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Muscle insulin resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731188/hispidin-rescues-palmitate%C3%A2-induced-insulin-resistance-in-c2c12-myotubes
#1
Jong Seok Lee, Jun Myoung Park, Sarah Lee, Hye Jin Lee, Hee-Sun Yang, Joohong Yeo, Ki Rim Lee, Byung Hyun Choi, Eock Kee Hong
Skeletal muscle serves an important role in the utilization of glucose during insulin‑stimulated conditions. Excessive saturated fatty acids are considered to be a major contributing factor to insulin resistance in skeletal muscle cells. The present study investigated the effects of hispidin on palmitate‑induced insulin resistance in C2C12 skeletal muscle myotubes via an MTT assay, glucose uptake assay, Oil‑Red‑O staining and western blot analysis. Hispidin reversed the palmitate‑induced inhibition of glucose uptake, and inhibited palmitate‑induced intracellular lipid accumulation...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729841/prevalence-of-non-responders-for-glucose-control-markers-after-10-weeks-of-high-intensity-interval-training-in-adult-women-with-higher-and-lower-insulin-resistance
#2
Cristian Álvarez, Rodrigo Ramírez-Campillo, Robinson Ramírez-Vélez, Mikel Izquierdo
Background: Exercise training improves performance and biochemical parameters on average, but wide interindividual variability exists, with individuals classified as responders (R) or non-responders (NRs), especially between populations with higher or lower levels of insulin resistance. This study assessed the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and the prevalence of NRs in adult women with higher and lower levels of insulin resistance. Methods: Forty adult women were assigned to a HIIT program, and after training were analyzed in two groups; a group with higher insulin resistance (H-IR, 40 ± 6 years; BMI: 29...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727777/8-oxoguanine-dna-glycosylase-ogg1-deficiency-elicits-coordinated-changes-in-lipid-and-mitochondrial-metabolism-in-muscle
#3
Vladimir Vartanian, Jana Tumova, Pawel Dobrzyn, Agnieszka Dobrzyn, Yusaku Nakabeppu, R Stephen Lloyd, Harini Sampath
Oxidative stress resulting from endogenous and exogenous sources causes damage to cellular components, including genomic and mitochondrial DNA. Oxidative DNA damage is primarily repaired via the base excision repair pathway that is initiated by DNA glycosylases. 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) recognizes and cleaves oxidized and ring-fragmented purines, including 8-oxoguanine, the most commonly formed oxidative DNA lesion. Mice lacking the OGG1 gene product are prone to multiple features of the metabolic syndrome, including high-fat diet-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, and insulin resistance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726994/cell-biology-symposium-practical-application-of-the-basic-aspects-of-glut4-membrane-trafficking-and-insulin-signaling-on-issues-related-to-animal-agriculture
#4
S B Smith
Because of the relatively short lifespans of beef cattle, membrane trafficking in relation to inflammation is not considered important unless it overtly affects productivity. However, glucose uptake and utilization is important for adipose tissue development in beef cattle, and increasing glucose utilization in intramuscular adipose tissue can increase carcass quality. Research from the 1980s demonstrated a lack of insulin sensitivity in isolated bovine adipocytes and adipose tissue explants incubated in vitro...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726959/association-of-cultured-myotubes-and-fasting-plasma-metabolite-profiles-with-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-type-2-diabetes-subjects
#5
Mohamad Hafizi Abu Bakar, Mohamad Roji Sarmidi
Accumulating evidence implicates mitochondrial dysfunction-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle as the root cause for the greatest hallmarks of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the identification of specific metabolite-based markers linked to mitochondrial dysfunction in T2D has not been adequately addressed. Therefore, we sought to identify the markers-based metabolomics for mitochondrial dysfunction associated with T2D. First, a cellular disease model was established using human myotubes treated with antimycin A, an oxidative phosphorylation inhibitor...
July 20, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722106/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-exercise-role-in-diabetes-and-cardiovascular-disease
#6
REVIEW
Bente Klarlund Pedersen
BACKGROUND: Persistent inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). AIMS: The aim of this review was to provide the reader with an update of the mechanisms whereby exercise-induced cytokines may impact cardiometabolic diseases. RESULTS: Evidence exists that interleukin (IL)-1β is involved in pancreatic β-cell damage, whereas TNF-α is a key molecule in peripheral insulin resistance...
July 19, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721834/the-interaction-between-nutrition-and-exercise-for-promoting-health-and-performance
#7
Oliver C Witard, Derek Ball
The theme of The Nutrition Society Spring Conference 2017 was on the interaction between nutrition and exercise for promoting healthy ageing, maintaining cognitive function and improving the metabolic health of the population. The importance of this theme is highlighted by the public health issues surrounding obesity, diabetes and the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia). The opening symposium provided a historical perspective of both invasive and non-invasive methodologies for measuring exercise energetics and energy balance...
July 19, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721439/effects-of-insulin-and-exercise-training-on-fgf21-its-receptors-and-target-genes-in-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes
#8
Rikke Kruse, Sara G Vienberg, Birgitte F Vind, Birgitte Andersen, Kurt Højlund
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Pharmacological doses of FGF21 improve glucose tolerance, lipid metabolism and energy expenditure in rodents. Induced expression and secretion of FGF21 from muscle may increase browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) in a myokine-like manner. Recent studies have reported that insulin and exercise increase FGF21 in plasma. Obesity and type 2 diabetes are potentially FGF21-resistant states, but to what extent FGF21 responses to insulin and exercise training are preserved, and whether FGF21, its receptors and target genes are altered, remains to be established...
July 18, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721400/weight-adjusted-lean-body-mass-and-calf-circumference-are-protective-against-obesity-associated-insulin-resistance-and-metabolic-abnormalities
#9
Toshinari Takamura, Yuki Kita, Masatoshi Nakagen, Masaru Sakurai, Yuki Isobe, Yumie Takeshita, Kohzo Kawai, Takeshi Urabe, Shuichi Kaneko
BACKGROUND: To test the hypothesis that preserved muscle mass is protective against obesity-associated insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities, we analyzed the relationship of lean body mass and computed tomography-assessed sectional areas of specific skeletal muscles with insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities in a healthy cohort. METHODS: A total of 195 subjects without diabetes who had completed a medical examination were included in this study...
July 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720584/protein-kinase-n2-regulates-amp-kinase-signaling-and-insulin-responsiveness-of-glucose-metabolism-in-skeletal-muscle
#10
Maxwell A Ruby, Isabelle Riedl, Julie Massart, Marcus Åhlin, Juleen R Zierath
Insulin resistance is central to the development of type 2 diabetes and related metabolic disorders. As skeletal muscle is responsible for the majority of whole body insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, regulation of glucose metabolism in this tissue is of particular importance. While Rho GTPases and many of their affecters influence skeletal muscle metabolism, there is a paucity of information on the protein kinase N (PKN) family of serine/threonine protein kinases. We investigated the impact of PKN2 on insulin signaling and glucose metabolism in primary human skeletal muscle cells in vitro and mouse tibialis anterior muscle in vivo...
July 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715871/improvement-of-mitochondrial-function-by-celastrol-in-palmitate-treated-c2c12-myotubes-via-activation-of-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway
#11
Mohamad Hafizi Abu Bakar, Joo Shun Tan
Compelling evidences posited that high level of saturated fatty acid gives rise to mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation in the development of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Celastrol is a pentacyclic triterpenoid derived from the root extracts of Tripterygium wilfordii that possesses potent anti-inflammatory properties in a number of animal models with metabolic diseases. However, the cellular mechanistic action of celastrol in alleviating obesity-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle remains largely unknown...
July 13, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713824/effects-of-hyperglycemia-on-vascular-smooth-muscle-ca-2-signaling
#12
Nahed El-Najjar, Rashmi P Kulkarni, Nancy Nader, Rawad Hodeify, Khaled Machaca
Diabetes is a complex disease that is characterized with hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. These pathologies are associated with significant cardiovascular implications that affect both the macro- and microvasculature. It is therefore important to understand the effects of various pathologies associated with diabetes on the vasculature. Here we directly test the effects of hyperglycemia on vascular smooth muscle (VSM) Ca(2+) signaling in an isolated in vitro system using the A7r5 rat aortic cell line as a model...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710412/exosomes-derived-from-pancreatic-cancer-cells-induce-insulin-resistance-in-c2c12-myotube-cells-through-the-pi3k-akt-foxo1-pathway
#13
Lantian Wang, Bo Zhang, Wen Zheng, Muxing Kang, Qing Chen, Wenjie Qin, Chao Li, Yuefeng Zhang, Yingkuan Shao, Yulian Wu
Prospective epidemiological studies have consistently suggested that pancreatic cancer-associated new-onset diabetes mellitus (PC-DM) represents a potential platform for early diagnose of pancreatic cancer (PC). Despite the studies performed, the mechanism behind this phenomenon remains ambiguous. In this study, we explored the effects of two types of exosomes released by murine pancreatic cancer and ductal epithelial cells on murine skeletal muscle cells. The results show that PC-derived exosomes can readily enter C2C12 myotubes, triggering lipidosis and glucose intake inhibition...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708105/resveratrol-improves-glycemic-control-in-type-2-diabetic-obese-mice-by-regulating-glucose-transporter-expression-in-skeletal-muscle-and-liver
#14
Caio Y Yonamine, Erika Pinheiro-Machado, Maria L Michalani, Ana B Alves-Wagner, João V Esteves, Helayne S Freitas, Ubiratan F Machado
Insulin resistance participates in the glycaemic control disruption in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), by reducing muscle glucose influx and increasing liver glucose efflux. GLUT4 (Slc2a4 gene) and GLUT2 (Slc2a2 gene) proteins play a fundamental role in the muscle and liver glucose fluxes, respectively. Resveratrol is a polyphenol suggested to have an insulin sensitizer effect; however, this effect, and related mechanisms, have not been clearly demonstrated in T2DM. We hypothesized that resveratrol can improve glycaemic control by restoring GLUT4 and GLUT2 expression in muscle and liver...
July 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707279/sarcolipin-expression-is-repressed-by-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-c2c12-myotubes
#15
Nobuhiko Takahashi, Atsushi P Kimura, Sumiyoshi Naito, Mika Yoshida, Osamu Kumano, Takeshi Suzuki, Satoshi Itaya, Mitsuru Moriya, Masahiro Tsuji, Masahiro Ieko
Sarcolipin is a transmembrane protein expressed in the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum of skeletal and atrial muscles in large animals. Sarcolipin plays crucial roles in heat production through modifying the function of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase, thereby being involved in thermogenesis and systemic metabolism. In skeletal muscle, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been implicated in several conditions, such as insulin resistance, muscle diseases, and hypo/hyper-contraction. Here, we investigated the effect of ER stress on sarcolipin expression in skeletal muscle cells, C2C12 myotubes...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706484/alantolactone-improves-prolonged-exposure-of-interleukin-6-induced-skeletal-muscle-inflammation-associated-glucose-intolerance-and-insulin-resistance
#16
Minjee Kim, Kwangho Song, Yeong Shik Kim
The pro-inflammatory cytokine, Interleukin-6 (IL-6), has been proposed to be one of the mediators that link chronic inflammation to glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Many studies have demonstrated the effects of IL-6 on insulin action in the skeletal muscle. However, few studies have investigated the effect of long-term treatment of IL-6, leading to glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. In the present study, we observed protective effects of alantolactone, a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Inula helenium against glucose intolerance and insulin resistance induced by prolonged exposure of IL-6...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702069/positive-association-between-musclin-and-insulin-resistance-in-obesity-evidence-of-a-human-study-and-an-animal-experiment
#17
Wen-Jia Chen, Yue Liu, Yu-Bin Sui, Hong-Tao Yang, Jin-Rui Chang, Chao-Shu Tang, Yong-Fen Qi, Jing Zhang, Xin-Hua Yin
BACKGROUND: Musclin is a novel skeletal muscle-derived secretory factor considered to be a potent regulator of the glucose metabolism and therefore may contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity and insulin resistance (IR). METHODS: To test this hypothesis, we examined the plasma musclin levels in overweight/obese subjects and lean controls. Rats on a high fat diet (HFD) were used as the annimal model of obesity. Radioimmunoassay and western blot were used to determine musclin levels in plasma and skeletal muscle...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701320/changes-in-microvascular-density-differentiate-metabolic-health-outcomes-in-monkeys-with-prior-radiation-exposure-and-subsequent-skeletal-muscle-ecm-remodeling
#18
Katherine M Fanning, Bianca Pfisterer, Ashley T Davis, Tennille D Presley, Ian M Williams, David H Wasserman, J Mark Cline, Kylie Kavanagh
Radiation exposure accelerates the onset of age-related diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and neoplasia and thus lends insight into in vivo mechanisms common to these disorders. Fibrosis and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, which occur with aging, overnutrition, and following irradiation, are both risk factors for type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) development. Our prior work demonstrated that monkeys with whole-body radiation exposure five to nine years prior had an increased incidence of skeletal muscle insulin resistance and T2DM...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699407/hydrogen-sulfide-and-glucose-homeostasis-a-tale-of-sweet-the-stink
#19
Ashley Untereiner, Lingyun Wu
SIGNIFICANCE: Among many endogenous mediators, the gasotransmitter hydrogen sulfide (H2S) plays an important role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. Here we discuss different functional roles of H2S in several metabolic organs/tissues required in the maintenance of glucose homeostasis. Recent Advances: New evidence has emerged revealing the insulin sensitizing role of H2S in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle biology. Additionally, H2S was demonstrated to be a potent stimulator of gluconeogenesis via the induction and stimulation of various glucose-producing pathways in the liver...
July 12, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698283/long-term-rates-of-mitochondrial-protein-synthesis-are-increased-in-mouse-skeletal-muscle-with-high-fat-feeding-regardless-of-insulin-sensitizing-treatment
#20
Sean A Newsom, Benjamin F Miller, Karyn L Hamilton, Sarah E Ehrlicher, Harrison D Stierwalt, Matthew M Robinson
Skeletal muscle mitochondrial protein synthesis is regulated in part by insulin. The development of insulin resistance with diet-induced obesity may therefore contribute to impairments to protein synthesis and decreased mitochondrial respiration. Yet, the impact of diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance on mitochondrial energetics is controversial with reports varying from decreases to increases in mitochondrial respiration. We investigated the impact of changes in insulin sensitivity on long-term rates of mitochondrial protein synthesis as a mechanism for changes to mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle...
July 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
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