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salivary microbiota

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833819/salivary-microbiomes-of-indigenous-tsimane-mothers-and-infants-are-distinct-despite-frequent-premastication
#1
Cliff S Han, Melanie Ann Martin, Armand E K Dichosa, Ashlynn R Daughton, Seth Frietze, Hillard Kaplan, Michael D Gurven, Joe Alcock
BACKGROUND: Premastication, the transfer of pre-chewed food, is a common infant and young child feeding practice among the Tsimane, forager-horticulturalists living in the Bolivian Amazon. Research conducted primarily with Western populations has shown that infants harbor distinct oral microbiota from their mothers. Premastication, which is less common in these populations, may influence the colonization and maturation of infant oral microbiota, including via transmission of oral pathogens...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822543/the-oral-and-skin-microbiomes-of-captive-komodo-dragons-are-significantly-shared-with-their-habitat
#2
Embriette R Hyde, Jose A Navas-Molina, Se Jin Song, Jordan G Kueneman, Gail Ackermann, Cesar Cardona, Gregory Humphrey, Don Boyer, Tom Weaver, Joseph R Mendelson, Valerie J McKenzie, Jack A Gilbert, Rob Knight
Examining the way in which animals, including those in captivity, interact with their environment is extremely important for studying ecological processes and developing sophisticated animal husbandry. Here we use the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) to quantify the degree of sharing of salivary, skin, and fecal microbiota with their environment in captivity. Both species richness and microbial community composition of most surfaces in the Komodo dragon's environment are similar to the Komodo dragon's salivary and skin microbiota but less similar to the stool-associated microbiota...
July 2016: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793169/oral-microbiota-carriage-in-patients-with-multibracket-appliance-in-relation-to-the-quality-of-oral-hygiene
#3
Katharina Klaus, Johanna Eichenauer, Rhea Sprenger, Sabine Ruf
BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of oral microbiota (Candida species (spp.), Streptococcus mutans, and Lactobacilli) in patients with multibracket (MB) appliances in relation to the quality of oral hygiene. Saliva and plaque samples were collected from three groups of 25 patients each (good oral hygiene (GOH), poor oral hygiene (POH), and poor oral hygiene with white spot lesions (POH/WSL)). Counts of colony forming units (CFU) of the investigated oral microbiota were compared using Chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests...
October 28, 2016: Head & Face Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770517/microbiological-and-bioinformatics-analysis-of-primary-sjogren-s-syndrome-patients-with-normal-salivation
#4
Huma Siddiqui, Tsute Chen, Ardita Aliko, Piotr M Mydel, Roland Jonsson, Ingar Olsen
BACKGROUND: Reduced salivation is considered a major clinical feature of most but not all cases of primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). Reduced saliva flow may lead to changes in the salivary microbiota. These changes have mainly been studied with culture that typically recovers only 65% of the bacteria present. OBJECTIVE: This study was to use high throughput sequencing, covering both cultivated and not-yet-cultivated bacteria, to assess the bacterial microbiota of whole saliva in pSS patients with normal salivation...
2016: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759406/salivary-microbiota-and-caries-occurrence-in-mutans-streptococci-positive-school-children
#5
M ElSalhy, E Söderling, E Honkala, M Fontana, S Flannagan, A Kokaras, B J Paster, A Varghese, S Honkala
AIM: To compare the composition of the salivary microbiota in caries-affected vs. caries-free mutans streptococci (MS)- positive children with mixed dentition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty eight healthy, 11-12-year-old schoolchildren with high MS counts (>10⊃5 CFU/mL) were included in this study. The children were screened with the Dentocult SM Strip Mutans test (Orion Diagnostica, Espoo, Finland) and examined using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS)...
September 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Dentistry: Official Journal of European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684425/oral-colostrum-priming-shortens-hospitalization-without-changing-the-immunomicrobial-milieu
#6
J Romano-Keeler, M A Azcarate-Peril, J-H Weitkamp, J C Slaughter, W H McDonald, S Meng, M S Latuga, J L Wynn
OBJECTIVE: Oral colostrum priming (OCP) after birth in preterm infants is associated with improved weight gain and modification of the oral immunomicrobial environment. We hypothesized that OCP would modify salivary immune peptides and the oral microbiota in preterm infants. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a prospective, randomized clinical trial to determine the effects of OCP on salivary immune peptide representation in preterm infants (<32 weeks completed gestation at birth)...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672500/metaproteomics-of-saliva-identifies-human-protein-markers-specific-for-individuals-with-periodontitis-and-dental-caries-compared-to-orally-healthy-controls
#7
Daniel Belstrøm, Rosa R Jersie-Christensen, David Lyon, Christian Damgaard, Lars J Jensen, Palle Holmstrup, Jesper V Olsen
BACKGROUND: The composition of the salivary microbiota has been reported to differentiate between patients with periodontitis, dental caries and orally healthy individuals. To identify characteristics of diseased and healthy saliva we thus wanted to compare saliva metaproteomes from patients with periodontitis and dental caries to healthy individuals. METHODS: Stimulated saliva samples were collected from 10 patients with periodontitis, 10 patients with dental caries and 10 orally healthy individuals...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27585820/saliva-in-the-diagnosis-of-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Chen-Zi Zhang, Xing-Qun Cheng, Ji-Yao Li, Ping Zhang, Ping Yi, Xin Xu, Xue-Dong Zhou
Saliva is secreted from the salivary glands and has multiple functions, including mouth cleaning and protection, antibacterial effects and digestion. With the rapid advancement in salivaomics, saliva is well recognized as a pool of biological markers. Saliva, as a non-invasive and safe source, could be a substitute for blood in the diagnosis and prognosis of diseases. This review summarizes the latest advancements in saliva-related studies and addresses the potential value of saliva in the early diagnosis of oral diseases, such as dental caries and periodontal disease, as well as cancer, diabetes and other systemic disorders...
2016: International Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27491067/transferring-the-blues-depression-associated-gut-microbiota-induces-neurobehavioural-changes-in-the-rat
#9
John R Kelly, Yuliya Borre, Ciaran O' Brien, Elaine Patterson, Sahar El Aidy, Jennifer Deane, Paul J Kennedy, Sasja Beers, Karen Scott, Gerard Moloney, Alan E Hoban, Lucinda Scott, Patrick Fitzgerald, Paul Ross, Catherine Stanton, Gerard Clarke, John F Cryan, Timothy G Dinan
The gut microbiota interacts with the host via neuroimmune, neuroendocrine and neural pathways. These pathways are components of the brain-gut-microbiota axis and preclinical evidence suggests that the microbiota can recruit this bidirectional communication system to modulate brain development, function and behaviour. The pathophysiology of depression involves neuroimmune-neuroendocrine dysregulation. However, the extent to which changes in gut microbiota composition and function mediate the dysregulation of these pathways is unknown...
November 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27458979/ecological-hypothesis-of-dentin-and-root-caries
#10
Nobuhiro Takahashi, Bente Nyvad
Recent advances regarding the caries process indicate that ecological phenomena induced by bacterial acid production tilt the de- and remineralization balance of the dental hard tissues towards demineralization through bacterial acid-induced adaptation and selection within the microbiota - from the dynamic stability stage to the aciduric stage via the acidogenic stage [Takahashi and Nyvad, 2008]. Dentin and root caries can also be partly explained by this hypothesis; however, the fact that these tissues contain a considerable amount of organic material suggests that protein degradation is involved in caries formation...
2016: Caries Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27452636/salivary-and-fecal-microbiota-and-metabolome-of-celiac-children-under-gluten-free-diet
#11
Maria De Angelis, Lucia Vannini, Raffaella Di Cagno, Noemi Cavallo, Fabio Minervini, Ruggiero Francavilla, Danilo Ercolini, Marco Gobbetti
Celiac disease (CD) is an inflammatory autoimmune disorder resulting from the combination of genetic predisposition and gluten ingestion. A life-long gluten free diet (GFD) is the only therapeutic approach. Dysbiosis, which can precede the CD pathogenesis and/or persist when subjects are on GFD, is reviewed and discussed. Salivary microbiota and metabolome differed between healthy and celiac children treated under GFD (T-CD) for at least two years. The type of GFD (African- vs Italian-style) modified the microbiota and metabolome of Saharawi T-CD children...
July 19, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27324130/cutting-edge-commensal-microbiota-has-disparate-effects-on-manifestations-of-polyglandular-autoimmune-inflammation
#12
Camilla H F Hansen, Leonid A Yurkovetskiy, Alexander V Chervonsky
Polyglandular autoimmune inflammation accompanies type 1 diabetes (T1D) in NOD mice, affecting organs like thyroid and salivary glands. Although commensals are not required for T1D progression, germ-free (GF) mice had a very low degree of sialitis, which was restored by colonization with select microbial lineages. Moreover, unlike T1D, which is blocked in mice lacking MyD88 signaling adaptor under conventional, but not GF, housing conditions, sialitis did not develop in MyD88(-/-) GF mice. Thus, microbes and MyD88-dependent signaling are critical for sialitis development...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27208120/fermented-milk-containing-lactobacillus-casei-strain-shirota-preserves-the-diversity-of-the-gut-microbiota-and-relieves-abdominal-dysfunction-in-healthy-medical-students-exposed-to-academic-stress
#13
Akito Kato-Kataoka, Kensei Nishida, Mai Takada, Mitsuhisa Kawai, Hiroko Kikuchi-Hayakawa, Kazunori Suda, Hiroshi Ishikawa, Yusuke Gondo, Kensuke Shimizu, Takahiro Matsuki, Akira Kushiro, Ryoutaro Hoshi, Osamu Watanabe, Tomoki Igarashi, Kouji Miyazaki, Yuki Kuwano, Kazuhito Rokutan
UNLABELLED: Stress-induced abdominal dysfunction is an attractive target for probiotics. To investigate the effects of the probiotic Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota on abdominal dysfunction, a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted with healthy medical students undertaking an authorized nationwide examination for academic advancement. For 8 weeks, until the day before the examination, 23 and 24 subjects consumed an L. casei strain Shirota-fermented milk and a placebo milk daily, respectively...
June 15, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27157862/the-effects-of-family-dentition-and-dental-caries-on-the-salivary-microbiome
#14
Betsy Foxman, Ting Luo, Usha Srinivasan, Kirtana Ramadugu, Ai Wen, Deborah Goldberg, Kerby Shedden, Richard Crout, Daniel W McNeil, Robert Weyant, Mary L Marazita
PURPOSE: Family members share genes, environment, and microbial communities. If there is a strong effect of family on the salivary microbiota, controlling for family will enhance identification of microbial communities associated with cariogenesis. The present study was designed to assess the similarity of the salivary microbiome among families and the association between the salivary microbiome and dental decay taking age into account. METHODS: We selected families (n = 49) participating in the cohort study of oral health conducted by the Center for Oral Health Research in Appalachia...
May 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27099636/changes-in-the-oral-moisture-and-the-amount-of-microorganisms-in-saliva-and-tongue-coating-after-oral-ingestion-resumption-a-pilot-study
#15
Natsuki Kishimoto, Roxana Stegaroiu, Satoko Shibata, Kayoko Ito, Makoto Inoue, Akitsugu Ohuchi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Tube feeding has been significantly associated with a higher rate of aspiration pneumonia that is mainly related to oral microorganisms and a reduced salivary flow. Thus, the difference in the mode of nutritional intake is expected to affect the oral environment, but this has not yet been fully clarified. The purpose of this study was to investigate, in tube-fed patients, changes in the oral moisture and the counts of microorganisms in saliva and tongue coating, which occur after oral ingestion resumption...
2016: Open Dentistry Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27094556/microbiota-based-signature-of-gingivitis-treatments-a-randomized-study
#16
Shi Huang, Zhen Li, Tao He, Cunpei Bo, Jinlan Chang, Lin Li, Yanyan He, Jiquan Liu, Duane Charbonneau, Rui Li, Jian Xu
Plaque-induced gingivitis can be alleviated by various treatment regimens. To probe the impacts of various anti-gingivitis treatments on plaque microflora, here a double blinded, randomized controlled trial of 91 adults with moderate gingivitis was designed with two anti-gingivitis regimens: the brush-alone treatment and the brush-plus-rinse treatment. In the later group, more reduction in both Plaque Index (TMQHI) and Gingival Index (mean MGI) at Day 3, Day 11 and Day 27 was evident, and more dramatic changes were found between baseline and other time points for both supragingival plaque microbiota structure and salivary metabonomic profiles...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27063111/the-salivary-microbiome-for-differentiating-individuals-proof-of-principle
#17
Sarah L Leake, Marco Pagni, Laurent Falquet, Franco Taroni, Gilbert Greub
Human identification has played a prominent role in forensic science for the past two decades. Identification based on unique genetic traits is driving the field. However, this may have limitations, for instance, for twins. Moreover, high-throughput sequencing techniques are now available and may provide a high amount of data likely useful in forensic science. This study investigates the potential for bacteria found in the salivary microbiome to be used to differentiate individuals. Two different targets (16S rRNA and rpoB) were chosen to maximise coverage of the salivary microbiome and when combined, they increase the power of differentiation (identification)...
June 2016: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27036492/mucosal-and-salivary-microbiota-associated-with-recurrent-aphthous-stomatitis
#18
Yun-Ji Kim, Yun Sik Choi, Keum Jin Baek, Seok-Hwan Yoon, Hee Kyung Park, Youngnim Choi
BACKGROUND: Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is a common oral mucosal disorder of unclear etiopathogenesis. Although recent studies of the oral microbiota by high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes have suggested that imbalances in the oral microbiota may contribute to the etiopathogenesis of RAS, no specific bacterial species associated with RAS have been identified. The present study aimed to characterize the microbiota in the oral mucosa and saliva of RAS patients in comparison with control subjects at the species level...
2016: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27001253/cleansing-effect-of-acidic-l-arginine-on-human-oral-biofilm
#19
Ayano Tada, Haruyuki Nakayama-Imaohji, Hisashi Yamasaki, Khaleque Hasibul, Saori Yoneda, Keiko Uchida, Hirofumi Nariya, Motoo Suzuki, Minoru Miyake, Tomomi Kuwahara
BACKGROUND: Dental plaque formed on tooth surfaces is a complex ecosystem composed of diverse oral bacteria and salivary components. Accumulation of dental plaque is a risk factor for dental caries and periodontal diseases. L-arginine has been reported to decrease the risk for dental caries by elevating plaque pH through the activity of arginine deiminase in oral bacteria. Here we evaluated the potential of L-arginine to remove established oral biofilms. METHODS: Biofilms were formed using human saliva mixed with Brain Heart Infusion broth supplemented with 1 % sucrose in multi-well plates or on plastic discs...
2016: BMC Oral Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26968919/salivary-proteomics-a-new-adjuvant-approach-to-the-early-diagnosis-of-familial-juvenile-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#20
Aline Lauria P Abrão, Denise Pinheiro Falcao, Rivadávio Fernandes Batista de Amorim, Ana Cristina B Bezerra, Gilson Augusto N M Pombeiro, Luciano Junqueira Guimarães, Felipe Fregni, Luciano Paulino Silva, Licia Maria Henrique da Mota
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic multisystemic disease characterized by autoimmune inflammatory disturbance. Pleomorphic manifestations are present and a potentially progressive and debilitating course can be detected. SLE rarely manifests before age 5, and its onset peaks is around puberty. Although clinical manifestations, immunological alterations and treatment do not differ between juvenile and adult SLE, children tend to present with a more aggressive disease course than adults. Hence, autoimmune rheumatic diseases are the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatric populations...
April 2016: Medical Hypotheses
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