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Multiparametric imaging

Clémence Granier, Emeline Vinatier, Elia Colin, Marion Mandavit, Charles Dariane, Virginie Verkarre, Lucie Biard, Rami El Zein, Corinne Lesaffre, Isabelle Galy-Fauroux, Hélène Roussel, Eléonore De Guillebon, Charlotte Blanc, Antonin Saldmann, Cécile Badoual, Alain Gey, Éric Tartour
Immune cells are important components of the tumor microenvironment and influence tumor growth and evolution at all stages of carcinogenesis. Notably, it is now well established that the immune infiltrate in human tumors can correlate with prognosis and response to therapy. The analysis of the immune infiltrate in the tumor microenvironment has become a major challenge for the classification of patients and the response to treatment. The co-expression of inhibitory receptors such as Program Cell Death Protein 1 (PD1; also known as CD279), Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Associated Protein 4 (CTLA-4), T-Cell Immunoglobulin and Mucin Containing Protein-3 (Tim-3; also known as CD366), and Lymphocyte Activation Gene 3 (Lag-3; also known as CD223), is a hallmark of T cell exhaustion...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Veeru Kasivisvanathan, Antti S Rannikko, Marcelo Borghi, Valeria Panebianco, Lance A Mynderse, Markku H Vaarala, Alberto Briganti, Lars Budäus, Giles Hellawell, Richard G Hindley, Monique J Roobol, Scott Eggener, Maneesh Ghei, Arnauld Villers, Franck Bladou, Geert M Villeirs, Jaspal Virdi, Silvan Boxler, Grégoire Robert, Paras B Singh, Wulphert Venderink, Boris A Hadaschik, Alain Ruffion, Jim C Hu, Daniel Margolis, Sébastien Crouzet, Laurence Klotz, Samir S Taneja, Peter Pinto, Inderbir Gill, Clare Allen, Francesco Giganti, Alex Freeman, Stephen Morris, Shonit Punwani, Norman R Williams, Chris Brew-Graves, Jonathan Deeks, Yemisi Takwoingi, Mark Emberton, Caroline M Moore
Background Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with or without targeted biopsy, is an alternative to standard transrectal ultrasonography-guided biopsy for prostate-cancer detection in men with a raised prostate-specific antigen level who have not undergone biopsy. However, comparative evidence is limited. Methods In a multicenter, randomized, noninferiority trial, we assigned men with a clinical suspicion of prostate cancer who had not undergone biopsy previously to undergo MRI, with or without targeted biopsy, or standard transrectal ultrasonography-guided biopsy...
March 18, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
Jaidip Jagtap, Gayatri Sharma, Abdul K Parchur, Venkateswara Gogineni, Carmen Bergom, Sarah White, Michael J Flister, Amit Joshi
Vascular supply is a critical component of the tumor microenvironment (TME) and is essential for tumor growth and metastasis, yet the endogenous genetic modifiers that impact vascular function in the TME are largely unknown. To identify the host TME modifiers of tumor vascular function, we combined a novel genetic mapping strategy [Consomic Xenograft Model] with near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging and multiparametric analysis of pharmacokinetic modeling. To detect vascular flow, an intensified cooled camera based dynamic NIR imaging system with 785 nm laser diode based excitation was used to image the whole-body fluorescence emission of intravenously injected indocyanine green dye...
February 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Joanna H Shih, Matthew D Greer, Baris Turkbey
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: To point out the problems with Cohen kappa statistic and to explore alternative metrics to determine interobserver agreement on lesion detection when locations are not prespecified. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Use of kappa and two alternative methods, namely index of specific agreement (ISA) and modified kappa, for measuring interobserver agreement on the location of detected lesions are presented. These indices of agreement are illustrated by application to a retrospective multireader study in which nine readers detected and scored prostate cancer lesions in 163 consecutive patients (n = 110 cases, n = 53 controls) using the guideline of Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System version 2 on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging...
March 16, 2018: Academic Radiology
Virendra Kumar, Girdhar S Bora, Rajeev Kumar, Naranamangalam R Jagannathan
Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most prevalent cancers in men. A large number of men are detected with PCa; however, the clinical behavior ranges from low-grade indolent tumors that never develop into a clinically significant disease to aggressive, invasive tumors that may rapidly progress to metastatic disease. The challenges in clinical management of PCa are at levels of screening, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up after treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods have shown a potential role in detection, localization, staging, assessment of aggressiveness, targeting biopsies, etc...
April 2018: Progress in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Naira F Z Schneider, Claudia Cerella, Jin-Young Lee, Aloran Mazumder, Kyung Rok Kim, Annelise de Carvalho, Jennifer Munkert, Rodrigo M Pádua, Wolfgang Kreis, Kyu-Won Kim, Christo Christov, Mario Dicato, Hyun-Jung Kim, Byung Woo Han, Fernão C Braga, Cláudia M O Simões, Marc Diederich
Cardiac glycosides (CGs) are natural compounds used traditionally to treat congestive heart diseases. Recent investigations repositioned CGs as potential anticancer agents. To discover novel cytotoxic CG scaffolds, we selected the cardenolide glucoevatromonoside (GEV) out of 46 CGs for its low nanomolar anti-lung cancer activity. GEV presented reduced toxicity toward non-cancerous cell types (lung MRC-5 and PBMC) and high-affinity binding to the Na+ /K+ -ATPase α subunit, assessed by computational docking...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Heather T Whittaker, Shenghua Zhu, Domenico L Di Curzio, Richard Buist, Xin-Min Li, Suzanna Noy, Frances K Wiseman, Jonathan D Thiessen, Melanie Martin
Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology causes microstructural changes in the brain. These changes, if quantified with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), could be studied for use as an early biomarker for AD. The aim of our study was to determine if T1 relaxation, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and quantitative magnetization transfer imaging (qMTI) metrics could reveal changes within the hippocampus and surrounding white matter structures in ex vivo transgenic mouse brains overexpressing human amyloid precursor protein with the Swedish mutation...
March 12, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Zhiyi Liu, Dimitra Pouli, Carlo A Alonzo, Antonio Varone, Sevasti Karaliota, Kyle P Quinn, Karl Münger, Katia P Karalis, Irene Georgakoudi
Monitoring subcellular functional and structural changes associated with metabolism is essential for understanding healthy tissue development and the progression of numerous diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders. Unfortunately, established methods for this purpose either are destructive or require the use of exogenous agents. Recent work has highlighted the potential of endogenous two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) as a method to monitor subtle metabolic changes; however, mechanistic understanding of the connections between the detected optical signal and the underlying metabolic pathways has been lacking...
March 2018: Science Advances
Saima Rathore, Hamed Akbari, Jimit Doshi, Gaurav Shukla, Martin Rozycki, Michel Bilello, Robert Lustig, Christos Davatzikos
Standard surgical resection of glioblastoma, mainly guided by the enhancement on postcontrast T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), disregards infiltrating tumor within the peritumoral edema region (ED). Subsequent radiotherapy typically delivers uniform radiation to peritumoral FLAIR-hyperintense regions, without attempting to target areas likely to be infiltrated more heavily. Noninvasive in vivo delineation of the areas of tumor infiltration and prediction of early recurrence in peritumoral ED could assist in targeted intensification of local therapies, thereby potentially delaying recurrence and prolonging survival...
April 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
Sangeeta Taneja, Amarnath Jena, Rajesh Taneja, Aru Singh, Aashim Ahuja
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to assess whether temporal changes in68 Ga-prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-HBED-CC uptake and multiparametric MRI parameters derived using PET/MRI can aid in characterization of benign and malignant prostate lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-five men with 29 malignant and six benign prostate lesions undergoing complete clinical workup including histologic analysis were enrolled for this retrospective study. All had undergone simultaneous whole-body68 Ga-PSMAHBED-CC PET/MRI...
March 12, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Jennifer B Gordetsky, Benjamin Saylor, Sejong Bae, Jeffrey W Nix, Soroush Rais-Bahrami
OBJECTIVES: To assess management choices in patients who undergo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/ultrasound (MRI/US) fusion-guided prostate biopsy compared to patients who undergo systematic biopsy. METHODS: We compared men who underwent MRI/US fusion-guided prostate biopsy to those who underwent systematic 12-core biopsy from 2014 to 2016. Patient demographics and pathologic findings were reviewed. The highest grade group per case was considered for analysis. RESULTS: Follow-up was available on 133 patients who underwent MRI/US targeted biopsy and 215 patients who underwent systematic biopsy...
March 8, 2018: Urologic Oncology
Juan Gómez Rivas, Francesco Giganti, Mario Álvarez-Maestro, María Jose Freire, Veeru Kasivisvanathan, Luis Martinez-Piñero, Mark Emberton
CONTEXT: The indeterminate multiparametric prostate magnetic resonance image (mpMRI) lesion is one which cannot be classified as "positive" or "negative" for suspected cancer. Currently, there is no consensus on how to manage patients with indeterminate mpMRIs where areas cannot be classified as positives or negatives (Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System [PI-RADS] 3 or Likert 3). OBJECTIVE: To define the concept of indeterminate lesion and describe the management strategies that may be adopted for these patients...
March 7, 2018: European Urology Focus
Paul Reidler, Kolja M Thierfelder, Matthias P Fabritius, Wieland H Sommer, Felix G Meinel, Franziska Dorn, Frank A Wollenweber, Marco Duering, Wolfgang G Kunz
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Ipsilateral thalamic diaschisis (ITD) describes the reduction of thalamic function, metabolism, and perfusion resulting from a distant lesion of the ipsilateral hemisphere. Our aim was to evaluate the perfusion characteristics and clinical impact of ITD in acute middle cerebral artery stroke, which does not directly affect the thalamus. METHODS: One hundred twenty-four patients with middle cerebral artery infarction were selected from a prospectively acquired cohort of 1644 patients who underwent multiparametric computed tomography (CT), including CT perfusion for suspected stroke...
March 9, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Luca Bors, Kinga Tóth, Estilla Zsófia Tóth, Ágnes Bajza, Attila Csorba, Krisztián Szigeti, Domokos Máthé, Gábor Perlaki, Gergely Orsi, Gábor K Tóth, Franciska Erdő
Decreased beta-amyloid clearance in Alzheimer's disease and increased blood-brain barrier permeability in aged subjects have been reported in several articles. However, morphological and functional characterization of blood-brain barrier and its membrane transporter activity have not been described in physiological aging yet. The aim of our study was to explore the structural changes in the brain microvessels and possible functional alterations of P-glycoprotein at the blood-brain barrier with aging. Our approach included MR imaging for anatomical orientation in middle aged rats, electronmicroscopy and immunohistochemistry to analyse the alterations at cellular level, dual or triple-probe microdialysis and SPECT to test P-glycoprotein functionality in young and middle aged rats...
March 6, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Eleni Gkika, Oliver Oehlke, Hatice Bunea, Nicole Wiedenmann, Sonja Adebahr, Ursula Nestle, Constantinos Zamboglou, Simon Kirste, Jamina Fennell, Thomas Brunner, Mark Gainey, Dimos Baltas, Mathias Langer, Horst Urbach, Michael Bock, Philipp T Meyer, Anca-Ligia Grosu
Positron emission tomography and multiparametric MRI provide crucial information concerning tumor extent and normal tissue anatomy. Moreover, they are able to visualize biological characteristics of the tumor, which can be considered in the radiation treatment planning and monitoring. In this review we discuss the impact of biological imaging positron emission tomography and multiparametric MRI for radiation oncology, based on the data of the literature and on the experience of our own institution in this field...
March 9, 2018: Future Oncology
Sung Yoon Park, Nam Hoon Cho, Dae Chul Jung, Young Taik Oh
The main purpose of Prostate Imaging-Reporting and Data System Version 2 (PI-RADSv2) is to effectively detect clinically significant prostate cancers (csPCa) using multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging. Since the first introduction of PI-RADSv2, researchers have validated its diagnostic performance in identifying csPCa, and these promising data have influenced biopsy and treatment schemes. However, in this article, we focused on the potential of PI-RADSv2 in relation to various aspects of PCa such as Gleason score, tumor volume, extraprostatic extension, lymph node metastasis, and postoperative biochemical recurrence, beyond prostate cancer detection...
March 2018: Korean Journal of Radiology: Official Journal of the Korean Radiological Society
Sheng-Chieh Chan, Nai-Ming Cheng, Chia-Hsun Hsieh, Shu-Hang Ng, Chien-Yu Lin, Tzu-Chen Yen, Cheng-Lung Hsu, Hung-Ming Wan, Chun-Ta Liao, Kai-Ping Chang, Jiun-Jie Wang
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.18632/oncotarget.15904.].
February 9, 2018: Oncotarget
Hüseyin Cihan Demirel, John Warren Davis
Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) has managed to change the paradigms on prostate cancer detection and risk classification. The most clear-cut indication of mpMRI in guidelines is the patients with a history of negative biopsy/increasing prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and presence of additional findings supporting its use in non biopsied patients and active surveillance. mpMRI complements standard clinical exam, PSA measurements, and systematic biopsy, and will miss some tumors that lack enough size or change in tissue density...
March 2018: Turkish Journal of Urology
Yu Liu, Yuanjun Wang, Weiqing Tang, Mengda Jiang, Kaicheng Li, Xiaofeng Tao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the therapeutic efficacy of Iodine-125 (125 I) seeds brachytherapy to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) xenografts via multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty mice were implanted subcutaneously with SW-1990 PDAC xenografts. The tumor-bearing mice were randomly divided into125 I seeds group (n = 10) and blank control group (n = 10). Treatment response was monitored by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) obtained 1 day before, 14 and 60 days after treatment...
March 5, 2018: La Radiologia Medica
Sabrina Nordin, Luke Dancy, James C Moon, Daniel M Sado
There are a number of diseases which can increase left ventricular myocardial wall thickness through a number of different mechanisms. Multi-parametric mapping techniques are a new addition to the cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) armoury with a number of potential clinical roles. In this review article, we will explore the role of imaging in left ventricular hypertrophy, and particularly developments in CMR. We focus on ability of CMR to characterize myocardial tissue using multiparametric mapping (native T1, T2 and extracellular volume mapping), to bridge from the microscopic histological domain and into the clinical domain of non-invasive imaging...
March 3, 2018: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
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