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Muscle insulin resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229948/assessment-of-lipid-and-metabolite-changes-in-obese-calf-muscle-using-multi-echo-echo-planar-correlated-spectroscopic-imaging
#1
Rajakumar Nagarajan, Catherine L Carpenter, Cathy C Lee, Navin Michael, Manoj K Sarma, Raissa Souza, Edward Xu, S Sendhil Velan, Theodore J Hahn, Vay-Liang Go, M Albert Thomas
Obesity-related conditions including heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes are leading causes of preventable death. Recent evidence suggests that altered myocellular lipid metabolism in obesity may lead to increased insulin resistance (IR) that predisposes to these disorders. To test the hypothesis that muscles rich in type I vs. type II muscle fibers would exhibit similar changes in intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) and extramyocellular lipid (EMCL) content in obesity, we utilized a new four-dimensional multi echo echo-planar correlated spectroscopic imaging technique that allows separate determination of IMCL and EMCL content in individual calf muscles in obese vs...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229313/emerging-role-of-adipocytokines-in-type-2-diabetes-as-mediators-of-insulin-resistance-and-cardiovascular-disease
#2
REVIEW
Ravindran Jaganathan, Rajeswari Ravindran, Sugapriya Dhanasekaran
Adipose tissue is an enormously active endocrine organ, secreting various hormones, such as adiponectin, leptin, resistin and visfatin, together with classical cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). All these adipocytokines plays significant roles in the regulation of energy metabolism, glucose and lipid metabolism, reproduction, cardiovascular function and immunity. Adipocytokines are significantly regulated by nutritional status and can directly influence other organ systems, including brain, liver and skeletal muscle...
December 8, 2017: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228671/metformin-ameliorates-skeletal-muscle-insulin-resistance-by-inhibiting-mir-21-expression-in-a-high-fat-dietary-rat-model
#3
Jinyang Wang, Yanbin Gao, Lijun Duan, Suhong Wei, Jing Liu, Liming Tian, Jinxing Quan, Qi Zhang, Juxiang Liu, Jinkui Yang
Insulin resistance (IR) plays a major role in the pathogenesis of abdominal obesity, hypertension, coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis and diabetes. miR-21 and TGF-β/smads is closely related to IR. However, it remained elusive whether metformin improved skeletal muscle insulin resistance (IRSM) by regulating miR-21 and its target signal TGF-β1/smads expression. In this study, high-fat diet rats with IR model and IR-skeletal muscle L6 cells (L6-SMCs) model were established, insulin sensitive index (ISI) and Homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) were applied, miR-21 and TGF-β1/smads mRNA expression were examined by RT-PCR, smad3 and smad7 protein were detected by western-blotting and laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), the valid target of miR-21 was detected by luciferase reporter gene assay...
November 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225319/effects-of-aerobic-exercise-combined-with-panaxatriol-derived-from-ginseng-on-insulin-resistance-and-skeletal-muscle-mass-in-type-2-diabetic-mice
#4
Yusuke Takamura, Mitsuru Nomura, Akira Uchiyama, Satoshi Fujita
Insulin resistance reduces insulin-induced muscle protein synthesis and accelerates muscle protein degradation. Ginseng ingestion has been reported to improve insulin resistance through the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway. We hypothesized that panaxatriol (PT) derived from ginseng in combination with aerobic exercise (EX) may further promote protein synthesis and suppress protein degradation, and subsequently maintain muscle mass through the amelioration of insulin resistance. KKAy insulin-resistant mice were divided into control, panaxatriol only (PT), exercise only (EX), and EX+PT groups...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224108/negative-impact-of-testosterone-deficiency-and-5%C3%AE-reductase-inhibitors-therapy-on-metabolic-and-sexual-function-in-men
#5
Abdulmaged M Traish
Androgens are steroid hormones with pleotropic and diverse biochemical and physiological functions, and androgen deficiency exerts a negative impact on human health. Testosterone (T) either directly or via its transformation into the more potent metabolite 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT) or via aromatization into estradiol (E2) modulates important biochemical signaling pathways of human physiology and plays a critical role in the growth and/or maintenance of functions in a host of tissues and organs. T and 5α-DHT play an important role in regulating physiology of the muscle, adipose tissue, liver, bone, and central nervous system, as well as reproductive and sexual functions...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224106/g-protein-coupled-estrogen-receptor-gper-and-sex-specific-metabolic-homeostasis
#6
Geetanjali Sharma, Eric R Prossnitz
Obesity and metabolic syndrome display disparate prevalence and regulation between males and females. Human, as well as rodent, females with regular menstrual/estrous cycles exhibit protection from weight gain and associated chronic diseases. These beneficial effects are predominantly attributed to the female hormone estrogen, specifically 17β-estradiol (E2). E2 exerts its actions via multiple receptors, nuclear and extranuclear estrogen receptor (ER) α and ERβ, and the G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER, previously termed GPR30)...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224025/alterations-in-adiposity-and-glucose-homeostasis-in-adult-gasp-1-overexpressing-mice
#7
Luce Périè, Alexis Parenté, Fabienne Baraige, Laetitia Magnol, Véronique Blanquet
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Myostatin is known as a powerful negative regulator of muscle growth playing a key role in skeletal muscle homeostasis. Recent studies revealed that myostatin-deficient mice lead to an increase of insulin sensitivity, a decrease of adiposity and a resistance to obesity, showing that myostatin can also impact on metabolism. Thus, myostatin appeared as a potential therapeutic target to treat insulin resistance. METHODS: We generated transgenic mice overexpressing Gasp-1, a myostatin inhibitor...
December 8, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222051/long-term-fermented-soybean-paste-improves-metabolic-parameters-associated-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-insulin-resistance-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice
#8
Min-Seok Kim, Bobae Kim, Haryung Park, Yosep Ji, Wilhelm Holzapfel, Do-Young Kim, Chang-Kee Hyun
Recently, Korean traditional fermented soybean paste, called Doenjang, has attracted attention for its protective effect against diet-related chronic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Long-term fermented soybean pastes (LFSPs) are made by fermentation with naturally-occurring microorganisms for several months, whereas short-term fermented soybean pastes (SFSPs) are produced by shorter-time fermentation inoculated with a starter culture. Here, we demonstrate that administration of LFSP, but not SFSP, protects high-fat diet (HFD)-fed obese mice against non-alcohol fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and insulin resistance...
December 5, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220408/comparison-of-goto-kakizaki-rats-and-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-rats-are-they-reliable-models-to-study-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#9
Wilson Mitsuo Tatagiba Kuwabara, Ana Carolina Panveloski-Costa, Caroline Naomi Fukusawa Yokota, Joice Naiara Bertaglia Pereira, Jorge Mancini Filho, Rosangela Pavan Torres, Sandro Massao Hirabara, Rui Curi, Tatiana Carolina Alba-Loureiro
Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an evident growing disease that affects different cultures throughout the world. T2DM occurs under the influence of three main factors: the genetic background, environmental and behavioral components. Obesity is strongly associated to the development of T2DM in the occident, while in the orient most of the diabetic patients are considered lean. Genetics may be a key factor in the development of T2DM in societies where obesity is not a recurrent public health problem. Herein, two different models of rats were used to understand their differences and reliability as experimental models to study the pathophysiology of T2DM, in two different approaches: the genetic (GK rats) and the environmental (HFD-induced obese rats) influences...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215104/a-novel-ptp1b-inhibitor-extracted-from-ganoderma-lucidum-ameliorates-insulin-resistance-by-regulating-irs1-glut4-cascades-in-the-insulin-signaling-pathway
#10
Zhou Yang, Fan Wu, Yanming He, Qiang Zhang, Yuan Zhang, Guangrong Zhou, Hongjie Yang, Ping Zhou
Insulin resistance caused by the overexpression of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1 B (PTP1B) as well as the dephosphorylation of its target is one of the main causes of type 2 diabetes (T2D). A newly discovered proteoglycan, Fudan-Yueyang Ganoderma lucidum (FYGL) extracted from Ganoderma lucidum, was first reported to be capable of competitively inhibiting PTP1B activity in vitro in our previous work. In the present study, we sought to reveal the mechanism of PTP1B inhibition by FYGL at the animal and cellular levels...
December 7, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212609/effect-of-combined-exercise-versus-aerobic-only-training-on-skeletal-muscle-lipid-metabolism-in-a-rodent-model-of-type1-diabetes
#11
Michelle S Dotzert, Matthew W McDonald, Michael R Murray, J Zachary Nickels, Earl G Noble, C W James Melling
OBJECTIVES: Abnormal skeletal muscle lipid metabolism is associated with insulin resistance in people with type 1 diabetes. Although lipid metabolism is restored with aerobic exercise training, the risk for postexercise hypoglycemia is increased with this modality. Integrating resistance and aerobic exercise is associated with reduced hypoglycemic risk; however, the effects of this exercise modality on lipid metabolism and insulin resistance remain unknown. We compared the effects of combined (aerobic + resistance) versus aerobic exercise training on oxidative capacity and muscle lipid metabolism in a rat model of type 1 diabetes...
December 4, 2017: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211893/aldosterone-is-not-associated-with-metabolic-and-microvascular-insulin-sensitivity-in-abdominally-obese-men
#12
Monica T J Schütten, Yvo H A M Kusters, Alfons J H M Houben, Jean L J M Scheijen, Marjo P H van de Waarenburg, Casper G Schalkwijk, Peter J Joris, Jogchum Plat, Ronald P Mensink, Peter W de Leeuw, Coen D A Stehouwer
Context: Impaired insulin-mediated muscle microvascular recruitment (IMMR) in obese individuals may add to the development of metabolic insulin resistance and hypertension. Increased aldosterone levels have been linked to these obesity-related complications in severely to morbidly obese individuals, and have been found to interfere with microvascular function in experimental studies. Objectives: To investigate whether aldosterone levels are related to IMMR, insulin sensitivity and blood pressure in lean and moderately abdominally obese men, and to study the effect of weight loss on these variables...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210640/fine-tuning-of-micrornas-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#13
Juan A Rosado, Raquel Diez-Bello, Gines Maria Salido, Gines Maria Salido
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease widely spread across industrialized countries. Sedentary lifestyle and unhealthy alimentary habits lead to obesity, boosting both glucose and fatty acid in the bloodstream and eventually, insulin resistance, pancreas inflammation and faulty insulin production or secretion, all of them very well-defined hallmarks of type 2 diabetes mellitus. miRNAs, are small sequences of non-coding RNA that may regulate several processes within the cells, fine-tuning protein expression, with an unexpected and subtle precision and in time-frames ranging from minutes to days...
December 5, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209496/abnormal-carbohydrate-metabolism-in-a-canine-model-for-muscular-dystrophy
#14
Andressa R Amaral, Márcio A Brunetto, Marina P Brólio, Daniela S Cima, Maria A Miglino, João Paulo F Santos, Carlos E Ambrósio
The canine golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) model is the best animal model for studying Duchenne muscular dystrophy in humans. Considering the importance of glucose metabolism in the muscles, the existence of metabolic and endocrine alterations in a wide range of muscular dystrophies, and the pre-existing relationship between blood insulin concentration and muscular atrophy, the present study aimed to evaluate the postprandial glucose and insulin response in GRMD dogs. A total of eighteen golden retriever dogs were randomly distributed into three experimental groups: healthy/control (G1), female GRMD carriers (G2), and male dogs affected by GRMD (G3)...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209279/promoting-glucose-transporter-4-vesicle-trafficking-along-cytoskeletal-tracks-pak-ing-them-out
#15
REVIEW
Ragadeepthi Tunduguru, Debbie C Thurmond
Glucose is the principal cellular energy source in humans and maintenance of glucose homeostasis is critical for survival. Glucose uptake into peripheral skeletal muscle and adipose tissues requires the trafficking of vesicles containing glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) from the intracellular storage compartments to the cell surface. Trafficking of GLUT4 storage vesicles is initiated via the canonical insulin signaling cascade in skeletal muscle and fat cells, as well as via exercise-induced contraction in muscle cells...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209160/molecular-mechanisms-of-antipsychotic-drug-induced-diabetes
#16
REVIEW
Jiezhong Chen, Xu-Feng Huang, Renfu Shao, Chen Chen, Chao Deng
Antipsychotic drugs (APDs) are widely prescribed to control various mental disorders. As mental disorders are chronic diseases, these drugs are often used over a life-time. However, APDs can cause serious glucometabolic side-effects including type 2 diabetes and hyperglycaemic emergency, leading to medication non-compliance. At present, there is no effective approach to overcome these side-effects. Understanding the mechanisms for APD-induced diabetes should be helpful in prevention and treatment of these side-effects of APDs and thus improve the clinical outcomes of APDs...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207472/effects-of-%C3%AE-hydroxy-%C3%AE-methylbutyrate-free-acid-supplementation-on-strength-power-and-hormonal-adaptations-following-resistance-training
#17
Abbas Asadi, Hamid Arazi, Katsuhiko Suzuki
BACKGROUND: β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate-free acid (HMB-FA) has been ingested prior to exercise to reduce muscle damage, however the effects of HMB-FA supplementation on hormonal, strength and power adaptation are unclear. METHODS: Sixteen healthy men were matched and randomized into two groups and performed six-week resistance training while supplementing with either HMB-FA or placebo (3 g per day). The subjects were evaluated for 1 repetition maximum (1RM) bench press and leg press and vertical jump (VJ) prior to and after training intervention...
December 2, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205344/synergistic-actions-of-vitamin-d-and-metformin-on-skeletal-muscles-and-insulin-resistance-of-type-2-diabetic-rats
#18
REVIEW
Shaimaa N Amin, Usama K Hussein, Hanan D Yassa, Sherif S Hassan, Laila A Rashed
Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic generalized disorder due to insulin insufficiency or resistance. Skeletal muscles represent one of the most important target organs that is affected by insulin signaling. The aim of the current work was to investigate the effect of metformin versus vitamin D (and also simultaneous administration) therapy in type 2 diabetic (T2D) rats on the state of the muscle and insulin sensitivity. Thirty six male rats constituted the animal model and have been divided into five groups: control, Diabetic, Diabetic+Metformin, Diabetic+ VitaminD, Diabetic+Metformin+Vitamin D...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204135/recombinant-uncarboxylated-osteocalcin-per-se-enhances-mouse-skeletal-muscle-glucose-uptake-in-both-extensor-digitorum-longus-and-soleus-muscles
#19
Xuzhu Lin, Lewan Parker, Emma Mclennan, Xinmei Zhang, Alan Hayes, Glenn McConell, Tara C Brennan-Speranza, Itamar Levinger
Emerging evidence suggests that undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) improves muscle glucose uptake in rodents. However, whether ucOC can directly increase glucose uptake in both glycolytic and oxidative muscles and the possible mechanisms of action still need further exploration. We tested the hypothesis that ucOC per se stimulates muscle glucose uptake via extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and/or the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2)-protein kinase B (AKT)-AKT substrate of 160 kDa (AS160) signaling cascade...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203961/oleuropein-improves-insulin-resistance-in-skeletal-muscle-by-promoting-the-translocation-of-glut4
#20
Yoko Fujiwara, Chisato Tsukahara, Naoe Ikeda, Yasuko Sone, Tomoko Ishikawa, Ikuyo Ichi, Taisuke Koike, Yoshinori Aoki
As the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet on human health are well established, the phenolic compounds in olive oil have been gaining interest. Oleuropein, a major phenolic compound in olives, is known to reduce the blood glucose levels in alloxan-induced diabetic rats and rabbits, however, its effect on type 2 diabetes caused by obesity is not clear. The purpose of this study is clarifying the effect of oleuropein on the glucose tolerance in skeletal muscle under the condition of lipotoxicity caused by type 2 diabetes...
November 2017: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
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