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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732194/principles-of-chemical-biology-apex-cell-free-enzyme-systems-new-antibiotics-epigenetic-membrane-relationship-and-metastable-transcription
#1
(no author information available yet)
This month: GPCR signaling and networks in APEX, making terpenes via biocatalysis in a cell-free system, antibiotics for Gram-negative bugs, the role of membranes in epigenetics, and the role of metastability in transcription.
July 20, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729273/draft-genome-sequence-of-microbacterium-sp-strain-lemmj01-isolated-from-antarctic-ornithogenic-soil
#2
Júnia Schultz, Yuri Alves Pinheiro de Souza, Maria Cristina Pinheiro Pereira Reis Mansur, Alane Beatriz Vermelho, Fábio Faria da Mota, Alexandre Soares Rosado
We report here the 3,637,012-bp draft genome sequence of Microbacterium sp. strain LEMMJ01, isolated from ornithogenic soil from King George Island, Antarctica. The total number of genes presented in the draft genome sequence was 3,553, and the total number of coding sequences was 3,497. In addition, genes related to the production of terpene and carotenoids were revealed.
July 20, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725232/transcriptome-wide-identification-of-differentially-expressed-genes-in-solanum-lycopersicon-l-in-response-to-an-alfalfa-protein-hydrolysate-using-microarrays
#3
Andrea Ertani, Michela Schiavon, Serenella Nardi
An alfalfa-based protein hydrolysate (EM) has been tested in tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.) plants at two different concentrations (0.1 and 1 mL L(-1)) to get insight on its efficacy as biostimulant in this species and to unravel possible metabolic targets and molecular mechanisms that may shed light on its mode of action. EM was efficient in promoting the fresh biomass and content in chlorophyll and soluble sugars of tomato plants, especially when it was applied at the concentration of 1 mL L(-1). This effect on plant productivity was likely related to the EM-dependent up-regulation of genes identified via microarray and involved in primary carbon and nitrogen metabolism, photosynthesis, nutrient uptake and developmental processes...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724695/caryolan-1-ol-an-antifungal-volatile-produced-by-streptomyces-spp-inhibits-the-endomembrane-system-of-fungi
#4
Gyeongjun Cho, Junheon Kim, Chung Gyoo Park, Corey Nislow, David M Weller, Youn-Sig Kwak
Streptomyces spp. have the ability to produce a wide variety of secondary metabolites that interact with the environment. This study aimed to discover antifungal volatiles from the genus Streptomyces and to determine the mechanisms of inhibition. Volatiles identified from Streptomyces spp. included three major terpenes, geosmin, caryolan-1-ol and an unknown sesquiterpene. antiSMASH and KEGG predicted that the volatile terpene synthase gene clusters occur in the Streptomyces genome. Growth inhibition was observed when fungi were exposed to the volatiles...
July 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724343/vero-cell-technology-for-rapid-development-of-inactivated-whole-virus-vaccines-for-emerging-viral-diseases
#5
P Noel Barrett, Sara J Terpening, Doris Snow, Ronald R Cobb, Otfried Kistner
Rapid development and production of vaccines against emerging diseases requires well established, validated, robust technologies to allow industrial scale production and accelerated licensure of products. Areas covered: A versatile Vero cell platform has been developed and utilized to deliver a wide range of candidate and licensed vaccines against emerging viral diseases. This platform builds on the 35 years' experience and safety record with inactivated whole virus vaccines such as polio vaccine. The current platform has been optimized to include a novel double inactivation procedure in order to ensure a highly robust inactivation procedure for novel emerging viruses...
July 20, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722702/radiofrequency-ablation-of-hepatic-tumor-subjective-assessment-of-the-perilesional-vascular-network-on-contrast-enhanced-computed-tomography-before-and-after-ablation-can-reliably-predict-the-risk-of-local-recurrence
#6
Sireesha Yedururi, Silanath Terpenning, Sanjay Gupta, Patricia Fox, Sooyoung Shin Martin, Claudius Conrad, Evelyne M Loyer
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether simple, subjective analysis of the perilesional vascular network can predict the risk of local recurrence after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of liver malignancies on contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT). METHODS: Contrast-enhanced computed tomography's 103 patients (59 men and 44 women; mean age, 63 years (range, 31-84 years) with 134 lesions who underwent RFA between 2000 and 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. The primary tumors include colorectal carcinoma (58 patients), hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 13), breast carcinoma (n = 8), neuroendocrine tumor (n = 5), and others (n = 19)...
July 2017: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722114/uv-b-irradiation-differentially-regulates-terpene-synthases-and-terpene-content-of-peach
#7
Hongru Liu, Xiangmei Cao, Xiaohong Liu, Rui Xin, Jiaojiao Wang, Jie Gao, Boping Wu, Liuxiao Gao, Changjie Xu, Bo Zhang, Donald Grierson, Kunsong Chen
Plants generate protective molecules in response to UV light. In laboratory experiments, 48 h UV-B irradiation of peach fruit and leaves reduced the flavor-related monoterpene linalool by 60 %. No isoprene was detected but other terpenoids increased significantly, including a 3-fold accumulation of the sesquiterpene (E,E)-α-farnesene, which was also increased by jasmonic acid treatment. RNA-sequencing revealed altered transcript levels for two terpene synthases: PpTPS1, a TPS-g subfamily member, decreased by 86 % and PpTPS2, a TPS-b subfamily member, increased 80-fold...
July 19, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720958/aroma-composition-of-shalgam-a-traditional-turkish-lactic-acid-fermented-beverage
#8
Hasan Tanguler, Serkan Selli, Kemal Sen, Turgut Cabaroglu, Huseyin Erten
Shalgam, a traditional red, cloudy and sour soft beverage, is produced by lactic acid fermentation of black carrot, sourdough, salt, bulgur flour, turnip and adequate water. The present study was designed to characterize the volatile compounds of shalgam obtained from different methods. The aroma compounds of shalgams produced by traditional and direct methods, and addition of Lactic acid bateria (LAB) cultures were examined. Volatile components of shalgam samples were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction technique with pentane/dichloromethane and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
June 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716406/the-tomato-b-type-cyclin-gene-slcycb2-plays-key-roles-in-reproductive-organ-development-trichome-initiation-terpenoids-biosynthesis-and-prodenia-litura-defense
#9
Shenghua Gao, Yanna Gao, Cheng Xiong, Gang Yu, Jiang Chang, Qihong Yang, Changxian Yang, Zhibiao Ye
Cyclins exist extensively in various plant species. Among them, B-type cyclins play important roles in the transition of G2-to-M. However, few B-type cyclins have been reported to participate in reproductive organ development and trichome formation. In this study, transgene analysis showed that SlCycB2 overexpression caused abnormal flower with the unclosed stamen, shortened style and aberrant pollen. In addition, nearly all non-glandular trichomes, as well as the glandular ones were disappeared. On the contrary, suppression of SlCycB2 could promote type III and type V trichomes formation...
September 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714562/a-multi-objective-optimisation-including-results-of-life-cycle-assessment-in-developing-bio-renewables-based-processes
#10
Daniel Helmdach, Polina Yaseneva, Parminder K Heer, Artur M Schweidtmann, Alexei Lapkin
A decision support tool has been developed, which uses global multi-objective optimisation based on: (i) the environmental impacts, evaluated within the framework of full life cycle assessment, and (ii) process costs, evaluated using rigorous process models. This approach is particularly useful in developing the bio renewable-based energy solutions and chemicals manufacturing, where multiple criteria must be evaluated and where the optimisation-based decision making process is particularly attractive. The framework is demonstrated using a case study of conversion of terpenes derived from bio-waste feedstocks into reactive intermediates...
July 17, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690813/bacterial-phytopathogen-infection-disrupts-belowground-plant-indirect-defense-mediated-by-tritrophic-cascade
#11
Monique J Rivera, Kirsten S Pelz-Stelinski, Xavier Martini, Lukasz L Stelinski
Plants can defend themselves against herbivores through activation of defensive pathways and attraction of third-trophic-level predators and parasites. Trophic cascades that mediate interactions in the phytobiome are part of a larger dynamic including the pathogens of the plant itself, which are known to greatly influence plant defenses. As such, we investigated the impact of a phloem-limited bacterial pathogen, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), in cultivated citrus rootstock on a well-studied belowground tritrophic interaction involving the attraction of an entomopathogenic nematode (EPN), Steinernema diaprepesi, to their root-feeding insect hosts, Diaprepes abbreviatus larvae...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688931/membrane-engineering-a-novel-strategy-to-enhance-the-production-and-accumulation-of-%C3%AE-carotene-in-escherichia-coli
#12
Tao Wu, Lijun Ye, Dongdong Zhao, Siwei Li, Qingyan Li, Bolin Zhang, Changhao Bi, Xueli Zhang
Carotenoids are a class of terpenes of commercial interest that exert important biological functions. While various strategies have been applied to engineer β-carotene production in microbial cell factories, no work has been done to study and improve the storage of hydrophobic terpene products inside the heterologous host cells. Although the membrane is thought to be the cell compartment that accumulates hydrophobic terpenes such as β-carotene, direct evidence is still lacking. In this work, we engineered the membrane of Escherichia coli in both its morphological and biosynthetic aspects, as a means to study and improve its storage capacity for β-carotene...
July 6, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686348/synthesis-and-applications-of-cyclohexenyl-halides-obtained-by-a-cationic-carbocyclization-reaction
#13
Félix Rodríguez, Pedro Alonso, Pilar Pardo, Raquel Fontaneda, Francisco Javier Fañanás
The synthesis of cyclic alkenyl halides (mainly fluorides, chlorides and bromides) from alkynol or enyne derivatives through an acid mediated cationic cyclization reaction is disclosed. This high-yielding, scalable and technically very simple method complements and challenges conventional methodologies. This study includes the development of biomimetic cationic cyclization reactions of polyenyne derivatives to give interesting halogen-containing polycyclic compounds. The application of this reaction in the key step of the synthesis of two terpenes, austrodoral and pallescensin A, and a potent odorant, 9-epi-Ambrox, demonstrates the potential of the cationic cyclization process here presented...
July 7, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676830/nyctanthes-arbor-tristis-ameliorated-fca-induced-experimental-arthritis-a-comparative-study-among-different-extracts
#14
Maliha Uroos, Zaigham Abbas, Shumaila Sattar, Nigarish Umer, Arham Shabbir, Shafiq-Ur-Rehman, Ahsan Sharif
Nyctanthes arbor-tristis (NAT) is commonly used traditionally for the treatment of rheumatism and inflammatory diseases. Current study evaluates the antiarthritic potential of NAT using Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritic rat model. Treatments with methanolic, ethyl acetate, and n-hexane extracts were continued for consecutive 20 days. Macroscopic arthritic scoring and water displacement plethysmometry were used to evaluate arthritic development. Hematological and biochemical parameters were investigated and ankle joints were processed for histopathological evaluation...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676765/molecular-basis-of-n-n-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide-deet-in-repelling-the-common-bed-bug-cimex-lectularius
#15
Feng Liu, Xiaoming Xia, Nannan Liu
As the most extensively used chemical repellent, N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) displayed repellency to a wide range of insects, including the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius. While the neuronal or molecular basis involved in DEET's repellency have been majorly focused on mosquitos and fruit flies, DEET's repellency to the common bed bug is largely unreached. To gain new insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms in DEET's repellency to the common bed bug, we characterized the neuronal response of bed bugs to DEET, identified the olfactory receptors targeted by DEET and demonstrated the interfering effect of DEET on bed bug's responses to human odorants...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673978/unearthing-a-sesterterpene-biosynthetic-repertoire-in-the-brassicaceae-through-genome-mining-reveals-convergent-evolution
#16
Ancheng C Huang, Satria A Kautsar, Young J Hong, Marnix H Medema, Andrew D Bond, Dean J Tantillo, Anne Osbourn
Sesterterpenoids are a rare terpene class harboring untapped chemodiversity and bioactivities. Their structural diversity originates primarily from the scaffold-generating sesterterpene synthases (STSs). In fungi, all six known STSs are bifunctional, containing C-terminal trans-prenyltransferase (PT) and N-terminal terpene synthase (TPS) domains. In plants, two colocalized PT and TPS gene pairs from Arabidopsis thaliana were recently reported to synthesize sesterterpenes. However, the landscape of PT and TPS genes in plant genomes is unclear...
July 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672088/photocaged-competitor-guests-a-general-approach-toward-light-activated-cargo-release-from-cucurbiturils
#17
Miguel A Romero, Nuno Basilio, Artur J Moro, Mara Domingues, José A González-Delgado, Jesús F Arteaga, Uwe Pischel
A general approach toward the light-induced guest release from cucurbit[7]uril by means of a photoactivatable competitor was devised. An o-nitrobenzyl-caged competitor is photolyzed to generate a competitive guest that can displace cargo from the host macrocycle solely based on considerations of chemical equilibrium. With this tool the release of terpene guests from inclusion complexes with cucurbit[7]uril was demonstrated. The binding of the herein investigated terpenes, all being lead fragrant components in essential oils, has been characterized for the first time...
July 3, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672060/phytochemical-and-biological-activities-of-pseudocalymma-elegans-a-false-garlic
#18
Sana Wahid, Muhammad Ali Versiani, Sajid Jahangir, Khurshid Jawaid, Maryam Shafique, Huma Khan, Shaheen Faizi
Evaluation of phytochemical constituents and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of hexane (PELH), dichloromethane (PELDCM), ethyl acetate (PELEA) and methanolic (PELM) extracts of young leaves of P. elegans have been carried out. Moreover, extracts have also been explored for the presence of sulphur containing compounds, 1, 2-dithiolane (33), diallyl disulphide (35), 3-Vinyl-1,2-dithiacyclohex-5-ene (37), diallyl trisulphide (38) responsible for the garlic like smell of P. elegans. All the extracts were found to be antioxidant and showed potent inhibition with IC50 values 0...
July 3, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672055/coherent-enantiomer-selective-population-enrichment-using-tailored-microwave-fields
#19
Cristóbal Pérez, Amanda Steber, Sergio Domingos, Anna Krin, David Schmitz, Melanie Schnell
We report the experimental demonstration of coherent enantiomer-selective enrichment of chiral molecules by employing a novel microwave five-pulse scheme. Our results show that enantiomers can be selectively transferred to a rotational level of choice by applying sequences of resonant microwave pulses in a phase- and polarization-controlled manner. This is achieved by simultaneously exciting all three kinds of electric-dipole allowed rotational transitions and monitoring the effect on a fourth rotational transition of choice...
July 3, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671289/mechanistic-characterization-of-two-chimeric-sesterterpene-synthases-from-penicillium
#20
Takaaki Mitsuhashi, Jan Rinkel, Masahiro Okada, Ikuro Abe, Jeroen S Dickschat
The products of two bifunctional fungal sesterterpene synthases (StTPS), with prenyl transferase (PT) and terpene synthase (TPS) domains from Penicillium, were structurally characterized and their mechanisms studied in detail by labeling experiments. A phylogenetic analysis of the TPS domains of the new and previously characterized enzymes revealed six distinct clades. Enzymes from the same clade catalyze a common initial cyclization step, which suggests the potential for structural predictions from amino acid sequences...
July 3, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
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