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Biological imaging

Azam Hamidinekoo, Erika Denton, Andrik Rampun, Kate Honnor, Reyer Zwiggelaar
Recent improvements in biomedical image analysis using deep learning based neural networks could be exploited to enhance the performance of Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) systems. Considering the importance of breast cancer worldwide and the promising results reported by deep learning based methods in breast imaging, an overview of the recent state-of-the-art deep learning based CAD systems developed for mammography and breast histopathology images is presented. In this study, the relationship between mammography and histopathology phenotypes is described, which takes biological aspects into account...
March 26, 2018: Medical Image Analysis
Cécile Frampas, Julia Ney, Mark Coburn, Marc Augsburger, Vincent Varlet
Xenon is a rare, mostly inert, noble gas that has applications in a wide range of fields, including medicine. Xenon acts on the human body as a useful organ-protective and anesthetic agent and has also been previously studied for potential applications in fields such as optics, aerospace and medical imaging. Recently, it was discovered that xenon can boost erythropoietin production, and it has been used as a performance-enhancing agent in international sports competitions such as the Sochi Olympic Games. Therefore, screening methods to detect the misuse of xenon by analysis of biological samples and to monitor anesthesia kinetics and efficiency are being investigated...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Tong Wu, Gui-Yuan Yu, Jia Xiao, Chang Yan, Hiroshi Kurihara, Yi-Fang Li, Kwok-Fai So, Rong-Rong He
Efficacy and safety assessments are essential thresholds for drug candidates from preclinical to clinical research. Conventional mammalian in vivo models cannot offer rapid pharmacological and toxicological screening, whereas cell-based or cell-free in vitro systems often lead to inaccurate results because of the lack of physiological environment. Within the avian species, chick is the first bird to have its genome sequencing. Meantime, chick embryo is an easily operating, relatively transparent and extensively accessible model, whose physiological and pathological alterations can be visualized by egg candler, staining and image technologies...
April 18, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Yejiao Shi, Ran Lin, Honggang Cui, Helena S Azevedo
Peptide amphiphiles (PAs), consisting of a hydrophobic alkyl chain covalently bound to a hydrophilic peptide sequence, possess a versatile molecular design due to their combined self-assembling features of amphiphile surfactants and biological functionalities of peptides. Through rational design, PAs can self-assemble into a variety of nanostructures with controlled shape, size, and biological functionality to deliver therapeutic and imaging agents to target cells. Here, we describe principles to design multifunctional PAs for self-assembly into micellar nanostructures and targeted intracellular delivery...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Tim Sinnecker, Cristina Granziera, Jens Wuerfel, Regina Schlaeger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Volumetric analysis of brain imaging has emerged as a standard approach used in clinical research, e.g., in the field of multiple sclerosis (MS), but its application in individual disease course monitoring is still hampered by biological and technical limitations. This review summarizes novel developments in volumetric imaging on the road towards clinical application to eventually monitor treatment response in patients with MS. RECENT FINDINGS: In addition to the assessment of whole-brain volume changes, recent work was focused on the volumetry of specific compartments and substructures of the central nervous system (CNS) in MS...
April 20, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Verónica Fernández-Alvarez, Fernando López, Carlos Suárez, Primoz Strojan, Avraham Eisbruch, Carl E Silver, William M Mendenhall, Johannes A Langendijk, Alessandra Rinaldo, Anne W M Lee, Jonathan J Beitler, Robert Smee, Javier Alvarez, Alfio Ferlito
PURPOSE: To review the current aspects of knowledge related to the risk of cerebrovascular events in patients receiving head and neck radiotherapy. METHODS: A literature search was performed in PubMed. Papers meeting selection criteria were reviewed. RESULTS: We provide an update on the problem by identifying key studies that have contributed to our current understanding of the epidemiology, radiologic features, pathogenesis, and treatment of the disease...
April 20, 2018: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
Krzysztof P Bzymek, James W Puckett, Cindy Zer, Jun Xie, Yuelong Ma, Jeremy D King, Leah H Goodstein, Kendra N Avery, David Colcher, Gagandeep Singh, David A Horne, John C Williams
Because monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have exceptional specificity and favorable pharmacology, substantial efforts have been made to functionalize them, either with potent cytotoxins, biologics, radionuclides, or fluorescent groups for therapeutic benefit and/or use as theranostic agents. To exploit our recently discovered meditope-Fab interaction as an alternative means to efficiently functionalize mAbs, we used insights from the structure to enhance the affinity and lifetime of the interaction by four orders of magnitude...
April 20, 2018: Nature Communications
Craig Miller, Zaid Abdo, Aaron Ericsson, John Elder, Sue VandeWoude
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a naturally-occurring retrovirus that infects domestic and non-domestic feline species, producing progressive immune depletion that results in an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Much has been learned about FIV since it was first described in 1987, particularly in regard to its application as a model to study the closely related lentivirus, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In particular, FIV and HIV share remarkable structure and sequence organization, utilize parallel modes of receptor-mediated entry, and result in a similar spectrum of immunodeficiency-related diseases due to analogous modes of immune dysfunction...
April 20, 2018: Viruses
Kyle D Duncan, Ru Fang, Jia Yuan, Rosalie K Chu, Sudhansu K Dey, Kristin E Burnum-Johnson, Ingela Lanekoff
Prostaglandins (PG) are an important class of lipid biomolecules that are essential in many biological processes, including inflammation and successful pregnancy. Despite a high bioactivity, physiological concentrations are typically low, which makes direct mass spectrometric analysis of endogenous PG species challenging. Consequently, there have not been any studies investigating the localization of PG species to specific morphological regions in tissue sections using mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) techniques...
April 20, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Jian Xu, Daisuke Murata, Jumpei Ueda, Bruno Viana, Setsuhisa Tanabe
Persistent luminescence (PersL) imaging without real-time external excitation has been regarded as the next generation of autofluorescence-free optical imaging technology. However, to achieve improved imaging resolution and deep tissue penetration, developing new near-infrared (NIR) persistent phosphors with intense and long duration PersL over 1000 nm is still a challenging but urgent task in this field. Herein, making use of the persistent energy transfer process from Cr3+ to Er3+ , we report a novel garnet persistent phosphor of Y3 Al2 Ga3 O12 codoped with Er3+ and Cr3+ (YAG G:Er-Cr), which shows intense Cr3+ PersL (∼690 nm) in the deep red region matching well with the first biological window (NIR-I, 650-950 nm) and Er3+ PersL (∼1532 nm) in the NIR region matching well with the third biological window (NIR-III, 1500-1800 nm)...
April 20, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Sha Sha Li, Bao Qiong Li, Jin Jin Liu, Shao Hua Lu, Hong Lin Zhai
Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy is a widely used technique for the evaluation of protein secondary structures that has a significant impact for the understanding of molecular biology. However, the quantitative analysis of protein secondary structures based on CD spectra is still a hard work due to the serious overlap of the spectra corresponding to different structural motifs. Here, Tchebichef image moment (TM) approach is introduced for the first time, which can effectively extract the chemical features in CD spectra for the quantitative analysis of protein secondary structures...
April 20, 2018: Proteins
Jing-Yi Zhu, Ming-Kang Zhang, Xian-Guang Ding, Wen-Xiu Qiu, Wu-Yang Yu, Jun Feng, Xian-Zheng Zhang
Many viruses have a lipid envelope derived from the host cell membrane that contributes much to the host specificity and the cellular invasion. This study puts forward a virus-inspired technology that allows targeted genetic delivery free from man-made materials. Genetic therapeutics, metal ions, and biologically derived cell membranes are nanointegrated. Vulnerable genetic therapeutics contained in the formed "nanogene" can be well protected from unwanted attacks by blood components and enzymes. The surface envelope composed of cancer cell membrane fragments enables host-specific targeting of the nanogene to the source cancer cells and homologous tumors while effectively inhibiting recognition by macrophages...
April 20, 2018: Advanced Materials
John C Nouls, Alexandra Badea, Robert B J Anderson, Gary P Cofer, G Allan Johnson
The correlation between brain connectivity and psychiatric or neurological diseases has intensified efforts to develop brain connectivity mapping techniques on mouse models of human disease. The neural architecture of mouse brain specimens can be shown non-destructively and three-dimensionally by diffusion tensor imaging, which enables tractography, the establishment of a connectivity matrix and connectomics. However, experiments on cohorts of animals can be prohibitively long. To improve throughput in a 7-T preclinical scanner, we present a novel two-coil system in which each coil is shielded, placed off-isocenter along the axis of the magnet and connected to a receiver circuit of the scanner...
April 19, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
Biwei Yin, Chulho Hyun, Joseph A Gardecki, Guillermo J Tearney
Improving lateral resolution for cross-sectional optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging is difficult due to the rapid divergence of light once it is focused to a small spot. To overcome this obstacle, we introduce a fiber optics system that generates a coaxially focused multimode (CAFM) beam for depth of focus (DOF) extension. We fabricated a CAFM beam OCT probe and show that the DOF is more than fivefold that of a conventional Gaussian beam, enabling cross-sectional imaging of biological tissues with clearly resolved cellular and subcellular structures over more than a 400 μm depth range...
August 2017: Optica
Bingying Chen, Xiaoshuai Huang, Dongzhou Gou, Jianzhi Zeng, Guoqing Chen, Meijun Pang, Yanhui Hu, Zhe Zhao, Yunfeng Zhang, Zhuan Zhou, Haitao Wu, Heping Cheng, Zhigang Zhang, Chris Xu, Yulong Li, Liangyi Chen, Aimin Wang
Owing to its tissue-penetration ability, multi-photon fluorescence microscopy allows for the high-resolution, non-invasive imaging of deep tissue in vivo ; the recently developed three-photon microscopy (3PM) has extended the depth of high-resolution, non-invasive functional imaging of mouse brains to beyond 1.0 mm. However, the low repetition rate of femtosecond lasers that are normally used in 3PM limits the temporal resolution of point-scanning three-photon microscopy. To increase the volumetric imaging speed of 3PM, we propose a combination of an axially elongated needle-like Bessel-beam with three-photon excitation (3PE) to image biological samples with an extended depth of focus...
April 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Hyeong Soo Nam, Woo Jae Kang, Min Woo Lee, Joon Woo Song, Jin Won Kim, Wang-Yuhl Oh, Hongki Yoo
The pathophysiological progression of chronic diseases, including atherosclerosis and cancer, is closely related to compositional changes in biological tissues containing endogenous fluorophores such as collagen, elastin, and NADH, which exhibit strong autofluorescence under ultraviolet excitation. Fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIm) provides robust detection of the compositional changes by measuring fluorescence lifetime, which is an inherent property of a fluorophore. In this paper, we present a dual-modality system combining a multispectral analog-mean-delay (AMD) FLIm and a high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) to simultaneously visualize the cross-sectional morphology and biochemical compositional information of a biological tissue...
April 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Silvia Colabrese, Marco Castello, Giuseppe Vicidomini, Alessio Del Bue
Single molecule localisation (SML) microscopy is a fundamental tool for biological discoveries; it provides sub-diffraction spatial resolution images by detecting and localizing "all" the fluorescent molecules labeling the structure of interest. For this reason, the effective resolution of SML microscopy strictly depends on the algorithm used to detect and localize the single molecules from the series of microscopy frames. To adapt to the different imaging conditions that can occur in a SML experiment, all current localisation algorithms request, from the microscopy users, the choice of different parameters...
April 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Junaid Ahmad, Baptiste Jayet, Philip J Hill, Melissa L Mather, Hamid Dehghani, Stephen P Morgan
In vivo imaging of self-illuminating bio-and chemiluminescent reporters is used to observe the physiology of small animals. However, strong light scattering by biological tissues results in poor spatial resolution of the optical imaging, which also degrades the quantitative accuracy. To overcome this challenging problem, focused ultrasound is used to modulate the light from the reporter at the ultrasound frequency. This produces an ultrasound switchable light 'beacon' that reduces the influence of light scattering in order to improve spatial resolution...
April 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Nurmohammed Patwary, Ana Doblas, Chrysanthe Preza
The performance of structured illumination microscopy (SIM) is hampered in many biological applications due to the inability to modulate the light when imaging deep into the sample. This is in part because sample-induced aberration reduces the modulation contrast of the structured pattern. In this paper, we present an image restoration approach suitable for processing raw incoherent-grid-projection SIM data with a low fringe contrast. Restoration results from simulated and experimental ApoTome SIM data show results with improved signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and optical sectioning compared to the results obtained from existing methods, such as 2D demodulation and 3D SIM deconvolution...
April 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Keisuke Toda, Keisuke Isobe, Kana Namiki, Hiroyuki Kawano, Atsushi Miyawaki, Katsumi Midorikawa
Super-resolution microscopy has become a powerful tool for biological research. However, its spatial resolution and imaging depth are limited, largely due to background light. Interferometric temporal focusing (ITF) microscopy, which combines structured illumination microscopy and three-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy, can overcome these limitations. Here, we demonstrate ITF microscopy using three-photon excitation fluorescence, which has a spatial resolution of 106 nm at an imaging depth of 100 µm with an excitation wavelength of 1060 nm...
April 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
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