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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425873/digestibility-of-sulfated-polysaccharide-from-the-brown-seaweed-ascophyllum-nodosum-and-its-effect-on-the-human-gut-microbiota-in-vitro
#1
Ligen Chen, Wei Xu, Dan Chen, Guijie Chen, Junwei Liu, Xiaoxiong Zeng, Rong Shao, Hongjun Zhu
Sulfated polysaccharides from marine algae exhibit various bioactivities with potential benefits for human health and well-being. In this study, the in vitro digestibility and fermentability of polysaccharides from the brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum (AnPs) were examined, and the effects of AnPs on gut microbiota were determined using high-throughput sequencing technology. Salivary amylase, artificial gastric juice, and intestinal juice had no effect on AnPs, but the molecular weight of AnPs and reducing sugar decreased significantly after fermentation by gut microbiota...
February 6, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371629/alterations-of-oral-microbiota-distinguish-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-from-healthy-controls
#2
Yanan Qiao, Mingtao Wu, Yanhuizhi Feng, Zhichong Zhou, Lei Chen, Fengshan Chen
Altered gut microbiota is associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), a group of complex, fast growing but difficult-to-diagnose neurodevelopmental disorders worldwide. However, the role of the oral microbiota in ASD remains unexplored. Via high-throughput sequencing of 111 oral samples in 32 children with ASD and 27 healthy controls, we demonstrated that the salivary and dental microbiota of ASD patients were highly distinct from those of healthy individuals. Lower bacterial diversity was observed in ASD children compared to controls, especially in dental samples...
January 25, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362114/compositional-and-functional-variations-of-oral-microbiota-associated-with-the-mutational-changes-in-oral-cancer
#3
Shun-Fa Yang, Hsien-Da Huang, Wen-Lang Fan, Yuh-Jyh Jong, Mu-Kuan Chen, Chien-Ning Huang, Chun-Yi Chuang, Yu-Lun Kuo, Wen-Hung Chung, Shih-Chi Su
OBJECTIVES: Both genetic and environmental factors are conceivably required to assess the prognosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), yet little is known regarding the relationship between oral microbiome and the mutational spectrum of OSCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Here, we used 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing to study the composition of oral microorganisms in OSCC patients, whose cancer mutational profiles were previously defined by whole-exome sequencing, to evaluate the relationship between oral microbiome and the mutational changes in OSCC...
February 2018: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323208/composition-of-salivary-microbiota-in-elderly-subjects
#4
Taiji Ogawa, Yujiro Hirose, Mariko Honda-Ogawa, Minami Sugimoto, Satoshi Sasaki, Masahito Kibi, Shigetada Kawabata, Kazunori Ikebe, Yoshinobu Maeda
Frailty is gaining attention worldwide with the aging of society. Despite the potential lethality and multiple signs and symptoms in affected individuals, preclinical detection of early manifestations leading to frailty syndrome have not been established. We speculated that the composition of the oral microbiota is associated with general frailty, as well as a relationship between gut microbiota and general health condition. In the present study, we investigated the salivary microbiota composition in samples from healthy and frail elderly individuals using 16S rRNA sequencing analysis for characterization...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316741/association-of-salivary-microbiota-with-dental-caries-incidence-with-dentine-involvement-after-4-years
#5
Bong-Soo Kim, Dong-Hun Han, Ho Lee, Bumjo Oh
Salivary microbiota alterations can correlate with dental caries development in children,and mechanisms mediating this association need to be studied in further detail. Our study explored salivary microbiota shifts in children and their association with the incidence of dental caries with dentin involvement. Salivary samples were collected from children with caries and their subsequently matched caries-free controls before and after caries development. The microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene-based high-throughput sequencing...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233857/timing-of-food-intake-impacts-daily-rhythms-of-human-salivary-microbiota-a-randomized-crossover-study
#6
María Carmen Collado, Phillip A Engen, Cristina Bandín, Raúl Cabrera-Rubio, Robin M Voigt, Stefan J Green, Ankur Naqib, Ali Keshavarzian, Frank A J L Scheer, Marta Garaulet
The composition of the diet (what we eat) has been widely related to the microbiota profile. However, whether the timing of food consumption (when we eat) influences microbiota in humans is unknown. A randomized, crossover study was performed in 10 healthy normal-weight young women to test the effect of the timing of food intake on the human microbiota in the saliva and fecal samples. More specifically, to determine whether eating late alters daily rhythms of human salivary microbiota, we interrogated salivary microbiota in samples obtained at 4 specific time points over 24 h, to achieve a better understanding of the relationship between food timing and metabolic alterations in humans...
December 12, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184122/bacterial-alterations-in-salivary-microbiota-and-their-association-in-oral-cancer
#7
Wei-Hsiang Lee, Hui-Mei Chen, Shun-Fa Yang, Chao Liang, Chih-Yu Peng, Feng-Mao Lin, Lo-Lin Tsai, Buor-Chang Wu, Chung-Han Hsin, Chun-Yi Chuang, Ting Yang, Tzu-Ling Yang, Shinn-Ying Ho, Wen-Liang Chen, Kwo-Chang Ueng, Hsien-Da Huang, Chien-Ning Huang, Yuh-Jyh Jong
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common malignant neoplasm of the oral cavity and the fourth leading malignancy and cause of cancer-related death in the male population of Taiwan. Most cases are detected at advanced stages, resulting in poor prognosis. Therefore, improved detection of early oral health disorders is indispensable. The involvement of oral bacteria in inflammation and their association with OSCC progression provide a feasible target for diagnosis. Due to the nature of oral neoplasms, the diagnosis of epithelial precursor lesions is relatively easy compared with that of other types of cancer...
November 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153519/invited-review-practical-feeding-management-recommendations-to-mitigate-the-risk-of-subacute-ruminal-acidosis-in-dairy-cattle
#8
E Humer, R M Petri, J R Aschenbach, B J Bradford, G B Penner, M Tafaj, K-H Südekum, Q Zebeli
Rumen health is of vital importance in ensuring healthy and efficient dairy cattle production. Current feeding programs for cattle recommend concentrate-rich diets to meet the high nutritional needs of cows during lactation and enhance cost-efficiency. These diets, however, can impair rumen health. The term "subacute ruminal acidosis" (SARA) is often used as a synonym for poor rumen health. In this review, we first describe the physiological demands of cattle for dietary physically effective fiber. We also provide background information on the importance of enhancing salivary secretions and short-chain fatty acid absorption across the stratified squamous epithelium of the rumen; thus, preventing the disruption of the ruminal acid-base balance, a process that paves the way for acidification of the rumen...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125139/salivary-proteins-and-microbiota-as-biomarkers-for-early-childhood-caries-risk-assessment
#9
REVIEW
Abdullah S Hemadi, Ruijie Huang, Yuan Zhou, Jing Zou
Early childhood caries (ECC) is a term used to describe dental caries in children aged 6 years or younger. Oral streptococci, such as Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sorbrinus, are considered to be the main etiological agents of tooth decay in children. Other bacteria, such as Prevotella spp. and Lactobacillus spp., and fungus, that is, Candida albicans, are related to the development and progression of ECC. Biomolecules in saliva, mainly proteins, affect the survival of oral microorganisms by multiple innate defensive mechanisms, thus modulating the oral microflora...
November 10, 2017: International Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105152/proton-pump-inhibitor-alters-oral-microbiome-in-gastrointestinal-tract-of-healthy-volunteers
#10
Tsuyoshi Mishiro, Kentaro Oka, Yasutoshi Kuroki, Motomichi Takahashi, Kasumi Tatsumi, Tsukasa Saitoh, Hiroshi Tobita, Norihisa Ishimura, Shuichi Sato, Shunji Ishihara, Joji Sekine, Koichiro Wada, Yoshikazu Kinoshita
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Acid suppressive agents including proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are used as first-line treatment for various acid-related gastrointestinal disorders. Although known to profoundly reduce gastric acid production, their influence on inhibition of acid secretion as part of the function of the gastrointestinal tract microbiome remains to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of PPI usage on oral and gut microbiota in healthy volunteers. METHODS: Ten healthy adult volunteers receiving no medications were enrolled...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098118/gut-microbiota-and-salivary-diagnostics-the-mouth-is-salivating-to-tell-us-something
#11
REVIEW
Krishna Kodukula, Douglas V Faller, David N Harpp, Iphigenia Kanara, Julie Pernokas, Mark Pernokas, Whitney R Powers, Nikolaos S Soukos, Kosta Steliou, Walter H Moos
The microbiome of the human body represents a symbiosis of microbial networks spanning multiple organ systems. Bacteria predominantly represent the diversity of human microbiota, but not to be forgotten are fungi, viruses, and protists. Mounting evidence points to the fact that the "microbial signature" is host-specific and relatively stable over time. As our understanding of the human microbiome and its relationship to the health of the host increases, it is becoming clear that many and perhaps most chronic conditions have a microbial involvement...
2017: BioResearch Open Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051379/ectopic-colonization-of-oral-bacteria-in-the-intestine-drives-t-h-1-cell-induction-and-inflammation
#12
Koji Atarashi, Wataru Suda, Chengwei Luo, Takaaki Kawaguchi, Iori Motoo, Seiko Narushima, Yuya Kiguchi, Keiko Yasuma, Eiichiro Watanabe, Takeshi Tanoue, Christoph A Thaiss, Mayuko Sato, Kiminori Toyooka, Heba S Said, Hirokazu Yamagami, Scott A Rice, Dirk Gevers, Ryan C Johnson, Julia A Segre, Kong Chen, Jay K Kolls, Eran Elinav, Hidetoshi Morita, Ramnik J Xavier, Masahira Hattori, Kenya Honda
Intestinal colonization by bacteria of oral origin has been correlated with several negative health outcomes, including inflammatory bowel disease. However, a causal role of oral bacteria ectopically colonizing the intestine remains unclear. Using gnotobiotic techniques, we show that strains of Klebsiella spp. isolated from the salivary microbiota are strong inducers of T helper 1 (T H 1) cells when they colonize in the gut. These Klebsiella strains are resistant to multiple antibiotics, tend to colonize when the intestinal microbiota is dysbiotic, and elicit a severe gut inflammation in the context of a genetically susceptible host...
October 20, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993578/characterizations-of-oral-microbiota-in-elderly-nursing-home-residents-with-diabetes
#13
Taiji Ogawa, Mariko Honda-Ogawa, Kazunori Ikebe, Yumiko Notomi, Yoshiko Iwamoto, Itsuki Shirobayashi, Seiko Hata, Masahito Kibi, Shizuko Masayasu, Satoshi Sasaki, Shigetada Kawabata, Yoshinobu Maeda
Over 700 bacterial species have been detected in the oral cavity. Several studies have suggested that periodontitis is associated with systemic disorders such as diabetes mellitus, indicating a key role for oral microbiota in human health. However, the relationship between oral microbiota and diabetes has not been well clarified. Therefore, we conducted microbiome analysis of saliva samples obtained from 15 elderly residents (3 with type 2 diabetes mellitus [DM] and 12 without diabetes [non-DM]) at three different nursing homes, as well as 9 young healthy controls (HC)...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979798/metagenomic-and-metatranscriptomic-analysis-of-saliva-reveals-disease-associated-microbiota-in-patients-with-periodontitis-and-dental-caries
#14
Daniel Belstrøm, Florentin Constancias, Yang Liu, Liang Yang, Daniela I Drautz-Moses, Stephan C Schuster, Gurjeet Singh Kohli, Tim Holm Jakobsen, Palle Holmstrup, Michael Givskov
The taxonomic composition of the salivary microbiota has been reported to differentiate between oral health and disease. However, information on bacterial activity and gene expression of the salivary microbiota is limited. The purpose of this study was to perform metagenomic and metatranscriptomic characterization of the salivary microbiota and test the hypothesis that salivary microbial presence and activity could be an indicator of the oral health status. Stimulated saliva samples were collected from 30 individuals (periodontitis: n = 10, dental caries: n = 10, oral health: n = 10)...
2017: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932047/a-relationship-between-salivary-flow-rates-and-candida-counts-in-patients-with-xerostomia
#15
Suchetha Devendrappa Nadig, Deepak Timmasandra Ashwathappa, Muniraju Manjunath, Sowmya Krishna, Araleri Gopalkrishna Annaji, Praveen Kunigal Shivaprakash
CONTEXT: Most of the adult population is colonized by Candida in their oral cavity. The process of colonization depends on several factors, including the interaction between Candida and salivary proteins. Therefore, salivary gland hypofunction may alter the oral microbiota and increase the risk for opportunistic infections, such as candidiasis. Hence, it is necessary to evaluate the relationship between salivary flow rates (SFRs) and Candida colony counts in the saliva of patients with xerostomia...
May 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898418/matrix-metalloproteinase-8-levels-in-periodontal-disease-patients-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
E F de Morais, J C Pinheiro, R B Leite, P P A Santos, C A G Barboza, R A Freitas
Periodontal disease is characterized as a disorder of the oral microbiota resulting in an immune response which, in turn, leads to the destruction of periodontal tissue. Matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) has been reported as the major metalloproteinase involved in periodontal disease, being present at high levels in gingival crevicular fluid and salivary fluid (SF). The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the scientific literature regarding the expression of MMP-8 in gingival crevicular fluid and SF in patients with periodontal disease, analyzing its validity as a possible biomarker in the diagnosis of periodontal disease...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Periodontal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857363/impact-of-transmission-cycles-and-vector-competence-on-global-expansion-and-emergence-of-arboviruses
#17
REVIEW
Ankita Agarwal, Manmohan Parida, Paban Kumar Dash
Arboviruses are transmitted between arthropod vectors and vertebrate host. Arboviral infection in mosquitoes is initiated when a mosquito feeds on a viremic host. Following ingestion of a viremic blood meal by mosquitoes, virus enters midgut along with the blood, infects and replicates in midgut epithelial cells, and then escapes to the hemocoel, from where it disseminates to various secondary organs including salivary glands. Subsequently, when mosquito bites another host, a new transmission cycle is initiated...
August 30, 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842259/a-cytometric-approach-to-follow-variation-and-dynamics-of-the-salivary-microbiota
#18
Susanna van Gelder, Nicola Röhrig, Florian Schattenberg, Nicolas Cichocki, Joachim Schumann, Gerhard Schmalz, Rainer Haak, Dirk Ziebolz, Susann Müller
Microbial flow cytometry is an established fast and economic technique for complex ecosystem studies and enables visualization of rapidly changing community structures by measuring characteristics of single microbial cells. Cytometric evaluation routines are available such as flowCyBar which are useful for automatic data processing. Here, a cytometric workflow was established which allows to routinely analyze salivary microbiomes on the example of ten oral healthy subjects. First, saliva was collected within a 3-month period, cytometrically analyzed and the evolution of the microbiomes followed as well as the calculation of their intra- and inter-subject similarity...
August 22, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819242/the-saliva-microbiome-profiles-are-minimally-affected-by-collection-method-or-dna-extraction-protocols
#19
Yenkai Lim, Makrina Totsika, Mark Morrison, Chamindie Punyadeera
Saliva has attracted attention as a diagnostic fluid due to the association of oral microbiota with systemic diseases. However, the lack of standardised methods for saliva collection has led to the slow uptake of saliva in microbiome research. The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the potential effects on salivary microbiome profiles using different methods of saliva collection, storage and gDNA extraction. Three types of saliva fractions were collected from healthy individuals with or without the gDNA stabilising buffer...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803012/effect-of-fermented-milk-containing-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-sd11-on-oral-microbiota-of-healthy-volunteers-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#20
P Rungsri, N Akkarachaneeyakorn, M Wongsuwanlert, S Piwat, P Nantarakchaikul, R Teanpaisan
The aims of this study were to evaluate whether short-term consumption of fermented milk containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus SD11 affected levels of oral microbiota in vivo and whether L. rhamnosus SD11 could colonize in the human mouth. We also monitored for potential side effects of the probiotic. The applicability of using L. rhamnosus SD11 compared with Lactobacillus bulgaricus as a starter culture for fermented milk was evaluated. After informed consent, 43 healthy young adults were recruited and randomly assigned to either the probiotic or control group and received fermented milk containing L...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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