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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793195/alcohol-and-drugs-use-among-drivers-injured-in-road-accidents-in-campania-italy-a-8-years-retrospective-analysis
#1
Anna Carfora, Carlo Pietro Campobasso, Paola Cassandro, Raffaella Petrella, Renata Borriello
A recent update of the Italian Road Traffic Law (RTL 41/2016), established severe penal sanctions when drivers, driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) or drugs (DUID), are involved in road accident that results in death or injuries. A study was carried out to assess the trends of consumption of alcohol, illicit drugs or pharmaceutical among injured drivers suspected for DUI or DUID from 2009 to 2016 in the region of Campania (Italy). Confirmation toxicological analyses were performed on 780 blood samples and 1017 urine samples collected from 1797 injured drivers...
May 9, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792472/effects-of-exercise-on-experimentally-manipulated-craving-for-cannabis-a-preliminary-study
#2
Sandy D Wilson, R Lorraine Collins, Mark A Prince, Paula C Vincent
Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States, and craving for cannabis is related to cannabis use. Exercise has been demonstrated to reduce craving for substances. To examine the effects of exercise on cannabis craving, we conducted a 3-week within-subject crossover experiment. Young-adult men (n = 35) and women (n = 11), age 18-25 years (M = 20.76, SD = 1.68), who regularly (≥3 times per week) used cannabis participated in a cue exposure paradigm to stimulate craving. After each of three separate craving inductions, they completed a 10-min bout of exercise that varied in intensity (rest, moderate, vigorous)...
May 24, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792191/cost-of-provision-of-opioid-substitution-therapy-provision-in-tijuana-mexico
#3
Jose Luis Burgos, Javier A Cepeda, James G Kahn, Maria Luisa Mittal, Emilio Meza, Raúl Rafael Palacios Lazos, Psyché Calderón Vargas, Peter Vickerman, Steffanie A Strathdee, Natasha K Martin
BACKGROUND: Mexico recently enacted drug policy reform to decriminalize possession of small amounts of illicit drugs and mandated that police refer identified substance users to drug treatment. However, the economic implications of drug treatment expansion are uncertain. We estimated the costs of opioid substitution therapy (OST) provision in Tijuana, Mexico, where opioid use and HIV are major public health concerns. METHODS: We adopted an economic health care provider perspective and applied an ingredients-based micro-costing approach to quantify the average monthly cost of OST (methadone maintenance) provision at two providers (one private and one public) in Tijuana, Mexico...
May 23, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791679/school-health-promotion-and-use-of-drugs-among-students-in-southern-brazil
#4
Fernanda Marques Paz, Vanessa Andina Teixeira, Raquel Oliveira Pinto, Cristine Scattolin Andersen, Larissa Prado Fontoura, Luís César de Castro, Marcos Pascoal Pattussi, Rogério Lessa Horta
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationship between the health promotion conditions in schools and the consumption of alcohol and other drugs by students. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study with a probabilistic sample of 3,464 students aged 12 to 17 from all schools of the cities of Lajeado and Sapiranga, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and 53 managers from the same schools; the data was collected in 2012. Reports of the use of tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs in 2012 were used as outcomes, and the health promotion score in the school environment was used as the exposure of interest...
2018: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788755/gaming-under-the-influence-an-exploratory-study
#5
Kateřina Škařupová, Lukas Blinka, Adam Ťápal
Background and aims Association between substance use and excessive play of online games exists both in theory and research. However, no study to date examined playing online games under the influence of licit and illicit drugs. Methods We questioned a convenient online sample of 3,952 Czech online gamers on their experiences and motives of using caffeine, alcohol, tobacco, psychoactive pharmaceuticals, and illicit drugs while playing massive multiplayer online games (MMOGs). Results The results showed low prevalence of illicit drug use while playing online games...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787972/investigation-by-direct-infusion-esi-ms-and-gc-ms-of-an-alleged-leuckart-route-specific-impurity-of-methamphetamine
#6
Ethan M McBride, Guido F Verbeck
Impurity profiling has been used as a useful tool for analyzing nearly every drug class currently known on the illicit market. Impurities present within seized samples have the potential to determine source of origin, route of synthesis used, as well as provide a useful clue into the potential reaction mechanisms that are present for each synthetic procedure. Perhaps the most well studied of these impurity profiles exists for methamphetamine, including information to more than one route of synthesis. Within the present study, a complete synthesis of methamphetamine was performed, including a reductive amination of phenylpropanone (P2P) using methylamine hydrochloride and sodium triacetoxyborohydride (STAB) rather than the conventional aluminum mercury amalgam commonly found in the literature...
May 16, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787530/crisis-under-the-radar-illicit-amphetamine-use-is-reaching-epidemic-proportions-and-contributing-to-resource-over-utilization-at-a-level-1-trauma-center
#7
Vincent A Gemma, Kristina A Chapple, Pamela W Goslar, Sharjeel Israr, Scott R Petersen, Jordan A Weinberg
INTRODUCTION: Trauma centers reported illicit amphetamine use in approximately 10% of trauma admissions in the previous decade. From experience at a trauma center located in a southwestern metropolis, our perception is that illicit amphetamine use is on the rise, and that these patients utilize in-hospital resources beyond what would be expected for their injuries. The purpose of this study was to document the incidence of illicit amphetamine use among our trauma patients and to evaluate its impact on resource utilization...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784415/statistical-analysis-of-the-chemical-attribution-signatures-of-3-methylfentanyl-and-its-methods-of-production
#8
Brian P Mayer, Carlos A Valdez, Alan J DeHope, Paul E Spackman, Audrey M Williams
Chemical attribution of the origin of an illegal drug is a key component of forensic efforts aimed at combating illicit and clandestine manufacture of drugs and pharmaceuticals. The results of these studies yield detailed information on synthesis byproducts, reagents, and precursors that can be used to identify the method of manufacture. In the present work, chemical attribution signatures (CAS) associated with the synthesis of the analgesic 3-methylfentanyl, N-(3-methyl-1-phenethylpiperidin-4-yl)-N-phenylpropanamide, were investigated...
August 15, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784413/a-ricin-forensic-profiling-approach-based-on-a-complex-set-of-biomarkers
#9
Sten-Åke Fredriksson, David S Wunschel, Susanne Wiklund Lindström, Calle Nilsson, Karen Wahl, Crister Åstot
A forensic method for the retrospective determination of preparation methods used for illicit ricin toxin production was developed. The method was based on a complex set of biomarkers, including carbohydrates, fatty acids, seed storage proteins, in combination with data on ricin and Ricinus communis agglutinin. The analyses were performed on samples prepared from four castor bean plant (R. communis) cultivars by four different sample preparation methods (PM1-PM4) ranging from simple disintegration of the castor beans to multi-step preparation methods including different protein precipitation methods...
August 15, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784383/sensitive-and-simple-determination-of-zwitterionic-morphine-in-human-urine-based-on-liquid-liquid-micro-extraction-coupled-with-surface-enhanced-raman-spectroscopy
#10
Borong Yu, Chentai Cao, Pan Li, Mei Mao, Qiwen Xie, Liangbao Yang
Morphine, a kind of illicit drugs, is also one of the main heroin metabolites. In consideration of a noninvasive way to monitor and identify drug abuse during forensic cases, the urine samples are usually detected. Here, colloidal gold nanorods (Au NRs) were introduced to act as active substrate, because of the strong optical extinction and spectral tunability of the longitudinal surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Thus, well surface-enhanced Raman spectra of morphine even at low concentrations could be obtained by portable Raman spectrometer...
August 15, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778816/disneyization-a-framework-for-understanding-illicit-drug-use-in-bounded-play-spaces
#11
Tim Turner
BACKGROUND: This paper combines evidence from an ethnographic study of illicit drug use amongst tourists in Ibiza with Bryman's (2004) theoretical model of Disneyization. The principal aim was to construct a new conceptual framework that may help scholars, practitioners and policy makers make sense of dynamic patterns of illegal drug use across bounded play spaces such as tourist resorts, music festivals and nightclubs. METHODS: Ethnographic fieldwork employing a grounded theory design was undertaken over three summers in tourist locations on the Balearic island of Ibiza, including nightclubs, bars, cafes, beaches, airports and hotels...
May 17, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778770/age-related-prevalence-and-twelve-month-incidence-of-illicit-drug-use-in-a-cohort-of-australian-gay-and-bisexual-men-results-from-the-flux-study
#12
Fengyi Jin, Mohamed A Hammoud, Lisa Maher, Louisa Degenhardt, Adam Bourne, Toby Lea, Stefanie Vaccher, Jeffrey Grierson, Bridget Haire, Garrett P Prestage
BACKGROUND: We report prevalence and incidence of drug use initiation in Australian gay and bisexual men (GBM) participating in an online cohort study. METHODS: Between September 2014 and June 2015, 1,710 GBM were enrolled in the Following Lives Undergoing Change Study and followed-up six monthly. Participants were asked about measures of lifetime use at baseline and recent use (last six months) at all visits. Drug use initiation was defined as men who reported having never used a specific drug prior to baseline and reported recent use at follow-up...
May 12, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778489/trends-in-non-medical-prescription-opioids-and-heroin-co-use-among-adults-2003-2014
#13
Sasha Mital, Michael Windle, Hannah L F Cooper, Natalie D Crawford
BACKGROUND: Patterns in non-medical prescription opioid (NMPO) and heroin use have recently shifted, with evidence that NMPO-only users transition to NMPO and heroin co-use. Co-use is associated with increased risk of morbidity and overdose, highlighting the need for further investigation. This study aims to quantify, describe, and explore trends in co-use. METHODS: Using data from the 2003-2014 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health, we compared co-use to NMPO- and heroin-only use across demographic, substance use and mental health characteristics with chi-squared tests...
May 16, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777946/screening-method-for-rapid-classification-of-psychoactive-substances-in-illicit-tablets-using-mid-infrared-spectroscopy-and-pls-da
#14
Leandro S A Pereira, Fernanda L C Lisboa, José Coelho Neto, Frederico N Valladão, Marcelo M Sena
Several new psychoactive substances (NPS) have reached the illegal drug market in recent years, and ecstasy-like tablets are one of the forms affected by this change. Cathinones and tryptamines have increasingly been found in ecstasy-like seized samples as well as other amphetamine type stimulants. A presumptive method for identifying different drugs in seized ecstasy tablets (n=92) using ATR-FTIR (attenuated total reflectance - Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) and PLS-DA (partial least squares discriminant analysis) was developed...
May 9, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775956/typology-of-new-psychoactive-substance-use-among-the-general-australian-population
#15
Rachel Sutherland, Amy Peacock, Amanda Roxburgh, Monica J Barratt, Lucinda Burns, Raimondo Bruno
AIM: The aim of this study was to examine the typology of Australian illicit drug consumers to determine whether those who use new psychoactive substances (NPS) differ from those using other illicit substances. METHODS: Data were from the 2013 National Drug Strategy Household Survey, a representative population study; analyses were limited to participants reporting past year illicit drug use (including NPS; n = 3309). Latent class analysis identified groups based on past year substance use, and a weighted multivariable, multinomial regression model was used to examine characteristics associated with group membership...
May 3, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775921/toxicological-investigation-in-blood-samples-from-suspected-impaired-driving-cases-in-the-milan-area-possible-loss-of-evidence-due-to-late-blood-sampling
#16
Davide Ferrari, Monica Manca, Simone Premaschi, Giuseppe Banfi, Massimo Locatelli
Driving under the influence of illicit drugs (DUID) represents a significant menace to public safety and is therefore sanctioned with severe fines and penalties such as driving disqualification or even arrest in case the accident has caused serious injury or death. In Italy, DUID is regulated by the article 187 of the National Street Code, however, the list of the substances to be searched and their threshold concentrations are left to the 20 Italian regional authorities. A further lack of legislative standardization concerns the type of detection methods and moreover the time gap between the car accident and blood sampling...
May 1, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774805/men-s-preconception-health-a-primary-health-care-viewpoint
#17
Anthony Paul O'Brien, John Hurley, Paul Linsley, Karen Anne McNeil, Richard Fletcher, John Robert Aitken
The purpose of this article is to theoretically explore men's preconception health as a mechanism to enhance fertility, as well as the health and well-being of the subject and his descendants. Premorbid risk factors and behaviors associated with stress, environmental toxins, excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, lack of exercise/obesity, and the use of illicit drugs are all known to affect fecundity. While there are many health clinics available to women, where advice in areas such as postnatal care of the newborn, family planning, and couples fertility is provided, there are few, if any, equivalent health clinics available to men...
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771782/differential-patterns-of-risk-and-vulnerability-suggest-the-need-for-novel-prevention-strategies-for-black-bisexual-men-in-the-hptn-061-study
#18
Typhanye V Dyer, Maria R Khan, Rotrease Regan, Nina T Harawa, LaRon E Nelson, Leo Wilton, Lei Wang, Lili Peng, San San Ou, Steve Shoptaw
BACKGROUND: Black men who have sex with men (BMSM); some who also have sex with women (BMSMW), account for over 70% of new HIV infections in the US representing an elevated HIV risk in this group, also informing risks for HIV transmission to other BMSM and female sexual partners. SETTINGS: We examined trajectories of self-reported substance use, HIV-related sexual risk behaviors and psychosocial vulnerabilities among BMSMW versus BMSM over a one-year study period...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771680/factors-associated-with-time-between-using-a-drug-and-injection-initiation-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-kermanshah-iran
#19
Mehdi Noroozi, Mohammad Hassan Farhadi, Bahram Armoon, Ali Farhoudian, Zahra Jorjoran Shushtari, Asaad Sharhani, Salah Eddin Karimi, Mohammad Sayadnasiri, Omid Rezaei, Hesam Ghiasvand
Background The transition from non-injection to injection drug use dramatically increases the risk of transmitting HIV and other blood borne infections including hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). The aim of this study was to explore factors associated with the transition from first illicit drug use to first injection among drug users. Methods Using snowball sampling and convenience sampling through needle and syringe programmes (NSPs), we recruited 500 people who inject drugs (PWID) in Kermanshah, between September and December 2014...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771559/body-mass-index-across-adolescence-and-substance-use-problems-in-early-adulthood
#20
Ashley N Gearhardt, Rebecca Waller, Jennifer M Jester, Luke W Hyde, Robert A Zucker
Excessive substance use and obesity are underpinned by a number of shared risk factors (e.g., reward dysfunction, impulsivity). Food and drugs of abuse engage similar reward-related neural circuitry and the food-drug competition hypothesis proposes that excess consumption of food may diminish desire for drugs of abuse by competing for neural receptors associated with reward and motivation. Adolescence is a high-risk period for both increased substance use and excessive weight gain. In the present study, the authors tested whether, consistent with the food-drug competition hypothesis, elevated body mass index (BMI) across adolescence predicted fewer substance use problems in young adulthood...
May 2018: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
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