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Biological imaging

Teesha C Luehr, Emily M Koide, Xiaodong Wang, Jun Han, Christoph H Borchers, Caren C Helbing
Anuran metamorphosis involves the transformation of an aquatic tadpole into a juvenile frog. This process is completely dependent upon thyroid hormones (THs). Although much research has been focused on changes in gene expression programs during this postembryonic developmental period, transitions in the metabolic profiles are relatively poorly understood. Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Mass Spectrometry Imaging (MALDI-MSI) is a technique that generates highly multiplexed mass spectra while retaining spatial location information on a thin tissue section...
February 19, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Martina Tripepi, Federico Capuana, Eliana Gianolio, Flavio Kock, Amerigo Pagoto, Rachele Stefania, Giuseppe Digilio, Silvio Aime
Molecular imaging requires the specific accumulation of contrast agents at the target. To exploit the superb resolution of MRI for applications in molecular imaging, gadolinium chelates, as the MRI contrast agents (CA), have to be conjugated to a specific vector able to recognize the epitope of interest. Several Gd(III)-chelates can be chemically linked to the same binding vector in order to deliver multiple copies of the CA (multimers) in a single targeting event thus increasing the sensitivity of the molecular probe...
February 22, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Yu-Shan Chang, Long Hsu, Kuang-Lung Huang
An internally focusing design is developed for a compact endoscopic lens to have optical performance close to the diffraction limit. When changing the working distance from infinity to a predetermined short distance, the overall system length and the field of view remain constant. It is numerically demonstrated that the diffraction-limit-like performance is maintained over a wide range of working distances, showing a novel capability of adjustable focuses. The design concept is numerically proven to be feasible and can enable very high-resolution examination for doctors checking the positions of biological entities through the immediate capture of clear images at different working distances...
February 10, 2018: Applied Optics
Lena Thomas, Steffi Kantz, Arthur Hung, Debra Monaco, Florian C Gaertner, Markus Essler, Holger Strunk, Wolfram Laub, Ralph A Bundschuh
PURPOSE: The purpose of our study was to show the feasibility and potential benefits of using68 Ga-PSMA-PET/CT imaging for radiation therapy treatment planning of patients with primary prostate cancer using either integrated boost on the PET-positive volume or localized treatment of the PET-positive volume. The potential gain of such an approach, the improvement of tumor control, and reduction of the dose to organs-at-risk at the same time was analyzed using the QUANTEC biological model...
February 21, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Ayuko Sakane, Shin Yoshizawa, Hideo Yokota, Takuya Sasaki
Collective cell migration is observed during morphogenesis, angiogenesis, and wound healing, and this type of cell migration also contributes to efficient metastasis in some kinds of cancers. Because collectively migrating cells are much better organized than a random assemblage of individual cells, there seems to be a kind of order in migrating clusters. Extensive research has identified a large number of molecules involved in collective cell migration, and these factors have been analyzed using dramatic advances in imaging technology...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Siddesh V Hartimath, Valeria Manuelli, Rolf Zijlma, Alberto Signore, Tapan K Nayak, Anne Freimoser-Grundschober, Christian Klein, Rudi A J O Dierckx, Erik F J de Vries
Interleukin-2 (IL2) is a cytokine that can stimulate cytotoxic immune cells to attack infected and malignant cells. Unfortunately, IL2 can also cause serious immune-related toxicity. Recently, a mutant of IL2 (IL2v) with abolished CD25 binding, increased plasma half-life and less toxicity was engineered. Unlike wild-type IL2 (wt-IL2), mutant IL2v does not bind to the α-subunit (CD25) of the high affinity IL2αβγ receptor, but only to its β and γ subunit. Here, we investigated the biological properties of IL2v and compared with the wt-IL2 using fluorine-18 and PET...
January 23, 2018: Oncotarget
Christophe Alric, Katel Hervé-Aubert, Nicolas Aubrey, Souad Melouk, Laurie Lajoie, William Même, Sandra Même, Yann Courbebaisse, Anastasia A Ignatova, Alexey V Feofanov, Igor Chourpa, Emilie Allard-Vannier
BACKGROUND: Recent advances in nanomedicine have shown the great interest of active targeting associated to nanoparticles. Single chain variable fragments (scFv) of disease-specific antibodies are very promising targeting entities because they are small, not immunogenic and able to bind their specific antigens. The present paper is devoted to biological properties in vitro and in vivo of fluorescent and pegylated iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs-Cy-PEG-scFv) functionalized with scFv targeting Human Epithelial growth Receptor 2 (HER2)...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
Ryouhei Ishii, Leonides Canuet, Yasunori Aoki, Masahiro Hata, Masao Iwase, Shunichiro Ikeda, Keiichiro Nishida, Manabu Ikeda
Healthy aging is associated with impairment in cognitive information processing. Several neuroimaging methods such as functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography and near-infrared spectroscopy have been used to explore healthy and pathological aging by relying on hemodynamic or metabolic changes that occur in response to brain activity. Since electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) are able to measure neural activity directly with a high temporal resolution of milliseconds, these neurophysiological techniques are particularly important to investigate the dynamics of brain activity underlying neurocognitive aging...
February 21, 2018: Neuropsychobiology
Virginia Elena Nóh Quiñones, Julián René Torres Villegas, Thierry Brulé, Jorge L Montero Muñoz, Uriel Fernando Valdez-Montiel
Studies of fish reproductive biology often involve quantitative estimates based on histological sections of the ovaries. Prior characterization of gonad oocyte distribution patterns in females is fundamental to these studies. Heterogeneous distribution requires a standardized sampling protocol to prevent bias in data such as fecundity estimations. In contrast, homogeneous distribution allows sampling of any portion of the gonads with no risk of bias. A preliminary study was done of gonad oocyte distribution mode in a hogfish Lachnolaimus maximus population in the southern Gulf of Mexico...
March 2017: Revista de Biología Tropical
J Christoph, M Chebbok, C Richter, J Schröder-Schetelig, P Bittihn, S Stein, I Uzelac, F H Fenton, G Hasenfuß, R F Gilmour, S Luther
Self-organized dynamics of vortex-like rotating waves or scroll waves underlie complex spatial-temporal pattern formation in many excitable chemical and biological systems1-4 . In the heart, filament-like phase singularities5,6 associated with three-dimensional scroll waves8 are considered to be the organizing centers of life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias7-13 . The mechanisms underlying the onset, perpetuation, and control14-16 of electromechanical turbulence in the heart are inherently three-dimensional phenomena...
February 21, 2018: Nature
Angelo A Licata, Neil Binkley, Steven M Petak, Pauline M Camacho
OBJECTIVE: High-quality dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans are necessary for accurate diagnosis of osteoporosis and monitoring of therapy; however, DXA scan reports may contain errors that cause confusion about diagnosis and treatment. This American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists/American College of Endocrinology consensus statement was generated to draw attention to many common technical problems affecting DXA report conclusions and provide guidance on how to address them to ensure that patients receive appropriate osteoporosis care...
February 2018: Endocrine Practice
Takeshi Imamura, Takashi Saitou, Ryosuke Kawakami
In vivo optical imaging using fluorescence and bioluminescence is superior to other methods in terms of spatio-temporal resolution and specificity, and represents a new technology for comprehensively studying living organisms in a less invasive manner. Nowadays, it is an indispensable technology for studying many aspects of cancer biology, including dynamic invasion and metastasis. In observations of fluorescence or bioluminescence signals in a living body, various problems were caused by optical characteristics such as absorption and scattering, and therefore observation of deep tissue portion was difficult...
February 21, 2018: Cancer Science
Alexandra Forestier, David Buob, Tristan Mirault, Philippe Puech, Viviane Gnemmi, David Launay, Eric Hachulla, Pierre-Yves Hatron, Marc Lambert
OBJECTIVES: Retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF) is a rare disease, with unknown aetiology (idiopathic RPF: iRPF) in two-thirds of cases. A subset of iRPF may be a manifestation of IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD). Thus, recognition of IgG4-RD-RPF is crucial to optimise patient's care with iRPF. The current study aimed to examine imaging specific patterns, which could help differentiate between IgG4-RD-RPF and iRPF, and thus skip performing biopsies. METHODS: This analysis included patients with iRPF and a retroperitoneal biopsy at the Lille University Hospital, France...
February 14, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Florenzo Iannone, Leonardo Santo, Romano Bucci, Angelo Semeraro, Giorgio Carlino, Franco Paoletti, Laura Quarta, Pierfrancesco Leucci, Carmelo Zuccaro, Antonio Marsico, Crescenzio Scioscia, Francesca D'Onofrio, Daniela Mazzotta, Maurizio Muratore, Francesco Paolo Cantatore, Giovanni Lapadula
In Fig. 1 - paned D, incorrect image was published. This is now presented correctly in this article.
February 21, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
Ceren Aksoy, Feride Severcan
The effect of aging process on stem cell function is crucial because of their critical role in tissue regeneration and repair. The impact of aging on stem cells needs to be understood clearly for the success of clinical application and obtaining desired therapeutic outcome throughout the novel stem cell based therapies. The existing methods used to monitor and characterize the stem cells have some unwanted effects on the properties of stem cells and these methods also do not provide real-time information about cellular conditions...
February 21, 2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Julia Miller, Tobias F Dreyer, Anne Sophie Bächer, Eva-Kathrin Sinner, Christine Heinrich, Anke Benge, Eva Gross, Sarah Preis, Jan Rother, Anthony Roberts, Gabriele Nelles, Tzenka Miteva, Ute Reuning
The tetraspanin and tumor suppressor KAI1 is downregulated or lost in many cancers which correlates with poor prognosis. KAI1 acts via physical/functional crosstalk with other membrane receptors. Also, a splice variant of KAI1 (KAI1-SP) has been identified indicative of poor prognosis. We here characterized differential effects of the two KAI1 variants on tumor biological events involving integrin (αvß3) and/or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R). In MDA-MB-231 and -435 breast cancer cells, differential effects were documented on the expression levels of the tumor biologically relevant integrin αvß3 which colocalized with KAI1-WT but not with KAI1-SP...
January 19, 2018: Oncotarget
Amir Reza Peimani, Georg Zoidl, Pouya Rezai
The zebrafish is a lower vertebrate model organism offering multiple applications for both fundamental and biomedical research into the nervous system from genes to behaviour. Investigation of zebrafish larvae's movement in response to various stimuli, which involves the dopaminergic system, is of interest in the field of sensory-motor integration. Nevertheless, the conventional methods of movement screening in Petri dishes and multi-well plates are mostly qualitative, uncontrollable, and inaccurate in terms of stimulus delivery and response analysis...
January 2018: Biomicrofluidics
József Garay, Zoltán Varga, Tamás F Móri, Inmaculada López, Manuel Gámez, Juan R Gallego, Tomás Cabello
We consider two types of optimal foragers: a random searcher and a search image user. A search image user can find its desired prey with higher and undesired prey with lower probability than a random searcher. Our model considers the density-dependent travelling time and the time duration of reproduction (oviposition). In the framework of optimal foraging theory for one predator-two prey systems, we find that there are ranges of prey densities in which the search image user has a higher net energy intake, and there are other ranges of prey densities in which the random searcher has higher net energy intake...
February 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Madleen Busse, Mark Müller, Melanie A Kimm, Simone Ferstl, Sebastian Allner, Klaus Achterhold, Julia Herzen, Franz Pfeiffer
Many histological methods require staining of the cytoplasm, which provides instrumental details for diagnosis. One major limitation is the production of 2D images obtained by destructive preparation of 3D tissue samples. X-ray absorption micro- and nanocomputed tomography (microCT and nanoCT) allows for a nondestructive investigation of a 3D tissue sample, and thus aids to determine regions of interest for further histological examinations. However, application of microCT and nanoCT to biological samples (e...
February 20, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Benjamin Ribba, Christophe Boetsch, Tapan K Nayak, Hans Peter Grimm, Jehad M Charo, Stefan Evers, Christian Klein, Jean J L Tessier, Jean Eric Charoin, Alex Phipps, Pavel Pisa, Volker Teichgräber
PURPOSE: Optimal dosing is critical for immunocytokine-based cancer immunotherapy to maximize efficacy and minimize toxicity. Cergutuzumab amunaleukin (CEA-IL2v) is a novel CEA-targeted immunocytokine. We set out to develop a mathematical model to predict intratumoral CEA-IL2v concentrations following various systemic dosing intensities. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Sequential measurements of CEA-IL2v plasma concentrations in 74 patients with solid tumors were applied in a series of differential equations to devise a model that also incorporates the peripheral concentrations of IL-2 receptor-positive cell populations (i...
February 20, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
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