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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233857/timing-of-food-intake-impacts-daily-rhythms-of-human-salivary-microbiota-a-randomized-crossover-study
#1
María Carmen Collado, Phillip A Engen, Cristina Bandín, Raúl Cabrera-Rubio, Robin M Voigt, Stefan J Green, Ankur Naqib, Ali Keshavarzian, Frank A J L Scheer, Marta Garaulet
The composition of the diet (what we eat) has been widely related to the microbiota profile. However, whether the timing of food consumption (when we eat) influences microbiota in humans is unknown. A randomized, crossover study was performed in 10 healthy normal-weight young women to test the effect of the timing of food intake on the human microbiota in the saliva and fecal samples. More specifically, to determine whether eating late alters daily rhythms of human salivary microbiota, we interrogated salivary microbiota in samples obtained at 4 specific time points over 24 h, to achieve a better understanding of the relationship between food timing and metabolic alterations in humans...
December 12, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184122/bacterial-alterations-in-salivary-microbiota-and-their-association-in-oral-cancer
#2
Wei-Hsiang Lee, Hui-Mei Chen, Shun-Fa Yang, Chao Liang, Chih-Yu Peng, Feng-Mao Lin, Lo-Lin Tsai, Buor-Chang Wu, Chung-Han Hsin, Chun-Yi Chuang, Ting Yang, Tzu-Ling Yang, Shinn-Ying Ho, Wen-Liang Chen, Kwo-Chang Ueng, Hsien-Da Huang, Chien-Ning Huang, Yuh-Jyh Jong
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common malignant neoplasm of the oral cavity and the fourth leading malignancy and cause of cancer-related death in the male population of Taiwan. Most cases are detected at advanced stages, resulting in poor prognosis. Therefore, improved detection of early oral health disorders is indispensable. The involvement of oral bacteria in inflammation and their association with OSCC progression provide a feasible target for diagnosis. Due to the nature of oral neoplasms, the diagnosis of epithelial precursor lesions is relatively easy compared with that of other types of cancer...
November 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153519/invited-review-practical-feeding-management-recommendations-to-mitigate-the-risk-of-subacute-ruminal-acidosis-in-dairy-cattle
#3
E Humer, R M Petri, J R Aschenbach, B J Bradford, G B Penner, M Tafaj, K-H Südekum, Q Zebeli
Rumen health is of vital importance in ensuring healthy and efficient dairy cattle production. Current feeding programs for cattle recommend concentrate-rich diets to meet the high nutritional needs of cows during lactation and enhance cost-efficiency. These diets, however, can impair rumen health. The term "subacute ruminal acidosis" (SARA) is often used as a synonym for poor rumen health. In this review, we first describe the physiological demands of cattle for dietary physically effective fiber. We also provide background information on the importance of enhancing salivary secretions and short-chain fatty acid absorption across the stratified squamous epithelium of the rumen; thus, preventing the disruption of the ruminal acid-base balance, a process that paves the way for acidification of the rumen...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125139/salivary-proteins-and-microbiota-as-biomarkers-for-early-childhood-caries-risk-assessment
#4
REVIEW
Abdullah S Hemadi, Ruijie Huang, Yuan Zhou, Jing Zou
Early childhood caries (ECC) is a term used to describe dental caries in children aged 6 years or younger. Oral streptococci, such as Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sorbrinus, are considered to be the main etiological agents of tooth decay in children. Other bacteria, such as Prevotella spp. and Lactobacillus spp., and fungus, that is, Candida albicans, are related to the development and progression of ECC. Biomolecules in saliva, mainly proteins, affect the survival of oral microorganisms by multiple innate defensive mechanisms, thus modulating the oral microflora...
November 10, 2017: International Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105152/proton-pump-inhibitor-alters-oral-microbiome-in-gastrointestinal-tract-of-healthy-volunteers
#5
Tsuyoshi Mishiro, Kentaro Oka, Yasutoshi Kuroki, Motomichi Takahashi, Kasumi Tatsumi, Tsukasa Saitoh, Hiroshi Tobita, Norihisa Ishimura, Shuichi Sato, Shunji Ishihara, Joji Sekine, Koichiro Wada, Yoshikazu Kinoshita
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Acid suppressive agents including proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are used as first-line treatment for various acid-related gastrointestinal disorders. Although known to profoundly reduce gastric acid production, their influence on inhibition of acid secretion as part of the function of the gastrointestinal tract microbiome remains to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of PPI usage on oral and gut microbiota in healthy volunteers. METHODS: Ten healthy adult volunteers receiving no medications were enrolled...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098118/gut-microbiota-and-salivary-diagnostics-the-mouth-is-salivating-to-tell-us-something
#6
REVIEW
Krishna Kodukula, Douglas V Faller, David N Harpp, Iphigenia Kanara, Julie Pernokas, Mark Pernokas, Whitney R Powers, Nikolaos S Soukos, Kosta Steliou, Walter H Moos
The microbiome of the human body represents a symbiosis of microbial networks spanning multiple organ systems. Bacteria predominantly represent the diversity of human microbiota, but not to be forgotten are fungi, viruses, and protists. Mounting evidence points to the fact that the "microbial signature" is host-specific and relatively stable over time. As our understanding of the human microbiome and its relationship to the health of the host increases, it is becoming clear that many and perhaps most chronic conditions have a microbial involvement...
2017: BioResearch Open Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051379/ectopic-colonization-of-oral-bacteria-in-the-intestine-drives-th1-cell-induction-and-inflammation
#7
Koji Atarashi, Wataru Suda, Chengwei Luo, Takaaki Kawaguchi, Iori Motoo, Seiko Narushima, Yuya Kiguchi, Keiko Yasuma, Eiichiro Watanabe, Takeshi Tanoue, Christoph A Thaiss, Mayuko Sato, Kiminori Toyooka, Heba S Said, Hirokazu Yamagami, Scott A Rice, Dirk Gevers, Ryan C Johnson, Julia A Segre, Kong Chen, Jay K Kolls, Eran Elinav, Hidetoshi Morita, Ramnik J Xavier, Masahira Hattori, Kenya Honda
Intestinal colonization by bacteria of oral origin has been correlated with several negative health outcomes, including inflammatory bowel disease. However, a causal role of oral bacteria ectopically colonizing the intestine remains unclear. Using gnotobiotic techniques, we show that strains of Klebsiella spp. isolated from the salivary microbiota are strong inducers of T helper 1 (TH1) cells when they colonize in the gut. These Klebsiella strains are resistant to multiple antibiotics, tend to colonize when the intestinal microbiota is dysbiotic, and elicit a severe gut inflammation in the context of a genetically susceptible host...
October 20, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993578/characterizations-of-oral-microbiota-in-elderly-nursing-home-residents-with-diabetes
#8
Taiji Ogawa, Mariko Honda-Ogawa, Kazunori Ikebe, Yumiko Notomi, Yoshiko Iwamoto, Itsuki Shirobayashi, Seiko Hata, Masahito Kibi, Shizuko Masayasu, Satoshi Sasaki, Shigetada Kawabata, Yoshinobu Maeda
Over 700 bacterial species have been detected in the oral cavity. Several studies have suggested that periodontitis is associated with systemic disorders such as diabetes mellitus, indicating a key role for oral microbiota in human health. However, the relationship between oral microbiota and diabetes has not been well clarified. Therefore, we conducted microbiome analysis of saliva samples obtained from 15 elderly residents (3 with type 2 diabetes mellitus [DM] and 12 without diabetes [non-DM]) at three different nursing homes, as well as 9 young healthy controls (HC)...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979798/metagenomic-and-metatranscriptomic-analysis-of-saliva-reveals-disease-associated-microbiota-in-patients-with-periodontitis-and-dental-caries
#9
Daniel Belstrøm, Florentin Constancias, Yang Liu, Liang Yang, Daniela I Drautz-Moses, Stephan C Schuster, Gurjeet Singh Kohli, Tim Holm Jakobsen, Palle Holmstrup, Michael Givskov
The taxonomic composition of the salivary microbiota has been reported to differentiate between oral health and disease. However, information on bacterial activity and gene expression of the salivary microbiota is limited. The purpose of this study was to perform metagenomic and metatranscriptomic characterization of the salivary microbiota and test the hypothesis that salivary microbial presence and activity could be an indicator of the oral health status. Stimulated saliva samples were collected from 30 individuals (periodontitis: n = 10, dental caries: n = 10, oral health: n = 10)...
2017: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932047/a-relationship-between-salivary-flow-rates-and-candida-counts-in-patients-with-xerostomia
#10
Suchetha Devendrappa Nadig, Deepak Timmasandra Ashwathappa, Muniraju Manjunath, Sowmya Krishna, Araleri Gopalkrishna Annaji, Praveen Kunigal Shivaprakash
CONTEXT: Most of the adult population is colonized by Candida in their oral cavity. The process of colonization depends on several factors, including the interaction between Candida and salivary proteins. Therefore, salivary gland hypofunction may alter the oral microbiota and increase the risk for opportunistic infections, such as candidiasis. Hence, it is necessary to evaluate the relationship between salivary flow rates (SFRs) and Candida colony counts in the saliva of patients with xerostomia...
May 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898418/matrix-metalloproteinase-8-levels-in-periodontal-disease-patients-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
E F de Morais, J C Pinheiro, R B Leite, P P A Santos, C A G Barboza, R A Freitas
Periodontal disease is characterized as a disorder of the oral microbiota resulting in an immune response which, in turn, leads to the destruction of periodontal tissue. Matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) has been reported as the major metalloproteinase involved in periodontal disease, being present at high levels in gingival crevicular fluid and salivary fluid (SF). The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the scientific literature regarding the expression of MMP-8 in gingival crevicular fluid and SF in patients with periodontal disease, analyzing its validity as a possible biomarker in the diagnosis of periodontal disease...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Periodontal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857363/impact-of-transmission-cycles-and-vector-competence-on-global-expansion-and-emergence-of-arboviruses
#12
REVIEW
Ankita Agarwal, Manmohan Parida, Paban Kumar Dash
Arboviruses are transmitted between arthropod vectors and vertebrate host. Arboviral infection in mosquitoes is initiated when a mosquito feeds on a viremic host. Following ingestion of a viremic blood meal by mosquitoes, virus enters midgut along with the blood, infects and replicates in midgut epithelial cells, and then escapes to the hemocoel, from where it disseminates to various secondary organs including salivary glands. Subsequently, when mosquito bites another host, a new transmission cycle is initiated...
August 30, 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842259/a-cytometric-approach-to-follow-variation-and-dynamics-of-the-salivary-microbiota
#13
Susanna van Gelder, Nicola Röhrig, Florian Schattenberg, Nicolas Cichocki, Joachim Schumann, Gerhard Schmalz, Rainer Haak, Dirk Ziebolz, Susann Müller
Microbial flow cytometry is an established fast and economic technique for complex ecosystem studies and enables visualization of rapidly changing community structures by measuring characteristics of single microbial cells. Cytometric evaluation routines are available such as flowCyBar which are useful for automatic data processing. Here, a cytometric workflow was established which allows to routinely analyze salivary microbiomes on the example of ten oral healthy subjects. First, saliva was collected within a 3-month period, cytometrically analyzed and the evolution of the microbiomes followed as well as the calculation of their intra- and inter-subject similarity...
August 22, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819242/the-saliva-microbiome-profiles-are-minimally-affected-by-collection-method-or-dna-extraction-protocols
#14
Yenkai Lim, Makrina Totsika, Mark Morrison, Chamindie Punyadeera
Saliva has attracted attention as a diagnostic fluid due to the association of oral microbiota with systemic diseases. However, the lack of standardised methods for saliva collection has led to the slow uptake of saliva in microbiome research. The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the potential effects on salivary microbiome profiles using different methods of saliva collection, storage and gDNA extraction. Three types of saliva fractions were collected from healthy individuals with or without the gDNA stabilising buffer...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803012/effect-of-fermented-milk-containing-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-sd11-on-oral-microbiota-of-healthy-volunteers-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#15
P Rungsri, N Akkarachaneeyakorn, M Wongsuwanlert, S Piwat, P Nantarakchaikul, R Teanpaisan
The aims of this study were to evaluate whether short-term consumption of fermented milk containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus SD11 affected levels of oral microbiota in vivo and whether L. rhamnosus SD11 could colonize in the human mouth. We also monitored for potential side effects of the probiotic. The applicability of using L. rhamnosus SD11 compared with Lactobacillus bulgaricus as a starter culture for fermented milk was evaluated. After informed consent, 43 healthy young adults were recruited and randomly assigned to either the probiotic or control group and received fermented milk containing L...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800622/microbial-profile-comparisons-of-saliva-pooled-and-site-specific-subgingival-samples-in-periodontitis-patients
#16
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Daniel Belstrøm, Maria Lynn Sembler-Møller, Maria Anastasia Grande, Nikolai Kirkby, Sean Liam Cotton, Bruce J Paster, Palle Holmstrup
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to compare microbial profiles of saliva, pooled and site-specific subgingival samples in patients with periodontitis. We tested the hypotheses that saliva can be an alternative to pooled subgingival samples, when screening for presence of periopathogens. DESIGN: Site specific subgingival plaque samples (n = 54), pooled subgingival plaque samples (n = 18) and stimulated saliva samples (n = 18) were collected from 18 patients with generalized chronic periodontitis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790932/the-effects-of-weaning-methods-on-gut-microbiota-composition-and-horse-physiology
#17
Núria Mach, Aline Foury, Sandra Kittelmann, Fabrice Reigner, Marco Moroldo, Maria Ballester, Diane Esquerré, Julie Rivière, Guillaume Sallé, Philippe Gérard, Marie-Pierre Moisan, Léa Lansade
Weaning has been described as one of the most stressful events in the life of horses. Given the importance of the interaction between the gut-brain axis and gut microbiota under stress, we evaluated (i) the effect of two different weaning methods on the composition of gut microbiota across time and (ii) how the shifts of gut microbiota composition after weaning affect the host. A total of 34 foals were randomly subjected to a progressive (P) or an abrupt (A) weaning method. In the P method, mares were separated from foals at progressively increasing intervals every day, starting from five min during the fourth week prior to weaning and ending with 6 h during the last week before weaning...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780386/salivary-microbiome-in-non-oral-disease-a-summary-of-evidence-and-commentary
#18
REVIEW
Aneesha Acharya, Yuki Chan, Supriya Kheur, Li Jian Jin, Rory M Watt, Nikos Mattheos
OBJECTIVE: The advent of high-throughput sequencing and 'omic' technologies is facilitating an 'open-ended' understanding of the human microbial community and its interplay with health. This commentary aims to present key perspectives and summarize current evidence from metagenomic studies of salivary microbiota in relation to general health and systemic diseases. DESIGN: A narrative review of studies that described salivary microbiome composition in relation to various general health conditions was conducted and the main results were summarized...
July 29, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668353/salsa-a-dance-on-a-slippery-floor-with-changing-partners
#19
REVIEW
M P Reichhardt, U Holmskov, S Meri
It is becoming increasingly clear that the connections between our immune system and the microbiota colonizing us have a tremendous impact on human health. A number of innate molecular defence mechanisms cooperate to selectively target unwanted microorganisms at the mucosal surfaces. Amongst others these include the complement system, IgA and the SALSA molecule. The salivary scavenger and agglutinin (SALSA), also known as deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 (DMBT1), salivary agglutinin (SAG) or gp340 is a multifunctional molecule with important functions in innate immunity, inflammation and epithelial homeostasis...
September 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649403/inter-personal-diversity-and-temporal-dynamics-of-dental-tongue-and-salivary-microbiota-in-the-healthy-oral-cavity
#20
Michael W Hall, Natasha Singh, Kester F Ng, David K Lam, Michael B Goldberg, Howard C Tenenbaum, Josh D Neufeld, Robert G Beiko, Dilani B Senadheera
Oral microbes form a complex and dynamic biofilm community, which is subjected to daily host and environmental challenges. Dysbiosis of the oral biofilm is correlated with local and distal infections and postulating a baseline for the healthy core oral microbiota provides an opportunity to examine such shifts during the onset and recurrence of disease. Here we quantified the daily, weekly, and monthly variability of the oral microbiome by sequencing the largest oral microbiota time-series to date, covering multiple oral sites in ten healthy individuals...
2017: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
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