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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813444/effect-of-a-brief-intervention-for-alcohol-and-illicit-drug-use-on-trauma-recidivism-in-a-cohort-of-trauma-patients
#1
Sergio Cordovilla-Guardia, Enrique Fernández-Mondéjar, Raquel Vilar-López, Juan F Navas, Mónica Portillo-Santamaría, Sergio Rico-Martín, Pablo Lardelli-Claret
OBJECTIVE: Estimate the effectiveness of brief interventions in reducing trauma recidivism in hospitalized trauma patients who screened positive for alcohol and/or illicit drug use. METHODS: Dynamic cohort study based on registry data from 1818 patients included in a screening and brief intervention program for alcohol and illicit drug use for hospitalized trauma patients. Three subcohorts emerged from the data analysis: patients who screened negative, those who screened positive and were offered brief intervention, and those who screened positive and were not offered brief intervention...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813208/substance-use-and-dependence-among-current-reserve-and-former-military-members-cross-sectional-findings-from-the-national-survey-on-drug-use-and-health-2010-2014
#2
Rachel A Hoopsick, Jennifer Fillo, Bonnie M Vest, D Lynn Homish, Gregory G Homish
BACKGROUND: Maladjustment after leaving the military may contribute to poor health outcomes, including increased risk for substance use and dependence. AIMS: We aimed to examine differences in substance use and dependence on the basis of military involvement in a large nationally representative sample. METHODS: Data are from a subset of the 2010-2014 waves of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (N = 5,608). Our sample included men and women aged 20-49 years who had either separated/retired from the military (n = 4,862) or were a current reserve soldier (n = 746)...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Addictive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813206/levamisole-in-illicit-trafficking-cocaine-seized-a-one-year-study
#3
Simona Martello, Massimo Pieri, Cristiano Ialongo, Stefano Pignalosa, Gianluca Noce, Francesca Vernich, Carmelo Russo, Federico Mineo, Sergio Bernardini, Luigi Tonino Marsella
Cocaine use is increasing around the world and its purity is frequently altered through dilution, substitution, contamination, and adulteration. Sugars, talc, starch, and carbonates represent the principal diluents of cocaine, while phenacetin, levamisole, caffeine, and lidocaine are its major adulterants in Europe. Levamisole is used because it is an odorless powder, with physical properties similar to cocaine, and it has reasonable cost and availability, being widely used in veterinary medicine. For this study, we analyzed 88 cocaine samples...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813188/cannabis-related-problems-and-social-anxiety-the-mediational-role-of-post-event-processing
#4
Anthony H Ecker, Julia D Buckner
BACKGROUND: Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug in the US, and is associated with a range of psychological, social, and physical health-related problems. Individuals who endorse elevated levels of social anxiety are especially at risk for experiencing cannabis-related problems, including cannabis use disorder, despite not using cannabis more often than those with more normative social anxiety. Identification of mechanisms that underlie the relationship between social anxiety and cannabis-related problems may inform treatment and prevention efforts...
August 16, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812222/ethics-and-phishing-experiments
#5
David B Resnik, Peter R Finn
Phishing is a fraudulent form of email that solicits personal or financial information from the recipient, such as a password, username, or social security or bank account number. The scammer may use the illicitly obtained information to steal the victim's money or identity or sell the information to another party. The direct costs of phishing on consumers are exceptionally high and have risen substantially over the past 12 years. Phishing experiments that simulate real world conditions can provide cybersecurity experts with valuable knowledge they can use to develop effective countermeasures and prevent people from being duped by phishing emails...
August 15, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810160/differences-in-prevalence-socio-behavioral-correlates-and-psychosocial-distress-between-club-drug-and-hard-drug-use-in-taiwan-results-from-the-2014-national-survey-of-substance-use
#6
Wei J Chen, Shang-Chi Wu, Wen-Ing Tsay, Yen-Tyng Chen, Po-Chang Hsiao, Ya-Hui Yu, Te-Tien Ting, Chuan-Yu Chen, Yu-Kang Tu, Jiun-Hau Huang, Hao-Jan Yang, Chung-Yi Li, Carol Strong, Cheng-Fang Yen, Chia-Feng Yen, Jui Hsu
BACKGROUND: This study examined variation between users of 'club' and 'hard' drugs in Taiwan in terms of prevalence of use and demographics and psychosocial characteristics. METHODS: Data were derived from a survey of 17,837 Taiwanese civilians, aged 12-64 years, using stratified, multi-stage, random sampling. Participants completed a computer-assisted self-interview on tablet computers which covered use of legal substances, sedatives/hypnotics and prescription analgesics; use of illicit drugs/inhalants, risky sexual experiences; expectations of drugs; and psychological distress...
August 12, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807672/pharmacological-characterization-of-novel-synthetic-opioids-nso-found-in-the-recreational-drug-marketplace
#7
REVIEW
Michael H Baumann, Susruta Majumdar, Valerie Le Rouzic, Amanda Hunkele, Rajendra Uprety, Xi Ping Huang, Jin Xu, Bryan L Roth, Ying-Xian Pan, Gavril W Pasternak
Novel synthetic opioids (NSO) are increasingly encountered in illicit heroin and counterfeit pain pills. Many NSO are resurrected from older biomedical literature or patent applications, so limited information is available about their biological effects. Here we examined the pharmacology of three structurally-distinct NSO found in the recreational drug market: N-(1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidinyl)-N-phenylbutyramide (butyrylfentanyl), 3,4-dichloro-N-[(1R,2R)-2-(dimethylamino)cyclohexyl]-N-methylbenzamide (U-47700) and 1-cyclohexyl-4-(1,2-diphenylethyl)piperazine (MT-45)...
August 11, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806372/exploring-rural-disparities-in-medical-diagnoses-among-veterans-with-transgender-related-diagnoses-utilizing-veterans-health-administration-care
#8
Leigh A Bukowski, John Blosnich, Jillian C Shipherd, Michael R Kauth, George R Brown, Adam J Gordon
OBJECTIVES: Research shows transgender individuals experience pronounced health disparities compared with their nontransgender peers. Yet, there remains insufficient research about health differences within transgender populations. This study seeks to fill this gap by exploring how current urban/rural status is associated with lifetime diagnosis of mood disorder, alcohol dependence disorder, illicit drug abuse disorder, tobacco use, posttraumatic stress disorder, human immunodeficiency virus, and suicidal ideation or attempt among veterans with transgender-related diagnoses...
September 2017: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802951/smoke-on-the-water-oral-fluid-analysis-at-sea
#9
Andrew Griffiths, Richard Leonars, Lenore Hadley, Mark Stephenson, Richard Teale
This study outlines the operational challenges and findings of an illicit drug oral fluid testing program carried out on the skippers (those in charge) of water vessels in Queensland, Australia. Between 2010 and 2016, 953 tests of skippers were conducted on water (waterside) for three proscribed illicit drugs; delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), methylamphetamine (MA) and 3,4-methylendioxymethylamphetamine (MDMA). 126 (13%) of the skippers tested returned an on-site positive during waterside testing, 125 were confirmed positive for one or more illicit drug by subsequent laboratory analysis, whilst one skipper did not provide an oral fluid sample for confirmatory analysis...
July 31, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799996/tobacco-illicit-drugs-use-and-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-patients-living-with-hiv
#10
Sergio Raposeiras-Roubín, Emad Abu-Assi, Andrés Iñiguez-Romo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is a strong link between HIV, smoking and illicit drugs. This association could be clinically relevant as it may potentiate the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The purpose of this review is to bring readers up-to-date on issues concerning the cardiovascular risk associated with tobacco and illicit drugs in patients living with HIV (PLHIV), examinating the studies related to this topic published in the last year. RECENT FINDINGS: There is a strong association between smoking and atherosclerotic disease in PLHIV, reducing life expectancy secondary to CVD by up to 6 years...
August 10, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796754/perioperative-patient-beliefs-regarding-potential-effectiveness-of-marijuana-cannabinoids-for-treatment-of-pain-a-prospective-population-survey
#11
Yury Khelemsky, Andrew T Goldberg, Yasmin L Hurd, Gary Winkel, Allen Ninh, Lucia Qian, Anna Oprescu, Jeffrey Ciccone, Daniel J Katz
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cannabinoids have an expanding presence in medicine. Perioperative patients' perceptions of the effectiveness of these compounds, and acceptance if prescribed for pain, have not been previously described. Our primary objective was to describe patients' beliefs regarding the potential effectiveness of cannabinoids for the treatment of acute and chronic pain, as well as gauge patient acceptance of these compounds if prescribed by a physician. In addition, demographic and pain history data were collected to elucidate the predictors of the aforementioned patient attitudes...
August 7, 2017: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796137/cannabis-induced-acute-pancreatitis-a-systematic-review
#12
Jodie A Barkin, Zsuzsanna Nemeth, Ashok K Saluja, Jamie S Barkin
OBJECTIVES: Cannabis is the most frequently consumed illicit drug in the world, with higher prevalence under the age of 35 years. Cannabis was first reported as a possible cause of acute pancreatitis (AP) in 2004. The aim of this systematic review is to examine cannabis use as an etiology of AP. METHODS: A search using PubMed/Medline, Embase, Scopus, and Cochrane was performed without language or year limitations to May 1, 2016. Search terms were "Cannabis" and "Acute Pancreatitis" with all permutations...
September 2017: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795205/changes-in-support-for-bans-of-illicit-drugs-tobacco-and-alcohol-among-adolescents-and-young-adults-in-europe-2008-2014
#13
Raffaele Palladino, Thomas Hone, Filippos T Filippidis
OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the support for bans for tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs in adolescents and young adults across the European Union (EU). METHODS: Data were analysed for the years 2008, 2011, and 2014 for 27 EU member states. 37,253 individuals aged 15-24 years were interviewed ascertaining their support for banning tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, heroin, and ecstasy. Changes over time were assessed using multilevel logistic regression. RESULTS: Support for banning heroin, ecstasy, and cocaine was constantly greater than 90%, although support fell over time...
August 9, 2017: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789981/tobacco-and-nicotine-delivery-product-use-in-a-national-sample-of-pregnant-women
#14
Allison N Kurti, Ryan Redner, Alexa A Lopez, Diana R Keith, Andrea C Villanti, Cassandra A Stanton, Diann E Gaalema, Janice Y Bunn, Nathan J Doogan, Antonio Cepeda-Benito, Megan E Roberts, Julie Phillips, Stephen T Higgins
Monitoring use of tobacco products among pregnant women is a public health priority, yet few studies in U.S. national samples have been reported on this topic. We examined prevalence and correlates of using cigarettes, e-cigarettes, and other tobacco/nicotine delivery products in a U.S. national sample of pregnant women. Data were obtained from all pregnant women (≥18 years) in the first wave of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH, 2013-2014) Study (N=388). Prevalence of current and prior use of tobacco/nicotine products was examined overall and among current cigarette smokers...
August 5, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783904/five-year-monitoring-of-19-illicit-and-legal-substances-of-abuse-at-the-inlet-of-a-wastewater-treatment-plant-in-barcelona-ne-spain-and-estimation-of-drug-consumption-patterns-and-trends
#15
Nicola Mastroianni, Ester López-García, Cristina Postigo, Damià Barceló, Miren López de Alda
Illicit and legal drugs of abuse, including alcohol, continue to be in the focus of many governmental national and international studies due to the important consequences of their consumption at both individual and social level. Estimation of drug use at the community level from the concentrations of the drugs themselves or their major metabolites measured in wastewater has become an increasingly accepted and extended tool, complementary to the methods traditionally used for this purpose. The present work describes the application of this approach, generally known as wastewater epidemiology, to investigate the latest drug consumption patterns and trends in the European city of Barcelona...
July 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782502/society-for-maternal-fetal-medicine-smfm-consult-series-43-hepatitis-c-in-pregnancy-screening-treatment-and-management
#16
Brenna L Hughes, Charlotte M Page, Jeffrey A Kuller
In the United States, 1-2.5% of pregnant women are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), which carries an approximately 5% risk of transmission from mother to infant. HCV can be transmitted to the infant in utero or during the peripartum period, and infection during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of adverse fetal outcomes, including fetal growth restriction and low birth weight. The purpose of this document is to discuss the current evidence regarding HCV in pregnancy and to provide recommendations on screening, treatment, and management of this disease during pregnancy...
August 3, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781894/validation-of-a-straightforward-high-performance-liquid-chromatographic-method-for-morphine-quantitation
#17
Kar-Weng Chan
BACKGROUND: Morphine is illegal to use unless it is prescribed by a medical doctor. This compound is commonly abused in the form of illicit heroin. METHODS: An easy-to-use method for determining morphine in illicit heroin using high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector (HPLC-PDA) was developed. With the aid of 50:50 acetonitrile:ammonium formate, this target compound traveling in a pentafluorophenyl (PFP) column was successfully separated from other compounds frequently present in the heroin matrix...
2017: Egyptian journal of forensic sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778118/commentary-on-boumparis-et-al-2017-it-works-but-only-if-they-use-it-addressing-treatment-adherence-and-attrition-in-internet-interventions-for-illicit-substance-use
#18
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778032/prevalence-of-psychoactive-substances-alcohol-and-illicit-drugs-in-spanish-drivers-a-roadside-study-in-2015
#19
Antonia Domingo-Salvany, M Jesús Herrero, Beatriz Fernandez, Julio Perez, Pilar Del Real, Juan Carlos González-Luque, Rafael de la Torre
A survey was conducted during 2015 to monitor psychoactive substance use in a sample of drivers in Spanish roads and cities. Traffic police officers recruited drivers at sites carefully chosen to achieve representativeness of the driver population. A brief questionnaire included the date, time, and personal and driving patterns data. Alcohol use was ascertained through ethanol breath test at the roadside and considered positive if concentrations >0.05mg alcohol/L were detected. Four drug classes were assessed on-site through an oral fluid screening test that, if positive, was confirmed through a second oral fluid sample at a reference laboratory...
July 20, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777874/the-contribution-of-health-risk-behaviours-to-excess-mortality-in-american-adults-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-a-population-cohort-study
#20
H Innes, A McAuley, M Alavi, H Valerio, D Goldberg, S J Hutchinson
BACKGROUND: In resource-rich countries, chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection is associated with a sizeable excess mortality risk. The extent to which this is due to: (a) the biological sequelae of CHC infection, versus b) a high concomitant burden of health risk behaviours (HRBs), is unclear. METHODS: We used data from the 1999-2010 US National-Health-and-Nutritional-Examination-Surveys (NHANES), which include detailed information on HRBs and CHC infection status...
August 4, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
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