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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786761/engineering-terpenoid-production-through-transient-expression-in-nicotiana-benthamiana
#1
REVIEW
James Reed, Anne Osbourn
Terpenoids are the most structurally diverse class of plant natural products with a huge range of commercial and medical applications. Exploiting this enormous potential has historically been hindered due to low levels of these compounds in their natural sources, making isolation difficult, while their structural complexity frequently makes synthetic chemistry approaches uneconomical. Engineering terpenoid biosynthesis in heterologous host production platforms provides a means to overcome these obstacles. In particular, plant-based production systems are attractive as they provide the compartmentalisation and cofactors necessary for the transfer of functional pathways from other plants...
May 21, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783790/quality-traits-of-cannabidiol-oils-cannabinoids-content-terpene-fingerprint-and-oxidation-stability-of-european-commercially-available-preparations
#2
Radmila Pavlovic, Giorgio Nenna, Lorenzo Calvi, Sara Panseri, Gigliola Borgonovo, Luca Giupponi, Giuseppe Cannazza, Annamaria Giorgi
Cannabidiol (CBD)-based oil preparations are becoming extremely popular, as CBD has been shown to have beneficial effects on human health. CBD-based oil preparations are not unambiguously regulated under the European legislation, as CBD is not considered as a controlled substance. This means that companies can produce and distribute CBD products derived from non-psychoactive hemp varieties, providing an easy access to this extremely advantageous cannabinoid. This leaves consumers with no legal quality guarantees...
May 20, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781313/anti-proliferative-diterpenes-from-dacrycarpus-imbricatus
#3
Nguyen Thanh Tam, Tran Duc Quan, Dang Viet Hau, Nguyen Thi Hoang Anh, Thi Thanh Thuy Tran, Nguyen Hoang Sa, Dao Duc Thien, Le Thi Hong Nhung, Dinh Thi Phong, Sabrina Adorisio, Domenico V Delfino, Trinh Thi Thuy
A new diterpene, cassipouryl hexadecanoate (2), in addition to the cassipourol (1) and four terpenes (3-6) were isolated from the twigs and leaves of Dacrycarpus imbricatus (Blume) de Laub. The structures of the two monocyclic diterpenes (1, 2), were elucidated on the basic of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data and compared with the literature. These two monocyclic diterpenes (1, 2) were tested for their anti-proliferative activity on acute myeloid leukemia (OCI-AML) cells. The results showed that 1 had significantly anti-proliferative activity whereas 2 was weakly active...
May 21, 2018: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781280/unexpected-alkene-isomerization-during-iterative-cross-coupling-to-form-hindered-electron-deficient-trienes
#4
Abigail Feceu, Lauren E Sangster, David B C Martin
An iterative cross-coupling approach to conjugated trienes was explored as part of a planned stereoselective synthesis of bicyclic terpenes. Using a bifunctional bromoboronate building block, sequential Suzuki coupling reactions were employed to provide a conjugated trienone target containing a tetrasubstituted alkene. During the final cross-coupling step, an unexpected alkene isomerization was observed to give less hindered trans products. Examination of different substrates determined that conjugation to a ketone withdrawing group was responsible for isomerization, rather than steric hindrance of the tetrasubstituted alkene...
May 21, 2018: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780507/crystal-structure-and-functional-analysis-of-large-terpene-synthases-belonging-to-a-newly-found-subclass
#5
Masahiro Fujihashi, Tsutomu Sato, Yuma Tanaka, Daisuke Yamamoto, Tomoyuki Nishi, Daijiro Ueda, Mizuki Murakami, Yoko Yasuno, Ai Sekihara, Kazuma Fuku, Tetsuro Shinada, Kunio Miki
Thousands of terpenes have been identified to date. However, only two classes of enzymes are known to be involved in their biosynthesis, and each class has characteristic amino-acid motifs. We recently identified a novel large-terpene (C25 /C30 /C35 ) synthase, which shares no motifs with known enzymes. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of this enzyme, we determined the crystal structure of a large-β-prene synthase from B. alcalophilus (BalTS). Surprisingly, the overall structure of BalTS is similar to that of the α-domain of class I terpene synthases although their primary structures are totally different from each other...
April 21, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779663/identification-of-enzymes-involved-in-sesterterpene-biosynthesis-in-marine-fungi
#6
Jingjing Yan, Jingjing Guo, Wei Yuan, Wanying Mai, Kui Hong
Diverse and bioactive terpene compounds are produced by marine fungi. The biosynthesis of sesterterpene molecules containing a C25 skeleton is catalyzed by chimeric enzymes that carry out both chain elongation and terpene cyclization reactions. These bifunctional characteristics facilitate using different chain length polyisoprenoid diphosphates as precursors to yield the geranylfarnesyl diphosphate intermediate, which is then converted to a sesterterpene in one step. In this chapter, we describe the identification of sesterterpene synthase enzymes, together with other related enzymes such as diterpene and farnesyl diphosphate synthases, in a single fungal strain...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779662/unusual-head-to-torso-coupling-of-terpene-precursors-as-a-new-strategy-for-the-structural-diversification-of-natural-products
#7
Robin Teufel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777400/ontogeny-of-anastomosed-laticifers-in-the-stem-apex-of-hancornia-speciosa-apocynaceae-a-topographic-approach
#8
Mayara Pereira Gonçalves, Maria Olívia Mercadante-Simões, Leonardo Monteiro Ribeiro
Latex is a complex plant secretion with both ecological and economic importance. There is little information currently available on the cytological aspects of the ontogenesis of anastomosed laticifers, the ducts originating through the lysis of adjacent cell walls. Hancornia speciosa is a tree typical of the Cerrado (neotropical savanna) biome. Its latex has medicinal value and is also used to produce rubber. The ontogenesis of its laticifers and the process of latex synthesis are described here. Structural, cytochemical, and ultrastructural analyses of the stem apex and phytochemical analyses of the latex were performed...
May 18, 2018: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775778/the-genus-cordyceps-an-extensive-review-of-its-traditional-uses-phytochemistry-and-pharmacology
#9
REVIEW
Opeyemi Joshua Olatunji, Jian Tang, Adesola Tola, Florence Auberon, Omolara Oluwaniyi, Zhen Ouyang
The genus Cordyceps has about 750 identified species which are distributed in many regions of the World, but mainly found in South Asia, Europe and North America. The species of the genus are highly priced and are widely used as food and medicine for the treatment of various ailments. This present review compiles literature information on the ethno-medicinal, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties of species in the genus Cordyceps. In addition, the review also suggest recommendations for the future researches...
May 15, 2018: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773797/three-previously-unrecognised-classes-of-biosynthetic-enzymes-revealed-during-the-production-of-xenovulene-a
#10
Raissa Schor, Carsten Schotte, Daniel Wibberg, Jörn Kalinowski, Russell J Cox
Xenovulene A is a complex fungal meroterpenoid, produced by the organism hitherto known as Acremonium strictum IMI 501407, for which limited biosynthetic evidence exists. Here, we generate a draft genome and show that the producing organism is previously unknown and should be renamed as Sarocladium schorii. A biosynthetic gene cluster is discovered which bears resemblance to those involved in the biosynthesis of fungal tropolones, with additional genes of unknown function. Heterologous reconstruction of the entire pathway in Aspergillus oryzae allows the chemical steps of biosynthesis to be dissected...
May 17, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773129/in-vitro-acaricide-and-anticholinesterase-activities-of-digitaria-insularis-poaceae-against-rhipicephalus-boophilus-microplus
#11
Francianne Oliveira Santos, Hélimar Gonçalves Lima, Soraia de Souza Santa Rosa, Nayana Borges das Mercês, Taiane Menezes Serra, Rosângela Soares Uzeda, Isabella Mary Alves Reis, Mariana Borges Botura, Alexsandro Branco, Maria José Moreira Batatinha
Medicinal plants have been proposed as an alternative for acaricide control, aiming to develop lower-cost and eco-friendly ectoparasiticide products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of the extracts and fractions obtained from the leaves of Digitaria insularis on the reproductive efficacy of the bovine tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Also, we investigated the possible relation with the anticholinesterase mechanism. The effect of the crude hydroethanolic (CH), hexanic (HE), ethyl acetate (EA), butanolic (BT) and residual hydroethanolic (RH) extracts, as well as four fractions of HE, were evaluated using adult immersion test...
May 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772722/ethnobotany-phytochemistry-and-pharmacological-effects-of-plants-in-genus-cynanchum-linn-asclepiadaceae
#12
REVIEW
Lu Han, Xiuping Zhou, Mengmeng Yang, Li Zhou, Xinxin Deng, Shijie Wei, Wenping Wang, Zhizhong Wang, Xue Qiao, Changcai Bai
Genus Cynanchum L. belongs to the family Asclepiadaceae, which comprise more than 200 species distributed worldwide. In Chinese medical practice, numerous drugs (such as tablets and powders) containing different parts of plants of this genus are used to treat snake bites, bruises, osteoblasts, rheumatoid arthritis and tumors. A search for original articles published on the cynanchum genus was performed by using several resources, including Flora of China Official Website and various scientific databases, such as PubMed, SciFinder, the Web of Science, Science Direct, and China Knowledge Resource Integrated (CNKI)...
May 16, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765471/volatiles-from-three-genome-sequenced-fungi-from-the-genus-aspergillus
#13
Jeroen S Dickschat, Ersin Celik, Nelson L Brock
The volatiles emitted by agar plate cultures of three genome sequenced fungal strains from the genus Aspergillus were analysed by GC-MS. All three strains produced terpenes for which a biosynthetic relationship is discussed. The obtained data were also correlated to genetic information about the encoded terpene synthases for each strain. Besides terpenes, a series of aromatic compounds and volatiles derived from fatty acid and branched amino acid metabolism were identified. Some of these compounds have not been described as fungal metabolites before...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765461/anticancer-properties-of-essential-oils-and-other-natural-products
#14
REVIEW
K Blowman, M Magalhães, M F L Lemos, C Cabral, I M Pires
Essential oils are secondary metabolites with a key-role in plants protection, consisting primarily of terpenes with a volatile nature and a diverse array of chemical structures. Essential oils exhibit a wide range of bioactivities, especially antimicrobial activity, and have long been utilized for treating various human ailments and diseases. Cancer cell prevention and cytotoxicity are exhibited through a wide range of mechanisms of action, with more recent research focusing on synergistic and antagonistic activity between specific essential oils major and minor components...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761475/exhaled-breath-analysis-in-evaluation-of-psychological-stress-a-short-literature-review
#15
REVIEW
Alessandro Tonacci, Francesco Sansone, Anna Paola Pala, Raffaele Conte
Physiological stress is pervasive in today's society. Its detection is normally performed through several unobtrusive methods, driving both caregivers and patients to take measures to reduce the burden of this condition on human health. Among the methods for assessing stress, exhaled breath analysis represents a non-invasive, real-time alternative to classic laboratory tests. Therefore, a literature review was performed to assess the presence of altered parameters, related to psychological stress, in exhaled breath...
May 15, 2018: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758027/single-generation-effects-on-terpenoid-defenses-in-lodgepole-pine-populations-following-mountain-pine-beetle-infestation
#16
Sharleen L Balogh, Dezene P W Huber, B Staffan Lindgren
The recent mountain pine beetle outbreak in western Canada provides an opportunity to study the selection and heritability of tree defenses. We examined terpenoid-based defenses of seedling lodgepole pines which were offspring of mature trees subjected to high levels of mountain pine beetle selective pressure. Seedlings were grown from one of three types of cones: old cones on live trees; young cones on live trees; and cones on trees killed by beetles. Offspring thus represented crosses of non-surviving (NS) x surviving (S), S x S, and NS x NS parents, respectively...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755558/antiparasitic-activity-and-essential-oil-chemical-analysis-of-the-piper-tuberculatum-jacq-fruit
#17
Valterlúcio Dos Santos Sales, Álefe Brito Monteiro, Gyllyandeson de Araújo Delmondes, Emmily Petícia do Nascimento, Francisco Rodolpho Sobreira Dantas Nóbrega de Figuêiredo, Cristina Kelly de Souza Rodrigues, Josefa Fernanda Evangelista de Lacerda, Cícera Norma Fernandes, Maysa de Oliveira Barbosa, Adamo Xenofonte Brasil, Saulo Relison Tintino, Maria Celeste Vega Gomez, Cathia Coronel, Henrique Douglas Melo Coutinho, José Galberto Martins da Costa, Cícero Francisco Bezerra Felipe, Irwin Rose Alencar de Menezes, Marta Regina Kerntopf
With the increase of neglected diseases such as leishmaniasis and Chagas disease, there was a need for the search for new therapeutic alternatives that reduce the harm caused by medicine available for treatment. Thus, this study was performed to investigate the antiparasitic activity of the essential oil from the fruits of Piper tuberculatum Jacq, against lines of Leishmania braziliensis (MHOM/CO/88/UA301), Leishmania infantum (MHOM/ES/92/BCN83) and Trypanosoma cruzi (LC-B5 clone). Before running protocols, an analysis of the chemical composition of essential oil was conducted, which presented monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes...
2018: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751914/discrimination-and-growth-tracking-of-fungi-contamination-in-peaches-using-electronic-nose
#18
Qiang Liu, Nan Zhao, Dandan Zhou, Ye Sun, Ke Sun, Leiqing Pan, Kang Tu
A non-destructive method for detection of fungal contamination in peaches using an electronic nose (E-nose) is presented. Peaches were inoculated with three common spoilage fungi, Botrytis cinerea, Monilinia fructicola and Rhizopus stolonifer and then stored for various periods. E-nose was then used to analyze volatile compounds generated in the fungi-inoculated peaches, which was then compared with the growth data (colony counts) of the fungi. The results showed that changes in volatile compounds in fungi-inoculated peaches were correlated with total amounts and species of fungi...
October 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751730/effect-of-fermentation-processing-on-the-flavor-of-baijiu
#19
Huilin Liu, Baoguo Sun
Baijiu, otherwise known as the national liquor of China, is a well-known distilled spirit that has been produced for over 2,000 years. Baijiu is a clear and transparent fermented alcoholic beverage containing more than 1,870 volatile compounds, including esters, alcohols, aromatics, ketones, heterocycles, nitrogenous compounds, acids, aldehydes, terpenes, sulfur compounds, acetals, and lactones. This perspective describes the Baijiu production process, summarizes recent progress in the development and study of Baijiu flavor chemistry, discusses the effect of fermentation processing on Baijiu flavor, and presents novel development trends in the Baijiu industry in the dual directions of flavor and health...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748726/in-vitro-and-in-silico-studies-of-terpenes-terpenoids-and-related-compounds-with-larvicidal-and-pupaecidal-activity-against-culex-quinquefasciatus-say-diptera-culicidae
#20
S Andrade-Ochoa, J Correa-Basurto, L M Rodríguez-Valdez, L E Sánchez-Torres, B Nogueda-Torres, G V Nevárez-Moorillón
BACKGROUND: In order to develop new larvicidal agents derived from phytochemicals, the larvicidal activity of fifty molecules that are constituent of essential oils was evaluated against Culex quinquefasciatus Say. Terpenes, terpenoids and phenylpropanoids molecules were included in the in vitro evaluation, and QSAR models using genetic algorithms were built to identify molecular and structural properties of biological interest. Further, to obtain structural details on the possible mechanism of action, selected compounds were submitted to docking studies on sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP-2) as possible target...
May 10, 2018: Chemistry Central Journal
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