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A Ochocka, A Pasztaleniec
Herein, we report the response of indices based on phytoplankton and zooplankton and their combination to different nutrient concentrations in lakes. The study was carried out in ten lakes in northeastern Poland. Integrated samples were collected from the epilimnion during the summer of 2012-2013. Secchi disk visibility (SD), total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), and chlorophyll a were used as proxies for eutrophication. We calculated 16 plankton indices: two phytoplankton indices, six crustacean indices, five rotiferan indices, two zooplankton diversity indices, and one combined phytoplankton and zooplankton index...
November 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Yuki Osaka, Satoshi Sugano, Shuichi Hashimoto
Fabricating nano-sized through-holes on a coverslip approximately 100 μm thick is challenging but rewarding when applied to ultrafine filters that separate proteins and DNA of various sizes and isolate viruses from cells. Toward this end, we developed an in situ etching-assisted laser processing technique exploiting gold nanoparticles. Plasmonic heating of a single gold nanoparticle through focused illumination of a continuous-wave laser beam enables structural modifications to be localized to the contact area on the glass surface...
October 18, 2016: Nanoscale
Kristian J Tangso, Paulo Henrique C D da Cunha, Patrick T Spicer, Jian Li, Ben J Boyd
Infections arising in hospitalized patients, particularly those who have undergone surgery and are reliant on receiving treatment through biomedical devices, continue to be a rising concern. It is well known that aqueous mixtures of oppositely charged surfactant and polymer molecules can self-assemble to form liquid crystalline structures primarily via electrostatically-driven interactions which have demonstrated great potential as tailored release nanomaterials. Colistin is a re-emerging antibiotic used against multidrug-resistant Gram negative bacteria...
October 17, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Andrea Kunova, Cristina Pizzatti, Matteo Cerea, Andrea Gazzaniga, Paolo Cortesi
AIMS: This study aimed to develop a new formulation of Cryphonectria parasitica hypovirulent mycelium suitable for inoculations of tall trees from the ground. C. parasitica hypovirulent strains are widely used for biological control of chestnut blight. However, it is often inconsistent and ineffective not only for biological reasons, but also because the current manual application of hypovirulent strains on adult plants is difficult, time-consuming and expensive. Here, we propose an improved formulation and more effective mode of application of hypovirulent strains, which could boost chestnut blight biocontrol...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
M M Kathleen, L Samuel, C Felecia, E L Reagan, A Kasing, M Lesley, S C Toh
The administration of antimicrobials in aquaculture provides a selective pressure creating a reservoir of multiple resistant bacteria in the cultured fish and shrimps as well as the aquaculture environment. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of antibiotic resistance in aquaculture products and aquaculture's surrounding environment in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. Ninety-four identified bacterial isolates constituted of 17 genera were isolated from sediment, water, and cultured organisms (fish and shrimp) in selected aquaculture farms...
2016: International Journal of Microbiology
D O Andrey, P François, C Manzano, E J Bonetti, S Harbarth, J Schrenzel, W L Kelley, A Renzoni
Ceftaroline is a broad-spectrum antibiotic with activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains. Ceftaroline susceptibility of an MRSA set archived between 1994 and 2003 in the Geneva University Hospitals detected a high percentage (66 %) of ceftaroline resistance in clonotypes ST228 and ST247 and correlated with mutations in PBP2a. The ceftaroline mechanism of action is based on the inhibition of PBP2a; thus, the identification of PBP2a mutations of recently circulating clonotypes in our institution was investigated...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Masaharu Isobe, Aaron S Keys, David Chandler, Juan P Garrahan
We numerically investigate the applicability of dynamic facilitation (DF) theory for glass-forming binary hard disk systems where supercompression is controlled by pressure. By using novel efficient algorithms for hard disks, we are able to generate equilibrium supercompressed states in an additive nonequimolar binary mixture, where microcrystallization and size segregation do not emerge at high average packing fractions. Above an onset pressure where collective heterogeneous relaxation sets in, we find that relaxation times are well described by a "parabolic law" with pressure...
September 30, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Jian Deng, Lubao Teng, C P Caulfield, Xuerui Mao
We propose a natural model to probe in a controlled fashion the instability of interacting vortex rings shed from the edge of an oblate spheroid disk of major diameter c, undergoing oscillations of frequency f_{0} and amplitude A. We perform a Floquet stability analysis to determine the characteristics of the instability modes, which depend strongly on the azimuthal (integer) wave number m. We vary two key control parameters, the Keulegan-Carpenter number K_{C}=2πA/c and the Stokes number β=f_{0}c^{2}/ν, where ν is the kinematic viscosity of the fluid...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Daniel A Hernandez, Christina M Bennett, Lyubov Dunina-Barkovskaya, Tatjana Wedig, Yassemi Capetanaki, Harald Herrmann, Gloria M Conover
In the hearts of patients bearing nebulette mutations, a severe general disorganization in cardiomyocytes of the extrasarcomeric desmin intermediate filament system is frequently observed. However, the molecular and functional relationship between the desmin cytoskeleton and nebulette-containing sarcomeres is still unclear. Here we report a high-affinity in vitro interaction between nebulette and desmin filaments. A major interaction site has been mapped to the desmin α-helical rod domain indicating that the filament core is directly involved in the binding of nebulette...
October 12, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Atousa Abdollahi, Anita Eng, Liisa M Jantunen, Lutz Ahrens, Mahiba Shoeib, J Mark Parnis, Tom Harner
This study aimed to characterize the uptake of organophosphate esters (OPEs) by polyurethane foam (PUF) and sorbent-impregnated polyurethane foam (SIP) disk passive air samplers (PAS). Atmospheric OPE concentrations were monitored with high-volume active air samplers (HV-AAS) that were co-deployed with passive air samplers. Samples were analyzed for tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP), tri(phenyl) phosphate (TPhP), tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), and tris(2,3-dichloropropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP). The mean concentration of ∑OPEs in air was 2650 pg/m(3) for the HV-AAS...
October 7, 2016: Chemosphere
Dae-Kue Hwang, Shi-Joon Sung
To meet the nanofabrication requirements, such as control of structure and scalability, we investigated an electrospray-based method to manufacture scattering layers (SLs) for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). TiO2 spherical and disk-shaped particles with a large surface area, high crystallinity, uniform nanostructure and good light scattering properties were fabricated via a simple electrospray method. We showed how the morphology and structure of the resulting films can be controlled by varying the droplet evaporation rates before impact on the substrate...
October 10, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Lauren J Dupuis, Joost Lumens, Theo Arts, Tammo Delhaas
We developed a model of cardiac sarcomere contraction to study the calcium-tension relationship in cardiac muscle. Calcium mediates cardiac contraction through its interactions with troponin (Tn) and subsequently tropomyosin molecules. Experimental studies have shown that a slight increase in intracellular calcium concentration leads to a rapid increase in sarcomeric tension. Though it is widely accepted that the rapid increase is not possible without the concept of cooperativity, the mechanism is debated. We use the hypothesis that there exists a base level of cooperativity intrinsic to the thin filament that is boosted by mechanical tension, i...
October 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Joel A Finbloom, Kenneth Han, Ioana L Aanei, Emily C Hartman, Daniel T Finley, Michel T Dedeo, Max Fishman, Kenneth H Downing, Matthew B Francis
Current approaches to nanoscale therapeutic delivery rely on the attachment of a drug of interest to a nanomaterial scaffold that is capable of releasing the drug selectively in a tumor environment. One class of nanocarriers receiving significant attention is protein nanomaterials, which are biodegradable and homogeneous in morphology and can be equipped with multiple functional handles for drug attachment. Although most protein-based nanocarriers are spherical in morphology, recent research has revealed that nonspherical nanomaterials may have favorable tumor uptake in comparison to their spherical counterparts...
October 7, 2016: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Kaiyu Fu, Donghoon Han, Chaoxiong Ma, Paul W Bohn
Electrochemical reactions at nanoscale structures possess unique characteristics, e.g. fast mass transport, high signal-to-noise ratio at low concentration, and insignificant ohmic losses even at low electrolyte concentrations. These properties motivate the fabrication of high density, laterally ordered arrays of nanopores, embedding vertically stacked metal-insulator-metal electrode structures and exhibiting precisely controlled pore size and interpore spacing for use in redox cycling. These nanoscale recessed ring-disk electrode (RRDE) arrays exhibit current amplification factors, AFRC, as large as 55-fold with Ru(NH3)6(2/3+), indicative of capture efficiencies at the top and bottom electrodes, Φt,b, exceeding 99%...
September 22, 2016: Faraday Discussions
Antoine Bach Delpeuch, Marjorie Jacquot, Marian Chatenet, Carsten Cremers
This study aims to provide further understanding of the influence of different parameters that control mass-transport (the revolution rate of the rotating disk electrode and the potential scan rate) on the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR). The experiments were conducted on a home-made carbon-supported 20 wt% Pt/C electrocatalyst, synthesized using a modified polyol method, and characterized in terms of physicochemical properties by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)...
September 14, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Ling-Xia Zuo, Li-Ping Jiang, E S Abdel-Halim, Jun-Jie Zhu
Porous MnO2 as a non-noble metal oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalyst was prepared by a simple sonochemical route. The as-prepared porous MnO2 exhibited higher electrocatalytic activity, superior stability and better methanol tolerance than commercial Pt/C catalyst in alkaline media. Furthermore, the ORR proceeded via a nearly four-electron pathway. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and rotating-disk electrode (RDE) measurements verified that the ORR enhancement was attributed to the porous structure and good dispersity, which facilitated sufficient transport of ions, electrons, O2 and other reactants in the process of ORR...
September 28, 2016: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
C Katvoravutthichai, K Boonbumrung, R Tiyawisutsri
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most important causes of nosocomial infection and it has increasing resistance to many antimicrobial agents. β-lactamase production is the most frequent mechanism for β-lactam resistance in P. aeruginosa. We evaluated the prevalence of β-lactamase genes in P. aeruginosa for classes A, C, and D by polymerase chain reaction, and investigated clonal diversity by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). We used the disk diffusion method to test 118 non-duplicate clinical isolates of P...
September 23, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
S Barone, A Paoli, A V Razionale, R Savignano
Transparent and removable aligners represent an effective solution to correct various orthodontic malocclusions through minimally invasive procedures. An aligner-based treatment requires patients to sequentially wear dentition-mating shells obtained by thermoforming polymeric disks on reference dental models. An aligner is shaped introducing a geometrical mismatch with respect to the actual tooth positions in order to induce a loading system, which moves the target teeth towards the correct positions. The common practice is based on selecting the aligner features (material, thickness, auxiliary elements) by only considering clinician's subjective assessments...
October 5, 2016: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
Vincenzo Papa, Anna Rita Blanco, Marcello Santocono
PURPOSE: To characterize the ocular flora in a consecutive group of patients having cataract surgery and to determine the antibiotic susceptibility profile of isolates to several ophthalmic antibiotics. SETTING: Hospital Di Stefano, Catania, Italy. DESIGN: Observational case series. METHODS: Conjunctival and eyelid cultures from patients were obtained 14 days before surgery and, if positive, repeated the day of the surgery...
September 2016: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
Soumaya Moustafa Hijazi, Mohamad Anwar Fawzi, Faten Moustafa Ali, Khaled Hussein Abd El Galil
INTRODUCTION: Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) infections are a growing threat to children, and the treatment of these infections becomes more and more challenging. A huge reservoir for ESBLs in the community is the fecal flora of children. This study investigates the rectal colonization, associated risk factors, antimicrobial susceptibility, and molecular characterization of ESBL-PE in Lebanese community infants. METHODOLOGY: A total of 117 rectal swabs were taken from healthy infants between 1 and 12 months of age...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
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