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Neural inflammation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220786/intrauterine-zika-virus-infection-of-pregnant-immunocompetent-mice-models-transplacental-transmission-and-adverse-perinatal-outcomes
#1
Meghan S Vermillion, Jun Lei, Yahya Shabi, Victoria K Baxter, Nathan P Crilly, Michael McLane, Diane E Griffin, Andrew Pekosz, Sabra L Klein, Irina Burd
Zika virus (ZIKV) crosses the placenta and causes congenital disease. Here we develop an animal model utilizing direct ZIKV inoculation into the uterine wall of pregnant, immunocompetent mice to evaluate transplacental transmission. Intrauterine inoculation at embryonic day (E) 10, but not E14, with African, Asian or American strains of ZIKV reduces fetal viability and increases infection of placental and fetal tissues. ZIKV inoculation at E10 causes placental inflammation, placental dysfunction and reduces neonatal brain cortical thickness, which is associated with increased activation of microglia...
February 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217093/mindfulness-training-for-healthy-aging-impact-on-attention-well-being-and-inflammation
#2
REVIEW
Stephanie Fountain-Zaragoza, Ruchika Shaurya Prakash
The growing interest in mindfulness interventions for use in aging samples has been met with promising evidence of cognitive, emotional, and physiological benefits. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the impact of mindfulness training on three areas of functioning in older adults: behavioral and neural correlates of attentional performance, psychological well-being, and systemic inflammation. We have previously proposed that mindfulness training is uniquely suited as a rehabilitative tool for conferring both cognitive and emotional benefits for older adults...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216088/sex-differences-in-the-neuro-immune-consequences-of-stress-focus-on-depression-and-anxiety
#3
REVIEW
Mandakh Bekhbat, Gretchen N Neigh
Women appear to be more vulnerable to the depressogenic effects of inflammation than men. Chronic stress, one of the most pertinent risk factors of depression and anxiety, is known to induce behavioral and affective-like deficits via neuroimmune alterations including activation of the brain's immune cells, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, and subsequent changes in neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity within stress-related neural circuitry. Despite well-established sexual dimorphisms in the stress response, immunity, and prevalence of stress-linked psychiatric illnesses, much of current research investigating the neuroimmune impact of stress remains exclusively focused on male subjects...
February 16, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194443/sustained-inflammation-after-pericyte-depletion-induces-irreversible-blood-retina-barrier-breakdown
#4
Shuntaro Ogura, Kaori Kurata, Yuki Hattori, Hiroshi Takase, Toshina Ishiguro-Oonuma, Yoonha Hwang, Soyeon Ahn, Inwon Park, Wataru Ikeda, Sentaro Kusuhara, Yoko Fukushima, Hiromi Nara, Hideto Sakai, Takashi Fujiwara, Jun Matsushita, Masatsugu Ema, Masanori Hirashima, Takashi Minami, Masabumi Shibuya, Nobuyuki Takakura, Pilhan Kim, Takaki Miyata, Yuichiro Ogura, Akiyoshi Uemura
In the central nervous system, endothelial cells (ECs) and pericytes (PCs) of blood vessel walls cooperatively form a physical and chemical barrier to maintain neural homeostasis. However, in diabetic retinopathy (DR), the loss of PCs from vessel walls is assumed to cause breakdown of the blood-retina barrier (BRB) and subsequent vision-threatening vascular dysfunctions. Nonetheless, the lack of adequate DR animal models has precluded disease understanding and drug discovery. Here, by using an anti-PDGFRβ antibody, we show that transient inhibition of the PC recruitment to developing retinal vessels sustained EC-PC dissociations and BRB breakdown in adult mouse retinas, reproducing characteristic features of DR such as hyperpermeability, hypoperfusion, and neoangiogenesis...
February 9, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188219/distinct-effects-of-mir-210-reduction-on-neurogenesis-increased-neuronal-survival-of-inflammation-but-reduced-proliferation-associated-with-mitochondrial-enhancement
#5
Ludmila A Voloboueva, Xiaoyun Sun, Lijun Xu, Yi-Bing Ouyang, Rona G Giffard
Neurogenesis is essential to brain development, and plays a central role in the response to brain injury. Stroke and head trauma stimulate proliferation of endogenous neural stem cells (NSC). However, the survival of young neurons is sharply reduced by post-injury inflammation. Cellular mitochondria are critical to successful neurogenesis and are a major target of inflammatory injury. Mitochondrial protection was shown to improve survival of young neurons. This study tested whether reducing cellular microRNA-210 (miR-210) would enhance mitochondrial function and improve survival of young murine neurons under inflammatory conditions...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183031/threat-related-amygdala-activity-is-associated-with-peripheral-crp-concentrations-in-men-but-not-women
#6
Johnna R Swartz, Aric A Prather, Ahmad R Hariri
Increased levels of peripheral inflammatory markers, including C-Reactive Protein (CRP), are associated with increased risk for depression, anxiety, and suicidality. The brain mechanisms that may underlie the association between peripheral inflammation and internalizing problems remain to be determined. The present study examines associations between peripheral CRP concentrations and threat-related amygdala activity, a neural biomarker of depression and anxiety risk, in a sample of 172 young adult undergraduate students...
January 25, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181735/the-innervation-of-the-kidney-in-renal-injury-and-inflammation-a-cause-and-consequence-of-deranged-cardiovascular-control
#7
REVIEW
Mohammed H Abdulla, Edward J Johns
Extensive investigations have revealed that renal sympathetic nerves regulate renin secretion, tubular fluid reabsorption and renal haemodynamics which can impact on cardiovascular homoeostasis normally and in pathophysiological states. The significance of the renal afferent innervation and its role in determining the autonomic control of the cardiovascular system is uncertain. The transduction pathways at the renal afferent nerves have been shown to require pro-inflammatory mediators and TRPV1 channels. Reno-renal reflexes have been described, both inhibitory and excitatory, demonstrating that a neural link exists between kidneys and may determine the distribution of excretory and haemodynamic function between the two kidneys...
February 9, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176047/gastrointestinal-physiology-and-function
#8
Beverley Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Anthony C Johnson, David Grundy
The gastrointestinal (GI) system is responsible for the digestion and absorption of ingested food and liquids. Due to the complexity of the GI tract and the substantial volume of material that could be covered under the scope of GI physiology, this chapter briefly reviews the overall function of the GI tract, and discusses the major factors affecting GI physiology and function, including the intestinal microbiota, chronic stress, inflammation, and aging with a focus on the neural regulation of the GI tract and an emphasis on basic brain-gut interactions that serve to modulate the GI tract...
February 8, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170004/inflammation-and-the-neural-diathesis-stress-hypothesis-of-schizophrenia-a-reconceptualization
#9
REVIEW
O D Howes, R McCutcheon
An interaction between external stressors and intrinsic vulnerability is one of the longest standing pathoaetiological explanations for schizophrenia. However, novel lines of evidence from genetics, preclinical studies, epidemiology and imaging have shed new light on the mechanisms that may underlie this, implicating microglia as a key potential mediator. Microglia are the primary immune cells of the central nervous system. They have a central role in the inflammatory response, and are also involved in synaptic pruning and neuronal remodeling...
February 7, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160390/angiotensin-ii-type-ii-receptors-and-colonic-dysmotility-in-2-4-dinitrofluorobenzenesulfonic-acid-induced-colitis-in-rats
#10
M G Zizzo, M Auteri, A Amato, G Caldara, D Nuzzo, M Di Carlo, R Serio
BACKGROUND: Angiotensin II (Ang II), the main peptide of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), has been suggested to be involved in inflammatory bowel diseases. Since RAS has emerged as gut motility regulator, and dysmotility is associated with intestinal inflammation, our objective was to investigate in rat 2,4-dinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (DNBS)-induced colitis the functionality of RAS and its contribution to colonic motor alterations. METHODS: The effects of Ang II on the longitudinal colonic muscular contractility of control and DNBS-treated rats were characterized in vitro...
February 3, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155242/sensory-neuron-regulation-of-gastrointestinal-inflammation-and-bacterial-host-defence
#11
N Y Lai, K Mills, I M Chiu
Sensory neurons in the gastrointestinal tract have multifaceted roles in maintaining homeostasis, detecting danger and initiating protective responses. The gastrointestinal tract is innervated by three types of sensory neurons: dorsal root ganglia, nodose/jugular ganglia and intrinsic primary afferent neurons. Here, we examine how these distinct sensory neurons and their signal transducers participate in regulating gastrointestinal inflammation and host defence. Sensory neurons are equipped with molecular sensors that enable neuronal detection of diverse environmental signals including thermal and mechanical stimuli, inflammatory mediators and tissue damage...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153531/a-selective-cb2r-agonist-jwh133-restores-neuronal-circuit-after-germinal-matrix-hemorrhage-in-the-preterm-via-cx3cr1-microglia
#12
Jun Tang, Hongping Miao, Bing Jiang, Qianwei Chen, Liang Tan, Yihao Tao, Jianbo Zhang, Fabao Gao, Hua Feng, Gang Zhu, Zhi Chen
Microglia play dual roles after germinal matrix hemorrhage, and the neurotrophic phenotype maybe neuroprotective. However, the phenotype transformation and the way by which neuron-microglia dialogue remain unclear. We raise the hypothesis that a cannabinoid receptor2 agonist (JWH133) accelerates the CX3CR1(+) microglia secreting neurotrophic factors and restores damaged neuronal circuit. Here, we report a novel function of JWH133 in transforming the microglia CX3CR1 positive that secrete brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which triggers neuron proliferation and neuronal restoration...
January 30, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146457/the-nerve-a-fragile-balance-between-physiology-and-pathophysiology
#13
Jean-Pierre Estebe, Arthur Atchabahian
Regarding nerves as simple cables and electrical conduits is a gross error that does not allow us to understand the anomalies and disorders observed postoperatively. Instead, nerves should be seen as a living tissue of which physiological regulation is as complex as that of the blood-brain barrier. This review describes the basic structure and functions of this blood-nerve barrier and highlights the mechanisms of its breakdown and the resultant disorders. For clinical practice, it is important to note that the diffusion of molecules from the perineurium or from the blood is very limited, and so the blood-nerve barrier is a major pharmacologic barrier...
March 2017: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142224/effects-of-sulforaphane-on-neural-stem-cell-proliferation-and-differentiation
#14
Zhenxian Han, Qian Xu, Changfu Li, Hong Zhao
Sulforaphane (SFN) is a natural organosulfur compound with ant-oxidant and anti-inflammation properties. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of SFN on the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells (NSC). NSCs were exposed to SFN at the concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 10 µM. Cell viability was evaluated with MTT assay and lactate dehydogenase (LDH) release assay. The proliferation of NSCs was evaluated with neurosphere formation assay and Ki-67 staining. The level of Tuj-1 was evaluated with immunostaining and western blot to assess NSC neuronal differentiation...
January 31, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139935/systemic-activation-of-toll-like-receptor-2-suppresses-mitochondrial-respiration-and-exacerbates-hypoxic-ischemic-injury-in-the-developing-brain
#15
Amin Mottahedin, Pernilla Svedin, Syam Nair, Carl-Johan Mohn, Xiaoyang Wang, Henrik Hagberg, Joakim Ek, Carina Mallard
Infection and inflammation are known risk factors for neonatal brain injury. Mycoplasma and Gram-positive bacteria, for which Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) plays a key role in recognition and inflammatory response, are among the most common pathogens in the perinatal period. Here, we report that systemic activation of TLR2 by Pam3CSK4 (P3C) increases neural tissue loss and demyelination induced by subsequent hypoxia-ischemia (HI) in neonatal mice. High-resolution respirometry of brain isolated mitochondria revealed that P3C suppresses ADP-induced oxidative phosphorylation, the main pathway of cellular energy production...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127747/crosstalk-between-sphingolipids-and-vitamin-d3-potential-role-in-the-nervous-system
#16
REVIEW
Mercedes Garcia-Gil, Federica Pierucci, Ambra Vestri, Elisabetta Meacci
Sphingolipids are both structural and bioactive compounds. In particular ceramide and sphingosine 1-phosphate regulate cell fate, inflammation, and excitability. 1-alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2 D3 ), is known to play an important physiological role on growth and differentiation in a variety of cell types, including neural cells, through genomic actions, mediated by its specific receptor, and non-genomic actions resulting in the activation of specific signalling pathways. 1,25(OH)2 D3 and sphingolipids, in particular sphingosine-1-phosphate, share many common effectors, including calcium regulation, growth factors and inflammatory cytokines, but whether they could act synergistically is still unknown...
January 27, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126500/systemic-inflammation-and-resting-state-connectivity-of-the-default-mode-network
#17
Anna L Marsland, Dora C-H Kuan, Lei K Sheu, Katarina Krajina, Thomas E Kraynak, Stephen B Manuck, Peter J Gianaros
The default mode network (DMN) encompasses brain systems that exhibit coherent neural activity at rest. DMN brain systems have been implicated in diverse social, cognitive, and affective processes, as well as risk for forms of dementia and psychiatric disorders that associate with systemic inflammation. Areas of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and surrounding medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) within the DMN have been implicated specifically in regulating autonomic and neuroendocrine processes that relate to systemic inflammation via bidirectional signaling mechanisms...
January 23, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123490/reduced-inflammatory-cell-recruitment-and-tissue-damage-in-spinal-cord-injury-by-acellular-spinal-cord-scaffold-seeded-with-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#18
Yu-Hai Wang, Jian Chen, Jing Zhou, Feng Nong, Jin-Han Lv, Jia Liu
Therapy using acellular spinal cord (ASC) scaffolds seeded with bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) has previously been shown to restore function of the damaged spinal cord and improve functional recovery in a rat model of acute hemisected spinal cord injury (SCI). The aim of the present study was to determine whether BMSCs and ASC scaffolds promote the functional recovery of the damaged spinal cord in a rat SCI model through regulation of apoptosis and immune responses. Whether this strategy regulates secondary inflammation, which is characterized by the infiltration of immune cells and inflammatory mediators to the lesion site, in SCI repair was investigated...
January 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123433/cortical-spreading-depression-induced-preconditioning-in-the-brain
#19
REVIEW
Ping-Ping Shen, Shuai Hou, Di Ma, Ming-Ming Zhao, Ming-Qin Zhu, Jing-Dian Zhang, Liang-Shu Feng, Li Cui, Jia-Chun Feng
Cortical spreading depression is a technique used to depolarize neurons. During focal or global ischemia, cortical spreading depression-induced preconditioning can enhance tolerance of further injury. However, the underlying mechanism for this phenomenon remains relatively unclear. To date, numerous issues exist regarding the experimental model used to precondition the brain with cortical spreading depression, such as the administration route, concentration of potassium chloride, induction time, duration of the protection provided by the treatment, the regional distribution of the protective effect, and the types of neurons responsible for the greater tolerance...
November 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117838/early-onset-of-inflammation-during-ontogeny-of-bipolar-disorder-the-nlrp2-inflammasome-gene-distinctly-differentiates-between-patients-and-healthy-controls-in-the-transition-between-ips-cell-and-neural-stem-cell-stages
#20
D Vizlin-Hodzic, Q Zhai, S Illes, K Södersten, K Truvé, T Z Parris, P K Sobhan, S Salmela, S T Kosalai, C Kanduri, J Strandberg, H Seth, T O Bontell, E Hanse, H Ågren, K Funa
Neuro-inflammation and neuronal communication are considered as mis-regulated processes in the aetiology and pathology of bipolar disorder (BD). Which and when specific signal pathways become abnormal during the ontogeny of bipolar disorder patients is unknown. To address this question, we applied induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology followed by cortical neural differentiation on adipocyte-derived cells from BD type I patients (with psychotic episodes in psychiatric history) and healthy volunteers (controls)...
January 24, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
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