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Psychiatric medication

Jorge Mota Pereira, Daniela Fonte
Treatment resistant major depressive disorder (TR-MDD) is a severe disease, with very low remission rates. The resistance to pharmacotherapy leads to the search of non-pharmacological alternative approaches. Animal therapy has been used in patients with psychiatric conditions and the results have been promising. However, there have been no studies in TR-MDD patients with pet adoption. This study assessed the impact of TR-MDD patients adopting a pet. Eighty patients were suggested to adopt a pet, and 33 accepted the challenge...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Aishwarya Vijay, Jessica E Becker, Joseph S Ross
Off-label prescribing of psychiatric drugs is common, despite lacking strong scientific evidence of efficacy and potentially increasing risk for adverse events. The goal of this study was to characterize prevalence of off-label prescriptions of psychiatric drugs and examine patient and clinician predictors of off-label use. This manuscript presents a retrospective, cross-sectional study using data from the 2012 and 2013 National Ambulatory Medical Care Surveys (NAMCS). The study examined all adult outpatient visits to psychiatric practices for chronic care management with a single listed visit diagnosis in which at least one psychiatric drug was prescribed...
2018: PloS One
Richard B Lipton, Kristina M Fanning, Dawn C Buse, Vincent T Martin, Michael L Reed, Aubrey Manack Adams, Peter J Goadsby
OBJECTIVE: To identify natural subgroups of people with migraine based on profiles of comorbidities and concomitant conditions, hereafter referred to as comorbidities. BACKGROUND: Migraine is a heterogeneous disease. Identifying natural subgroups (endophenotypes) may facilitate biological and genetic characterization and the development of personalized treatment. METHODS: The Chronic Migraine Epidemiology and Outcomes Study is a prospective web-based survey study designed to characterize the course of migraine and related comorbidities in a systematic US sample of people with migraine...
July 19, 2018: Headache
Russell B C Lim, Melvyn W B Zhang, Roger C M Ho
INTRODUCTION: Prior meta-analysis has reported mortality rates among post-operative bariatric patients, but they have not considered psychiatric factors like suicide contributing to mortality. OBJECTIVES: The current meta-analysis aims to determine the pooled prevalence for mortality and suicide amongst cohorts using reported suicides post bariatric surgery. It is also the aim of the current meta-analytical study to determine moderators that could account for the heterogeneity found...
July 18, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
W Saal, A Kagee, J Bantjes
The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) is often used to screen individuals for symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD). Yet, its effectiveness in correctly discriminating between MDD cases and non-cases among individuals seeking HIV testing has not been investigated. We report on the effectiveness of the BDI-I in predicting caseness for MDD with the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM (SCID) as a gold standard. A total of 500 HIV test-seekers were recruited at five non-medical testing sites in the Western Cape, South Africa...
January 2018: AIDS Care
Daniel A Handel, Zemin Su, Nancy Hendry, Patrick Mauldin
OBJECTIVES: Tertiary referral centers have created inpatient units to meet the needs of specific patient populations but sometimes are forced to place patients on other units that, although having the basic necessary skillsets for treating the patient, are not focused on that diagnosis area. The objective of this study was to look at outcomes of patients admitted to these different inpatient settings. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review of patient data from a single tertiary academic medical center from August 1, 2014, to June 30, 2015, comparing patients admitted to primary versus secondary inpatient services...
July 1, 2018: American Journal of Managed Care
Haythum Tayeb, Alaa Khayat, Haneen Milyani, Yousuf Alsawwaf, Faten Alzaben, Harold G Koenig
Saudi society is one of many where supernatural explanations for neurological and psychiatric disorders are prevalent among lay persons. The frequency of such beliefs among health care professionals in this country, however, is unknown. The frequency of supernatural explanations for neurological and psychiatric disorders was assessed in 126 health care professionals at an academic medical center in Jeddah. A high frequency of belief in supernatural factors as a cause for neurological and psychiatric illness, including the evil eye, divine testing and punishment, and sorcery, was found...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Steven C Marcus, Richard C Hermann, Sara Wiesel Cullen
OBJECTIVES: The past 20 years have seen the emergence of a national movement to improve hospital-based healthcare safety in the United States. However, much of the foundational work and subsequent research have neglected inpatient psychiatry. The aim of this article was to advance a comprehensive approach for conceptualizing patient safety in inpatient psychiatry as framed by an application of the Institute of Medicine patient safety framework. METHODS: This article develops a framework for characterizing patient safety in hospital-based mental health care...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Patient Safety
Kristina R Dahlstrom, Shuangshuang Fu, Wenyaw Chan, Zeena Shelal, Lois M Ramondetta, David R Lairson
INTRODUCTION: Genital warts are caused by infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) and are associated with significant morbidity. Primary prevention of genital warts is possible through HPV vaccination, but vaccination rates remain low in the USA. When deciding to implement HPV vaccination programs, public health officials and policy makers rely on cost-effectiveness studies that accurately reflect costs associated with morbidity and mortality. However, previous information on the cost of treating genital warts was outdated...
July 18, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
Mark A Oldham, Joseph H Flaherty, Jose R Maldonado
The development of delirium indicates neurophysiologic disruption and predicts unfavorable outcomes. This relationship between delirium and its outcomes has inspired a generation of studies aimed at identifying, predicting, and preventing both delirium and its associated sequelae. Despite this, evidence on delirium prevention and management remains limited. No medication is approved for the prevention or treatment of delirium or for its associated psychiatric symptoms. This unmet need for effective delirium treatment calls for a refined approach...
July 12, 2018: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Juan Sebastian Garcia Mantilla, Rafael Antonio Vasquez Rojas
BACKGROUND: Conversion disorder is a challenge for clinicians due to the conceptual gaps as regards its pathogenesis, the way in which it converges with other psychiatric disorders, and the lack of approaches to the experiences of both patients and family members with the disease. OBJECTIVE: To describe Explanatory Models (EM) offered to caregivers of paediatric patients with conversion disorder who attended the Hospital de la Misericordia. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted with a convenience sample of 10 patients who attended the Hospital de La Misericordia, ¿Bogota? between May 2014 and April 2015...
July 2018: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
Misuzu Tajiri, Yutaro Suzuki, Takuro Sugai, Nobuto Tsuneyama, Toshiyuki Someya
It has long been known that antipsychotic drugs (ATP) causes tachycardia, however details such as the differences between ATP are not well known. In recent years, the relationship between the rise in resting heart rate (RHR) and the increased risk of death in the general population has been garnering attention. In this study, we examined the difference in action on RHR between olanzapine (OLZ) and aripiprazole (ARP). The changes in the RHR on switching from OLZ to ARP and on increasing from the starting OLZ dose to the final one were evaluated in 19 outpatients (Study 1) and in 29 outpatients with schizophrenia (Study 2), respectively...
2018: PloS One
Michael B Centorino, Glenn Catalano, Laura C Grimsich, Roula M Antoun
Strokes have been shown to result in psychiatric phenomena that can range from mood disorders to psychosis. Ablative neurosurgeries have been performed with the goal of reducing the burden of psychiatric symptoms following such cerebrovascular accidents. In this report, we review poststroke psychiatric manifestations, and then present the case of a woman with schizophrenia whose thought disorder improved following a hemorrhagic stroke. Not only did she require less medication, but her remaining symptoms were significantly less impairing than they had previously been...
May 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
Maria I Lapid, Diane McNally Forsyth, Teresa L Hegard, Emily A Jazdzewski, Jane E Clobes, Debra A Ryan, Christopher Sola, Bruce Sutor, Simon Kung
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to identify clinical and psychosocial factors involved in transitioning hospitalized patients receiving electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) from the inpatient to the outpatient setting and to propose an algorithm to guide clinicians with this process. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was completed for adult patients discharged from a psychiatric hospital from 2002 to 2012 who had an acute course of ECT that was initiated in the hospital and completed as an outpatient...
May 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
Madelon M E Riem, Emmy N E M Doedée, Suzanne C Broekhuizen-Dijksman, Eugenie Beijer
Previous research has found an association between insecure attachment and increased somatization in adults. However, the mechanisms underlying this association are unknown. In the present study, we examined whether the association between attachment insecurity and somatization in psychiatric patients diagnosed with medically unexplained somatic symptoms (MUSS) is mediated by mentalization deficits. Attachment security of 58 outpatients diagnosed with MUSS was measured with the Experiences in Social Relationships Questionnaire (ECR)...
June 30, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Jesus Henares-Montiel, Isabel Ruiz-Perez, Oscar Mendoza-Garcia
The aim of this study was to analyse health inequalities in the immigrant population in Spain in 2014, while differentiating between immigrant and native-born men and women. We have designed a cross-sectional study on the population aged over 15 years resident in Spain and the data were obtained from the 2014 European Health Survey in Spain (n = 22,842). Among immigrant men and women, we observed a lower risk of having a Chronic Physical Problem (CPP) or a Mental Health Problem (MHP) and a lower consumption of psychiatric drugs...
July 16, 2018: Health & Social Care in the Community
Yanjie Qin, Nanxi Wang, Xinlin Zhang, Xuemei Han, Xuejia Zhai, Yongning Lu
Depression is highly prevalent worldwide and a leading cause of disabilty. However, the medications currently available to treat depression fail to adequately relieve depressive symptoms for a large number of patients. Research into the aberrant overactivation of the kynurenine pathway and the production of various active metabolites has brought new insight into the progression of depression. IDO and TDO are the first and rate-limiting enzymes in the kynurenine pathway and regulate the production of active metabolites...
July 16, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Katie T B Touma, Jonathan R Scarff
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a medication-induced permanent movement disorder with no United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved treatments prior to 2017. Although TD is medication-induced, patients who have responded well to antipsychotics might not be candidates for dose reduction or discontinuation due to a risk of psychiatric decompensation. Valbenazine and deutetrabenazine were recently approved by the FDA for the treatment of TD. They offer a unique mechanism of action by inhibiting vesicular monoamine transporter type 2...
June 1, 2018: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience
Maggie Wang, Joseph I Sison
Dopa-responsive dystonia is a rare childhood neurological disorder characterized by asymmetric dystonia, predominantly of the lower limb, that responds excellently to levodopa replacement therapy. Although it is known that behavioral changes, such as depression, anxiety disorders, and sleep disturbances, typically follow onset of motor symptoms, there is limited literature on the psychiatric symptoms of this disorder. This report describes a novel case of a 20-year-old male with a history of dopa-responsive dystonia and schizoaffective disorder who presented with both dystonia and psychosis after a period of medication noncompliance...
2018: Case Reports in Psychiatry
Lisham Ashrafioun, Kelli D Allen, Wilfred R Pigeon
OBJECTIVES: The aims of the current study were to characterize veterans who used a complementary and integrative health (CIH) service in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) and to assess the extent to which using a CIH-related service was associated with receiving an opioid analgesic prescription following the initiation of specialty pain service, a time at which higher intensity care is needed for patients experiencing greater psychiatric and medical complexity. DESIGN: This study utilized a retrospective cohort design of veterans using specialty pain services...
August 2018: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
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