late gestation in humans, is a leading cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Patients usually present with high circulating testosterone and reduced estradiol production, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Revealing the mechanism that modulating the imbalance of testosterone and estradiol in preeclampsia is of great value in understanding the cause of the disease. The placenta is the predominant source of steroid hormone production during gestation, and we observed markedly increased 17β-HSD3 (17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3) levels and downregulated aromatase expression, the key enzymes responsible for synthesis of testosterone and estradiol, respectively, in preeclamptic placentas compared with controls...
April 2017: Hypertension
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