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Neural inflammation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782624/the-underlying-mechanisms-involved-in-the-protective-effects-of-ischemic-postconditioning
#1
Rong Xie, Jinquan Li, Heng Zhao
Cerebral ischemic postconditioning (PostC) refers to a series of brief ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) cycles applied at the onset of reperfusion following an ischemic event. PostC has been shown to have neuroprotective effects, and represents a promising clinical strategy against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Many studies have indicated that cerebral PostC can effectively reduce neural cell death, cerebral edema and infarct size, improve cerebral circulation, and relieve inflammation, apoptosis and oxidative stress...
2018: Conditioning medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780321/toll-like-receptor-2-signaling-and-current-approaches-for-therapeutic-modulation-in-synucleinopathies
#2
REVIEW
Ian F Caplan, Kathleen A Maguire-Zeiss
The innate immune response in the central nervous system (CNS) is implicated as both beneficial and detrimental to health. Integral to this process are microglia, the resident immune cells of the CNS. Microglia express a wide variety of pattern-recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors, that detect changes in the neural environment. The activation of microglia and the subsequent proinflammatory response has become increasingly relevant to synucleinopathies, including Parkinson's disease the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disease...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775678/synaptic-transmission-and-excitability-during-hypoxia-with-inflammation-and-reoxygenation-in-hippocampal-ca1-neurons
#3
Yoon-Sil Yang, Sook Jin Son, Joon Ho Choi, Jong-Cheol Rah
Although a number of experimental and clinical studies have shown that hypoxia typically accompanies acute inflammatory responses, the combinatorial effect of the two insults on basic neural function has not been thoroughly investigated. Previous studies have predominantly suggested that hypoxia reduces network activity; however, several studies suggest the opposite effect. Of note, inflammation is known to increase neural activity. In the current study, we examined the effects of limited oxygen in combination with an inflammatory stimulus, as well as the effects of reoxygenation, on synaptic transmission and excitability...
May 15, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767741/gateway-reflex-neural-activation-mediated-immune-cell-gateways-in-the-central-nervous-system
#4
Daisuke Kamimura, Takuto Ohki, Yasunobu Arima, Masaaki Murakami
The neural regulation of organs can be categorized as systemic or local. Whereas systemic regulation by the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal gland-mediated release of steroid hormones has been well studied, the mechanisms for local regulation have only recently emerged. Two types of local neural regulation are known, the gateway reflex and the inflammatory reflex. The gateway reflex describes a mechanism that converts regional neural stimulations into inflammatory outputs by changing the state of specific blood vessels...
May 15, 2018: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760738/dental-mesenchymal-stem-stromal-cells-and-their-exosomes
#5
REVIEW
Peter Stanko, Ursula Altanerova, Jana Jakubechova, Vanda Repiska, Cestmir Altaner
Stem cells derived from human dental pulp tissue (DP-MSC) differ from the other mesenchymal stem cells prepared from bone marrow or adipose tissue due to their embryonic origin from the neural crest and are of special interest because of their neurotropic character. Furthermore, the therapeutic potential of DP-MSCs is realized through paracrine action of extracellularly released components, for which exosomes play an important role. In this review, we intend to explore the properties of these cells with an emphasis on exosomes...
2018: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760681/sex-steroids-adult-neurogenesis-and-inflammation-in-cns-homeostasis-degeneration-and-repair
#6
REVIEW
Tracy A Larson
Sex steroidal hormones coordinate the development and maintenance of tissue architecture in many organs, including the central nervous systems (CNS). Within the CNS, sex steroids regulate the morphology, physiology, and behavior of a wide variety of neural cells including, but not limited to, neurons, glia, endothelial cells, and immune cells. Sex steroids spatially and temporally control distinct molecular networks, that, in turn modulate neural activity, synaptic plasticity, growth factor expression and function, nutrient exchange, cellular proliferation, and apoptosis...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755536/preclinical-study-of-ibuprofen-loaded-transnasal-mucoadhesive-microemulsion-for-neuroprotective-effect-in-mptp-mice-model
#7
Surjyanarayan Mandal, Snigdha Das Mandal, Krishna Chuttani, Krutika K Sawant, Bharat Bhushan Subudhi
Ibuprofen, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), showed very promising neuroprotection action, but it suffers from high first pass metabolism and limited ability to cross blood brain barrier. Severe gastric toxicity following oral administration further limits its utility. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate whether ibuprofen loaded mucoadhesive microemulsion (MMEI) could enhance the brain uptake and could also protect the dopaminergic neurons from MPTP-mediated neural inflammation. In this work, ibuprofen loaded polycarbophil based mucoadhesive microemulsion (MMEI) was developed by using response surface methodology (RSM)...
2018: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754498/axonal-guidance-signaling-pathway-is-suppressed-in-human-nasal-polyps
#8
Dawei Wu, Sarina K Mueller, Angela L Nocera, Kristen Finn, Towia A Libermann, Benjamin S Bleier
Background Dysfunctional innervation might contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP), but the state of the axonal outgrowth signaling in CRSwNP is unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore the axonal outgrowth pathway-related protein expression in CRSwNP. Methods Institutional review board approved study in which tissue proteomes were compared between control and CRSwNP patients (n = 10/group) using an aptamer-based proteomic array and confirmed by whole transcriptomic analysis...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753753/dietary-polyphenols-and-neurogenesis-molecular-interactions-and-implication-for-brain-ageing-and-cognition
#9
REVIEW
F Sarubbo, D Moranta, G Pani
The increased number of elderly people worldwide poses a major medical and socio-economic challenge: the search of strategies to combat the consequences of the aging process. Oxidative stress and inflammation have been pointed out as the leading causes of brain aging, which in turn alters the functionality of brain. In this context, decline in adult neurogenesis (AN), due to modifications in the neural progenitor stem cells (NSCs) and their microenvironment, is among the aging alterations contributing to cognitive decline...
May 10, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751028/role-of-c1-neurons-in-anti-inflammatory-reflex-mediation-between-afferents-and-efferents
#10
REVIEW
Chikara Abe, Tsuyoshi Inoue
Neuroimmune communication, the connection between the autonomic regulatory pathway and immune cells, has been implicated in the regulation of immune function and inflammation. The role of afferents (vagal afferent and somatic sensory nerves) and efferents (autonomic nervous and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal systems) in the inflammatory reflex has been well studied; however, the central pathway remains unknown. C1 neurons include both catecholaminergic and glutamatergic neurons, which are located in the rostral ventrolateral medulla...
May 8, 2018: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742480/clinical-benefits-and-pharmacology-of-scutellarin-a-comprehensive-review
#11
REVIEW
Liping Wang, Qiang Ma
Stroke and myocardial infarction are among the most common causes of mortality and disability in the world. The ischemic injury underlying these illnesses is complex, involving intricate interplays among many biological functions including energy metabolism, vascular regulation, hemodynamics, oxidative stress, inflammation, platelet activation, and tissue repair that take place in a context- and time-dependent manner. The current drug therapy of choice is to timely resupply the blood to the ischemic tissue; but reperfusion may introduce additional harm to the tissue through a process known as ischemia/reperfusion injury...
May 6, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742058/neurological-manifestations-in-autoinflammatory-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Antonio Uccelli, Marco Gattorno
Autoinflammatory diseases (AIDs) are a distinct group of diseases characterised by a dysregulation of the innate immune response leading to systemic inflammation. The clinical spectrum of these conditions is extremely variable and possibly every system and tissue can be involved, including the central nervous system (CNS). Indeed, neurological manifestations may dominate the clinical picture from disease onset in some rare conditions. However, the involvement of the CNS in AIDs is not a disease in itself, but represents a rare complication which is consequent to a systemic or local immune response, mainly involving cells of the innate immunity...
January 2018: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736562/evaluation-of-brain-nuclear-medicine-imaging-tracers-in-a-murine-model-of-sepsis-associated-encephalopathy
#13
Dávid Szöllősi, Nikolett Hegedűs, Dániel S Veres, Ildikó Futó, Ildikó Horváth, Noémi Kovács, Bernadett Martinecz, Ádám Dénes, Daniel Seifert, Ralf Bergmann, Ondřej Lebeda, Zoltán Varga, Zoltán Kaleta, Krisztián Szigeti, Domokos Máthé
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate a set of widely used nuclear medicine imaging agents as possible methods to study the early effects of systemic inflammation on the living brain in a mouse model of sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE). The lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced murine systemic inflammation model was selected as a model of SAE. PROCEDURES: C57BL/6 mice were used. A multimodal imaging protocol was carried out on each animal 4 h following the intravenous administration of LPS using the following tracers: [99m Tc][2,2-dimethyl-3-[(3E)-3-oxidoiminobutan-2-yl]azanidylpropyl]-[(3E)-3-hydroxyiminobutan-2-yl]azanide ([99m Tc]HMPAO) and ethyl-7-[125 I]iodo-5-methyl-6-oxo-4H-imidazo[1,5-a][1,4]benzodiazepine-3-carboxylate ([125 I]iomazenil) to measure brain perfusion and neuronal damage, respectively; 2-deoxy-2-[18 F]fluoro-D-glucose ([18 F]FDG) to measure cerebral glucose uptake...
May 7, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735018/arachidonic-acid-activates-extrinsic-apoptotic-pathway-to-enhance-tumoricidal-action-of-bleomycin-against-imr-32-cells
#14
Sailaja Polavarapu, Bilikere S Dwarakanath, Undurti N Das
Bleomycin is a commonly used anti-cancer drug in the management of a variety of cancers. Previously, we showed that arachidonic acid (AA) augmented the growth inhibitory action of bleomycin on IMR-32 (human neuroblastoma cells) in vitro by enhancing oxidative stress. Despite these results, the exact molecular mechanism of cytotoxic action of bleomycin and its augmentation by AA is not known. Our current study revealed that a combination of bleomycin and AA significantly enhanced the expression of FAS gene, which is involved in programmed cell death (apoptosis) and caspases 3 and 8 compared to either bleomycin or AA alone implying that activation of extrinsic apoptotic pathway plays a major role in their (bleomycin + AA) tumoricidal action...
May 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733569/directing-ipsc-derived-neural-stem-cell-fate-with-3d-biomimetic-hydrogel-for-spinal-cord-injury-repair
#15
Lei Fan, Can Liu, Xiuxing Chen, Yan Zou, Zhengnan Zhou, Chengkai Lin, Guoxin Tan, Lei Zhou, Chengyun Ning, Qiyou Wang
Current treatment approaches for spinal cord injuries (SCIs) are mainly based on cellular transplantation. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) without supply constraints and ethical concerns have emerged as a viable treatment option for repairing neurological disorders. However, the primarily limitations in the neuroregeneration field are uncontrolled cell differentiation, and low cell viability caused by the ischemic environment. The mechanical property of three-dimensional (3D) hydrogel can be easily controlled and shared similar characteristics with nerve tissue, thus promoting cell survival and controlled cell differentiation...
May 7, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728993/the-crosstalk-of-gut-microbiota-and-chronic-kidney-disease-role-of-inflammation-proteinuria-hypertension-and-diabetes-mellitus
#16
REVIEW
Mehmet Kanbay, Emine M Onal, Baris Afsar, Tuncay Dagel, Aslihan Yerlikaya, Adrian Covic, Nosratola D Vaziri
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been shown to result in profound changes in the composition and functions of the gut microbial flora which by disrupting intestinal epithelial barrier and generating toxic by-products contributes to systemic inflammation and the associated complications. On the other hand, emerging evidence points to the role of the gut microbiota in the development and progression of CKD by provoking inflammation, proteinuria, hypertension, and diabetes. These observations demonstrate the causal interconnection between the gut microbial dysbiosis and CKD...
May 4, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722303/harnessing-migraines-for-neural-regeneration
#17
REVIEW
Jonathan M Borkum
The success of naturalistic or therapeutic neuroregeneration likely depends on an internal milieu that facilitates the survival, proliferation, migration, and differentiation of stem cells and their assimilation into neural networks. Migraine attacks are an integrated sequence of physiological processes that may protect the brain from oxidative stress by releasing growth factors, suppressing apoptosis, stimulating neurogenesis, encouraging mitochondrial biogenesis, reducing the production of oxidants, and upregulating antioxidant defenses...
April 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720226/increased-a20-e3-ubiquitin-ligase-interactions-in-bid-deficient-glia-attenuate-tlr3-and-tlr4-induced-inflammation
#18
Sinéad Kinsella, Michael Fichtner, Orla Watters, Hans-Georg König, Jochen H M Prehn
BACKGROUND: Chronic pro-inflammatory signaling propagates damage to neural tissue and affects the rate of disease progression. Increased activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), master regulators of the innate immune response, is implicated in the etiology of several neuropathologies including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. Previously, we identified that the Bcl-2 family protein BH3-interacting domain death agonist (Bid) potentiates the TLR4-NF-κB pro-inflammatory response in glia, and specifically characterized an interaction between Bid and TNF receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6) in microglia in response to TLR4 activation...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719134/an-intelligent-neural-stem-cell-delivery-system-for-neurodegenerative-diseases-treatment
#19
Shupei Qiao, Yi Liu, Fengtong Han, Mian Guo, Xiaolu Hou, Kangruo Ye, Shuai Deng, Yijun Shen, Yufang Zhao, Haiying Wei, Bing Song, Lifen Yao, Weiming Tian
Transplanted stem cells constitute a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of neurological disorders. Emerging evidence indicates that a negative microenvironment, particularly one characterized by the acute inflammation/immune response caused by physical injuries or transplanted stem cells, severely impacts the survival of transplanted stem cells. In this study, to avoid the influence of the increased inflammation following physical injuries, an intelligent, double-layer, alginate hydrogel system is designed...
May 2, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717383/-18-f-dpa-714-pet-imaging-shows-immunomodulatory-effect-of-intravenous-administration-of-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-after-transient-focal-ischemia
#20
Chengbo Tan, Songji Zhao, Kei Higashikawa, Zifeng Wang, Masahito Kawabori, Takeo Abumiya, Naoki Nakayama, Ken Kazumata, Naoyuki Ukon, Hironobu Yasui, Nagara Tamaki, Yuji Kuge, Hideo Shichinohe, Kiyohiro Houkin
BACKGROUND: The potential application of bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) therapy in stroke has been anticipated due to its immunomodulatory effects. Recently, positron emission tomography (PET) with [18 F]DPA-714, a translocator protein (TSPO) ligand, has become available for use as a neural inflammatory indicator. We aimed to evaluate the effects of BMSC administration after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) using [18 F]DPA-714 PET. The BMSCs or vehicle were administered intravenously to rat MCAO models at 3 h after the insult...
May 2, 2018: EJNMMI Research
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