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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340334/advances-in-phase-plate-cryo-em-imaging-of-dna-and-nucleosomes
#1
Eugene Y D Chua, Sara Sandin
Contrast in electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) is limited by the weak phase and radiation sensitive nature of biologic samples embedded in vitrified ice. We have recently shown that a new contrast enhancement technique utilizing the Volta phase plate can be combined with single particle analysis to determine the structure of a small chromatin complex, the nucleosome core particle, at near-atomic resolution. Here, we discuss advantages and limitations of the technique in terms of data collection, particle detection, and visualization of individual DNA molecules and higher-order chromatin structure...
February 7, 2017: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339791/bridg-a-domain-information-model-for-translational-and-clinical-protocol-driven-research
#2
Lauren B Becnel, Smita Hastak, Wendy Ver Hoef, Robert P Milius, MaryAnn Slack, Diane Wold, Michael L Glickman, Boris Brodsky, Charles Jaffe, Rebecca Kush, Edward Helton
Background: It is critical to integrate and analyze data from biological, translational, and clinical studies with data from health systems; however, electronic artifacts are stored in thousands of disparate systems that are often unable to readily exchange data. Objective: To facilitate meaningful data exchange, a model that presents a common understanding of biomedical research concepts and their relationships with health care semantics is required. The Biomedical Research Integrated Domain Group (BRIDG) domain information model fulfills this need...
February 26, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339603/optimization-of-stem-imaging-conditions-for-cryo-tomography
#3
Kazuhiro Aoyama, Kotaro Nagano, Kaoru Mitsuoka
For three-dimensional analysis of cryo-specimens using tomography at low and medium magnifications, the use of STEM images has some important advantages over TEM. A clear understanding of the electron dose in STEM is essential for optimized cryo-microscopy so a dose estimation technique for STEM imaging has been developed. The STEM convergence angle was shown to have a large impact on the image quality, in particular on the signal-to-noise ratio in the acquired images. Importantly, there is a clear trade-off between good STEM spatial resolution in the images with a large convergence angle and the signal-to-noise ratio, which is improved by reducing the convergence angle as much as possible...
February 9, 2017: Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339422/diffusion-kurtosis-imaging-for-diagnosis-of-parkinson-s-disease-a-novel-software-tool-proposal
#4
Cruz Gloria, Sheng Dong Nie
In order to diagnose Parkinson disease (PD) at an early stage, it is important to develop a sensitive method for detecting structural changes in the substantia nigra (SN). Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have become important tools in supporting diagnosis of PD, with findings based on increased apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) in basal ganglia and decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) in SN. Based on the hypothesis that a diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) theory is a valuable method for PD diagnosis based on the non-Gaussian diffusion of water in biologic systems, the purpose of this study is to develop an image processing scheme (software) based on Image-J for the facilitating the application of DKI to assist PD diagnosis...
March 21, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339185/red-emission-b-n-s-co-doped-carbon-dots-for-colorimetric-and-fluorescent-dual-mode-detection-of-fe3-ions-in-complex-biological-fluids-and-living-cells
#5
Yinghua Liu, Wenxiu Duan, Wei Song, Juanjuan Liu, Cuiling Ren, Jiang Wu, Dan Liu, Hongli Chen
Colorimetric and fluorescent dual mode detection methods have gained much attention in recent years, however, it is still desirable to develop new colorimetric and fluorescent dual mode nanosensors with more simple preparation procedure, low cost and excellent biocompatibility. Herein, a colorimetric and fluorescent nanosensor based on B, N, S-co-doped carbon dots (BNS-CDs) were synthesized by one-step hydrothermal treatment of 2, 5-diaminobenzenesulfonic acid and 4-aminophenylboronic acid hydrochloride. Using this nanosensor, a highly sensitive assay of Fe3+ in the range of 0...
March 24, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338751/reduced-thickness-of-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-individuals-with-an-at-risk-mental-state-who-later-develop-psychosis
#6
Yoichiro Takayanagi, Sue Kulason, Daiki Sasabayashi, Tsutomu Takahashi, Naoyuki Katagiri, Atsushi Sakuma, Chika Obara, Mihoko Nakamura, Mikio Kido, Atsushi Furuichi, Yumiko Nishikawa, Kyo Noguchi, Kazunori Matsumoto, Masafumi Mizuno, J Tilak Ratnanather, Michio Suzuki
BACKGROUND: Despite the fact that only a part of the individuals with at-risk mental state (ARMS) for psychosis do develop psychosis, biological markers of future transition to psychosis have not been well documented. Structural abnormality of the anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG), which probably exists prior to the onset of psychosis, could be such a risk marker. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study of 3 scanning sites in Japan...
January 30, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338443/fluorescent-labeling-of-collagen-production-by-cells-for-noninvasive-imaging-of-extracellular-matrix-deposition
#7
Katie Bardsley, Ying Yang, Alicia J El Haj
Extracellular matrix (ECM) is an essential component of tissues and provides both integrity and biological cues for cells. Collagen is one of the major proteins found within the ECM and therefore is an essential component of all engineered tissues. Therefore, in this article, we present a method for the online real-time monitoring of collagen deposition in three-dimensional engineered constructs. This method revolves around modification of collagen through the addition of azide-L-proline to cell culture media...
March 24, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338086/halo-free-phase-contrast-microscopy
#8
Tan H Nguyen, Mikhail Kandel, Haadi M Shakir, Catherine Best-Popescu, Jyothi Arikkath, Minh N Do, Gabriel Popescu
We present a new approach for retrieving halo-free phase contrast microscopy (hfPC) images by upgrading the conventional PC microscope with an external interferometric module, which generates sufficient data for reversing the halo artifact. Acquiring four independent intensity images, our approach first measures haloed phase maps of the sample. We solve for the halo-free sample transmission function by using a physical model of the image formation under partial spatial coherence. Using this halo-free sample transmission, we can numerically generate artifact-free PC images...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338043/redshifted-cherenkov-radiation-for-in-vivo-imaging-coupling-cherenkov-radiation-energy-transfer-to-multiple-f%C3%A3-rster-resonance-energy-transfers
#9
Yann Bernhard, Bertrand Collin, Richard A Decréau
Cherenkov Radiation (CR), this blue glow seen in nuclear reactors, is an optical light originating from energetic β-emitter radionuclides. CR emitter (90)Y triggers a cascade of energy transfers in the presence of a mixed population of fluorophores (which each other match their respective absorption and emission maxima): Cherenkov Radiation Energy Transfer (CRET) first, followed by multiple Förster Resonance Energy transfers (FRET): CRET ratios were calculated to give a rough estimate of the transfer efficiency...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337702/synthesis-and-characterization-of-surface-modified-fluorescent-and-biocompatible-zns-nanoparticles-with-a-hydrophobic-chitosan-derivative
#10
B Jothimani, S Sureshkumar, B Venkatachalapathy
The introduction of a hydrophobic moiety on chitosan enhances the self-assembling properties, mucoadhesion, the permeability of the macromolecule and aids in target specific delivery. Our group synthesized a hydrophobic trans N-(6,6-Dimethyl-2-hepten-4-ynyl)chitosan derivative (CSD) and studied the surface modification of ZnS nanoparticles in a single pot reaction. X-ray diffraction studies and FESEM imaging confirms the nano size and morphology of the surface modified Zinc sulfide nanoparticles (ZnS-CSD NPs)...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Fluorescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337499/organic-nanostructure-based-probes-for-two-photon-imaging-of-mitochondria-and-microbes-with-emission-between-430-nm-and-640-nm
#11
Xinglong Yang, Nuoxin Wang, Lingmin Zhang, Luru Dai, Huawu Shao, Xingyu Jiang
Multi-photon excitation and versatile fluorescent probes are in high need for biological imaging, since one probe can satisfy many needs as a biosensor. Herein we synthesize a series of two-photon excited probes based on tetraphenylethene (TPE) structures (TPE-Acr, TPE-Py, and TPE-Quino), which can image both mammalian cells and bacteria based on aggregation-induced emission (AIE) without washing them. Because of cationic moieties, the fluorescent molecules can aggregate into nanoscale fluorescent organic nanoscale dots to image mitochondria and bacteria with tunable emissions using both one-photon and two-photon excitation...
March 24, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337322/platinum-ii-ring-fused-chlorins-as-near-infrared-emitting-oxygen-sensors-and-photodynamic-agents
#12
Nelson A M Pereira, Mafalda Laranjo, João Casalta-Lopes, Arménio C Serra, Marta Piñeiro, João Pina, J Sérgio Seixas de Melo, Mathias O Senge, M Filomena Botelho, Liliana Martelo, Hugh D Burrows, Teresa M V D Pinho E Melo
Novel near-infrared luminescent compounds based on platinum(II) 4,5,6,7-tetrahydropyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine-fused chlorins are described. These compounds have high photostability and display light emission, in particular simultaneous fluorescence and phosphorescence emission in solution at room temperature, in the biologically relevant 700-850 nm red and near-infrared (NIR) spectral region, making them excellent materials for biological imaging. The simultaneous presence of fluorescence and phosphorescence emission at room temperature, with the phosphorescence strongly quenched by oxygen whereas fluorescence remains unaffected, allows these compounds to be used as ratiometric oxygen sensors in chemical and biological media...
March 9, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337318/development-of-18-f-maleimide-based-glycogen-synthase-kinase-3%C3%AE-ligands-for-positron-emission-tomography-imaging
#13
Kongzhen Hu, Debasis Patnaik, Thomas Lee Collier, Katarzyna N Lee, Han Gao, Matthew R Swoyer, Benjamin H Rotstein, Hema S Krishnan, Steven H Liang, Jin Wang, Zhiqiang Yan, Jacob M Hooker, Neil Vasdev, Stephen J Haggarty, Ming-Yu Ngai
Dysregulation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) is implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. Thus, development of GSK-3β radiotracers for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is of paramount importance, because such a noninvasive imaging technique would allow better understanding of the link between the activity of GSK-3β and central nervous system disorders in living organisms, and it would enable early detection of the enzyme's aberrant activity. Herein, we report the synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of fluorine-substituted maleimide derivatives that are high-affinity GSK-3β inhibitors...
March 9, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336911/2d-hybrid-analysis-approach-for-building-three-dimensional-atomic-model-by-electron-microscopy-image-matching
#14
Atsushi Matsumoto, Naoyuki Miyazaki, Junichi Takagi, Kenji Iwasaki
In this study, we develop an approach termed "2D hybrid analysis" for building atomic models by image matching from electron microscopy (EM) images of biological molecules. The key advantage is that it is applicable to flexible molecules, which are difficult to analyze by 3DEM approach. In the proposed approach, first, a lot of atomic models with different conformations are built by computer simulation. Then, simulated EM images are built from each atomic model. Finally, they are compared with the experimental EM image...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336905/a-nanostructured-matrices-assessment-to-study-drug-distribution-in-solid-tumor-tissues-by-mass-spectrometry-imaging
#15
Silvia Giordano, Valentina Pifferi, Lavinia Morosi, Melinda Morelli, Luigi Falciola, Giuseppe Cappelletti, Sonja Visentin, Simonetta A Licandro, Roberta Frapolli, Massimo Zucchetti, Roberta Pastorelli, Laura Brunelli, Maurizio D'Incalci, Enrico Davoli
The imaging of drugs inside tissues is pivotal in oncology to assess whether a drug reaches all cells in an adequate enough concentration to eradicate the tumor. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging (MALDI-MSI) is one of the most promising imaging techniques that enables the simultaneous visualization of multiple compounds inside tissues. The choice of a suitable matrix constitutes a critical aspect during the development of a MALDI-MSI protocol since the matrix ionization efficiency changes depending on the analyte structure and its physico-chemical properties...
March 21, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336903/melanin-associated-synthesis-of-sers-active-nanostructures-and-the-application-for-monitoring-of-intracellular-melanogenesis
#16
Haixin Dong, Zhiming Liu, Huiqing Zhong, Hui Yang, Yan Zhou, Yuqing Hou, Jia Long, Jin Lin, Zhouyi Guo
Melanin plays an indispensable role in the human body. It serves as a biological reducer for the green synthesis of precious metal nanoparticles. Melanin-Ag nanocomposites were successfully produced which exhibited very strong surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect because of the reducibility property of melanin. A melanin-Ag composite structure was synthesized in situ in melanin cells, and SERS technique was performed for the rapid imaging and quantitative assay of intracellular melanin. This imaging technique was also used to successfully trace the formation and secretion of intracellular melanin after stimulation with melanin-stimulating hormones...
March 20, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336771/dimerization-in-lbd16-and-lbd18-transcription-factors-is-critical-for-lateral-root-formation
#17
Han Woo Lee, Na Young Kang, Shashank Pandey, Chuloh Cho, Sung Haeng Lee, Jungmook Kim
LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES (LOB) DOMAIN (LBD)/ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2-LIKE (ASL)s (hereafter referred to as LBD) are plant-specific transcription factors that play important roles in a plethora of plant growth and development. The leucine-zipper-like coiled-coil motif in the LOB domain of the class I LBD proteins has been proposed to mediate protein dimerization, but it has not been experimentally assessed yet. LBD16 and LBD18 have been well characterized to play important roles in lateral root development in Arabidopsis...
March 23, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336071/sensitive-protein-detection-and-quantification-in-paper-based-microfluidics-for-the-point-of-care
#18
Caitlin E Anderson, Kamal G Shah, Paul Yager
The design of appropriate diagnostic assays for the point of care requires development of suitable biosensors, detection methods, and diagnostic platforms for sensitive, quantitative detection of biological analytes. Protein targets in particular are especially challenging to detect quantitatively and sensitively due to the lack of amplification strategies akin to nucleic acid amplification. However, recent advances in transducer and biosensor design, new detection labels, and paper-based microfluidics may realize the goal of sensitive, fast, portable, and low-cost protein detection...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336067/measuring-and-imaging-metal-ions-with-fluorescence-based-biosensors-speciation-selectivity-kinetics-and-other-issues
#19
Richard B Thompson, Carol A Fierke
Fluorescence-based biosensors have shown themselves to be a powerful tool for the study of a variety of chemical species in biological systems, notably including metal ions. This chapter provides an overview of several important issues in using such sensors to study metallobiochemistry. These issues include selectivity for the analyte over potential interferents, including those that do not themselves induce a signal, the different forms in which metal ions are found (speciation), the utility of metal ion buffers, and the importance of kinetics in studying metal ion binding reactions...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335858/netting-novel-regulators-of-hematopoiesis-and-hematologic-malignancies-in-zebrafish
#20
Wanda Kwan, Trista E North
Zebrafish are one of the preeminent model systems for the study of blood development (hematopoiesis), hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) biology, and hematopathology. The zebrafish hematopoietic system shares strong similarities in functional populations, genetic regulators, and niche interactions with its mammalian counterparts. These evolutionarily conserved characteristics, together with emerging technologies in live imaging, compound screening, and genetic manipulation, have been employed to successfully identify and interrogate novel regulatory mechanisms and molecular pathways that guide hematopoiesis...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
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