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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334634/equine-in-vivo-derived-metabolites-of-the-sarm-lgd-4033-and-comparison-with-human-and-fungal-metabolites
#1
Annelie Hansson, Heather Knych, Scott Stanley, Emma Berndtson, Liora Jackson, Ulf Bondesson, Mario Thevis, Mikael Hedeland
LGD-4033 has been found in human doping control samples and has the potential for illicit use in racehorses as well. It belongs to the pharmacological class of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) and can stimulate muscle growth, much like anabolic steroids. However, SARMs have shown superior side effect profiles compared to anabolic steroids, which arguably makes them attractive for use by individuals seeking an unfair advantage over their competitors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the metabolites formed from LGD-4033 in the horse in order to find suitable analytical targets for doping controls...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334004/examining-residence-status-as-a-risk-factor-for-health-risk-behaviors-among-college-students
#2
Angelo M DiBello, Madeline B Benz, Mary Beth Miller, Jennifer E Merrill, Kate B Carey
OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to evaluate college student residence as a unique risk factor for a range of negative health behaviors. PARTICIPANTS: We examined data from 63,555 students (66% female) from 157 campuses who completed the National College Health Assessment Survey in Spring 2011. METHODS: Participants answered questions about the frequency of recent use of alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, and illicit drugs as well as sexual risk behavior in the last 30 days...
January 15, 2018: Journal of American College Health: J of ACH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332800/acidity-of-substituted-cathinones-studied-by-capillary-electrophoresis-using-the-standard-and-fast-alternative-approaches
#3
Michał Woźniakiewicz, Paweł Mateusz Nowak, Małgorzata Gołąb, Piotr Adamowicz, Maria Kała, Paweł Kościelniak
Cathinone derivatives are notorious but still weakly characterized molecules, known mainly as components of the designer and illicit drugs. The knowledge on their acidity is scarce and incomplete, therefore, we decided to determine the pKa values for six of them: 2-methylmethcathinone, 3-methylmethcathinone, 4-methylmethcathinone, α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone, methylenedioxypyrovalerone and ephedrone. For that purpose we employed capillary electrophoresis, which is known for its accurateness in comparison to other analytical techniques...
April 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332235/do-diary-studies-cause-behavior-change-an-examination-of-reactivity-in-sexual-risk-and-substance-use-in-young-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#4
Michael E Newcomb, Gregory Swann, David Mohr, Brian Mustanski
Behavioral diaries are frequently used for observing sexual and substance use behaviors, but participating in diary studies may cause behavior change. This study examined change in sexual and substance use behaviors among young men who have sex with men (YMSM) in a two-month diary study compared to control. An analytic sample of 324 YMSM was randomized to receive daily diaries, weekly diaries, or no diaries (control) for 2 months. Half of the diary participants were randomized to receive automated weekly feedback...
January 13, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329388/a-series-of-deaths-involving-carfentanil-in-the-uk-and-associated-post-mortem-blood-concentrations
#5
Simon P Elliott, Elena Hernandez Lopez
The potent opioid and veterinary drug, carfentanil has recently entered the illicit drug market, especially in relation to heroin and cocaine. Recent publications have reported carfentanil concentrations found in fatalities occurring in the USA. This article presents the toxicological findings in seven heroin/cocaine cases occurring in the UK within a short period of time where carfentanil was detected and measured. Carfentanil was detected along with other drugs in all cases with no alcohol detected in the post-mortem blood in any of the cases...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328508/serologic-responses-and-effectiveness-of-hepatitis-a-vaccination-among-hiv-positive-individuals-during-the-outbreak-of-acute-hepatitis-a
#6
Kuan-Yin Lin, Szu-Min Hsieh, Hsin-Yun Sun, Yi-Chun Lo, Wang-Huei Sheng, Yu-Chung Chuang, Aristine Cheng, Sung-Ching Pan, Guan-Jhou Chen, Chien-Ching Hung, Shan-Chwen Chang
Outbreaks of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection have been occurring among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Asia-Pacific region, the United States, and several European countries since June 2015, and recently among persons who are homeless and use illicit drugs in the US. We evaluated the serologic responses and effectiveness of HAV vaccination in HIV-positive individuals during the outbreak in Taiwan. From June 1, 2015 to September 30, 2016, anti-HAV IgG was prospectively determined among all HIV-positive individuals...
January 12, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325708/promising-roles-for-pharmacists-in-addressing-the-u-s-opioid-crisis
#7
Wilson M Compton, Christopher M Jones, Jack B Stein, Eric M Wargo
Overdoses of prescription or illicit opioids claimed the lives of 116 Americans each day in 2016, and the crisis continues to escalate. As healthcare systems evolve to address the crisis, the potential of pharmacists to make a positive difference is significant. In addition to utilizing available prescription drug monitoring programs to help prevent diversion of opioids, practicing pharmacists can be alert for signs of opioid misuse by patients (e.g., multiple prescriptions from different physicians) as well as inappropriate prescribing or hazardous drug combinations that physicians may not be aware of (e...
December 31, 2017: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325435/early-stages-of-hiv-treatment-cascade-in-people-living-with-hiv-in-saint-petersburg-russia
#8
M V Vetrova, O V Aleksandrova, A E Paschenko, S E Toropov, V V Rassokhin, R A Abyshev, O S Levina, L M Niccolai, R Heimer
The proportion of people living with HIV (PLWH) in need of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is growing rapidly in Russia. Successful treatment outcomes reduces disease progression and contributes to HIV epidemic control. We conducted a pilot study following 100 PLWH newly found eligible for ART in St. Petersburg, Russia. We determined the proportion of PLWH who initiated ART, remained in treatment, and achieved an undetectable VL during 6-month follow up. Semi-structured interviews were conducted prior the initiation of ART and progress along the cascade was assessed through medical chart review...
January 11, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320313/acute-radiologic-manifestations-of-america-s-opioid-epidemic
#9
David D B Bates, Katherine Gallagher, HeiShun Yu, Jennifer Uyeda, Akira M Murakami, Bindu N Setty, Stephan W Anderson, Mariza O Clement
The United States is in the midst of an opioid use epidemic, which has severe medical, social, and economic consequences. Addictions to and abuse of prescription and illicit opioids are increasing, and emergency department radiologists are increasingly being faced with the task of examining patients who present with opioid-related complications. These complications may be the result of direct drug toxicity or nonsterile injection of the drugs. Neurologic, musculoskeletal, cardiopulmonary, genitourinary, and gastrointestinal complications may be evident at diagnostic imaging in emergent settings...
January 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320293/the-challenges-of-monitoring-illicit-trade-should-not-obscure-the-success-of-tobacco-tax-policy
#10
Stella A Bialous, Stanton A Glantz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319619/history-of-marijuana-use-does-not-affect-outcomes-on-the-liver-transplant-waitlist
#11
Prashant Kotwani, Varun Saxena, Jennifer L Dodge, John Roberts, Francis Yao, Bilal Hameed
BACKGROUND: Data are limited on marijuana use and its impact on liver transplant (LT) waitlist outcomes. We aimed to assess the risk of waitlist mortality/delisting and likelihood of LT among prior marijuana users, and to determine the prevalence and factors associated with marijuana use. METHODS: Retrospective cohort of adults evaluated for LT over 2 years at a large LT center. Marijuana use defined by self-report in psychosocial assessment and/or positive urine toxicology...
January 10, 2018: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315692/comprehensive-review-of-cardiovascular-toxicity-of-drugs-and-related-agents
#12
REVIEW
Přemysl Mladěnka, Lenka Applová, Jiří Patočka, Vera Marisa Costa, Fernando Remiao, Jana Pourová, Aleš Mladěnka, Jana Karlíčková, Luděk Jahodář, Marie Vopršalová, Kurt J Varner, Martin Štěrba
Cardiovascular diseases are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in most developed countries of the world. Pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs, and toxins can significantly contribute to the overall cardiovascular burden and thus deserve attention. The present article is a systematic overview of drugs that may induce distinct cardiovascular toxicity. The compounds are classified into agents that have significant effects on the heart, blood vessels, or both. The mechanism(s) of toxic action are discussed and treatment modalities are briefly mentioned in relevant cases...
January 5, 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315559/substance-use-through-adolescence-into-early-adulthood-after-childhood-diagnosed-adhd-findings-from-the-mta-longitudinal-study
#13
Brooke S G Molina, Andrea L Howard, James M Swanson, Annamarie Stehli, John T Mitchell, Traci M Kennedy, Jeffery N Epstein, L Eugene Arnold, Lily Hechtman, Benedetto Vitiello, Betsy Hoza
BACKGROUND: Inconsistent findings exist regarding long-term substance use (SU) risk for children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The observational follow-up of the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA) provides an opportunity to assess long-term outcomes in a large, diverse sample. METHODS: Five hundred forty-seven children, mean age 8.5, diagnosed with DSM-IV combined-type ADHD and 258 classmates without ADHD (local normative comparison group; LNCG) completed the Substance Use Questionnaire up to eight times from mean age 10 to mean age 25...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314309/how-do-people-with-homelessness-and-alcohol-dependence-cope-when-alcohol-is-unaffordable-a-comparison-of-residents-of-canadian-managed-alcohol-programs-and-locally-recruited-controls
#14
Rebekah A Erickson, Tim Stockwell, Bernadette Pauly, Clifton Chow, Audra Roemer, Jinhui Zhao, Kate Vallance, Ashley Wettlaufer
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: We investigated coping strategies used by alcohol-dependent and unstably housed people when they could not afford alcohol, and how managed alcohol program (MAP) participation influenced these. The aim of this study was to investigate potential negative unintended consequences of alcohol being unaffordable. DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 175 MAP residents in five Canadian cities and 189 control participants from nearby shelters were interviewed about the frequency they used 10 coping strategies when unable to afford alcohol...
January 4, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313741/drinking-and-driving-in-puerto-rico
#15
Raul Caetano, Patrice A C Vaeth, Eduardo Romano, Glorisa Canino
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological information is lacking for driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) in Puerto Rico. OBJECTIVES: To examine the prevalence and correlates of DUI in Puerto Rico. METHODS: Data are from a household sample of 1510 individuals, aged 18-64 years in San Juan, Puerto Rico. The response rate was 83%. RESULTS: The rate of 12 month self-reported DUI was 20% among men and 8% among women (p < 0...
January 9, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313714/decreased-lung-function-and-all-cause-mortality-in-hiv-infected-individuals
#16
Matthew R Gingo, Mehdi Nouraie, Cathy J Kessinger, Ruth M Greenblatt, Laurence Huang, Eric C Kleerup, Lawrence Kingsley, Deborah K McMahon, Alison Morris
RATIONALE: HIV infection is associated with pulmonary disease and worse lung function, but the relationship of lung function with survival in HIV is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To determine if lung function is associated with all-cause mortality in HIV-infected individuals. METHODS: Longitudinal cohort study of HIV-infected participants. RESULTS: HIV-infected pParticipants from cohorts in three locations underwent pre- and post-bronchodilator spirometry and single-breath diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) in 2008-2009, computed tomography (CT) of the chest for quantitative emphysema and airway measures, and echocardiogram for estimated left ventricular systolic and diastolic function and tricuspid regurgitant velocity...
January 9, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311552/poppers-use-and-sexual-partner-concurrency-increase-the-hiv-incidence-of-msm-a-24-month-prospective-cohort-survey-in-shenyang-china
#17
Zhen-Xing Chu, Jun-Jie Xu, Yong-Hui Zhang, Jing Zhang, Qing-Hai Hu, Ke Yun, Hong-Yi Wang, Yong-Jun Jiang, Wen-Qing Geng, Hong Shang
The use of poppers is highly prevalent in MSM, but little is known about the association between their use and HIV incidence in China. A prospective cohort study was conducted from 2011 to 2013 in MSM in Shenyang. 475(79.6%) of eligible HIV-negative MSM participated in this prospective survey and near one fourth MSM (23.4%) ever used poppers. About one-third of the participants had condomless anal intercourse, half had multiple sexual partners and 10.5% were syphilis positive. The HIV incidence densities were15...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311474/enantioselective-monoclonal-antibodies-for-detecting-ketamine-to-crack-down-on-illicit-use
#18
Izumi Morita, Hiroyuki Oyama, Yui Kanda, Mayumi Yasuo, Aya Ito, Masahiro Toyota, Yoshinori Hayashi, Takeshi Yokoyama, Norihiro Kobayashi
Ketamine (KT) is a chiral anesthetic agent, (R)- and (S)-enantiomers of which differ in their pharmacological properties. KT has become one of the most commonly used illicit drugs in the world, thus, rapid and feasible on-site testing is required to crack down on the illicit use. Although immunochemical approach with specific antibodies is promising for this purpose, in practice anti-KT antibodies are difficult to obtain. We here disclose generation of monoclonal antibodies against KT. Mice were immunized with either (a) commercially-available or (b) in-house-prepared KT-albumin conjugates...
2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310891/corrigendum-to-the-presence-of-licit-and-illicit-drugs-in-police-stations-and-their-implications-for-workplace-drug-testing-forensic-sci-int-278c-2017-125-136
#19
Gregory S Doran, Ralph Deans, Carlo De Filippis, Chris Kostakis, Julia A Howitt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 5, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310618/epidemiology-of-unplanned-out-of-hospital-births-attended-by-paramedics
#20
Gayle McLelland, Lisa McKenna, Amee Morgans, Karen Smith
BACKGROUND: Over the previous two decades the incidence and number of unplanned out of hospital births Victoria has increased. As the only out of hospital emergency care providers in Victoria, paramedics would provide care for women having birth emergencies in the community. However, there is a lack of research about the involvement of paramedics provide for these women and their newborns. This research reports the clinical profile of a 1-year sample caseload of births attended by a state-wide ambulance service in Australia...
January 8, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
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