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Postural Reflex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210841/comparison-of-heart-rate-variability-parameters-to-the-autonomic-reflex-screen-in-postural-orthostatic-tachycardia-syndrome-and-neurogenic-orthostatic-hypotension
#1
Jacquie Baker, Juan M Racosta, Kurt Kimpinski
PURPOSE: The clinical significance of heart rate variability (HRV) in the context of autonomic dysfunction continues to be a matter of debate. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to investigate the clinical relevance of HRV in the context of autonomic dysfunction. METHODS: Heart rate variability data from 225 volunteers consisting of controls (n = 166) and patients with mild (n = 25) and severe (n = 34) autonomic dysfunction were retrospectively analyzed...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202845/robotic-assisted-gait-as-a-tool-for-rehabilitation-of-individuals-with-spinal-cord-injury-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Ledycnarf J Holanda, Patrícia M M Silva, Thiago C Amorim, Matheus O Lacerda, Camila R Simão, Edgard Morya
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is characterized by a total or partial deficit of sensory and motor pathways. Impairments of this injury compromise muscle recruitment and motor planning, thus reducing functional capacity. SCI patients commonly present psychological, intestinal, urinary, osteomioarticular, tegumentary, cardiorespiratory and neural alterations that aggravate in chronic phase. One of the neurorehabilitation goals is the restoration of these abilities by favoring improvement in the quality of life and functional independence...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176947/cortical-contribution-to-linear-non-linear-and-frequency-components-of-motor-variability-control-during-standing
#3
Niklas König Ignasiak, Lars Habermacher, William R Taylor, Navrag B Singh
Motor variability is an inherent feature of all human movements and reflects the quality of functional task performance. Depending on the requirements of the motor task, the human sensory-motor system is thought to be able to flexibly govern the appropriate level of variability. However, it remains unclear which neurophysiological structures are responsible for the control of motor variability. In this study, we tested the contribution of cortical cognitive resources on the control of motor variability (in this case postural sway) using a dual-task paradigm and furthermore observed potential changes in control strategy by evaluating Ia-afferent integration (H-reflex)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167325/the-modulation-of-hippocampal-theta-rhythm-by-the-vestibular-system
#4
Phillip Aitken, Yiwen Zheng, Paul F Smith
The vestibular system is a sensory system that has evolved over millions of years to detect acceleration of the head, both rotational and translational, in three dimensions. One of its most important functions is to stabilize gaze during unexpected head movement; however, it is also important in the control of posture and autonomic reflexes. Theta rhythm is a 3-12 Hz oscillating EEG signal that is intimately linked to self-motion and is also known to be important in learning and memory. Many studies over the last two decades have shown that selective activation of the vestibular system, either using natural rotational or translational stimulation, or electrical stimulation of the peripheral vestibular system, can induce and modulate theta activity...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151141/mechanical-perturbations-can-elicit-triggered-reactions-in-the-absence-of-a-startle-response
#5
Christopher J Forgaard, Ian M Franks, Kimberly Bennett, Dana Maslovat, Romeo Chua
Perturbations delivered to the upper limbs elicit reflexive responses in stretched muscle at short- (M1: 25-50 ms) and long- (M2: 50-100 ms) latencies. When presented in a simple reaction time (RT) task, the perturbation can also elicit a preprogrammed voluntary response at a latency (< 100 ms) that overlaps the M2 response. This early appearance of the voluntary response following a proprioceptive stimulus causing muscle stretch is called a triggered reaction. Recent work has demonstrated that a perturbation also elicits activity in sternocleidomastoid (SCM) over a time-course consistent with the startle response and it was, therefore, proposed that the StartReact effect underlies triggered reactions (Ravichandran et al...
November 18, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103442/clinical-recognition-of-mouth-breathers-by-orthodontists-a-preliminary-study
#6
Julia Garcia Costa, Genilza Silva Costa, Carolina Costa, Oswaldo de Vasconcellos Vilella, Claudia Trindade Mattos, Adriana de Alcantara Cury-Saramago
INTRODUCTION: A routine diagnosis of a patient's breathing status performed by an orthodontist normally includes visual assessment, medical history, clinical examination of habitual lip posture, size and shape of the nostrils, reflex control of the alar muscle and respiratory tests, and the dental mirror test. The objective of this study was to test the recognition of mouth breathers in young persons by an orthodontist and agreement with an otolaryngologist's reference diagnosis when routine assessments were carried out...
November 2017: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102451/autonomic-dysfunction-in-cardiology-pathophysiology-investigation-and-management
#7
REVIEW
Amy C Arnold, Jessica Ng, Lucy Lei, Satish R Raj
Presyncope and syncope are common medical findings, with a > 40% estimated lifetime prevalence. These conditions are often elicited by postural stress and can be recurrent and accompanied by debilitating symptoms of cerebral hypoperfusion. Therefore, it is critical for physicians to become familiar with the diagnosis and treatment of common underlying causes of presyncope and syncope. In some patients, altered postural hemodynamic responses result from a failure of compensatory autonomic nervous system reflex mechanisms...
September 14, 2017: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079236/effectiveness-of-foot-biomechanical-orthoses-to-relieve-patients-knee-pain-changes-in-neural-strategy-after-9%C3%A2-weeks-of-treatment
#8
Sébastien Moyne-Bressand, Carole Dhieux, Patrick Decherchi, Erick Dousset
Knee pain is one of the most common lower leg complaints. It is often treated with plantar orthoses to provide cushioning and correct locomotion, imbalances of the foot, and postural deficits. However, the published scientific data are poor concerning the mechanisms involved in pain reduction after wearing foot orthoses, and, to the best of our knowledge, no trial has investigated the mid-term effectiveness. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of foot orthoses according to sound biomechanical principles in the treatment of knee pain...
November 2017: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075558/the-medium-latency-muscle-response-to-a-vestibular-perturbation-is-increased-after-depression-of-the-cerebellar-vermis
#9
Chris K Lam, William R Staines, Craig D Tokuno, Leah R Bent
INTRODUCTION: Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) is able to evoke distinct responses in the muscles used for balance. These reflexes, termed the short (SL) and medium latency (ML) responses, can be altered by sensory input; decreasing in size when additional sensory cues are available. Although much is known about these responses, the origin and role of the responses are still not fully understood. It has been suggested that the cerebellum, a structure that is involved in postural control and sensory integration, may play a role in the modulation of these reflexes...
October 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060804/a-new-robotic-approach-to-characterize-mechanical-impedance-and-energetic-passivity-of-the-human-ankle-during-standing
#10
Varun Nalam, Hyunglae Lee
This paper presents the quantitative characterization of ankle impedance and ankle passivity during upright standing. A novel multi-axis robotic platform allows for the quantification of these neuromuscular properties in two degrees-of-freedom of the ankle, specifically, dorsiflexion-plantarflexion (DP) and inversion-eversion (IE). For the slow sinusoid perturbations of low frequencies ranging up to 1.5 Hz, ankle impedance was accurately approximated by stiffness and damping, while the contribution of inertia and reflex feedback was minimal...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059498/respiratory-reflex-generated-by-movement-of-the-arms
#11
Ranjit K Mal
In their article "Motor control of the trunk during a modified clean and jerk lift", Eriksson Crommert, Ekblom and Thortensson(1) measured the intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and trunk muscle activity at various stages of lifting a 30-kg weight. They observed that the "TrA (transversus abdominis muscle) was more active in a position with augmented postural demand, i.e., with the arms above the head" and that "The activation of TrA was relatively low in the lower parts of the lift, despite a higher load in terms of imposed flexor moment (judged from the sketches in the figures, not calculated) corroborated by increases in ES activation and IAP amplitude, both providing the extensor moment necessary to raise the trunk...
October 23, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058537/the-influence-of-an-acute-bout-of-whole-body-vibration-on-human-postural-control-responses
#12
Samuel J Wilson, Charles C Williams, Jacob R Gdovin, John D Eason, Lauren A Luginsland, Christopher M Hill, Harish Chander, Chip Wade, John C Garner
The use of vibrating platforms has become increasingly available, and popular at sports and rehabilitation institutes. Given the discrepancies in the literature regarding whole body vibration (WBV) and human reflexive responses, the purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of WBV on postural response latencies, as well as associated electromyography measures of the lower extremities during balance perturbations. Reflexive responses during backward and forward balance perturbations were examined before, after, and 10 min after a bout of WBV...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035981/clinical-utility-of-oculomotor-and-electrophysiological-measures-in-identifying-concussion-history
#13
Patrick S Ledwidge, Jessie N Patterson, Dennis L Molfese, Julie A Honaker
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether oculomotor and electrophysiological measures improve the clinical performance of the typical concussion protocol for classifying collegiate athletes with a history of concussion. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: University Athletic Medicine and Research Facility. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-five varsity collegiate athletes. INDEPENDENT VARIABLES: Collegiate varsity athletes with or without a history of a diagnosed concussion...
October 10, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021750/cough-anal-reflex-may-be-the-expression-of-a-pre-programmed-postural-action
#14
Paolo Cavallari, Francesco Bolzoni, Roberto Esposti, Carlo Bruttini
When coughing, an involuntary contraction of the external anal sphincter occurs, in order to prevent unwanted leakages or sagging of the pelvis muscular wall. Literature originally described such cough-anal response as a reflex elicited by cough, therefore identifying a precise cause-effect relationship. However, recent studies report that the anal contraction actually precedes the rise in abdominal pressure during cough expiratory effort, so that the sphincter activity should be pre-programmed. In recent years, an important family of pre-programmed muscle activities has been well documented to precede voluntary movements: these anticipatory actions play a fundamental role in whole body and segmental postural control, hence they are referred to as anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972121/gaze-stabilizing-central-vestibular-neurons-project-asymmetrically-to-extraocular-motoneuron-pools
#15
David Schoppik, Isaac H Bianco, David A Prober, Adam D Douglass, Drew N Robson, Jennifer M B Li, Joel S F Greenwood, Edward Soucy, Florian Engert, Alexander F Schier
Within reflex circuits, specific anatomical projections allow central neurons to relay sensations to effectors that generate movements. A major challenge is to relate anatomical features of central neural populations -- such as asymmetric connectivity -- to the computations the populations perform. To address this problem, we mapped the anatomy, modeled the function, and discovered a new behavioral role for a genetically-defined population of central vestibular neurons in rhombomeres 5-7 of larval zebrafish...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951323/preparatory-cortical-and-spinal-settings-to-counteract-anticipated-and-non-anticipated-perturbations
#16
Michael Wälchli, Craig D Tokuno, Jan Ruffieux, Martin Keller, Wolfgang Taube
Little is known about how the central nervous system prepares postural responses differently in anticipated compared to non-anticipated perturbations. To investigate this, participants were exposed to translational and rotational perturbations presented in a blocked (anticipated) and a random (non-anticipated) design. The preparatory setting ('central set') was measured by H-reflexes, motor-evoked potentials (MEPs), and short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) shortly before perturbation onset in the soleus of 15 healthy adults...
December 4, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929183/altered-neurofilament-protein-expression-in-the-lateral-vestibular-nucleus-in-parkinson-s-disease
#17
Thomas P Wellings, Alan M Brichta, Rebecca Lim
A major cause of morbidity in Parkinson's disease (PD) is postural instability. The neuropathology underlying postural instability is unknown. Postural control is mediated by Deiters' neurons of the lateral vestibular nucleus (LVN), which are the brainstem origin of descending vestibulospinal reflexes. Deiters' neurons express the cytostructural protein, non-phosphorylated neurofilament protein (NPNFP). In PD, reduced expression of NPNFP in substantia nigra (SN) neurons is believed to contribute to dysfunction...
December 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913614/researchers-must-be-aware-of-their-roles-at-the-interface-of-ecosystem-services-science-and-policy
#18
Emilie Crouzat, Isabelle Arpin, Lucas Brunet, Matthew J Colloff, Francis Turkelboom, Sandra Lavorel
Scientists working on ecosystem service (ES) science are engaged in a mission-driven discipline. They can contribute to science-policy interfaces where knowledge is co-produced and used. How scientists engage with the governance arena to mobilise their knowledge remains a matter of personal choice, influenced by individual values. ES science cannot be considered neutral and a discussion of the values that shape it forms an important part of the sustainability dialogue. We propose a simple decision tree to help ES scientists identify their role and the purpose of the knowledge they produce...
September 14, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887013/morphine-exposure-and-maternal-deprivation-during-the-early-postnatal-period-alter-neuromotor-development-and-nerve-growth-factor-levels
#19
Carla de Oliveira, Vanessa L Scarabelot, Rafael Vercelino, Natalia P Silveira, Lauren N S Adachi, Gabriela G Regner, Lisiane S Silva, Isabel Cristina de Macedo, Andressa de Souza, Wolnei Caumo, Iraci L S Torres
The objective of this study was to verify whether repeated morphine administration and maternal deprivation in early life alter neurobehavioral development and central nerve growth factor (NGF) levels. A total of 58 male Wistar rat pups were used in our study. From postnatal day 1 (P1), litters were daily deprived of their mother for 3h; this was continued for the first 10days of life. Animals were divided into 5 groups: total control (C), did not receive any intervention; saline (S), received saline solution; morphine (M), received morphine; deprived-saline group (DS), were subjected to maternal deprivation and received saline solution; and deprived-morphine (DM), were subjected to maternal deprivation and received morphine...
December 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843638/local-vibration-inhibits-h-reflex-but-does-not-compromise-manual-dexterity-and-does-not-increase-tremor
#20
Francesco Budini, Luca Laudani, Sergio Bernardini, Andrea Macaluso
The present work aimed at investigating the effects of local vibration on upper limb postural and kinetic tremor, on manual dexterity and on spinal reflex excitability. Previous studies have demonstrated a decrease in spinal reflex excitability and in force fluctuations in the lower limb but an increase in force fluctuation in the upper limbs. As hand steadiness is of vital importance in many daily-based tasks, and local vibration may also be applied in movement disorders, we decided to further explore this phenomenon...
August 24, 2017: Human Movement Science
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