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Muscle insulin resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822177/-berberine-regulates-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-related-with-insulin-resistance
#1
REVIEW
Cheng Li, Jin-Zhi He, Xue-Dong Zhou, Xin Xu
Insulin resistance (IR) is defined as a series of clinical manifestations for diminished effectiveness of insulin in lowering blood sugar levels caused by decreased sensitivity to insulin of liver, muscle and adipose tissue. IR is the major contributor to the etiology and pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Berberine, a traditional Chinese herb extract, has been shown to be safe and effective in lowering blood sugar, alleviating insulin resistance and moderating type 2 diabetes mellitus and its complications...
June 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819951/metformin-a-new-old-drug
#2
Marta Patrycja Wróbel, Bogdan Marek, Dariusz Kajdaniuk, Dominika Rokicka, Aleksandra Szymborska-Kajanek, Krzysztof Strojek
For many years metformin has been the gold standard in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. According to recommendations of the most important diabetes associations, this is the first-choice drug for use as monotherapy in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Metformin is also recommended in combined treatment when monotherapy is no longer effective. It is then combined with a sulfony-lurea, an incretin, flozin, or insulin, irrespective of the number of insulin injections per day. Besides its properties used in the treatment of diabetes, metformin has been treated for some time as a drug of a so-called pleiotropic activity, as each year brings new reports about its favourable effect in different conditions...
2017: Endokrynologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816922/nil-whey-protein-effect-on-glycaemic-control-after-intense-mixed-mode-training-in-t2d
#3
Kim A Gaffney, Adam Lucero, Lee Stoner, James Faulkner, Patricia Whitfield, Jeremy Krebs, David S Rowlands
While intense endurance and resistance exercise training and whey protein supplementation have both been shown to independently improve glycaemic control, no known studies have examined the effect of high-intensity mixed-mode interval training (MMIT) and whey supplementation in adults with Type-2 diabetes (T2D). PURPOSE: To determine if peri-training whey protein supplementation combined with MMIT can improve glycaemic control. METHODS: In a double-blind randomised controlled trial, 24 men (55...
August 14, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811359/exercise-training-prevents-skeletal-muscle-plasma-membrane-cholesterol-accumulation-cortical-actin-filament-loss-and-insulin-resistance-in-c57bl-6j-mice-fed-a-western-style-high-fat-diet
#4
Ashley G Ambery, Lixuan Tackett, Brent A Penque, Joseph T Brozinick, Jeffrey S Elmendorf
Insulin action and glucose disposal are enhanced by exercise, yet the mechanisms involved remain imperfectly understood. While the causes of skeletal muscle insulin resistance also remain poorly understood, new evidence suggest excess plasma membrane (PM) cholesterol may contribute by damaging the cortical filamentous actin (F-actin) structure essential for GLUT4 glucose transporter redistribution to the PM upon insulin stimulation. Here, we investigated whether PM cholesterol toxicity was mitigated by exercise...
August 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811274/hypoxia-in-combination-with-muscle-contraction-improves-insulin-action-and-glucose-metabolism-in-human-skeletal-muscle-via-the-hif-1%C3%AE-pathway
#5
Sven W Görgens, Tim Benninghoff, Kristin Eckardt, Christian Springer, Alexandra Chadt, Anita Melior, Jakob Wefers, Andrea Cramer, Jørgen Jensen, Kåre I Birkeland, Christian A Drevon, Hadi Al-Hasani, Jürgen Eckel
Skeletal muscle insulin resistance is the hallmark of type 2 diabetes, and develops long before the onset of the disease. It is well accepted that physical activity improves glycemic control but the knowledge on underlying mechanisms mediating the beneficial effects remains incomplete. Exercise is accompanied by a decrease in intramuscular oxygen levels resulting in induction of HIF-1α. HIF-1α is a master regulator of gene expression and might play an important role in skeletal muscle function and metabolism...
August 15, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807458/caveolin-3-deficiency-myopathy-associated-with-dyslipidemia-treatment-challenges-and-possible-pathophysiological-association
#6
Daiana Ibarretxe, Joan Pellejà, Nicolau Ortiz, Luis Masana
We report the case of a patient treated at the lipid clinic because of high cholesterol levels with consistently elevated creatine kinase concentrations that precluded statin treatment. Electromyography showed a rippling muscle disease pattern. A muscle biopsy confirmed caveolin 3 deficiency, and a missense mutation in the CAV3 gene was identified. The patient could be properly managed with ezetimibe and cholestyramine, which reduced the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 30%. He remains asymptomatic after 10 years of follow-up...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801668/exercise-leads-to-unfavourable-cardiac-remodelling-and-enhanced-metabolic-homeostasis-in-obese-mice-with-cardiac-and-skeletal-muscle-autophagy-deficiency
#7
Zhen Yan, Ana Kronemberger, Jay Blomme, Jarrod A Call, Hannah M Caster, Renata O Pereira, Henan Zhao, Vitor U de Melo, Rhianna C Laker, Mei Zhang, Vitor A Lira
Autophagy is stimulated by exercise in several tissues; yet the role of skeletal and cardiac muscle-specific autophagy on the benefits of exercise training remains incompletely understood. Here, we determined the metabolic impact of exercise training in obese mice with cardiac and skeletal muscle disruption of the Autophagy related 7 gene (Atg7(h&mKO)). Muscle autophagy deficiency did not affect glucose clearance and exercise capacity in lean adult mice. High-fat diet in sedentary mice led to endoplasmic reticulum stress and aberrant mitochondrial protein expression in autophagy-deficient skeletal and cardiac muscles...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797256/selenoprotein-s-a-therapeutic-target-for-diabetes-and-macroangiopathy
#8
REVIEW
Shan-Shan Yu, Jian-Ling Du
Inflammatory response, oxidative stress, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress are important pathophysiological bases of the occurrence and development of diabetes mellitus (DM) and macroangiopathy complications. Selenoprotein S (SELENOS) is involved in the regulation of these mechanisms; therefore, its association with DM and macroangiopathy has gradually received attention from scholars worldwide. SELENOS has different biological functions in different tissues and organs: it exerts antioxidant protection and has anti-ER stress effects in the pancreas and blood vessels, while it promotes the occurrence and development of insulin resistance in the liver, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle...
August 10, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791715/under-the-microscope-insights-into-limb-specific-lipid-droplet-metabolism
#9
K L Whytock, E F P Jevons, J A Strauss, S O Shepherd
Intramuscular triglyceride (IMTG) only accounts for a small proportion of total lipid in the human body. However, over the past two decades there has been significant interest in the area of IMTG metabolism, largely due to the contribution that IMTG makes to ATP production during moderate-intensity exercise, and the proposed role of IMTG in the development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
August 9, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791487/metformin-attenuates-the-tlr4-inflammatory-pathway-in-skeletal-muscle-of-diabetic-rats
#10
Leonardo Gomes Peixoto, Renata Roland Teixeira, Danielle Diniz Vilela, Lara Naves Barbosa, Douglas Carvalho Caixeta, Simone Ramos Deconte, Fernanda de Assis de Araújo, Robinson Sabino-Silva, Foued Salmen Espindola
AIMS: Inflammation induced by hyperglycemia triggers the toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway into cells. Our hypothesis was that metformin treatment attenuates the TLR signaling pathways triggered by inflammation in skeletal muscle of hypoinsulinemic/hyperglycemic STZ-induced rats. Thus, we examined TLR signaling under hypoinsulinemia and hyperglycemia conditions and its correlation with insulin resistance in muscle of diabetic rats treated with metformin. METHODS: Ten-day diabetic rats were submitted to 7 days of saline (D group) or metformin (500 mg/kg once per day) (D + M group)...
August 9, 2017: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790859/dyslipidemia-and-associated-factors-among-diabetic-patients-attending-durame-general-hospital-in-southern-nations-nationalities-and-people-s-region
#11
Shiferaw Bekele, Tagesech Yohannes, Abdurehman Eshete Mohammed
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders that are caused by deficiency in insulin secretion or the decreased ability of insulin to act effectively on target tissues, particularly muscle, liver, and fat. As a result of insulin resistance in the target tissues, particularly in the adipocytes, free fatty acid flux is increased, leading to increased lipid synthesis in hepatocytes, which is responsible for diabetic dyslipidemia. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors of dyslipidemia among diabetic patients in Durame General Hospital in Kembata Tembaro zone...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789665/evaluating-the-evidence-for-macrophage-presence-in-skeletal-muscle-and-its-relation-to-insulin-resistance-in-obese-mice-and-humans-a-systematic-review-protocol
#12
Meha Bhatt, Srikesh Rudrapatna, Laura Banfield, Rachel Bierbrier, Pei-Wen Wang, Kuan-Wen Wang, Lehana Thabane, M Constantine Samaan
OBJECTIVES: The current global rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes are staggering. In order to implement effective management strategies, it is imperative to understand the mechanisms of obesity-induced insulin resistance and diabetes. Macrophage infiltration and inflammation of the adipose tissue in obesity is a well-established paradigm, yet the role of macrophages in muscle inflammation, insulin resistance and diabetes is not adequately studied. In this systematic review, we will examine the evidence for the presence of macrophages in skeletal muscle of obese humans and mice, and will assess the association between muscle macrophages and insulin resistance...
August 8, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781146/the-impact-of-foxo-1-to-cardiac-pathology-in-diabetes-mellitus-and-diabetes-related-metabolic-abnormalities
#13
Dimitry A Chistiakov, Alexander N Orekhov, Yuri V Bobryshev
Diabetic heart pathology has a serious social impact due to high prevalence worldwide and significant mortality/invalidation of diabetic patients suffered from cardiomyopathy. The pathogenesis of diabetic and diabetes-related cardiomyopathy is associated with progressive loss and impairment of cardiac function due to adverse effects of metabolic, prooxidant, proinflammatory, and pro-apoptotic stress factors. In the adult heart, the transcriptional factor forkhead box-1 (FOXO-1) is involved in maintaining cardiomyocytes in the homeostatic state and induction of their adaptation to metabolic and pro-oxidant stress stimuli...
August 2, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777879/sarcopenia-in-hiding-the-risk-and-consequence-of-underestimating-muscle-dysfunction-in-nash
#14
Rahima A Bhanji, Praveena Narayanan, Alina M Allen, Harmeet Malhi, Kymberly D Watt
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. Up to one third of individuals with NAFLD will develop non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which is associated with progression to cirrhosis and is rapidly becoming the leading indication for liver transplantation. Sarcopenia is defined as a progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass, strength and function. It is seen in up to 60% of patients with end-stage liver disease and portends a poor prognosis...
August 4, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770317/mitochondrial-h-atp-synthase-in-human-skeletal-muscle-contribution-to-dyslipidaemia-and-insulin-resistance
#15
Laura Formentini, Alexander J Ryan, Manuel Gálvez-Santisteban, Leslie Carter, Pam Taub, John D Lapek, David J Gonzalez, Francisco Villarreal, Theodore P Ciaraldi, José M Cuezva, Robert R Henry
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Mitochondria are important regulators of the metabolic phenotype in type 2 diabetes. A key factor in mitochondrial physiology is the H(+)-ATP synthase. The expression and activity of its physiological inhibitor, ATPase inhibitory factor 1 (IF1), controls tissue homeostasis, metabolic reprogramming and signalling. We aimed to characterise the putative role of IF1 in mediating skeletal muscle metabolism in obesity and diabetes. METHODS: We examined the 'mitochondrial signature' of obesity and type 2 diabetes in a cohort of 100 metabolically characterised human skeletal muscle biopsy samples...
August 2, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768703/opposite-regulation-of-insulin-sensitivity-by-dietary-lipid-versus-carbohydrate-excess
#16
Anne-Marie Lundsgaard, Kim A Sjøberg, Louise D Høeg, Jacob Jeppesen, Andreas B Jordy, Annette K Serup, Andreas M Fritzen, Henriette Pilegaard, Lene S Myrmel, Lise Madsen, Jørgen F P Wojtaszewski, Erik A Richter, Bente Kiens
To understand the mechanisms in lipid-induced insulin resistance, a more physiologic approach is to enhance FA availability through the diet. Nine healthy men ingested two hypercaloric diets (+75 E%) for three days, enriched in unsaturated FA (78 E% fat; UNSAT) or carbohydrates (80 E% carbohydrate; CHO) as well as a eucaloric control diet (CON). Compared to CON, UNSAT reduced whole body and leg glucose disposal during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, while decreasing hepatic glucose production. In muscle, DAG and IMTG were increased...
August 2, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765040/the-cortisol-activating-enzyme-11%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-type-1-in-skeletal-muscle-in-the-pathogenesis-of-the-metabolic-syndrome
#17
REVIEW
Christine Loerz, Edmund Maser
The enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) contributes to intracellular glucocorticoid action by converting inactive cortisone to its receptor-active form cortisol (11-dehydrocorticosterone and corticosterone in mice and rats). The potential role of 11β-HSD1 in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome has emerged over the past three decades. However, the precise impact of 11β-HSD1 in obesity-related diseases remains uncertain. Many studies from animal experiments to clinical studies have investigated liver and adipose tissue 11β-HSD1 in relation to obesity and its metabolic disorders including insulin resistance...
July 29, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760192/long-sleep-duration-is-associated-with-sarcopenia-in-korean-adults-based-on-data-from-the-2008-2011-knhanes
#18
Yu-Jin Kwon, Suk-Yong Jang, Eun-Cheol Park, A-Ra Cho, Jae-Yong Shim, John A Linton
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Sarcopenia, or loss of muscle mass, occurs with aging and results in frailty, disability, cardiovascular disease, and insulin resistance. Recently, researchers have asserted that sarcopenia is not an inevitable process, but is a modifiable condition. Adequate sleep duration is also important to maintain good physical and mental health. Therefore, the aim of our study was to examine the association between sleep duration and sarcopenia in Korean adults. METHODS: Data from 16,148 participants (7,158 men and 8,990 women) were analyzed from the 2008-2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES)...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759135/acute-and-long-term-administration-of-palmitoylcarnitine-induces-muscle-specific-insulin-resistance-in-mice
#19
Edgars Liepinsh, Marina Makrecka-Kuka, Elina Makarova, Kristine Volska, Karlis Vilks, Eduards Sevostjanovs, Unigunde Antone, Janis Kuka, Reinis Vilskersts, Daina Lola, Einars Loza, Solveiga Grinberga, Maija Dambrova
Acylcarnitine accumulation has been linked to perturbations in energy metabolism pathways. In this study, we demonstrate that long-chain (LC) acylcarnitines are active metabolites involved in the regulation of glucose metabolism in vivo. Single-dose administration of palmitoylcarnitine (PC) in fed mice induced marked insulin insensitivity, decreased glucose uptake in muscles, and elevated blood glucose levels. Increase in the content of LC acylcarnitine induced insulin resistance by impairing Akt phosphorylation at Ser473...
July 31, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757463/permethrin-alters-glucose-metabolism-in-conjunction-with-high-fat-diet-by-potentiating-insulin-resistance-and-decreases-voluntary-activities-in-female-c57bl-6j-mice
#20
Xiao Xiao, Yoo Kim, Daeyoung Kim, Kyong Sup Yoon, John M Clark, Yeonhwa Park
Permethrin, a type 1 pyrethroid insecticide, was previously reported to promote adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and insulin resistance in C2C12 muscle cells; however, the effects of permethrin exposure on glucose and lipid metabolisms in vivo remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of permethrin exposure on glucose and lipid homeostasis as well as voluntary movement in female mice in response to dietary fat. We tested three doses of permethrin (50, 500, & 5000 μg/kg body weight/day) in low fat diet-fed (4% w/w of diet) and high fat diet-fed (20% w/w of diet) female C57BL/6 J mice for twelve weeks...
July 28, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
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