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Biological imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029024/diversepathsj-diverse-shortest-paths-for-bioimage-analysis
#1
Virginie Uhlmann, Carsten Haubold, Fred A Hamprecht, Michael Unser
Motivation: We introduce a formulation for the general task of finding diverse shortest paths between two end-points. Our approach is not linked to a specific biological problem and can be applied to a large variety of images thanks to its generic implementation as a user-friendly ImageJ/Fiji plugin. It relies on the introduction of additional layers in a Viterbi path graph, which requires slight modifications to the standard Viterbi algorithm rules. This layered graph construction allows for the specification of various constraints imposing diversity between solutions...
September 27, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028905/quality-of-biological-images-reconstructed-using-localization-microscopy-data
#2
Blazej Ruszczycki, Tytus Bernas
Motivation: Fluorescence localization microscopy is extensively used to study the details of spatial architecture of subcellular compartments. This modality relies on determination of spatial positions of fluorophores, labeling an extended biological structure, with precision exceeding the diffraction limit. Several established models describe influence of pixel size, signal-to-noise ratio and optical resolution on the localization precision. The labeling density has been also recognized as important factor affecting reconstruction fidelity of the imaged biological structure...
September 25, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028609/daunorubicin-and-doxorubicin-molecular-interplay-with-2d-membrane-models
#3
Ana Catarina Alves, Cláudia Nunes, José Lima, Salette Reis
The anthracyclines daunorubicin and doxorubicin are widely used antineoplastic agents due to their therapeutic activity against a broad variety of human cancers. Although, the classical model to explain anthracyclines' cytotoxicity has been based in the direct interference with nucleic acid function, evidence suggests that the plasma membrane is also involved in the drug's mechanism of action. In this work, the interaction of these drugs with two-dimensional membrane models were studied in order to gain further insights at the molecular level regarding anthracyclines membrane interactions...
October 3, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028549/mta-promotes-chemotaxis-and-chemokinesis-of-immune-cells-through-distinct-calcium-sensing-receptor-signaling-pathways
#4
Fengjiao Chang, Jin Man Kim, Youngnim Choi, Kyungpyo Park
Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) has been introduced as a choice material for regenerative dentistry. To date, the diverse biological activities of MTA, including its anti-inflammatory effects, have been extensively discussed. However, there is limited insight into the link between MTA and immune cell migration. In this study, we report the role of MTA in enhancing both chemotactic and chemokinetic immune cell migration through distinct signaling pathways. By using versatile live imaging techniques, we demonstrated that MTA-mediated CaSR activation induced diverse downstream pathways to govern cell migratory capacity...
October 4, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028040/ex-vivo-validation-of-photo-magnetic-imaging
#5
Alex Luk, Farouk Nouizi, Hakan Erkol, Mehmet B Unlu, Gultekin Gulsen
We recently introduced a new high-resolution diffuse optical imaging technique termed photo-magnetic imaging (PMI), which utilizes magnetic resonance thermometry (MRT) to monitor the 3D temperature distribution induced in a medium illuminated with a near-infrared light. The spatiotemporal temperature distribution due to light absorption can be accurately estimated using a combined photon propagation and heat diffusion model. High-resolution optical absorption images are then obtained by iteratively minimizing the error between the measured and modeled temperature distributions...
October 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028007/endoscopic-optical-coherence-tomography-with-a-focus-adjustable-probe
#6
Wenchao Liao, Tianyuan Chen, Chengming Wang, Wenxin Zhang, Zhangkai Peng, Xiao Zhang, Shengnan Ai, Deyong Fu, Tieying Zhou, Ping Xue
We present a focus-adjustable endoscopic probe for optical coherence tomography (OCT), which is able to acquire images with different focal planes and overcome depth-of-focus limitations by image fusing. The use of a two-way shape-memory-alloy spring enables the probe to adjust working distance over 1.5 mm, providing a large scanning range with high resolution and no sensitivity loss. Equipped with a homemade hollow-core ultrasonic motor, the probe is capable of performing an unobstructed 360 deg field-of-view distal scanning...
October 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027978/feedback-system-control-optimized-electrospinning-for-fabrication-of-an-excellent-superhydrophobic-surface
#7
Jian Yang, Chuangui Liu, Boqian Wang, Xianting Ding
Superhydrophobic surface, as a promising micro/nano material, has tremendous applications in biological and artificial investigations. The electrohydrodynamics (EHD) technique is a versatile and effective method for fabricating micro- to nanoscale fibers and particles from a variety of materials. A combination of critical parameters, such as mass fraction, ratio of N, N-Dimethylformamide (DMF) to Tetrahydrofuran (THF), inner diameter of needle, feed rate, receiving distance, applied voltage as well as temperature, during electrospinning process, to determine the morphology of the electrospun membranes, which in turn determines the superhydrophobic property of the membrane...
October 13, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027345/a-strategy-for-specific-fluorescence-imaging-of-monoamine-oxidase-a-in-living-cells
#8
Huimin Ma, Xiaofeng Wu, Wen Shi, Xiaohua Li
Monoamine oxidase (MAO) has two isoforms, MAO-A and MAO-B, which show different functions and thus selective fluorescence imaging of which is important for biological studies. Currently, however, specific detection of MAO-A remains a great challenge. Herein, we report a new strategy for specific imaging of MAO-A via designing fluorescent probes by combining the characteristic structure of the enzymatic inhibitor with propylamine as a recognition moiety. The high specificity of our representative probe is demonstrated by imaging MAO-A in different live cells such as SH-SY5Y (high level of MAO-A) and HepG2 (high level of MAO-B), as further validated by both control probe and western blot analyses...
October 12, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026678/statistical-model-for-oct-image-denoising
#9
Muxingzi Li, Ramzi Idoughi, Biswarup Choudhury, Wolfgang Heidrich
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive technique with a large array of applications in clinical imaging and biological tissue visualization. However, the presence of speckle noise affects the analysis of OCT images and their diagnostic utility. In this article, we introduce a new OCT denoising algorithm. The proposed method is founded on a numerical optimization framework based on maximum-a-posteriori estimate of the noise-free OCT image. It combines a novel speckle noise model, derived from local statistics of empirical spectral domain OCT (SD-OCT) data, with a Huber variant of total variation regularization for edge preservation...
September 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026530/recent-advances-in-pericentriolar-material-organization-ordered-layers-and-scaffolding-gels
#10
REVIEW
Andrew M Fry, Josephina Sampson, Caroline Shak, Sue Shackleton
The centrosome is an unusual organelle that lacks a surrounding membrane, raising the question of what limits its size and shape. Moreover, while electron microscopy (EM) has provided a detailed view of centriole architecture, there has been limited understanding of how the second major component of centrosomes, the pericentriolar material (PCM), is organized. Here, we summarize exciting recent findings from super-resolution fluorescence imaging, structural biology, and biochemical reconstitution that together reveal the presence of ordered layers and complex gel-like scaffolds in the PCM...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026503/content-analysis-of-the-concept-of-addiction-in-high-school-textbooks-of-iran
#11
Mohammad Hasan Mirzamohammadi, Sayedeh Zainab Mousavi, Omid Massah, Ali Farhoudian
BACKGROUND: This research sought to determine how well the causes of addiction, addiction harms, and prevention of addiction have been noticed in high school textbooks. METHODS: We used descriptive method to select the main related components of the addiction concept and content analysis method for analyzing the content of textbooks. The study population comprised 61 secondary school curriculum textbooks and study sample consisted of 14 secondary school textbooks selected by purposeful sampling method...
January 2017: Addiction & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026204/engineering-and-physical-sciences-in-oncology-challenges-and-opportunities
#12
REVIEW
Michael J Mitchell, Rakesh K Jain, Robert Langer
The principles of engineering and physics have been applied to oncology for nearly 50 years. Engineers and physical scientists have made contributions to all aspects of cancer biology, from quantitative understanding of tumour growth and progression to improved detection and treatment of cancer. Many early efforts focused on experimental and computational modelling of drug distribution, cell cycle kinetics and tumour growth dynamics. In the past decade, we have witnessed exponential growth at the interface of engineering, physics and oncology that has been fuelled by advances in fields including materials science, microfabrication, nanomedicine, microfluidics, imaging, and catalysed by new programmes at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), including the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), Physical Sciences in Oncology, and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Alliance for Nanotechnology...
October 13, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026161/in-vivo-noninvasive-microscopy-of-human-leucocytes
#13
Matan M Winer, Adel Zeidan, Daniella Yeheskely-Hayon, Lior Golan, Limor Minai, Eldad J Dann, Dvir Yelin
Leucocytes play a key role in our immune system, protecting the body against infections using a wide range of biological mechanisms. Effective imaging and identification of leucocytes within the blood stream in patients is challenging, however, because of their low volume fraction in the blood, the high tissue scattering and the rapid blood flow. Spectrally encoded flow cytometry (SEFC) has recently been demonstrated effective for label-free high-resolution in vivo imaging of blood cells using an optical probe that does not require mechanical scanning...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026099/subcortical-facilitation-of-behavioral-responses-to-threat
#14
Mark D Vida, Marlene Behrmann
Behavioral responses to threat are critical to survival. Several cortical and subcortical brain regions respond selectively to threat. However, the relation of these neural responses and their underlying representations to behavior is unclear. We examined the contribution of lower-order subcortical representations to behavioral responses to threat in adult humans. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants viewed pairs of images presented to the same eye or to different eyes. We observed a monocular advantage, which indicates subcortical facilitation, for ancestral threats (snakes, spiders), but not for modern threats, positive images, or neutral images...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025988/advanced-methods-for-radiolabelling-nanomedicines-for-multi-modality-nuclear-mr-imaging
#15
Jennifer R Lamb, Jason P Holland
The advent of hybrid cameras that combine magnetic resonance imaging with either single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT/MRI) or positron-emission tomography (PET/MRI) has stimulated growing interest in developing multi-modality imaging probes. Countless options are available for fusing magnetically active species with positron- or gamma-ray emitting radionuclides. The initial problem is one of choice: which chemical systems are a suitable basis for developing hybrid imaging agents? Any attempt to answer this question must also address how the physical, chemical, and biological properties of a unified imaging agent can be tailored to ensure that optimum specificity and contrast is achieved simultaneously for both imaging modalities...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025984/synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-a-novel-18-f-labeled-adnectin-as-a-pet-radioligand-for-imaging-pd-l1-expression
#16
David J Donnelly, Ralph Adam Smith, Paul Morin, Dasa Lipovsek, Jochem Gokemeijer, Daniel Cohen, Virginie Lafont, Tritin Tran, Erin Lee Cole, Martin Wright, Joonyoung Kim, Adrienne Pena, Daniel Kukral, Douglas D Dischino, Patrick Chow, Jinping Gan, Olufemi Adelakun, Xi-Tao Wang, Kai Cao, David Lueng, Samuel Bonacorsi, Wendy Hayes
The programmed death protein (PD-1) and its ligand (PD-L1) play critical roles in a checkpoint pathway cancer cells exploit to evade the immune system. A same-day PET imaging agent for measuring PD-L1 status in primary and metastatic lesions could be important for optimizing drug therapy. Herein, we have evaluated the tumor targeting of an anti-PD-L1 Adnectin after (18)F-fluorine labeling. Methods: An anti-PD-L1 Adnectin was labeled with (18)F in two steps. This synthesis featured fluorination of a novel prosthetic group, followed by a copper-free click conjugation to a modified Adnectin to generate (18)F-BMS-986192...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025649/room-temperature-preparation-of-fluorescent-starch-nanoparticles-from-starch-dopamine-conjugates-and-their-biological-applications
#17
Yingge Shi, Dazhuang Xu, Meiying Liu, Lihua Fu, Qing Wan, Liucheng Mao, Yanfeng Dai, Yuanqing Wen, Xiaoyong Zhang, Yen Wei
Fluorescent organic nanoparticles (FONs) have been regarded as the promising candidates for biomedical applications owing to their well adjustment of chemical structure and optical properties and good biological properties. However, the preparation of FONs from the natural derived polymers has been rarely reported thus far. In current work, we reported a novel strategy for preparation of FONs based on the self-polymerization of starch-dopamine conjugates and polyethyleneimine in rather mild experimental conditions, including air atmosphere, aqueous solution, absent catalysts and at room temperature...
January 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025377/18f-fdg-pet-ct-in-breast-cancer-evidence-based-recommendations-in-initial-staging
#18
Ana Paula Caresia Aroztegui, Ana María García Vicente, Soledad Alvarez Ruiz, Roberto Carlos Delgado Bolton, Javier Orcajo Rincon, Jose Ramon Garcia Garzon, Maria de Arcocha Torres, Maria Jose Garcia-Velloso
Current guidelines do not systematically recommend 18F-FDG PET/CT for breast cancer staging; and the recommendations and level of evidence supporting its use in different groups of patients vary among guidelines. This review summarizes the evidence about the role of 18F-FDG PET/CT in breast cancer staging and the therapeutic and prognostic impact accumulated in the last decade. Other related aspects, such as the association of metabolic information with biology and prognosis are considered and evidence-based recommendations for the use of 18F-FDG PET/CT in breast cancer staging are offered...
October 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024920/chitosan-hydroxyapatite-ha-hydroxypropylmethyl-cellulose-hpmc-spongy-scaffolds-synthesis-and-evaluation-as-potential-alveolar-bone-substitutes
#19
Haffsah Iqbal, Moazzam Ali, Rabia Zeeshan, Zeeshan Mutahir, Farasat Iqbal, Muhammad Azhar Hayat Nawaz, Lubna Shahzadi, Aqif Anwar Chaudhry, Muhammad Yar, Shifang Luan, Ather Farooq Khan, Ihtesham-Ur Rehman
Alveolar bone loss is associated with infections and its augmentation is a pre-requisite for the success of dental implants. In present study, we aim to develop and evaluate novel freeze dried doxycycline loaded chitosan (CS)/hydroxyapatite (HA) spongy scaffolds where hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) was added as a crosslinker. Scaffolds displayed compressive strength of 14MPa/cm(3) and 0.34 as elastic response. The interconnected pore diameter was 41-273μm, favorably provided the template supporting cells and transport...
October 4, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024737/pseudomyxoma-peritonei-arising-from-urachal-mucinous-adenocarcinoma
#20
Panagiotis Dimopoulos, Spyridon Kampantais, Simon Payne, Sidath Liyanage
Pseudomyxoma peritonei is a rare clinical condition which can arise from various primary tumors with different biological behaviour. An intraperitoneal spread of mucus is the characteristic of the disease. Here we provide images from a rare entity, a pseudomyxoma peritonei arising from urachal mucinous adenocarcinoma. If clinical suspicion is high, the preoperative imaging could be almost pathognomonic of the disease.
October 9, 2017: Urology
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