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Biological imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091604/polyglucose-nanoparticles-with-renal-elimination-and-macrophage-avidity-facilitate-pet-imaging-in-ischaemic-heart-disease
#1
Edmund J Keliher, Yu-Xiang Ye, Gregory R Wojtkiewicz, Aaron D Aguirre, Benoit Tricot, Max L Senders, Hannah Groenen, Francois Fay, Carlos Perez-Medina, Claudia Calcagno, Giuseppe Carlucci, Thomas Reiner, Yuan Sun, Gabriel Courties, Yoshiko Iwamoto, Hye-Yeong Kim, Cuihua Wang, John W Chen, Filip K Swirski, Hsiao-Ying Wey, Jacob Hooker, Zahi A Fayad, Willem J M Mulder, Ralph Weissleder, Matthias Nahrendorf
Tissue macrophage numbers vary during health versus disease. Abundant inflammatory macrophages destruct tissues, leading to atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction and heart failure. Emerging therapeutic options create interest in monitoring macrophages in patients. Here we describe positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with (18)F-Macroflor, a modified polyglucose nanoparticle with high avidity for macrophages. Due to its small size, Macroflor is excreted renally, a prerequisite for imaging with the isotope flourine-18...
January 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090246/bayesian-covariate-selection-in-mixed-effects-models-for-longitudinal-shape-analysis
#2
Prasanna Muralidharan, James Fishbaugh, Eun Young Kim, Hans J Johnson, Jane S Paulsen, Guido Gerig, P Thomas Fletcher
The goal of longitudinal shape analysis is to understand how anatomical shape changes over time, in response to biological processes, including growth, aging, or disease. In many imaging studies, it is also critical to understand how these shape changes are affected by other factors, such as sex, disease diagnosis, IQ, etc. Current approaches to longitudinal shape analysis have focused on modeling age-related shape changes, but have not included the ability to handle covariates. In this paper, we present a novel Bayesian mixed-effects shape model that incorporates simultaneous relationships between longitudinal shape data and multiple predictors or covariates to the model...
April 2016: Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging: from Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089349/development-of-new-ptk7-targeting-aptamer-fluorescent-and-radiolabelled-probes-for-evaluation-as-molecular-imaging-agents-lymphoma-and-melanoma-in-vivo-proof-of-concept
#3
Victoria Calzada, María Moreno, Jessica Newton, Joel González, Marcelo Fernández, Juan Pablo Gambini, Manuel Ibarra, Alejandro Chabalgoity, Susan Deutscher, Thomas Quinn, Pablo Cabral, Hugo Cerecetto
Aptamers are single-stranded oligonucleotides that recognize molecular targets with high affinity and specificity. Aptamer that selectively bind to the protein tyrosine kinase-7 (PTK7) receptor, overexpressed on many cancers, has been labelled as probes for molecular imaging of cancer. Two new PTK7-targeting aptamer probes were developed by coupling frameworks from the fluorescent dye AlexaFluor647 or the 6-hydrazinonicotinamide (HYNIC) chelator-labelled to (99m)Tc. The derivatizations via a 5'-aminohexyl terminal linker were done at room temperature and under mild buffer conditions...
December 24, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088861/ultrasensitive-label-free-nanosensing-and-high-speed-tracking-of-single-proteins
#4
Matz Liebel, James T Hugall, Niek F van Hulst
Label-free detection, analysis and rapid tracking of nanoparticles is crucial for future ultrasensitive sensing applications, ranging from understanding of biological interactions to the study of size dependent classical-quantum transitions. Yet optical techniques to distinguish nanoparticles directly amongst their background remain challenging. Here we present amplified interferometric scattering microscopy (a-iSCAT) as a new all-optical method capable of detecting individual nanoparticles as small as 15 kDa proteins which is equivalent to half a GFP...
January 16, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088625/absence-of-dj-1-causes-age-related-retinal-abnormalities-in-association-with-increased-oxidative-stress
#5
Vera L Bonilha, Brent A Bell, Mary E Rayborn, Ivy S Samuels, Anna King, Joe G Hollyfield, Chengsong Xie, Huaibin Cai
Oxidative stress alters physiological function in most biological tissues and can lead to cell death. In the retina, oxidative stress initiates a cascade of events leading to focal loss of RPE and photoreceptors, which is thought to be a major contributing factor to geographic atrophy. Despite these implications, the molecular regulation of RPE oxidative stress under normal and pathological conditions remains largely unknown. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved in regulating RPE and photoreceptors oxidative stress response is greatly needed...
January 11, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088445/synthesis-and-exploration-of-novel-radiolabeled-bombesin-peptides-for-targeting-receptor-positive-tumor
#6
Kakali De, Indranil Banerjee, Samarendu Sinha, Shantanu Ganguly
Increasing evidence of peptide receptor overexpression in various cancer cells, warrant the development of receptor specific radiolabeled peptides for molecular imaging and therapy in nuclear medicine. Gastrin-releasing-peptide (GRP) receptor, are overexpressed in a variety of human cancer cells. The present study report the synthesis and biological evaluation of new bombesin (BBN) analogs, HYNIC-Asp-[Phe(13)]BBN(7-13)-NH-CH2-CH2-CH3:BA1, HYNIC-Pro-[Tyr(13)Met(14)]BBN(7-14)NH2:BA2 as prospective tumor imaging agent with compare to BBN(7-14)NH2:BS as standard...
January 11, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088285/plasmon-enhanced-fluorescence-imaging-with-silicon-based-silver-chips-for-protein-and-nucleic-acid-assay
#7
Bing Yuan, Xiangxu Jiang, Chu Yao, Meimei Bao, Jiaojiao Liu, Yujiang Dou, Yinze Xu, Yao He, Kai Yang, Yuqiang Ma
Metal-enhanced fluorescence shows great potential for improving the sensitivity of fluoroscopy, which has been widely used in protein and nucleic acid detection for biosensor and bioassay applications. In comparison with the traditional glass-supported metal nanoparticles (MNPs), the introduction of a silicon substrate has been shown to provide an increased surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect due to the coupling between the MNPs and the semiconducting silicon substrate. In this work, we further study the fluorescence-enhanced effect of the silicon-supported silver-island (Ag@Si) plasmonic chips...
February 22, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088216/immunohistochemical-features-of-giant-cell-ependymoma-of-the-filum-terminale-with-unusual-clinical-and-radiological-presentation
#8
Fernando Candanedo-Gonzalez, Cindy Sharon Ortiz-Arce, Samuel Rosales-Perez, Ana Lilia Remirez-Castellanos, Candelaria Cordova-Uscanga, Armando Gamboa-Dominguez
BACKGROUND: Giant cell ependymoma of the filum terminale is a rare variant, generally manifested as a well-circunscribed intradural mass with an indolent biological behavior. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe the case of a 48-year-old Mexican female who non-relevant past medical history, that developed a GCE of the filum terminale. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography revealed the presence of an intra-axial tumor extending from L3 to L5 with extra-medullary invasion...
January 14, 2017: Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088110/highly-sensitive-detection-of-cysteine-over-glutathione-and-homo-cysteine-new-insight-into-the-michael-addition-of-mercapto-group-to-maleimide
#9
Zhaoyang Chen, Qian Sun, Yuhua Yao, Xiaoxiang Fan, Weibing Zhang, Junhong Qian
A fluorescence "off-on" probe CMP for thiols was designed with coumarin as the fluorophore and maleimide as the receptor. The fluorescence of the coumarin was quenched through photoinduced electron transfer (PET) from the fluorophore to maleimide group. The Michael addition of the mercapto group toward maleimide formed a thioether with relatively weak fluorescence. The intramolecular nucleophilic substitution of amino group in cysteine (Cys) to alkylthio produced a much stronger fluorescent amino adduct, which was supported by UPLC-MS and NMR titration...
January 7, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087942/the-mutualistic-interaction-between-plants-and-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi
#10
Luisa Lanfranco, Paola Bonfante, Andrea Genre
Mycorrhizal fungi belong to several taxa and develop mutualistic symbiotic associations with over 90% of all plant species, from liverworts to angiosperms. While descriptive approaches have dominated the initial studies of these fascinating symbioses, the advent of molecular biology, live cell imaging, and "omics" techniques have provided new and powerful tools to decipher the cellular and molecular mechanisms that rule mutualistic plant-fungus interactions. In this article we focus on the most common mycorrhizal association, arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM), which is formed by a group of soil fungi belonging to Glomeromycota...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087691/imaging-proteins-at-the-single-molecule-level
#11
Jean-Nicolas Longchamp, Stephan Rauschenbach, Sabine Abb, Conrad Escher, Tatiana Latychevskaia, Klaus Kern, Hans-Werner Fink
Imaging single proteins has been a long-standing ambition for advancing various fields in natural science, as for instance structural biology, biophysics, and molecular nanotechnology. In particular, revealing the distinct conformations of an individual protein is of utmost importance. Here, we show the imaging of individual proteins and protein complexes by low-energy electron holography. Samples of individual proteins and protein complexes on ultraclean freestanding graphene were prepared by soft-landing electrospray ion beam deposition, which allows chemical- and conformational-specific selection and gentle deposition...
January 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087213/cholesterolomics-an-update
#12
William J Griffiths, Jonas Abdel-Khalik, Eylan Yutuc, Alwena H Morgan, Ian Gilmore, Thomas Hearn, Yuqin Wang
Cholesterolomics can be regarded as the identification and quantification of cholesterol, its precursors post squalene, and metabolites of cholesterol and of its precursors, in a biological sample. These molecules include 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, steroid hormones and bile acids and intermediates in their respective biosynthetic pathways. In this short article we will concentrate our attention on intermediates in bile acid biosynthesis pathways, in particular oxysterols and cholestenoic acids. These molecular classes are implicated in the aetiology of a diverse array of diseases including autoimmune disease, Parkinson's disease, motor neuron disease, breast cancer, the lysosomal storage disease Niemann-Pick type C and the autosomal recessive disorder Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome...
January 10, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087126/cardiac-lymphatics-a-new-avenue-for-therapeutics
#13
REVIEW
Taina Vuorio, Annakaisa Tirronen, Seppo Ylä-Herttuala
Recent progress in lymphatic vessel biology and in novel imaging techniques has established the importance of the lymphatic vasculature as part of the cardiovascular system. The lymphatic vessel network regulates many physiological processes important for heart function such as fluid balance, transport of extravasated proteins, and trafficking of immune cells. Therefore, lymphangiogenic therapy could be beneficial in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, for example by improving reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) from atherosclerotic lesions or by resolving edema and fibrosis after myocardial infarction...
January 10, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081110/light-sheet-microscopy-in-a-glass-capillary-feedback-holographic-control-for-illumination-beam-correction
#14
Tobias Meinert, Benjamin Alexander Gutwein, Alexander Rohrbach
Light-sheet microscopy enables fast 3D, high-contrast imaging in biology and colloidal sciences. Recently, the controlled transport of living embryos or small colloids through stable glass capillaries is manifold interesting. Although they hardly impair the sample, glass capillaries spoil the image by generating significant aberrations of the illumination and detection light. Here, we analyze the deflection of illuminating Bessel beams at the capillary by k-spectral shifting, and correct for it by a beam deflector...
January 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080023/microbial-nanoscopy-breakthroughs-challenges-and-opportunities
#15
Yves F Dufrêne
Studying the structure, properties, and interactions of microbial cells is key to understanding the functions of the microbiome. Recent advances in nanotechnology have offered new tools to probe microbes at the single-molecule and single-cell levels. In this issue of ACS Nano, Kumar et al. present an atomic force microscopy method that is capable of imaging the nanoscale organization of bacterial proteins in native, curved membranes. This study represents an important step forward in the development of nanoscopy techniques for analyzing biological systems with large curvature and vertical dimensions, such as membrane vesicles and bacterial cells...
January 12, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079916/adolescent-shin-pain
#16
Jeremy Korsh, Douglas Matijakovich, Charles Gatt
Shin pain is a common complaint in adolescent athletes. The term "shin splints" has historically been applied to these patients. Shin splints, more often than not, refers to a stress reaction of the tibia from overuse. Overuse injuries occur when repetitive microtrauma to the bone exceeds the biologic healing potential. Diagnosis is based on typical history and physical examination findings. Plain radiographs and advanced imaging are rarely necessary but can provide valuable prognostic information. Treatment consists of adequate rest and exercise modification...
January 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079715/from-k-space-to-nucleotide-insights-into-the-radiogenomics-of-brain-tumors
#17
Nabil Elshafeey, Islam Hassan, Pascal O Zinn, Rivka R Colen
Radiogenomics is a relatively new and exciting field within radiology that links different imaging features with diverse genomic events. Genomics advances provided by the Cancer Genome Atlas and the Human Genome Project have enabled us to harness and integrate this information with noninvasive imaging phenotypes to create a better 3-dimensional understanding of tumor behavior and biology. Beyond imaging-histopathology, imaging genomic linkages provide an important layer of complexity that can help in evaluating and stratifying patients into clinical trials, monitoring treatment response, and enhancing patient outcomes...
January 11, 2017: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079240/new-index-for-the-diagnosis-of-liver-fibrosis-in-schistosomiasis-mansoni
#18
Ana Virgínia Matos Sá Barreto, Vinícius Martins Alecrim, Tibério Batista de Medeiros, Ana Lúcia Coutinho Domingues, Edmundo Pessoa Lopes, João Roberto Maciel Martins, Helena Bonciani Nader, George Tadeu Nunes Diniz, Silvia Maria Lucena Montenegro, Clarice Neuenschwander Lins de Morais
BACKGROUND: - Periportal fibrosis is the major pathological consequence of the Schistosoma mansoni infection. OBJECTIVE: - To evaluate the accuracy of serum markers and to construct an index to assess fibrosis. METHODS: - Patients (n=116) with schistosomiasis were evaluated by ultrasound scan and measurements of serum levels of aminotransferases, γ-glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, hyaluronic acid, cytokines and platelets. Ultrasound images were used to evaluate the fibrosis using Niamey's classification and identified 19 patients without periportal fibrosis (patterns A and B), 48 with mild to moderate fibrosis (C and D) and 49 with advanced fibrosis (E and F)...
January 2017: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079054/local-dimensionality-determines-imaging-speed-in-localization-microscopy
#19
Patrick Fox-Roberts, Richard Marsh, Karin Pfisterer, Asier Jayo, Maddy Parsons, Susan Cox
Localization microscopy allows biological samples to be imaged at a length scale of tens of nanometres. Live-cell super-resolution imaging is rare, as it is generally assumed to be too slow for dynamic samples. The speed of data acquisition can be optimized by tuning the density of activated fluorophores in each time frame. Here, we show that the maximum achievable imaging speed for a particular structure varies by orders of magnitude, depending on the sample dimensionality (that is, whether the sample is more like a point, a strand or an extended structure such as a focal adhesion)...
January 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078990/mass-spectrometry-imaging-in-nanomedicine-unraveling-the-potential-of-msi-for-the-detection-of-nanoparticles-in-neuroscience
#20
Florian Py Barré, Ron Ma Heeren, Nina Ogrinc Potočnik
Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) can uniquely detect thousands of compounds allowing both their identification and localization within biological tissue samples. MSI is an interdisciplinary science that crosses the borders of physics, chemistry and biology, and enables local molecular analysis at a broad range of length scales: From the subcellular level to whole body tissue sections. The spatial resolution of some mass spectrometers now allows nano-scale research, crucial for studies in nanomedicine. Recent developments in MSI have enabled the optimization and localization of drug delivery with nanoparticles within the body and in specific organs such as kidney, liver and brain...
January 11, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
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