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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232635/symptom-recovery-and-relationship-to-structure-of-corpus-callosum-in-individuals-with-an-at-risk-mental-state
#1
Naoyuki Katagiri, Christos Pantelis, Takahiro Nemoto, Naohisa Tsujino, Junichi Saito, Masaaki Hori, Taiju Yamaguchi, Tomoyuki Funatogawa, Masafumi Mizuno
Previous studies have revealed that changes in sub-threshold psychotic symptoms observed in individuals with an 'at risk mental state' (ARMS) are associated with biological changes in the corpus callosum (CC). To elucidate the biological background for resilience against transition to psychosis, we investigated the relationship between CC structural changes and recovery of sub-threshold psychotic symptom in subjects with ARMS who did not develop psychosis (ARMS-N). Sixteen healthy controls and 42 ARMS (37 ARMS-N) subjects participated this study...
November 29, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232400/biological-characterization-of-a-novel-in-vitro-cell-irradiator
#2
Tyler L Fowler, Michael M Fisher, Alison M Bailey, Bryan P Bednarz, Randall J Kimple
To evaluate the overall robustness of a novel cellular irradiator we performed a series of well-characterized, dose-responsive assays to assess the consequences of DNA damage. We used a previously described novel irradiation system and a traditional 137Cs source to irradiate a cell line. The generation of reactive oxygen species was assessed using chloromethyl-H2DCFDA dye, the induction of DNA DSBs was observed using the comet assay, and the initiation of DNA break repair was assessed through γH2AX image cytometry...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231444/-analysis-on-property-of-meridian-supramolecules-by-biological-evolution-path
#3
Kaiwen Deng, Yeqin Tao, Wenhan Tang, Fuyuan He, Wenlong Liu, Jilian Shi, Yantao Yang, Yiqun Zhou, Xiaorong Chang
With human placed in the whole nature, by following the biologic evolution path, the property of channel structure for "imprinting template" in meridian and zang-fu was explored with supramolecular chemistry. In the history of biologic evolution, each molecule in "molecule society" gradually developed into various highly-ordered supramolecular bodies based on self-identification, self-assembly, self-organization, self-replicating of"imprinting template", and thereby the original biochemical system was established, and finally evolved into human...
March 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231149/radiopharmaceuticals-labelled-with-copper-radionuclides-clinical-results-in-human-beings
#4
Giulia Anna Follacchio, Maria Silvia De Feo, Francesco Monteleone, Giuseppe De Vincentis, Mauro Liberatore
Positron emission tomography (PET) is an instrumental diagnostic modality based on the representation (by images or numeric parameters) of the spatial and temporal distribution of molecules labelled with positron-emitting radionuclides. PET makes it possible to study biochemical processes underlying the function of several organs, providing information otherwise achievable only with bioptic assessment. PET has been developed around the positron-emitting radioisotopes of biologically important elements such as carbon, oxygen and nitrogen (11C, 15O, 13N), which enable PET imaging to identify the biodistribution of a wide range of small molecules...
December 11, 2017: Current Radiopharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230857/chemical-aspects-of-metal-ion-chelation-in-the-synthesis-and-application-antibody-based-radiotracers
#5
Eszter Boros, Jason P Holland
Radiometals are becoming increasingly accessible and are utilized frequently in the design of radiotracers for imaging and therapy. Nuclear properties ranging from the emission of γ-ray and ®+ -particles (imaging) to Auger electron, ®- and α-particles (therapy) in combination with long half-lives are ideally matched with the relatively long biological half-life of monoclonal antibodies in vivo. Radiometal labelling of antibodies requires the incorporation of a metal chelate onto the monoclonal antibody...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Labelled Compounds & Radiopharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230535/a-new-method-for-non-invasive-biomass-determination-based-on-stereo-photogrammetry
#6
Maria Syngelaki, Matthias Hardner, Patrick Oberthuer, Thomas Bley, Danilo Schneider, Felix Lenk
A novel, non-destructive method for the biomass estimation of biological samples on culture dishes was developed. To achieve this, a photogrammetric system, which consists of a digital single-lens reflex camera (DSLR), an illuminated platform where the culture dishes are positioned and an Arduino board which controls the capturing process, was constructed. The camera was mounted on a holder which set the camera at different title angles and the platform rotated, to capture images from different directions. A software, based on stereo photogrammetry, was developed for the three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the samples...
December 11, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230496/testicle-sparing-surgery-versus-radical-orchiectomy-in-the-management-of-leydig-cell-tumors-results-from-a-multicenter-study
#7
Florian Laclergerie, Guillaume Mouillet, Alexandre Frontczak, Loïc Balssa, Pascal Eschwege, Christian Saussine, Stéphane Larré, Luc Cormier, Antoine Thiery Vuillemin, François Kleinclauss
OBJECTIVE: To compare the oncological outcomes of testicle-sparing surgery (TSS) and radical orchiectomy (RO) in patients with Leydig cell tumor (LCT) of the testis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A multicenter retrospective clinical study was conducted in 12 centers in France. All the patients with histologically proven LCT were included and analyzed according to treatment (organ-sparing surgery or radical orchiectomy). Patients underwent preoperative clinical, biological and imaging assessment...
December 11, 2017: World Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230441/detection-of-a%C3%AE-plaque-associated-astrogliosis-in-alzheimer-s-disease-brain-by-spectroscopic-imaging-and-immunohistochemistry
#8
Francesca Palombo, Francesco Tamagnini, J Charles G Jeynes, Sara Mattana, Imogen Swift, Jayakrupakar Nallala, Jane Hancock, Jonathan T Brown, Andrew D Randall, Nick Stone
Recent work using micro-Fourier transform infrared (μFTIR) imaging has revealed that a lipid-rich layer surrounds many plaques in post-mortem Alzheimer's brain. However, the origin of this lipid layer is not known, nor is its role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we studied the biochemistry of plaques in situ using a model of AD. We combined FTIR, Raman and immunofluorescence images, showing that astrocyte processes co-localise with the lipid ring surrounding many plaques. We used μFTIR imaging to rapidly measure chemical signatures of plaques over large fields of view, and selected plaques for higher resolution analysis with Raman microscopy...
December 12, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230050/synaptic-weight-set-by-munc13-1-supramolecular-assemblies
#9
Hirokazu Sakamoto, Tetsuroh Ariyoshi, Naoya Kimpara, Kohtaroh Sugao, Isamu Taiko, Kenji Takikawa, Daisuke Asanuma, Shigeyuki Namiki, Kenzo Hirose
The weight of synaptic connections, which is controlled not only postsynaptically but also presynaptically, is a key determinant in neuronal network dynamics. The mechanisms controlling synaptic weight, especially on the presynaptic side, remain elusive. Using single-synapse imaging of the neurotransmitter glutamate combined with super-resolution imaging of presynaptic proteins, we identify a presynaptic mechanism for setting weight in central glutamatergic synapses. In the presynaptic terminal, Munc13-1 molecules form multiple and discrete supramolecular self-assemblies that serve as independent vesicular release sites by recruiting syntaxin-1, a soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive-factor attachment receptor (SNARE) protein essential for synaptic vesicle exocytosis...
December 11, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229660/rationale-and-design-of-geneius-a-prospective-observational-study-on-the-genetic-and-environmental-determinants-of-body-mass-index-evolution-in-canadian-undergraduate-students
#10
Rita E Morassut, Christine Langlois, Akram Alyass, Adeola F Ishola, Fereshteh T Yazdi, Alexandra J Mayhew, Hudson Reddon, James MacKillop, Marie Pigeyre, David Meyre
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is a global epidemic and is a risk factor for developing other comorbidities. Young adulthood is a critical period for body weight change and establishing healthy lifestyle behaviours. The 'Freshman 15' suggests that undergraduate students gain 15 lbs (6.8 kg) during their first year of university, although evidence estimates a more modest weight gain of approximately 3-5 lbs (1.4-2.3 kg). Previous studies have only investigated weight change in the first year and do not study potential risk factors...
December 10, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229179/clinical-role-of-breast-mri-now-and-going-forward
#11
REVIEW
D Leithner, G J Wengert, T H Helbich, S Thakur, R E Ochoa-Albiztegui, E A Morris, K Pinker
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a well-established method in breast imaging, with manifold clinical applications, including the non-invasive differentiation between benign and malignant breast lesions, preoperative staging, detection of scar versus recurrence, implant assessment, and the evaluation of high-risk patients. At present, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI is the most sensitive imaging technique for breast cancer diagnosis, and provides excellent morphological and to some extent also functional information...
December 8, 2017: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228959/micro-structural-bone-changes-in-early-rheumatoid-arthritis-persist-over-1-year%C3%A2-despite-use-of-disease-modifying-anti-rheumatic-drug-therapy
#12
Lynne M Feehan, Linda L Li, Heather A McKay
BACKGROUND: We used High Resolution - peripheral Quantitative CT (HR-pQCT) imaging to examine peri-articular bone quality in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and explore whether bone quality improved over 12-months in individuals receiving care consistent with practice guidelines. METHODS: A 1-year longitudinal cohort study (Baseline and 12-months) evaluating individuals with early RA compared to age/sex-matched peers. Personal demographic and health and lifestyle information were collected for all...
December 11, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228204/decreased-resting-state-interhemispheric-functional-connectivity-correlated-with-neurocognitive-deficits-in-drug-naive-first-episode-adolescent-onset-schizophrenia
#13
Yi Liu, Yan Zhang, Luxian Lv, Feihu Hu, Renrong Wu, Jingping Zhao, Wenbin Guo
Background: Given that adolescence is a critical epoch in the onset of schizophrenia, studying aberrant brain changes in adolescent-onset schizophrenia (AOS), particularly in patients with drug-naive first-episode schizophrenia, is important to understand the biological mechanism of this disorder. Previous resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have shown abnormal functional connectivity in separate hemispheres in patients with adult-onset schizophrenia. Our aim to study AOS can provide clues for the early aetiology of schizophrenia...
November 7, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227618/tackling-the-challenges-of-dynamic-experiments-using-liquid-cell-transmission-electron-microscopy
#14
Lucas R Parent, Evangelos Bakalis, Maria Proetto, Yiwen Li, Chiwoo Park, Francesco Zerbetto, Nathan C Gianneschi
Revolutions in science and engineering frequently result from the development, and wide adoption, of a new, powerful characterization or imaging technique. Beginning with the first glass lenses and telescopes in astronomy, to the development of visual-light microscopy, staining techniques, confocal microscopy, and fluorescence super-resolution microscopy in biology, and most recently aberration-corrected, cryogenic, and ultrafast (4D) electron microscopy, X-ray microscopy, and scanning probe microscopy in nanoscience...
December 11, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227108/visualizing-single-cell-secretion-dynamics-with-single-protein-sensitivity
#15
Matthew McDonald, André Gemeinhardt, Katharina König, Marek Piliarik, Stefanie Schaffer, Simon Völkl, Michael Aigner, Andreas Mackensen, Vahid Sandoghdar
Cellular secretion of proteins into the extracellular environment is an essential mediator of critical biological mechanisms, including cell-to-cell communication, immunological response, targeted delivery, and differentiation. Here, we report a novel methodology that allows for the real-time detection and imaging of single unlabeled proteins that are secreted from individual living cells. This is accomplished via interferometric detection of scattered light (iSCAT), and is demonstrated with Laz388 cells-an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) transformed B cell line...
December 11, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227035/mass-spectrometry-analyses-of-multicellular-tumour-spheroids
#16
REVIEW
Mitchell Acland, Parul Mittal, Noor A Lokman, Manuela Klingler-Hoffmann, Martin K Oehler, Peter Hoffmann
Multicellular tumour spheroids (MCTS) are a powerful biological in vitro model, which closely mimics the 3D structure of primary avascularised tumours. Mass spectrometry (MS) has established itself as a powerful analytical tool, not only to better understand and describe the complex structure of MCTS, but also to monitor their response to cancer therapeutics. The first part of this review focuses on traditional mass spectrometry approaches with an emphasis on elucidating the molecular characteristics of these structures...
December 11, 2017: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226815/integrative-assessment-of-congestion-in%C3%A2-heart-failure-throughout-the-patient%C3%A2-journey
#17
REVIEW
Nicolas Girerd, Marie-France Seronde, Stefano Coiro, Tahar Chouihed, Pascal Bilbault, François Braun, David Kenizou, Bruno Maillier, Pierre Nazeyrollas, Gérard Roul, Ludivine Fillieux, William T Abraham, James Januzzi, Laurent Sebbag, Faiez Zannad, Alexandre Mebazaa, Patrick Rossignol
Congestion is one of the main predictors of poor patient outcome in patients with heart failure. However, congestion is difficult to assess, especially when symptoms are mild. Although numerous clinical scores, imaging tools, and biological tests are available to assist physicians in ascertaining and quantifying congestion, not all are appropriate for use in all stages of patient management. In recent years, multidisciplinary management in the community has become increasingly important to prevent heart failure hospitalizations...
November 27, 2017: JACC. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226673/multiplexed-detection-of-attomole-nucleic-acids-using-fluorescent-nanoparticle-counting-platform
#18
Xiaojing Pei, Haoyan Yin, Tiancheng Lai, Jun-Long Zhang, Feng Liu, Xiao Xu, Na Li
The sensitive multiplexed detection of nucleic acids in a single sample by a simple manner is of pivotal importance for diagnosis and therapy of human diseases. Herein, we constructed an automatic fluorescent nanoparticle (FNP) counting platform with a common fluorescence microscopic imaging setup for non-amplification multiplexed detection of attomole nucleic acids. Taking the ad-vantages of the highly bright, multi-color emitting FNPs and magnetic separation, the platform enables the sensitive multiplexed detection without the need for extra fluorescent labels...
December 11, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226600/loss-of-skills-and-onset-patterns-in-neurodevelopmental-disorders-understanding-the-neurobiological-mechanisms
#19
Audrey Thurm, Elizabeth M Powell, Jeffrey L Neul, Ann Wagner, Lonnie Zwaigenbaum
Patterns of onset in Autism Spectrum Disorder, including a pattern that includes loss of previously acquired skills, have been identified since the first reports of the disorder. However, attempts to study such "regression" have been limited to clinical studies, that until recently mostly involved retrospective reports. The current report reflects discussion that occurred at an NIMH convened meeting in 2016 with the purpose of bridging clinical autism research with basic and translational work in this area...
December 11, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226432/multi-functional-peptide-microrna-nanocomplex-for-targeted-microrna-delivery-and-function-imaging
#20
Xiao Xiao, Xingxing Wang, Yuqi Wang, Tianren Yu, Lei Huang, Lei Chen, Jinbo Li, Chenyu Zhang, Yan Zhang
Targeted delivery of microRNA (miRNA) mimics into specific cells/tissues and real-time monitoring on the biological function of delivered miRNA mimics at molecular level represent two major challenges in the development of miRNA-based therapeutics. Here we report a highly efficient method to address these two challenges simultaneously by using the self-assembled nanocomplex formed by miRNA mimics with a multi-functional peptide conjugate. Using the nanocomplex formed by tumor-suppressive miR-34a and the multi-functional peptide conjugate FA-R9-FPcas3, we demonstrated the highly efficient and target-selective delivery of miR-34a into HeLa cells and tumors...
December 10, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
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