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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448905/drug-use-generations-and-patterns-of-injection-drug-use-birth-cohort-differences-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-los-angeles-and-san-francisco-california
#1
Ricky N Bluthenthal, Lynn Wenger, Daniel Chu, Philippe Bourgois, Alex H Kral
OBJECTIVES: A robust literature documents generational trends in drug use. We examined the implications of changing national drug use patterns on drug injection histories of diverse people who inject drugs (PWID). METHODS: Drug use histories were collected from 776 active PWID in 2011-13. Using descriptive statistics, we examine drug use initiation by year and birth cohort (BC) differences in drug first injected. A multivariate linear regression model of time to injection initiation ([TTII] (year of first injection minus year of first illicit drug use) was developed to explore BC differences...
April 19, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445557/us-adult-illicit-cannabis-use-cannabis-use-disorder-and-medical-marijuana-laws-1991-1992-to-2012-2013
#2
Deborah S Hasin, Aaron L Sarvet, Magdalena Cerdá, Katherine M Keyes, Malka Stohl, Sandro Galea, Melanie M Wall
Importance: Over the last 25 years, illicit cannabis use and cannabis use disorders have increased among US adults, and 28 states have passed medical marijuana laws (MML). Little is known about MML and adult illicit cannabis use or cannabis use disorders considered over time. Objective: To present national data on state MML and degree of change in the prevalence of cannabis use and disorders. Design, Participants, and Setting: Differences in the degree of change between those living in MML states and other states were examined using 3 cross-sectional US adult surveys: the National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiologic Survey (NLAES; 1991-1992), the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; 2001-2002), and the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (NESARC-III; 2012-2013)...
April 26, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443871/rapid-detection-of-nicotine-from-breath-using-desorption-ionisation-on-porous-silicon
#3
T M Guinan, H Abdelmaksoud, N H Voelcker
Desorption ionisation on porous silicon (DIOS) was used for the detection of nicotine from exhaled breath. This result represents proof-of-principle of the ability of DIOS to detect small molecular analytes in breath including biomarkers and illicit drugs.
April 26, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443843/atmospheric-pressure-soft-ionization-for-gas-chromatography-with-dielectric-barrier-discharge-ionization-mass-spectrometry-gc-dbdi-ms
#4
Mario F Mirabelli, Jan-Christoph Wolf, Renato Zenobi
In this study, a gas chromatography (GC) system was interfaced to a high-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometer by means of an active capillary plasma ionization source, based on dielectric barrier discharge ionization (DBDI). This allowed highly efficient soft ionization of gas-phase, chromatographically resolved compounds at ambient pressure. Several pesticides and illicit drugs were analyzed, and the limits of detections (LODs) were as low as 30 pg mL(-1) for the GC-DBDI-MS coupling (corresponding to 60 fg on-column sensitivity) and 30 fg mL(-1) for SPME-GC-DBDI-MS...
April 26, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443503/kratom-and-future-treatment-for-the-opiods-addiction-and-chroic-pain-periculo-beneficium
#5
Ismaliza Ismail, Suzaily Wahab, Hatta Sidi, Srijit Das, Loo Jiann Lin, Rosdinom Razali
Kratom (Mitragynaspeciosa), a natural existing plant found in South-East Asia, is tradi-tionally used as an herb to help to elevate a person's energy and also to treat numerous medical ailments. Other than the analgesic property, kratom has been used as an agent to overcome opioid withdrawal as it contains natural alkaloids, i.e. mitragynine, 7-hydroxymitragynine, and MGM-9, which has agonist affinity on the opioid receptors, including mu (μ) and kappa (κ). The role of neural reward pathway linked to μ-opioid receptors and both dopaminergic and GABA-ergic interneurons that express μ-opioid receptors were deliberated...
April 25, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442800/what-puts-them-at-risk-a-cross-sectional-case-control-survey-of-demographic-profile-and-sexual-behavior-of-patients-with-sexually-transmitted-infections-at-a-tertiary-care-center-in-north-india
#6
Rama Raj, Vishal Gupta, Mona Pathak, Vishnubhatla Sreenivas, Seema Sood, Sarman Singh, Kaushal K Verma, Neena Khanna, Bimal K Das, Somesh Gupta
BACKGROUND: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a major public health problem in developing nations. Identification of risk factors can help in formulating effective strategies against them. The present study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in North India over 1 year to identify the risk factors associated with STIs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire-based cross-sectional case-control survey was conducted where participants answered questions on demographic details, sexual behavior, and awareness of STIs...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442116/determination-of-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-content-of-cannabis-seizures-in-egypt
#7
Ahmed M A Souleman, Alaa El-Din M Gaafar, Omar M Abdel-Salam, Shaimaa A ElShebiney
OBJECTIVE: To determine the delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content of cannabis seizures in Egypt. METHODS: Unheated and heated extracts of cannabis seizures were prepared from the dried flowering tops and leaves (marijuana) or from the resin (hashish) and subjected to analysis using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). RESULTS: The heated resin extract had the peak of THC in a relative ratio of 31.34%, while extracting the resin directly without heating contained only 18...
March 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441618/motivation-deficits-and-use-of-alcohol-and-illicit-drugs-among-individuals-with-schizophrenia
#8
Amber L Bahorik, Catherine G Greeno, Gerald Cochran, Jack R Cornelius, Shaun M Eack
This study examined the impact of substance use on intrinsic motivation and evaluated the association between intrinsic motivation and substance use recovery among individuals with schizophrenia. Alcohol and illicit drug use and intrinsic motivation were evaluated at baseline and 6-months for 1434 individuals with schizophrenia from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) using self-rated substance use assessments and a derived motivation measure from the Heinrichs-Carpenter Quality of Life Scale...
April 5, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441549/plain-radiography-may-underestimate-the-burden-of-body-packer-ingestion-a-case-report
#9
Yonah B Esterson, Vihas Patel, Jeffrey Nicastro, Barak Friedman
Body packing refers to the intracorporeal concealment of illicit drugs. Here we report the case of a 55-year-old body packer who presented with palpitations, visual hallucinations, and a sense of impending death. Abdominal radiography demonstrated five ovoid foreign bodies overlying the rectum. At subsequent gastrotomy and cecotomy, thirty-eight cocaine-containing packets were retrieved from the stomach and ascending colon as well as from the rectum. As the contraband market evolves new techniques to evade detection, evaluation of the burden of body packer ingestion has become increasingly challenging...
April 20, 2017: Clinical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441272/treating-smoking-in-adults-with-co-occurring-acute-psychiatric-and-addictive-disorders
#10
Smita Das, Norval J Hickman, Judith J Prochaska
OBJECTIVES: Tobacco use is undertreated in individuals with psychiatric and substance use disorders (SUDs), with concerns that quitting smoking may compromise recovery. We evaluated outcomes of a tobacco intervention among psychiatric patients with co-occurring SUDs. METHODS: Data from 2 randomized tobacco treatment trials conducted in inpatient psychiatry were combined; analyses focused on the subsample with co-occurring SUDs (n = 216). Usual care provided brief advice to quit and nicotine replacement therapy during the smoke-free hospitalization...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440070/chiral-analysis-of-amphetamines-in-hair-by-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-compliance-monitoring-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-patients-under-elvanse%C3%A2-therapy-and-identification-after-controlled-low-dose-application
#11
Tina M Binz, Elena Williner, Petra Strajhar, Patrick C Dolder, Matthias E Liechti, Markus R Baumgartner, Thomas Kraemer, Andrea E Steuer
Amphetamine (AMP) is used as illicit drug but also for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Respective drugs most often contain the enantiomer (S)-AMP as active compound or (S)-AMP is formed from the prodrug lisdexamfetamine (Elvanse®) whereas the illicit drug is usually traded as racemate ((R/S)-AMP). A differentiation between the use of the medically prescribed drug and the abuse of illicit street amphetamine is of great importance e.g. in retrospective consumption monitoring by hair analysis...
April 24, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440068/correlates-of-verbal-and-physical-aggression-among-patrons-of-licensed-venues-in-australia
#12
Shannon Hyder, Kerri Coomber, Amy Pennay, Nicolas Droste, Ashlee Curtis, Richelle Mayshak, Tina Lam, William Gilmore, Tanya Chikritzhs, Peter G Miller
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: The current study aimed to examine the association between patron demographics and substance use, and experiences of verbal and physical aggressive incidents within the last 3 months among patrons of night-time entertainment precincts (NEP) in Australia. DESIGN AND METHODS: Patron interviews (n = 4216) were conducted around licensed venues in the NEPs of five Australian cities. Seven correlates of verbal and physical aggressive incidents were examined: gender, age, occupation, blood alcohol concentration, pre-drinking, energy drink use and illicit drug use in the current session...
April 25, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439990/explaining-the-declining-rates-of-past-year-cannabis-use-in-australia-a-first-pass
#13
Alison Ritter, Oluwadamisola Sotade
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Cannabis use rates in Australia have declined since 2001. No research to date has examined possible reasons, despite evident policy interest in understanding such a positive public health outcome. In a 'first pass' examination, five possible reasons are explored: (i) attitudinal shifts regarding the acceptability of cannabis use; (ii) regulatory or policy changes; (iii) supply/market changes; (iv) changes in other drug use that may operate as substitutes or complements to cannabis; and (v) socio-cultural factors...
April 24, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439922/illicit-drug-use-among-new-zealand-gay-and-bisexual-men-prevalence-and-association-with-sexual-health-behaviours
#14
Peter Saxton, David Newcombe, Arslan Ahmed, Nigel Dickson, Anthony Hughes
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Data are lacking on drug use among gay and bisexual men (GBM) in New Zealand. We establish a baseline estimate of drug use and investigate associations with sexual health and HIV risk. DESIGN AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of GBM was conducted in gay community settings and online. Participants were asked their frequency of using nine drugs (poppers, cannabis, ecstasy, methamphetamine, amphetamine, cocaine, LSD, gamma hydroxybutyrate and ketamine) in the previous 6 months...
April 25, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434711/validation-of-an-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-method-to-quantify-illicit-drug-and-pharmaceutical-residues-in-wastewater-using-accuracy-profile-approach
#15
Cécile Hubert, Martin Roosen, Yves Levi, Sara Karolak
The analysis of biomarkers in wastewater has become a common approach to assess community behavior. This method is an interesting way to estimate illicit drug consumption in a given population: by using a back calculation method, it is therefore possible to quantify the amount of a specific drug used in a community and to assess the consumption variation at different times and locations. Such a method needs reliable analytical data since the determination of a concentration in the ngL(-1) range in a complex matrix is difficult and not easily reproducible...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433767/temporal-dynamics-of-human-excreted-pollutants-in-wastewater-treatment-plant-influents-toward-a-better-knowledge-of-mass-load-fluctuations
#16
Thomas Thiebault, Laëtitia Fougère, Emilie Destandau, Maxime Réty, Jérémy Jacob
The occurrence of 25 drug target residues (illicit drugs or pharmaceutically active compounds) was investigated during 85 consecutive days in the influents of a wastewater treatment plant in the Region Centre-Val de Loire, France. This long tracking period allowed a better understanding of the patterns affecting the occurrence of this type of contaminants. Among them, 2 were never detected (i.e. heroin and amphetamine). Concerning illicit drugs two patterns were found. Cocaine and ecstasy median loads varied considerably between weekdays and weekend days (i...
April 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431457/precision-medicine-and-pharmacogenetics-what-does-oncology-have-that-addiction-medicine-does-not
#17
Henry R Kranzler, Rachel V Smith, Robert Schnoll, Afaf Moustafa, Emma Greenstreet-Akman
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Precision, personalized or stratified medicine, which promises to deliver the right treatment to the right patient, is a topic of international interest in both the lay press and the scientific literature. A key aspect of precision medicine is the identification of biomarkers that predict the response to medications (i.e. pharmacogenetics). We examined why, despite the great strides that have been made in biomarker identification in many areas of medicine, only in oncology has there been substantial progress in their clinical implementation...
April 21, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430081/prevalence-and-factors-associated-with-criminal-behavior-among-illicit-drug-users-a-cross-sectional-study
#18
Rafael Alves Guimarães, Natália Silva Mesquita, Renata Silva Lopes, Roselma Lucchese, Rodrigo Lopes de Felipe, Ivânia Vera, Inaina Lara Fernandes, Paulo Alexandre de Castro, Luiz Henrique Batista Monteiro, Graciele Cristina Silva
BACKGROUND: Studies indicate high rates of criminal behavior, violent activities, and legal problems among illicit drug users (IDU) in Brazil. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with criminal behavior among IDU undergoing treatment for chemical dependency in Central Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional study carried out with IDU undergoing treatment for chemical dependence. Data were collected by means of face-to-face interviews and analyzed using logistic regression...
April 21, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429997/attitudes-toward-cognitive-enhancer-use-among-new-zealand-tertiary-students
#19
Sanyogita Sanya Ram, Safeera Hussainy, Marcus Henning, Kay Stewart, Maree Jensen, Bruce Russell
BACKGROUND: Cognitive enhancement is the use of prescription stimulant medicines by healthy individuals for nonmedical use in academic settings. Commonly used cognitive enhancers (CEs) include methylphenidate, amphetamines, and modafinil. To understand the motivation to use CEs, it is important to look beyond prevalence and explore the extent to which attitudes, beliefs, and intentions predict the decision to use CEs. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to investigate what factors explain the decision to use CEs among tertiary students in New Zealand, using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB)...
April 21, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428748/resting-state-neuroimaging-and-neuropsychological-findings-in-opioid-use-disorder-during-abstinence-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Hada Fong-Ha Ieong, Zhen Yuan
Dependence to opiates, including illicit heroin and prescription pain killers, and treatment of the opioid use disorder (OUD) have been longstanding problems over the world. Despite intense efforts to scientific investigation and public health care, treatment outcomes have not significantly improved for the past 50 years. One reason behind the continuing use of heroin worldwide despite such efforts is its highly addictive nature. Brain imaging studies over the past two decades have made significant contribution to the understanding of the addictive properties as to be due in part to biological processes, specifically those in the brain structure and function...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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