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Postural Reflex

R Wells, A Tonkin
Patients with autonomic dysfunction may present with a variety of seemingly unrelated symptoms, both generalised and involving specific systems, including fatigue, difficulty concentrating, orthostatic intolerance, palpitations, constipation or diarrhoea, early satiety, urinary retention or incontinence and erectile dysfunction. Failure to connect the diverse symptoms with a single underlying mechanism may lead to incorrect diagnoses, inappropriate interventions and frustration on the part of both doctors and patients...
October 2016: Internal Medicine Journal
Andrea Lee, Rebecca M Gilbert
Parkinson disease (PD) is a common progressive neurodegenerative condition, causing both motor and non motor symptoms. Motor symptoms include stiffness, slowness, rest tremor and poor postural reflexes, whereas nonmotor symptoms include abnormalities of mood, cognition, sleep and autonomic function. Affected patients show cell loss in the substantia nigra pars compacta, and accumulation of aggregated alpha-synuclein into intracellular structures called Lewy bodies, within specific brain regions. The main known non modifiable risk factor is age...
November 2016: Neurologic Clinics
Xue-Qing Zhao, Li-Yan Wang, Cong-Min Zhao, Qing Men, Zhi-Feng Wu, Yu-Ping Zhang
PURPOSE: Positional plagiocephaly (PP) is the most common subtype of asymmetric deformity in the infant skull. Cumulative evidence has demonstrated that PP is associated with abnormal neuromotor development; however, neurological assessment scores of infants with PP have not been well established, and PP has not attracted sufficient attention in China. This study used a Chinese version of the Infant Neurological International Battery (INFANIB) to identify neurological abnormalities among infants with PP and to determine the differences between infants with different (mild, moderate, and severe) degrees of PP...
October 7, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
P V Zelenin, V F Lyalka, G N Orlovsky, T G Deliagina
In quadrupeds, acute lateral hemisection of the spinal cord (LHS) severely impairs postural functions, which recover over time. Postural limb reflexes (PLRs) represent a substantial component of postural corrections in intact animals. The aim of the present study was to characterize the effects of acute LHS on two populations of spinal neurons (F and E) mediating PLRs. For this purpose, in decerebrate rabbits, responses of individual neurons from L5 to stimulation causing PLRs were recorded before and during reversible (Rev) LHS (caused by temporal cold block of signal transmission in lateral spinal pathways at L1), as well as after acute surgical (Sur) LHS at L1...
October 1, 2016: Neuroscience
Annalisa P Liotta, Maud Girod, Dominique Peeters, Charlotte Sandersen, Thierry Couvreur, Géraldine Bolen
OBJECTIVE To determine clinical effects of CT-guided lumbosacral facet joint, transforaminal epidural, and translaminar epidural injections of methylprednisolone acetate in healthy dogs. ANIMALS 15 healthy Beagles. PROCEDURES Dogs were randomly assigned to 3 groups (5 dogs/group) and received a single CT-guided lumbosacral facet joint, transforaminal epidural, or translaminar epidural injection of methylprednisolone acetate (0.1 mg/kg). Contrast medium was injected prior to injection of methylprednisolone to verify needle placement...
October 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
M Strupp, K Feil, M Dieterich, T Brandt
The leading symptoms of bilateral vestibulopathy (BVP) are postural imbalance and unsteadiness of gait that worsens in darkness and on uneven ground. There are typically no symptoms while sitting or lying under static conditions. A minority of patients also have movement-induced oscillopsia, in particular while walking. The diagnosis of BVP is based on a bilaterally reduced or absent function of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). This deficit is diagnosed for the high-frequency range of the angular VOR by a bilaterally pathologic bedside head impulse test (HIT) and for the low-frequency range by a bilaterally reduced or absent caloric response...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
M Fetter
Sudden unilateral loss of vestibular function is the most severe condition that can occur in the vestibular system. The clinical syndrome is caused by the physiologic properties of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) arc. In the normal situation, the two peripheral vestibular end organs are connected to a functional unit in coplanar pairs of semicircular canals working in a push-pull mode. "Push-pull" mode means that, when one side is excited, the other side is inhibited, and vice versa due to two mechanisms...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
A M Bronstein
This chapter provides an introduction to the topic of multisensory integration in balance control in, both, health and disease. One of the best-studied examples is that of visuo-vestibular interaction, which is the ability of the visual system to enhance or suppress the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR suppression). Of clinical relevance, examination of VOR suppression is clinically useful because only central, not peripheral, lesions impair VOR suppression. Visual, somatosensory (proprioceptive), and vestibular inputs interact strongly and continuously in the control of upright balance...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Hironobu Morita, Chikara Abe, Kunihiko Tanaka
The vestibular system is known to have an important role in controlling blood pressure upon posture transition (vestibulo-cardiovascular reflex, VCR). However, under a different gravitational environment, the sensitivity of the vestibular system may be altered. Thus, the VCR may become less sensitive after spaceflight because of orthostatic intolerance potentially induced by long-term exposure to microgravity. To test this hypothesis in humans, we investigated the ability of the VCR to maintain blood pressure upon head-up tilt before and after a 4-6 months stay on the International Space Station...
2016: Scientific Reports
Charles P Gabel, Natalie Rando, Markus Melloh
To ascertain the effectiveness of slacklining as a supplementary therapy for elderly stroke patients who are functionally non-progressing. This case study involved an 18-mo prospective observation of the management of an 87-year-old female stroke-patient of the left hemisphere with reduced balance, reduced lower limb muscular activation, hypertonia, and concurrent postural deficits. This entailed the initial acute care phase through to discharge to home and 18-mo final status in her original independent living setting...
August 18, 2016: World Journal of Orthopedics
Pasquale Striano, Federico Zara
The term 'cortical tremor' was first introduced by Ikeda and colleagues to indicate a postural and action-induced shivering movement of the hands which mimics essential tremor, but presents with the electrophysiological findings of cortical reflex myoclonus. The association between autosomal dominant cortical tremor, myoclonus and epilepsy (ADCME) was first recognized in Japanese families and is now increasingly reported worldwide, although it is described using different acronyms (BAFME, FAME, FEME, FCTE and others)...
September 1, 2016: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
Shu-Jen Chang, Juin-Hong Cherng, Ding-Han Wang, Shu-Ping Yu, Nien-Hsien Liou, Ming-Lun Hsu
Objective. Postinfarction transneuronal degeneration refers to secondary neuronal death that occurs within a few days to weeks following the disruption of input or output to synapsed neurons sustaining ischemic insults. The thalamus receives its blood supply from the posterior circulation; however, infarctions of the middle cerebral arterial may cause secondary transneuronal degeneration in the thalamus. In this study, we presented the areas of ischemia and associated transneuronal degeneration following MCAo in a rat model...
2016: BioMed Research International
Kyung-Min Kim, Joseph M Hart, Susan Saliba, Jay Hertel
CONTEXT:  Individuals with chronic ankle instability (CAI) present with decreased modulation of the Hoffmann reflex (H-reflex) from a simple to a more challenging task. The neural alteration is associated with impaired postural control, but the relationship has not been investigated in individuals with CAI. OBJECTIVE:  To determine differences in H-reflex modulation and postural control between individuals with or without CAI and to identify if they are correlated in individuals with CAI...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
Kathrin D Gensberger, Anna-Kristin Kaufmann, Haike Dietrich, Francisco Branoner, Roberto Banchi, Boris P Chagnaud, Hans Straka
UNLABELLED: Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) uses modulated currents to evoke neuronal activity in vestibular endorgans in the absence of head motion. GVS is typically used for a characterization of vestibular pathologies; for studies on the vestibular influence of gaze, posture, and locomotion; and for deciphering the sensory-motor transformation underlying these behaviors. At variance with the widespread use of this method, basic aspects such as the activated cellular substrate at the sensory periphery or the comparability to motion-induced neuronal activity patterns are still disputed...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
C Grasso, G Li Volsi, E Cataldo, D Manzoni, M Barresi
Limb somatosensory signals modify the discharge of vestibular neurons and elicit postural reflexes, which stabilize the body position. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of the γ-amino-butyric-acid (GABA) to the responsiveness of vestibular neurons to somatosensory inputs. The activity of 128 vestibular units was recorded in anesthetized rats in resting conditions and during sinusoidal foreleg rotation around the elbow or shoulder joints (0.026-0.625Hz, 45° peak amplitude). None of the recorded units was influenced by elbow rotation, while 40% of them responded to shoulder rotation...
October 29, 2016: Neuroscience
Roeland B van Leeuwen, Bart W Smits, Richard J Rodenburg, Baziel G van Engelen
In patients with a triad of sensory ataxic neuropathy, dysarthria, and ophthalmoparesis (SANDO), the presenting features are mainly ataxia or ptosis. SANDO patients often have impaired balance and gait, which is not surprising considering the combination of sensory ataxic neuropathy, and additional symptoms like cerebellar ataxia and limb girdle weakness. We describe a SANDO patient who noticed an increasingly impaired balance and gait, without any dizziness. Neurological investigation revealed an external ophthalmeplegia and a cerebellar ataxia; the head impulse test was not reliable because of eye movement disorders...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuromuscular Disease
Sébastien Pavailler, Nicolas Forestier, Frédérique Hintzy, Nicolas Horvais, Thomas Lapole
External ankle supports, such as ankle braces, may improve postural stability by stimulating cutaneous receptors. It remains unknown whether these supports have an effect on the posture central regulation. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of wearing a soft ankle brace on soleus H-reflex amplitude and presynaptic inhibition during standing. Sixteen subjects stood on a rigid floor with their eyes opened, either barefoot or wearing a soft ankle brace. H-reflex amplitude was measured on the soleus muscle by stimulating the tibial nerve electrically...
September 2016: Gait & Posture
RuiPing Xia, Anburaj Muthumani, Zhi-Hong Mao, Douglas W Powell
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by rigidity, bradykinesia, resting tremor, and postural instability. Rigidity, defined as an increased resistance to passive movement of a joint, progresses faster than other motor signs in PD. Rigidity is attributable to both exaggerated neural reflex and altered muscle mechanical properties. However, little is known about the contributions of individual components to rigidity. Further, there is no evidence regarding the effects of dopaminergic medication on individual components...
August 17, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
V Milazzo, C Di Stefano, F Vallelonga, G Sobrero, A Milan, M Zibetti, M Sarchioto, A Romagnolo, L Lopiano, F Veglio, S Maule
OBJECTIVE: Patients with Autonomic Neuropathy (AN) are characterized by orthostatic hypotension (OH), supine hypertension, high blood pressure (BP) variability and reverse dipping pattern on 24 h Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring (24 h ABPM). AN is a common finding in Parkinson's disease (PD), and it is related to a higher motor impairment due to neurogenic OH. Aim of the study was the evaluation of the prevalence of AN and the assessment of the related 24 h ABPM profile in PD patients without known cardiovascular comorbidities...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Bahar Sharafi, Gilles Hoffmann, Andrew Q Tan, Yasin Y Dhaher
The neuromuscular mechanisms that underlie post-stroke impairment in reactive balance control during gait are not fully understood. Previous research has described altered muscle activations in the paretic leg in response to postural perturbations from static positions. Additionally, attenuation of interlimb reflexes after stroke has been reported. Our goal was to characterize post-stroke changes to neuromuscular responses in the stance leg following a swing phase perturbation during gait. We hypothesized that, following a trip, altered timing, sequence, and magnitudes of perturbation-induced activations would emerge in the paretic and nonparetic support legs of stroke survivors compared to healthy control subjects...
August 5, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
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