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Muscle insulin resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908347/aging-related-functional-and-structural-changes-in-the-heart-and-aorta-mitotempo-improves-aged-cardiovascular-performance
#1
Yusuf Olgar, Sinan Degirmenci, Aysegul Durak, Deniz Billur, Belgin Can, Gizem Kayki Mutlu, Ebru Arioglu Inan, Belma Turan
Aging in humans represents declining in cardio-protective systems, however its mechanisms are not known yet. We aimed to analyse how aging affects key mechanisms responsible for contractile dysfunction via comparing the improperly synchrony between electrical and mechanical activities in male aged-rats (24-month old) comparison to those of adult-rats (6-month old). We determined significantly increased systemic oxidative stress with decreased antioxidant capacity, clear insulin resistance and hypertrophy in aged-rats with normal fasting blood glucose...
June 13, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907844/insulin-suppression-of-fatty-acid-skeletal-muscle-enzyme-activity-in-postmenopausal-women-and-improvements-in-metabolic-flexibility-and-lipoprotein-lipase-with-aerobic-exercise-and-weight-loss
#2
Alice S Ryan, Heidi K Ortmeyer
BACKGROUND: Obesity and insulin resistance are characterized by metabolic inflexibility, a condition described as an inability to switch from fat oxidation during fasting to carbohydrate oxidation during hyperinsulinemia. The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of metabolic flexibility in 103 obese (37-59% fat), sedentary (VO2 max: 19.4 ± 0.5 ml/kg/min), postmenopausal (45-76 years) women, and changes in metabolic flexibility with exercise and weight loss interventions...
June 15, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904612/proteomic-identification-of-potential-markers-of-myosteatosis-in-human-urine
#3
Holger Husi, Alisdair MacDonald, Richard J E Skipworth, Janice Miller, Andrew Cronshaw, Kenneth C H Fearon, James A Ross
Myosteatosis, the infiltration of fat in skeletal muscle, is associated with lower skeletal muscle density (SMD) as detected by computed tomography (CT). It increases with aging and obesity and is thought to play a role in the aetiology of insulin resistance and type II diabetes. The clinical significance of myosteatosis in cancer cachexia, however, remains to be determined. Along with demonstrable subcutaneous and visceral lipolysis, myosteatosis may also be a key component of the syndrome. We aimed to investigate the use of human urine as a non-invasive way to screen for molecular biomarkers of myosteatosis/reduced SMD using SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry...
June 2018: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901258/overexpression-of-nmnat3-efficiently-increases-nad-and-ngd-levels-and-ameliorates-age-associated-insulin-resistance
#4
Maryam Gulshan, Keisuke Yaku, Keisuke Okabe, Arshad Mahmood, Tsutomu Sasaki, Masashi Yamamoto, Keisuke Hikosaka, Isao Usui, Tadahiro Kitamura, Kazuyuki Tobe, Takashi Nakagawa
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is an important cofactor that regulates various biological processes, including metabolism and gene expression. As a coenzyme, NAD controls mitochondrial respiration through enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, β-oxidation, and oxidative phosphorylation and also serves as a substrate for posttranslational protein modifications, such as deacetylation and ADP-ribosylation by sirtuins and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), respectively. Many studies have demonstrated that NAD levels decrease with aging and that these declines cause various aging-associated diseases...
June 14, 2018: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896157/continuous-blood-glucose-monitoring-reveals-enormous-circadian-variations-in-pregnant-diabetic-rats
#5
Michaela Golic, Kristin Kräker, Caroline Fischer, Natalia Alenina, Nadine Haase, Florian Herse, Till Schütte, Wolfgang Henrich, Dominik N Müller, Andreas Busjahn, Michael Bader, Ralf Dechend
Aim: Diabetes in pregnancy is a major burden with acute and long-term consequences. Its treatment requires adequate diagnosis and monitoring of therapy. Many experimental research on diabetes during pregnancy has been performed in rats. Recently, continuous blood glucose monitoring of non-pregnant diabetic rats revealed an increased circadian variability of blood glucose that made a single blood glucose measurement per day inappropriate to reflect glycemic status. Continuous blood glucose measurement has never been performed in pregnant rats...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896118/moderate-exercise-suppresses-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-and-activates-the-sirt1-ampk-pgc1%C3%AE-axis-to-attenuate-muscle-loss-in-diabetic-db-db-mice
#6
Hung-Wen Liu, Sue-Joan Chang
The clear mechanism of moderate exercise training (Ex) in attenuating muscle loss remains elusive in diabetes. We investigated the effects of moderate exercise training on diabetes-induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation and mitochondrial dysfunction. Skeletal muscle size and atrophy signaling pathways were examined in type 2 diabetic db/db mice with or without moderate exercise training (5.2 m/min, 1 h/day, and 5 days/week for a total of 8 weeks). Exercise training decreased serum leptin, MCP-1, and resistin levels in db/db +Ex mice, but it did not reduce symptoms of insulin resistance including hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and impaired glucose tolerance...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895265/reintroducing-testosterone-in-the-db-db-mouse-partially-restores-normal-glucose-metabolism-and-insulin-resistance-in-a-leptin-independent-manner
#7
Koichi Yabiku, Keiko Nakamoto, Akihiro Tokushige
BACKGROUND: Testosterone signals through the androgen receptor (AR) and AR knockout mice develop obesity, suggesting a functional association between AR and leptin signaling. Furthermore, physiological blood concentrations of testosterone have been found to inhibit the development of arteriosclerosis, obesity and diabetes. However, these findings have not been verified by testosterone replacement in animal models and whether or not testosterone acts directly by activating AR to enhance leptin signaling, or indirectly by its conversion into estrogen remains unclear...
June 13, 2018: BMC Endocrine Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895021/metabolic-syndrome-in-parathyroid-diseases
#8
Sabrina Corbetta, G Mantovani, A Spada
Parathyroid glands are the main regulator of body mineral metabolism through parathormone (PTH) actions on bone and kidney. Experimental evidence suggests that PTH may have non-classical target organs such as adipose tissue, arterial vascular wall, cardiac muscle cells, and adrenal cortex cells, where it may play a role in controlling body energy, blood pressure, and metabolism. Cardiometabolic features have been investigated in the wide spectrum of clinical parathyroid disorders, from hyperparathyroidism to pseudohypoparathyroidism and hypoparathyroidism...
2018: Frontiers of Hormone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29894202/insulin-resistance-is-a-significant-determinant-of-sarcopenia-in-advanced-kidney-disease
#9
Serpil Muge Deger, Jennifer R Hewlett, Jorge Gamboa, Charles D Ellis, Adriana M Hung, Edward D Siew, Cindy Mamnungu, Feng Sha, Aihua Bian, Thomas G Stewart, Naji N Abumrad, T Alp Ikizler
Maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients display significant nutritional abnormalities. Insulin is an anabolic hormone with direct effects on skeletal muscle (SM). We examined the anabolic actions of insulin, whole-body (WB) and SM protein turnover, in 33 MHD patients and 17 participants without kidney disease using hyperinsulinemic euglycemic euaminoacidemic (dual) clamp. Gluteal muscle biopsies were obtained before and after the dual-clamp. At baseline, WB protein synthesis and breakdown rates were similar in MHD patients...
June 12, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893003/comparative-study-of-ipragliflozin-with-sitagliptin-on-multiple-metabolic-changes-in-japanese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-multicenter-randomized-prospective-open-label-active-controlled-study
#10
Yuya Tsurutani, Kazuki Nakai, Kosuke Inoue, Azuma Kosuke, Sei Mukai, Seitaro Maruyama, Takashi Iizuka, Yoko Matsuzawa, Jun Saito, Masao Omura, Tetsuo Nishikawa
This randomized study assessed the efficacy of ipragliflozin compared with sitagliptin in 124 Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor and incretin-related agent naïve patients were randomly assigned to receive additional 50 mg ipragliflozin or sitagliptin. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with more than 0.5% decrease in HbA1c without body weight gain at 12 weeks. For secondary endpoints, we measured several biomarkers related to metabolic changes...
June 12, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29889238/ectopic-lipid-deposition-is-associated-with-insulin-resistance-in-postmenopausal-women
#11
Julie Abildgaard, Else Rubaek Danielsen, Emma Dorph, Carsten Thomsen, Anders Juul, Caroline Ewertsen, Bente Klarlund Pedersen, Anette Tønnes Pedersen, Thorkil Ploug, Birgitte Lindegaard
Context: Menopause is associated with an increased incidence of insulin resistance and diabetes. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the lipid deposition in liver and skeletal muscle and investigate the association with insulin sensitivity in post- and premenopausal women. Design, setting, participants and measurements: Single-centre cross-sectional study of 55 healthy women between 45- and 60 years of age. We measured lipid deposition in the liver with MR spectroscopy, intramuscular- and intraabdominal lipid deposition with MRI, body composition with a DEXA-scan and insulin sensitivity with the composite Matsuda Index...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885045/iloprost-infusion-prevents-the-insulin-induced-reduction-in-skeletal-muscle-microvascular-blood-volume-but-does-not-enhance-peripheral-glucose-uptake-in-type-2-diabetic-patients
#12
Anna L Emanuel, Nicolien C de Clercq, Annefleur M Koopen, Erik van Poelgeest, Mireille J M Serlie, Daniel H van Raalte, Mark H H Kramer, Max Nieuwdorp, Etto C Eringa, Erik H Serné
AIMS: In type 2 diabetes impaired insulin-induced muscle perfusion is thought to contribute to reduced whole-body glucose uptake. In this study, we examined the effects of iloprost - a stable prostacyclin analogue - on insulin-induced muscle capillary recruitment and whole-body glucose uptake. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a randomized cross-over design, twelve type 2 diabetes patients (age= 55[46-69]years; BMI= 33.1[31.0-39]kg/m2 ) underwent two hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps; one with and one without simultaneous low-dose iloprost infusion...
June 8, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29884820/an-mg53-irs1-interaction-disruptor-ameliorates-insulin-resistance
#13
Jun Sub Park, Hyun Lee, Bo Woon Choi, Seonggu Ro, Doyoung Lee, Jeong Eun Na, Jeoung-Ho Hong, Jae-Seon Lee, Bong-Woo Kim, Young-Gyu Ko
Mitsugumin 53 (MG53) is an E3 ligase that induces insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) ubiquitination and degradation in skeletal muscle. We previously demonstrated that the pharmaceutical disruption of the MG53-IRS-1 interaction improves insulin sensitivity by abrogating IRS-1 ubiquitination and increasing IRS-1 levels in C2C12 myotubes. Here, we developed a novel MG53-IRS-1 interaction disruptor (MID-00935) that ameliorates insulin resistance in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. MID-00935 disrupted the molecular interaction of MG53 and IRS-1, abrogated MG53-induced IRS-1 ubiquitination and degradation and improved insulin signaling in C2C12 myotubes...
June 6, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883332/-malnutrition-and-obesity-among-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-chronic-inflammatory-process
#14
Teresa Małecka-Massalska, Aleksandra Majdan
Chronic inflammatory status in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) due to metabolic changes has an effect on body composition. Up to two thirds of patients may be affected by the loss of body cell mass and, thereby, malnutrition including its most severe form - cachexia. Among patients with RA and malnutrition, the total body weight is not reduced and the muscle loss is partially compensated by an increase in body fat. The excess of visceral and trunk adipose tissue is the main factor of increased prevalence of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome in RA patients...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882093/voluntary-exercise-opposes-insulin-resistance-of-skeletal-muscle-glucose-transport-during-liquid-fructose-ingestion-in-rats
#15
Yupaporn Rattanavichit, Jariya Buniam, Juthamard Surapongchai, Vitoon Saengsirisuwan
We have recently reported that male rats given liquid fructose ingestion exhibit features of cardiometabolic abnormalities including non-obese insulin resistance with impaired insulin signaling transduction in skeletal muscle (Rattanavichit Y et al. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 311: R1200-R1212, 2016). While exercise can attenuate obesity-related risks of cardiometabolic syndrome, the effectiveness and potential mechanism by which exercise modulates non-obese insulin resistance have not been fully studied...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879054/association-between-muscle-strength-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-adults-in-korea-data-from-the-korea-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-knhanes-vi
#16
Mee-Ri Lee, Sung Min Jung, Hyuk Bang, Hwa Sung Kim, Yong Bae Kim
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a significant chronic disease, and health burden from DM is increasing. Recently, studies on the relationship between handgrip strength, which is a measuring tool for muscle strength, and type 2 DM were published. However, the results have been conflicting. In addition, few studies that used data from adults in Korea have been conducted. Thus, this study aimed to identify the association between handgrip strength as well as type 2 DM and insulin resistance in adults using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2014 to 2015...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29872751/-vaccinium-ashei-leaves-extract-alleviates-insulin-resistance-via-ampk-independent-pathway-in-c2c12-myotube-model
#17
Masao Yamasaki, Kensaku Hamada, Kento Fujii, Kazuo Nishiyama, Yumi Yamasaki, Hiroyuki Tari, Kaori Araki, Teruaki Arakawa
Blueberry ( Vaccinium ashei ) leaf has recently attracted attention as an anti-obesity food component. In this study, we examined the effects of blueberry leaf extract (BLEx) on insulin signaling in C2C12 differentiated myoblasts. The results showed that BLEx promotes the intracellular uptake of 2-[ N -(7-Nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino]-2-deoxy-D-glucose (2- N BDG) and phosphorylation of Akt under insulin stimulation. In addition, pretreatment with BLEx ameliorated TNF-α-nduced insulin resistance with regard to 2-NBDG uptake and Akt phosphorylation...
July 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29872127/are-systemic-manifestations-ascribable-to-copd-in-smokers-a-structural-equation-modeling-approach
#18
Laurent Boyer, Sylvie Bastuji-Garin, Christos Chouaid, Bruno Housset, Philippe Le Corvoisier, Geneviève Derumeaux, Jorge Boczkowski, Bernard Maitre, Serge Adnot, Etienne Audureau
Whether the systemic manifestations observed in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) are ascribable to lung dysfunction or direct effects of smoking is in debate. Structural Equations Modeling (SEM), a causal-oriented statistical approach, could help unraveling the pathways involved, by enabling estimation of direct and indirect associations between variables. The objectives of the study was to investigate the relative impact of smoking and COPD on systemic manifestations, inflammation and telomere length...
June 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29870805/mineralocorticoid-receptor-antagonism-reverses-diabetes-related-coronary-vasodilator-dysfunction-a-unique-vascular-transcriptomic-signature
#19
Scott M Brown, Alex I Meuth, J Wade Davis, R Scott Rector, Shawn B Bender
Coronary microvascular dysfunction predicts and may be a proximate cause of cardiac dysfunction and mortality in diabetes; however, few effective treatments exist for these conditions. We recently demonstrated that mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonism reversed cardiovascular dysfunction in early-stage obesity/insulin resistance. The mechanisms underlying this benefit of MR antagonism and its relevance in the setting of long-term obesity complications like diabetes; however, remain unclear. Thus, the present study evaluated the impact of MR antagonism on diabetes-related coronary dysfunction and defines the MR-dependent vascular transcriptome in the Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat recapitulating later stages of human diabetes...
June 2, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29869808/effect-of-magnesium-sulfate-administration-to-improve-insulin-resistance-in-type-2-diabetes-animal-model-using-the-hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic-clamp-technique
#20
Shahla Sohrabipour, Mohammad Reza Sharifi, Mohammadreza Sharifi, Ardeshir Talebi, Nepton Soltani
This study attempted to elucidate the possible mechanism of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4 ) administration on reducing insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic rats. Fifty wistar rats were divided into five groups: NDC was fed the normal diet, CD received high-fat diet with 35 mg/kg of streptozotocin, CD-Mg animals received MgSO4 via drinking water, CD-Ins1, and CD-Ins2 animals treated with low or high dose of insulin. Body weight and blood glucose levels were measured weekly. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT), insulin tolerance test (ITT) and metabolic cage assessment were performed monthly...
June 5, 2018: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
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