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Biological imaging

Hong Chen, Tao Sun, Xiao-Guang Qiao, Qian-Oian Tang, Shan-Chao Zhao, Zhan Zhou
Due to the importance of hypochlorous acid (HClO) in biological and industrial, development of fluorescent probes for HClO has been an active research area. Here, a new red-emitting ratiometric fluorescent probe (P) was synthesized and well defined characterization via NMR, HR-MS, and fluorescence spectrum, which serves as a selective and sensitive probe for ClO- group. The probe showed a ratiometric fluorescent response to hypochlorite at the emission intensities ratio (I480 /I612 ) increasing from 0.28 to 27...
June 12, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Julian Borejdo, Zygmunt Gryczynski, Rafal Fudala, Chaitanya R Joshi, Kathleen Borgmann, Anuja Ghorpade, Ignacy Gryczynski
Total internal reflection microscopy (TIRF) has been a powerful tool in biological research. The most valuable feature of the method has been the ability to image 100- to 200-nm-thick layer of cell features adjacent to a coverslip, such as membrane lipids, membrane receptors, and structures proximal-to-basal membranes. Here, we demonstrate an alternative method of imaging thin-layer proximal-to-basal membranes by placing a sample on a high refractive index coverslip covered by a thin layer of gold. The sample is illuminated using the Kretschmann method (i...
June 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Jeffrey M Treiber, Tyler C Steed, Michael G Brandel, Kunal S Patel, Anders M Dale, Bob S Carter, Clark C Chen
The physiologic processes underlying MRI contrast enhancement in glioblastoma patients remain poorly understood. MRIs of 148 glioblastoma subjects from The Cancer Imaging Archive were segmented using Iterative Probabilistic Voxel Labeling (IPVL). Three aspects of contrast enhancement (CE) were parametrized: the mean intensity of all CE voxels (CEi ), the intensity heterogeneity in CE (CEh ), and volumetric ratio of CE to necrosis (CEr ). Associations between these parameters and patterns of gene expression were analyzed using DAVID functional enrichment analysis...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
N de Cesare, C Trevisan, E Maghin, M Piccoli, P G Pavan
The diaphragm is a mammalian skeletal muscle that plays a fundamental role in the process of respiration. Alteration of its mechanical properties due to a diaphragmatic hernia contributes towards compromising its respiratory functions, leading to the need for surgical intervention to restore the physiological conditions by means of implants. This study aims to assess via numerical modeling biomechanical differences between a diaphragm in healthy conditions and a herniated diaphragm surgically repaired with a polymeric implant, in a mouse model...
June 15, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Yunan Gao, Aaron J Goodman, Pin-Chun Shen, Jing Kong, William A Tisdale
Second-order nonlinear optical interactions, including second harmonic generation (SHG) and sum-frequency generation (SFG), can reveal a wealth of information about chemical, electronic, and vibrational dynamics at the nanoscale. Here, we demonstrate a powerful and flexible new approach, called phase-modulated degenerate parametric amplification (DPA). The technique, which allows for facile retrieval of both the amplitude and phase of the second-order nonlinear optical response, has many advantages over conventional or heterodyne-detected SHG, including the flexibility to detect the signal at either the second harmonic or fundamental field wavelength...
June 22, 2018: Nano Letters
Ying Tu, Norlaily Ahmad, Joe Briscoe, De-Wen Zhang, Steffi Krause
Light-addressable potentiometric sensors (LAPS) are of great interest in bioimaging applications such as the monitoring of concentrations in microfluidic channels or the investigation of metabolic and signaling events in living cells. By measuring the photocurrents at electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS) and electrolyte-semiconductor structures, LAPS can produce spatiotemporal images of chemical or biological analytes, electrical potentials and impedance. However, its commercial applications are often restricted by their limited AC photocurrents and resolution of LAPS images...
June 22, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Dan Yang, Sen Ye, Jun Jacob Hu
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) has been recognized as one of the most significant ROS (reactive oxygen species) in human health and disease. Due to the intrinsic attributes of H2O2 such as low reactivity under physiological pH, it is exceedingly challenging to develop small molecule fluorescent probes with high selectivity and sensitivity to visualize H2O2 in intricate biological milieux. To address this gap, we report a rationally designed tandem Payne/Dakin reaction that is specific to molecular recognition of H2O2, and demonstrate its application in developing novel biocompatible fluorescent probes...
June 22, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Jian Hu, Hui-Fang Liu, Jun Sun, Jia Wang, Rong Liu
It remains challenging to accurately discriminate between biological and crystal interfaces. Most existing analyses and algorithms focused on the features derived from a single side of the interface. However, less attention has been paid to the properties of residue pairs across protein interfaces. To address this problem, we defined a novel co-evolutionary feature for homodimers through integrating direct coupling analysis and image processing techniques. The residue pairs across biological homodimeric interfaces were significantly enriched in co-evolving residues compared to those across crystal contacts, resulting in a promising classification accuracy with area under the curves (AUCs) of more than 0...
June 22, 2018: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
K Ina Ly, Elizabeth R Gerstner
T1-weighted post-contrast and T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) constitute the gold standard for diagnosis and response assessment in neuro-oncologic patients but are limited in their ability to accurately reflect tumor biology and metabolism, particularly over the course of a patient's treatment. Advanced MR imaging methods are sensitized to different biophysical processes in tissue, including blood perfusion, tumor metabolism, and chemical composition of tissue, and provide more specific information on tissue physiology than standard MRI...
June 21, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
Murat Sunbul, Andres Jäschke
The SRB-2 aptamer originally selected against sulforhodamine B is shown here to promiscuously bind to various dyes with different colors. Binding of SRB-2 to these dyes results in either fluorescence increase or decrease, making them attractive for fluorescence microscopy and biological assays. By systematically varying fluorophore structural elements and measuring dissociation constants, the principles of fluorophore recognition by SRB-2 were analyzed. The obtained structure-activity relationships allowed us to rationally design a novel, bright, orange fluorescent turn-on probe (TMR-DN) with low background fluorescence, enabling no-wash live-cell RNA imaging...
June 21, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Andrew Naglich, Erin Van Enkevort, Bryon Adinoff, E Sherwood Brown
Aims: The current study examined a large community cohort to understand relationships between indicators of alcohol consumption and hippocampal volume. Short summary: Alcohol use measures were not associated with hippocampal volume in a population-based sample. However, alcohol consumption was associated with hippocampal volume reduction in subsets of the sample including subjects aged ≥50 years old, and those with none to moderate levels of depressive symptoms...
June 21, 2018: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
Christina Rufener, Sarah Baur, Ariane Stratmann, Michael J Toscano
Up to 97% of laying hens housed in aviary systems are affected by keel bone fractures. Due to the scope of the problem, multiple efforts investigating causes and consequences of fractures have been conducted. The most frequently used techniques to detect fractures lack accuracy and provide only vague information (palpation) or cannot be conducted longitudinally (dissection). Radiographic imaging overcomes these weaknesses as it allows longitudinal observations and provides detailed information for individual fractures of which a single keel may have several at different locations and of different origins...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Jin Zhou, Xiaoning Yang, Wei Liu, Chunlan Wang, Yuan Shen, Fengzhi Zhang, Huimin Zhu, Hongji Sun, Jiayun Chen, Johnny Lam, Antonios G Mikos, Changyong Wang
After myocardial infarction (MI), the scar tissue contributes to ventricular dysfunction by electrically uncoupling viable cardiomyocytes in the infarct region. Injection of a conductive hydrogel could not only provide mechanical support to the infarcted region, but also synchronize contraction and restore ventricular function by electrically connecting isolated cardiomyocytes to intact tissue. Methods: We created a conductive hydrogel by introducing graphene oxide (GO) nanoparticles into oligo(poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate) (OPF) hydrogels...
2018: Theranostics
Davide Ippolito, Riccardo Inchingolo, Luigi Grazioli, Silvia Girolama Drago, Michele Nardella, Marco Gatti, Riccardo Faletti
Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the liver is an important tool for the detection and characterization of focal liver lesions and for assessment of diffuse liver disease, having several intrinsic characteristics, represented by high soft tissue contrast, avoidance of ionizing radiation or iodinated contrast media, and more recently, by application of several functional imaging techniques ( i.e ., diffusion-weighted sequences, hepatobiliary contrast agents, perfusion imaging, magnetic resonance (MR)-elastography, and radiomics analysis)...
June 21, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Megan McCool-Myers, Melissa Theurich, Andrea Zuelke, Helge Knuettel, Christian Apfelbacher
BACKGROUND: Female sexual dysfunction affects 41% of reproductive-age women worldwide, making it a highly prevalent medical issue. Predictors of female sexual dysfunction are multifaceted and vary from country to country. A synthesis of potential risk factors and protective factors may aid healthcare practitioners in identifying populations at risk, in addition to revealing modifiable factors to prevent sexual dysfunction among reproductive-age women. METHODS: Observational studies which assessed the prevalence and predictors of female sexual dysfunction in reproductive-age women were systematically sought in relevant databases (2000-2014)...
June 22, 2018: BMC Women's Health
Davide Gulotta, Federica Villa, Francesca Cappitelli, Lucia Toniolo
Stone architectural heritage exposed outdoor represents a challenging habitat for biological growths; nevertheless, biocolonization on heritage structure is ubiquitous and represents a major mechanism of alteration. However, the identification of specific microorganisms with known reactivity towards the stone substrate does not necessarily imply that a biodeterioration process is in progress and, in specific conditions, bioprotection effects have been highlighted as a result of colonization. The main objective of the present research is to evaluate the biofilm formation on different lithotypes exposed to similar environmental polluted conditions, and to investigate whether the presence of subaerial biofilms can be associated to an increased magnitude of deterioration of the colonized surfaces with respect to the not colonized ones...
October 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Nilantha Bandara, Tamila J Stott Reynolds, Rebecca Schehr, Rajendra P Bandari, Philipp J Diebolder, Stephanie Krieger, Jingli Xu, Yubin Miao, Buck E Rogers, Charles J Smith
INTRODUCTION: In this study, we describe development of a true matched-pair theranostic agent that is able to target the αV β3 integrin and the gastrin releasing peptide receptor (GRPR). We herein describe methods to metallate and characterize the new conjugate and to validate its biological efficacy by in vitro and in vivo methods. METHODS: We have previously described the development of [RGD-Glu-6Ahx-RM2] (where RGD: Arg-Gly-Asp; Glu: glutamic acid; 6-Ahx: 6-amino hexanoic acid; RM2: (D-Phe-Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-Gly-His-Sta-Leu-NH2)) that has been conjugated to a DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid) bifunctional chelating agent (BFCA) to afford [RGD-Glu-[DO3A]-6-Ahx-RM2] peptide...
June 8, 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
Falguni Basuli, Xiang Zhang, Mark R Williams, Jurgen Seidel, Michael V Green, Peter L Choyke, Rolf E Swenson, Elaine M Jagoda
INTRODUCTION: Equilibrium single-photon radionuclide imaging methods for assessing cardiac function and the integrity of the vascular system have long been in use for both clinical and research purposes. However, positron-emitting blood pool agents that could provide PET equivalents to these (and other) clinical procedures have not yet been adopted despite technical imaging advantages offered by PET. Our goal was to develop a PET blood pool tracer that not only meets necessary in vivo biological requirements but can be produced with an uncomplicated and rapid synthesis method which would facilitate clinical translation...
May 30, 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
Zhiyong Yan, Shusheng Che, Yingbin Jiao, JianPeng Wang, Xingze Li, Chao Wang
Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are present in up to 0.5% of the general population. While CCMs have been considered congenital lesions, numerous reports have observed de novo formations in patients with the familial form of CCM and in patients after cranial radiotherapy. Outside of these circumstances, there is scant evidence as to the potential etiologies of CCM. We present a 48-year-old woman with a medical history of endometrial hyperplasia concomitant endometrial polyps demonstrating a large de novo CCM, which grew to a large size in a period of 20 months...
June 18, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Paolo Gamba, Luigina Rota, C Abeni, Alessandra Huscher, Gabriele Saldi, Alberto Soregaroli, Elena Padolecchia, Fausto Zorzi, Mario Bignardi, Alberto Zaniboni
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an epithelial malignancy, with a high metastatic potential. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection plays a fundamental role, even if it is not well understood. The diagnosis of the disease in its early stage is infrequent. Imaging studies, positron emission tomography scans in addition to clinical examination, endoscopic examination, and biopsy provide information on the extent of the disease. The application of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by concomitant chemoradiation can improve the control of NPC...
May 2018: Case Reports in Oncology
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