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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820988/integrating-printed-microfluidics-with-silicon-photomultipliers-for-miniaturised-and-highly-sensitive-atp-bioluminescence-detection
#1
M F Santangelo, S Libertino, A P F Turner, D Filippini, W C Mak
Bioluminescence has been widely used for important biosensing applications such as the measurement of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the energy unit in biological systems and an indicator of vital processes. The current technology for detection is mainly based on large equipment such as readers and imaging systems, which require intensive and time-consuming procedures. A miniaturised bioluminescence sensing system, which would allow sensitive and continuous monitoring of ATP, with an integrated and low-cost disposable microfluidic chamber for handling of biological samples, is highly desirable...
July 27, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820976/a-hydrophobic-organelle-probe-based-on-aggregation-induced-emission-nanosuspension-preparation-and-direct-use-for-endoplasmic-reticulum-imaging-in-living-cells
#2
Sichao Zheng, Cuihong Huang, Xuyan Zhao, Yong Zhang, Shuwen Liu, Qiuhua Zhu
Organic fluorophores have a wide range of biological uses and are usually needed to be prepared as water-soluble compounds or nanoparticles for applications in aqueous biosystems owing to their hydrophobic properties, which often is a complex, time-consuming and high-cost process. Here, the nanoparticle preparation of hydrophobic fluorophores and their application in cell imaging have been investigated. It was found: a) fetal bovine serum (FBS) shows an excellent dispersion effect on hydrophobic small-molecule organic compounds; b) a hydrophobic C6-unsubstituted tetrahydropyrimidine (Me-THP-Naph) can be prepared as nanosuspensions utilizing cell culture medium with 10% FBS and directly be used as a specific real-time imaging probe for the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), a dynamic organelle playing a crucial role in many cellular processes...
August 8, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820941/a-photoactivatable-probe-for-super-resolution-imaging-of-enzymatic-activity-in-live-cells
#3
Elias A Halabi, Zacharias Thiel, Nils Trapp, Dorothea Pinotsi, Pablo Rivera-Fuentes
A dual-activatable, fluorogenic probe was developed to sense esterase activity with single-molecule resolution. Without enzymatic pre-activation, the diazoindanone-based probe has an electron poor core and, upon irradiation, undergoes Wolff rearrangement to give a ring-expanded xanthene core that is non-emissive. If the probe is pre-activated by carboxylesterases, the tricyclic core becomes electron-rich and the photoinduced Wolff rearrangement produces a highly emissive rhodol dye. Live-cell and solution studies confirmed the selectivity of the probe and revealed that the photoactivated dye does not diffuse away from the original location of activation because the intermediate ketene forms a covalent bond with surrounding macromolecules...
August 18, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820316/cell-cycle-related-metabolism-and-mitochondrial-dynamics-in-a-replication-competent-pancreatic-beta-cell-line
#4
Chiara Montemurro, Suryakiran Vadrevu, Tatyana Gurlo, Alexandra E Butler, Kenny E Vongbunyong, Anton Petcherski, Orian S Shirihai, Leslie S Satin, Daniel Braas, Peter C Butler, Slavica Tudzarova
Cell replication is a fundamental attribute of growth and repair in multicellular organisms. Pancreatic beta-cells in adults rarely enter cell cycle, hindering the capacity for regeneration in diabetes. Efforts to drive beta-cells into cell cycle have so far largely focused on regulatory molecules such as cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). Investigations in cancer biology have uncovered that adaptive changes in metabolism, the mitochondrial network, and cellular Ca(2+) are critical for permitting cells to progress through the cell cycle...
August 18, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819459/exosomes-derived-from-natural-killer-cells-exert-therapeutic-effect-in-melanoma
#5
Liya Zhu, Senthilkumar Kalimuthu, Prakash Gangadaran, Ji Min Oh, Ho Won Lee, Se Hwan Baek, Shin Young Jeong, Sang-Woo Lee, Jaetae Lee, Byeong-Cheol Ahn
Objective: Exosomes are nanovesicles that are released from normal and tumor cells and are detectable in cell culture supernatant and human biological fluids. Although previous studies have explored exosomes released from cancer cells, little is understood regarding the functions of exosomes released by normal cells. Natural killer (NK) cells display rapid immunity to metastatic or hematological malignancies, and efforts have been undertaken to clinically exploit the antitumor properties of NK cells. However, the characteristics and functions of exosomes derived from NK cells remain unknown...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818764/screening-of-biologically-important-zn-2-by-a-chemosensor-with-fluorescent-turn-on-off-mechanism
#6
Tanveer A Khan, Monika Sheoran, Venkata Nikhil Raj M, Surbhi Jain, Diksha Gupta, Sunil G Naik
Reported herein the synthesis, characterization and biologically important zinc ion binding propensity of a weakly fluorescent chemosensor, 4-methyl-2,6-bis((E)-(2-(4-phenylthiazol-2-yl)hydrazono)methyl)phenol (1). (1)H NMR spectroscopic titration experiment reveals the binding knack of 1 to the essential Zn(2+). The photo-physical studies of 1 exhibit an enhancement in the fluorescence by several folds upon binding with the zinc ions attributed to PET-off process, with a binding constant value of 5.22×10(3)M(-1)...
August 9, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818270/the-glass-ceiling-a-biological-phenomenon
#7
Tom W J Schulpen
Many brilliant and ambitious young women lose their drive for top careers after childbirth. New maternal impulses are at odds with their original ambitions and for many mothers stress and frustration will be the result as they have to combine child care with workweeks of 60-80h to reach or remain at the top. Pregnancy hormones modify the female's brain as has been demonstrated already for decades in animals. This brain plasticity due to adult neurogenesis in the so called maternal circuitry of the limbic system is long-lasting and perhaps lifelong...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817399/chemotherapy-for-oligometastatic-prostate-cancer
#8
Tanya B Dorff, Christopher J Sweeney
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To analyze recent trials of upfront chemotherapy to determine how this paradigm can be applied to oligometastatic prostate cancer patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Upfront chemotherapy prolongs survival in metastatic prostate cancer, according to the ChemoHormonal Therapy versus Androgen Ablation Randomized Trial for Extensive Disease in Prostate Cancer and STAMPEDE docetaxel trials. However, the benefit is driven by the high volume subset and may not apply to low-volume/oligometastatic patients...
August 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816674/advances-in-monte-carlo-simulation-for-light-propagation-in-tissue
#9
Vijitha Periyasamy, Manojit Pramanik
Monte Carlo (MC) simulation for light propagation in tissue is the gold standard for studying the light propagation in biological tissue and has been used for years. Interaction of photons with a medium is simulated based on its optical properties. New simulation geometries, tissue-light interaction methods, and recording techniques are designed recently. Applications, such as whole mouse body simulations for fluorescence imaging, eye model for blood vessel imaging, skin model for terahertz imaging, human head model for sinus imaging, have emerged...
August 14, 2017: IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816149/a-multi-institution-retrospective-analysis-of-cervix-intracavitary-brachytherapy-treatments-part-1-is-eqd2-good-enough-for-reporting-radiobiological-effects
#10
Emma C Fields, Rakhi Melvani, George Hajdok, David D'Souza, Bernard Jones, Kelly Stuhr, Quentin Diot, Christine M Fisher, Nitai Mukhopadhyay, Dorin Todor
PURPOSE: When brachytherapy doses are reported or added, biologically effective dose (BED) minimum dose covering 90% of the volume (D90) is used as if dose is delivered uniformly to the target. Unlike BED(D90), equivalent uniform BED (EUBED) and generalized biologically equivalent uniform dose (gBEUD) are quantities that integrate dose inhomogeneity. Here we compared BED(D90) and equivalent uniform BED (EUBED)/gBEUD in 3 settings: (1) 2 sites using tandem and ovoid (T&O) but different styles of implants; (2) 2 sites using different devices-T&O and tandem and ring (T&R)-and different styles; and (3) the same site using T&O and T&R with the same style...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815503/imaging-neural-architecture-in-brainbow-samples
#11
Douglas H Roossien, Dawen Cai
The fluorescent protein revolution has made the light microscope the most widely used tool for studying biological structure from the single-molecule to whole organism scales. However, traditional approaches are limited in their ability to resolve components in highly complex structures, such as the brain. In recent years, this limitation has been circumvented by the development of multicolor labeling methods, termed Brainbow. Brainbow tools rely on site-specific recombinases to make stochastic "choices" between different combinations of fluorescent proteins so that structures in close proximity to one another can be resolved based on their color profile...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815390/abnormal-relationships-between-local-and-global-brain-measures-in-subjects-at-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis-a-pilot-study
#12
Jun Konishi, Elisabetta C Del Re, Sylvain Bouix, Gabriëlla A M Blokland, Raquelle Mesholam-Gately, Kristen Woodberry, Margaret Niznikiewicz, Jill Goldstein, Yoshio Hirayasu, Tracey L Petryshen, Larry J Seidman, Martha E Shenton, Robert W McCarley
We examined whether abnormal volumes of several brain regions as well as their mutual associations that have been observed in patients with schizophrenia, are also present in individuals at clinical high-risk (CHR) for developing psychosis. 3T magnetic resonance imaging was acquired in 19 CHR and 20 age- and handedness-matched controls. Volumes were measured for the body and temporal horns of the lateral ventricles, hippocampus and amygdala as well as total brain, cortical gray matter, white matter, and subcortical gray matter volumes...
August 16, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815349/tumor-volume-doubling-time-as-a-dynamic-prognostic-marker-for-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#13
Jong Kwan Kim, Hyung-Don Kim, Mi-Jung Jun, Sung-Cheol Yun, Ju Hyun Shim, Han Chu Lee, Danbi Lee, Jihyun An, Young-Suk Lim, Young-Hwa Chung, Yung Sang Lee, Kang Mo Kim
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To evaluate the clinical value of tumor growth rate in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients, we investigated the growth rate of HCC by calculating the tumor volume doubling time (TVDT) and its impact on survival and recurrence. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of 269 HCC patients who underwent two or more pretreatment imaging studies of computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging was performed. Tumor growth rate and TVDT were calculated by comparing tumor volumes between imaging studies...
August 16, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815334/clinical-characteristics-of-patient-selection-and-imaging-predictors-of-outcome-in-solid-tumors-treated-with-checkpoint-inhibitors
#14
REVIEW
Sabrina Rossi, Luca Toschi, Angelo Castello, Fabio Grizzi, Luigi Mansi, Egesta Lopci
The rapidly evolving knowledge on tumor immunology and the continuous implementation of immunotherapy in cancer have recently led to the FDA and EMA approval of several checkpoint inhibitors as immunotherapic agents in clinical practice. Anti-CTLA-4, anti-PD-1, and anti-PDL-1 antibodies are becoming standard of care in advanced melanoma, as well as in relapsed or metastatic lung and kidney cancer, demonstrating higher and longer response compared to standard chemotherapy. These encouraging results have fostered the evaluation of these antibodies either alone or in combination with other therapies in several dozen clinical trials for the treatment of multiple tumor types...
August 16, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815194/focusing-light-inside-dynamic-scattering-media-with-millisecond-digital-optical-phase-conjugation
#15
Yan Liu, Cheng Ma, Yuecheng Shen, Junhui Shi, Lihong V Wang
Wavefront shaping based on digital optical phase conjugation (DOPC) focuses light through or inside scattering media, but the low speed of DOPC prevents it from being applied to thick, living biological tissue. Although a fast DOPC approach was recently developed, the reported single-shot wavefront measurement method does not work when the goal is to focus light inside, instead of through, highly scattering media. Here, using a ferroelectric liquid crystal based spatial light modulator, we develop a simpler but faster DOPC system that focuses light not only through, but also inside scattering media...
February 2017: Optica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815155/segmentation-of-phase-contrast-microscopy-images-based-on-multi-scale-local-basic-image-features-histograms
#16
N Jaccard, N Szita, L D Griffin
Phase contrast microscopy (PCM) is routinely used for the inspection of adherent cell cultures in all fields of biology and biomedicine. Key decisions for experimental protocols are often taken by an operator based on typically qualitative observations. However, automated processing and analysis of PCM images remain challenging due to the low contrast between foreground objects (cells) and background as well as various imaging artefacts. We propose a trainable pixel-wise segmentation approach whereby image structures and symmetries are encoded in the form of multi-scale Basic Image Features local histograms, and classification of them is learned by random decision trees...
September 3, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering. Imaging & Visualization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814802/relationship-between-necrotic-patterns-in-glioblastoma-and-patient-survival-fractal-dimension-and-lacunarity-analyses-using-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#17
Shuai Liu, Yinyan Wang, Kaibin Xu, Zheng Wang, Xing Fan, Chuanbao Zhang, Shaowu Li, Xiaoguang Qiu, Tao Jiang
Necrosis is a hallmark feature of glioblastoma (GBM). This study investigated the prognostic role of necrotic patterns in GBM using fractal dimension (FD) and lacunarity analyses of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data and evaluated the role of lacunarity in the biological processes leading to necrosis. We retrospectively reviewed clinical and MRI data of 95 patients with GBM. FD and lacunarity of the necrosis on MRI were calculated by fractal analysis and subjected to survival analysis. We also performed gene ontology analysis in 32 patients with available RNA-seq data...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814796/crispr-cas9-mediated-labelling-allows-for-single-molecule-imaging-and-resolution
#18
Abdullah O Khan, Victoria A Simms, Jeremy A Pike, Steven G Thomas, Neil V Morgan
Single molecule imaging approaches like dSTORM and PALM resolve structures at 10-20 nm, and allow for unique insights into protein stoichiometry and spatial relationships. However, key obstacles remain in developing highly accurate quantitative single molecule approaches. The genomic tagging of PALM fluorophores through CRISPR-Cas9 offers an excellent opportunity for generating stable cell lines expressing a defined single molecule probe at endogenous levels, without the biological disruption and variability inherent to transfection...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814732/dual-contrast-magnetic-resonance-fingerprinting-dc-mrf-a-platform-for-simultaneous-quantification-of-multiple-mri-contrast-agents
#19
Christian E Anderson, Shannon B Donnola, Yun Jiang, Joshua Batesole, Rebecca Darrah, Mitchell L Drumm, Susann M Brady-Kalnay, Nicole F Steinmetz, Xin Yu, Mark A Griswold, Chris A Flask
Injectable Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) contrast agents have been widely used to provide critical assessments of disease for both clinical and basic science imaging research studies. The scope of available MRI contrast agents has expanded over the years with the emergence of molecular imaging contrast agents specifically targeted to biological markers. Unfortunately, synergistic application of more than a single molecular contrast agent has been limited by MRI's ability to only dynamically measure a single agent at a time...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812332/live-cell-imaging-using-photoswitchable-diarylethene-doped-fluorescent-polymer-dots
#20
Yasuko Osakada, Tuyoshi Fukaminato, Yuma Ichinose, Mamoru Fujitsuka, Yoshie Harada, Tetsuro Majima
Fluorescence photoswitching using nanomaterials has recently emerged as a promising approach for the imaging of biological targets. However, despite intensive research efforts during the last decade, practical microscopy of biological targets using photoswitchable nanoparticles in real time remains challenging. To address this problem, we have developed live macrophage cell imaging and single particle imaging methods, using photoswitchable fluorescent diarylethene-doped polymer nanoparticles (P-dots) under Xe lamp irradiation...
August 15, 2017: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
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