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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545097/an-integrated-risk-predictor-for-pulmonary-nodules
#1
Paul Kearney, Stephen W Hunsucker, Xiao-Jun Li, Alex Porter, Steven Springmeyer, Peter Mazzone
It is estimated that over 1.5 million lung nodules are detected annually in the United States. Most of these are benign but frequently undergo invasive and costly procedures to rule out malignancy. A risk predictor that can accurately differentiate benign and malignant lung nodules could be used to more efficiently route benign lung nodules to non-invasive observation by CT surveillance and route malignant lung nodules to invasive procedures. The majority of risk predictors developed to date are based exclusively on clinical risk factors, imaging technology or molecular markers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545080/computerized-margin-and-texture-analyses-for-differentiating-bacterial-pneumonia-and-invasive-mucinous-adenocarcinoma-presenting-as-consolidation
#2
Hyun Jung Koo, Mi Young Kim, Ja Hwan Koo, Yu Sub Sung, Jiwon Jung, Sung-Han Kim, Chang-Min Choi, Hwa Jung Kim
Radiologists have used margin characteristics based on routine visual analysis; however, the attenuation changes at the margin of the lesion on CT images have not been quantitatively assessed. We established a CT-based margin analysis method by comparing a target lesion with normal lung attenuation, drawing a slope to represent the attenuation changes. This approach was applied to patients with invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma (n = 40) or bacterial pneumonia (n = 30). Correlations among multiple regions of interest (ROIs) were obtained using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545068/automatically-tracking-neurons-in-a-moving-and-deforming-brain
#3
Jeffrey P Nguyen, Ashley N Linder, George S Plummer, Joshua W Shaevitz, Andrew M Leifer
Advances in optical neuroimaging techniques now allow neural activity to be recorded with cellular resolution in awake and behaving animals. Brain motion in these recordings pose a unique challenge. The location of individual neurons must be tracked in 3D over time to accurately extract single neuron activity traces. Recordings from small invertebrates like C. elegans are especially challenging because they undergo very large brain motion and deformation during animal movement. Here we present an automated computer vision pipeline to reliably track populations of neurons with single neuron resolution in the brain of a freely moving C...
May 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545048/a-distribution-model-of-functional-connectome-based-on-criticality-and-energy-constraints
#4
Kosuke Takagi
The analysis of the network structure of the functional connectivity data constructed from fMRI images provides basic information about functions and features of the brain activity. We focus on the two features which are considered as relevant to the brain activity, the criticality and the constraint regarding energy consumptions. Within a wide variety of complex systems, the critical state occurs associated with a phase transition between distinct phases, random one and order one. Although the hypothesis that human brain activity is also in a state of criticality is supported by some experimental results, it still remains controversial...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544994/12h-abstinence-induced-right-anterior-insula-network-pattern-changes-in-young-smokers
#5
Yanzhi Bi, Yajuan Zhang, Yangding Li, Dahua Yu, Kai Yuan, Jie Tian
BACKGROUND: The strong craving to smoke is a core factor of smoking abstinence that precipitates relapse. Insula plays critical roles in maintaining nicotine dependence, especially in the interoceptive awareness of craving. Despite evidence indicating a link between insula and abstinence-induced craving, less is known about the neural basis of abstinence-induced craving from the circuit level of insula. METHODS: The present study examined the effects of 12h of abstinence from smoking on the resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) of anterior (AI) and posterior insula in young smokers using a within-subject design...
May 15, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544911/arianna-a-research-environment-for-neuroimaging-studies-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#6
Alessandra Retico, Silvia Arezzini, Paolo Bosco, Sara Calderoni, Alberto Ciampa, Simone Coscetti, Stefano Cuomo, Luca De Santis, Dario Fabiani, Maria Evelina Fantacci, Alessia Giuliano, Enrico Mazzoni, Pietro Mercatali, Giovanni Miscali, Massimiliano Pardini, Margherita Prosperi, Francesco Romano, Elena Tamburini, Michela Tosetti, Filippo Muratori
The complexity and heterogeneity of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) require the implementation of dedicated analysis techniques to obtain the maximum from the interrelationship among many variables that describe affected individuals, spanning from clinical phenotypic characterization and genetic profile to structural and functional brain images. The ARIANNA project has developed a collaborative interdisciplinary research environment that is easily accessible to the community of researchers working on ASD (https://arianna...
May 17, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544892/facial-expression-movement-enhances-the-measurement-of-temporal-dynamics-of-attentional-bias-in-the-dot-probe-task
#7
Corrado Caudek, Francesco Ceccarini, Claudio Sica
The facial dot-probe task is one of the most common experimental paradigms used to assess attentional bias toward emotional information. In recent years, however, the psychometric properties of this paradigm have been questioned. In the present study, attentional bias to emotional face stimuli was measured with dynamic and static images of realistic human faces in 97 college students (63 women) who underwent either a positive or a negative mood-induction prior to the experiment. We controlled the bottom-up salience of the stimuli in order to dissociate the top-down orienting of attention from the effects of the bottom-up physical properties of the stimuli...
May 10, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544826/preoperative-computed-tomography-scan-analysis-of-interleaflets-triangles-to-guide-aortic-root-repair-procedures
#8
Claudia Romagnoni, Andrea Mangini, Monica Contino, Rubina Rosa, Sonia Ippolito, Guido Gelpi, Carlo Antona
BACKGROUND: Stabilization of the ventriculo-aortic junction (VAJ) is gaining increasing interest in the context of aortic valve repair, since its dilation is a well-recognized risk factor for long-term repair failure. Interleaflets triangles are key elements of the VAJ, but cannot be completely visualized using echocardiography. A three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of electrocardiogram-triggered computed tomography (CT) scan images allows an analysis of the real dimensions and anatomic characteristics of the subcommissural triangles...
January 2017: Journal of Heart Valve Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544819/dual-malignancy-in-a-thyroid-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma-and-small-lymphocytic-lymphoma-a-report-of-a-case-with-a-cyto-histologic-correlation
#9
Omar I Ahmed, Ziyan T Salih
Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common thyroid malignancy. Simultaneous involvement of the thyroid gland by multiple malignancies, is a rare occurrence. Similarly, primary thyroid lymphomas are also rare. We are reporting a rare case of a dual thyroid malignancy; PTC with secondary thyroid involvement by chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL), diagnosed on cytology and confirmed with flow cytometry, histology and immunohistochemistry. Imaging showed two hypermetabolic nodules, one in left parotid gland, and the other in the thyroid isthmus...
May 22, 2017: Diagnostic Cytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544745/fs-laser-ablation-of-teeth-is-temperature-limited-and-provides-information-about-the-ablated-components
#10
Rebeca Ferraz de Menezes, Catherine Malinda Harvey, Marleny Elizabeth Márquez de Martínez Gerbi, Zachary J Smith, Dan Smith, Juan C Ivaldi, Alton Phillips, James W Chan, Sebastian Wachsmann-Hogiu
The goal of this work is to investigate the thermal effects of femtosecond laser (fs-laser) ablation for the removal of carious dental tissue. Additional studies identify different tooth tissues through femtosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (fsLIBS) for the development of a feedback loop that could be utilized during ablation in a clinical setting. Scanning Election Microscope (SEM) images reveal that minimal morphological damages are incurred at repetition rates below the carbonization threshold of each tooth tissue...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544679/sima-a-simplified-migration-assay-for-analyzing-neutrophil-migration
#11
Markus Weckmann, Tim Becker, Gyde Nissen, Martin Pech, Matthias V Kopp
In lung inflammation, neutrophils are the first leukocytes migrating to an inflammatory site, eliminating pathogens by multiple mechanisms. The term "migration" describes several stages of neutrophil movement to reach the site of inflammation, of which the passage of the interstitium and basal membrane of the airway are necessary to reach the site of bronchial inflammation. Currently, several methods exist (e.g., Boyden Chamber, under-agarose assay, or microfluidic systems) to assess neutrophil mobility. However, these methods do not allow for parameterization on single cell level, that is, the individual neutrophil pathway analysis is still considered challenging...
May 19, 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544659/intranasal-distribution-and-clearance-of-thermoreversible-gel-in-an-animal-model
#12
Ji Eun Choi, Ki Ryung Kim, Yangseop Noh, Won-Ho Chung, Yang-Sun Cho, Seung-Kyu Chung, Hun-Jong Dhong, Hyo Yeol Kim
BACKGROUND: Poloxamer 407 (P407) has been investigated for an intranasal drug delivery system. However, there is little known about the distribution and clearance of intranasally applied P407. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the distribution and clearance time of P407 in an animal model. METHODS: Five male pigs were administered the experimental solution (18% of P407 with 0.01% of fluorescein) and the control solution (normal saline with 0.01% of fluorescein) into their right and left nasal cavity, respectively...
May 23, 2017: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544456/the-experience-of-beauty-derived-from-sorrow
#13
Tomohiro Ishizu, Semir Zeki
We studied the neural mechanisms that are engaged during the experience of beauty derived from sorrow and from joy, two experiences that share a common denominator (beauty) but are linked to opposite emotional valences. Twenty subjects viewed and rerated, in a functional magnetic resonance imaging scanner, 120 images which each had classified into the following four categories: beautiful and sad; beautiful and joyful; neutral; ugly. The medial orbito-frontal cortex (mOFC) was active during the experience of both types of beauty...
May 23, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544426/the-catechol-o-methyltransferase-comt-val158met-genotype-modulates-working-memory-related-dorsolateral-prefrontal-response-and-performance-in-bipolar-disorder
#14
K W Miskowiak, H L Kjaerstad, M M Støttrup, A M Svendsen, K M Demant, L K Hoeffding, T M Werge, K E Burdick, K Domschke, A F Carvalho, E Vieta, M Vinberg, L V Kessing, H R Siebner, J Macoveanu
OBJECTIVES: Cognitive dysfunction affects a substantial proportion of patients with bipolar disorder (BD), and genetic-imaging paradigms may aid in the elucidation of mechanisms implicated in this symptomatic domain. The Val allele of the functional Val158Met polymorphism of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is associated with reduced prefrontal cortex dopamine and exaggerated working memory-related prefrontal activity. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated for the first time whether the COMT Val158Met genotype modulates prefrontal activity during spatial working memory in BD...
May 23, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544333/image-based-modeling-and-scoring-of-howell-jolly-bodies-in-human-erythrocytes
#15
Oguzhan Angay, Mike Friedrich, Jürgen Pinnecker, Henning Hintzsche, Helga Stopper, Klaus Hempel, Katrin G Heinze
The spleen selectively removes cells with intracellular inclusions, for example, detached nuclear fragments in circulating erythrocytes, called Howell-Jolly Bodies (HJBs). With absent or deficient splenic function HJBs appear in the peripheral blood and can be used as a simple and non-invasive risk-indicator for fulminant potentially life-threatening infection after spleenectomy. However, it is still under debate whether counting of the rare HJBs is a reliable measure of splenic function. Investigating HJBs in premature erythrocytes from patients during radioiodine therapy gives about 10 thousand times higher HJB counts than in blood smears...
May 24, 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544269/a-novel-approach-for-early-evaluation-of-orthodontic-process-by-a-numerical-thermo-mechanical-analysis
#16
Z Heidary, A Mojra, M Shirazi, M Bazargan
The main objective of this paper is to propose a novel method that provides an opportunity to evaluate an orthodontic process at early phase of the treatment. This was accomplished by finding out a correlation between the applied orthodontic force and thermal variations in the tooth structure. To this end, geometry of the human tooth surrounded by the connective soft tissue called the periodontal ligament and the bone was constructed by employing dental CT scan images of a specific case. The periodontal ligament was modeled by finite strain viscoelastic model through a nonlinear stress-strain relation (hyperelasticity) and nonlinear stress-time relation (viscoelasticity)...
May 21, 2017: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544256/intrinsic-functional-connectivity-alterations-in-progressive-supranuclear-palsy-differential-effects-in-frontal-cortex-motor-and-midbrain-networks
#17
Johannes Rosskopf, Martin Gorges, Hans-Peter Müller, Dorothée Lulé, Ingo Uttner, Albert C Ludolph, Elmar Pinkhardt, Freimut D Juengling, Jan Kassubek
BACKGROUND: The topography of functional network changes in progressive supranuclear palsy can be mapped by intrinsic functional connectivity MRI. The objective of this study was to study functional connectivity and its clinical and behavioral correlates in dedicated networks comprising the cognition-related default mode and the motor and midbrain functional networks in patients with PSP. METHODS: Whole-brain-based "resting-state" functional MRI and high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging data together with neuropsychological and video-oculographic data from 34 PSP patients (22 with Richardson subtype and 12 with parkinsonian subtype) and 35 matched healthy controls were subjected to network-based functional connectivity and voxel-based morphometry analysis...
May 22, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544218/genome-wide-mediation-analysis-of-psychiatric-and-cognitive-traits-through-imaging-phenotypes
#18
Xuan Bi, Liuqing Yang, Tengfei Li, Baisong Wang, Hongtu Zhu, Heping Zhang
Heritability is well documented for psychiatric disorders and cognitive abilities which are, however, complex, involving both genetic and environmental factors. Hence, it remains challenging to discover which and how genetic variations contribute to such complex traits. In this article, they propose to use mediation analysis to bridge this gap, where neuroimaging phenotypes were utilized as intermediate variables. The Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort was investigated using genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and mediation analyses...
May 22, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543989/brain-structural-alterations-in-obese-children-with-and-without-prader-willi-syndrome
#19
Mingze Xu, Yi Zhang, Karen M von Deneen, Huaiqiu Zhu, Jia-Hong Gao
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic imprinting disorder that is mainly characterized by hyperphagia and childhood obesity. Previous neuroimaging studies revealed that there is a significant difference in brain activation patterns between obese children with and without PWS. However, whether there are differences in the brain structure of obese children with and without PWS remains elusive. In the current study, we used T1-weighted and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging to investigate alterations in the brain structure, such as the cortical volume and white matter integrity, in relation to this eating disorder in 12 children with PWS, 18 obese children without PWS (OB) and 18 healthy controls...
May 23, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543966/development-of-a-quantitative-assessment-method-of-pigmentary-skin-disease-using-ultraviolet-optical-imaging
#20
Onseok Lee, Sunup Park, Jaeyoung Kim, Chilhwan Oh
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The visual scoring method has been used as a subjective evaluation of pigmentary skin disorders. Severity of pigmentary skin disease, especially melasma, is evaluated using a visual scoring method, the MASI (melasma area severity index). This study differentiates between epidermal and dermal pigmented disease. The study was undertaken to determine methods to quantitatively measure the severity of pigmentary skin disorders under ultraviolet illumination. METHODS: The optical imaging system consists of illumination (white LED, UV-A lamp) and image acquisition (DSLR camera, air cooling CMOS CCD camera)...
May 21, 2017: Skin Research and Technology
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