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Neural inflammation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352519/nafamostat-mesilate-attenuates-inflammation-and-apoptosis-and-promotes-locomotor-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury
#1
Hui-Quan Duan, Qiu-Li Wu, Xue Yao, Bao-You Fan, Hong-Yu Shi, Chen-Xi Zhao, Yan Zhang, Bo Li, Chao Sun, Xiao-Hong Kong, Xin-Fu Zhou, Shi-Qing Feng
AIM: Spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to severe neural damage for which there is currently no effective treatment. Exploration of the neuroprotective effect among clinically approved drugs will speed up clinical translation of SCI. Nafamostat mesilate (NM) as a synthetic serine protease inhibitor has been used clinically in pancreatitis treatments. However, its effectiveness in SCI is unknown. The aim of this study was to confirm the efficacy of NM in ameliorating SCI. METHODS: Intraperitoneal administration of NM was performed on a contusion SCI model in Wistar rat...
January 19, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329321/impact-of-lipopolysaccharide-induced-acute-inflammation-on-baroreflex-controlled-sympathetic-arterial-pressure-regulation
#2
Takeshi Tohyama, Keita Saku, Toru Kawada, Takuya Kishi, Keimei Yoshida, Takuya Nishikawa, Hiroshi Mannoji, Kazuhiro Kamada, Kenji Sunagawa, Hiroyuki Tsutsui
BACKGROUND: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces acute inflammation, activates sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and alters hemodynamics. Since the arterial baroreflex is a negative feedback system to stabilize arterial pressure (AP), examining the arterial baroreflex function is a prerequisite to understanding complex hemodynamics under LPS challenge. We investigated the impact of LPS-induced acute inflammation on SNA and AP regulation by performing baroreflex open-loop analysis. METHODS: Ten anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats were used...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321396/-molecular-and-cellular-mechanisms-underlying-the-sterile-inflammation-after-ischemic-stroke
#3
Takashi Shichita
Inflammation is an essential step for the pathology of ischemic stroke, and is also an important therapeutic target for developing novel therapeutic methods which have a wide therapeutic time window. Since there is no pathogen in the brain, the inflammation will be triggered by some endogenous molecules which are called as danger associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). So far two important DAMPs, high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and peroxiredoxin (PRX), have been recently identified in the ischemic brain. HMGB1 exaggerates the disruption of blood brain barrier; on the other hand, PRX activates mononuclear phagocytes and induces the inflammatory cytokine production through the activation of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4...
2018: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318974/-understanding-the-role-of-hypoxia-inducible-factor-during-neurodegeneration-for-new-therapeutics-opportunities
#4
Amalia Merelli, Julio Cesar Garcia Rodriguez, Jaume Folch, Marcelo R Regueiro, Antoni Camins, Lazarowski Alberto
Neurodegeneration (NDG) is linked with the progressive loss of neural function with intellectual and/or motor impairment. Several diseases affecting older individuals, including Alzheimer's disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, stroke, Multiple Sclerosis and many others, are the most relevant disorders associated with NDG. Since other pathologies such as refractory epilepsy, brain infections, or hereditary diseases such as "neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation", also lead to chronic brain inflammation with loss of neural cells, NDG can be said to affect all ages...
January 10, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304004/effects-of-fluoxetine-on-hippocampal-neurogenesis-and-neuroprotection-in-the-model-of-global-cerebral-ischemia-in-rats
#5
Marina Khodanovich, Alena Kisel, Marina Kudabaeva, Galina Chernysheva, Vera Smolyakova, Elena Krutenkova, Irina Wasserlauf, Mark Plotnikov, Vasily Yarnykh
A selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine, has recently attracted a significant interest as a neuroprotective therapeutic agent. There is substantial evidence of improved neurogenesis under fluoxetine treatment of brain ischemia in animal stroke models. We studied long-term effects of fluoxetine treatment on hippocampal neurogenesis, neuronal loss, inflammation, and functional recovery in a new model of global cerebral ischemia (GCI). Brain ischemia was induced in adult Wistar male rats by transient occlusion of three main vessels originating from the aortic arch and providing brain blood supply...
January 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302190/plasma-complement-component-4-increases-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#6
Jinxue Wei, Ye Liu, Liansheng Zhao, Xiao Yang, Peiyan Ni, Yingcheng Wang, Tao Li, Xiaohong Ma
Elevation of plasma inflammatory factors in major depressive disorder (MDD) has been repeatedly observed, but contradictory results have also been reported. Alteration of complement components in MDD may also contribute to the pathophysiology of MDD by participating in inflammation. The recent findings that complement component 4 (C4) was involved in neural synapse elimination and associated with schizophrenia implicated the potential roles of C4 in MDD. In this study, we analyzed the plasma concentration of complement C4 and inflammatory factors, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, interferon-α, interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α, of 53 patients with MDD and 60 healthy individuals...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300049/hirschsprung-disease-integrating-basic-science-and-clinical-medicine-to-improve-outcomes
#7
REVIEW
Robert O Heuckeroth
Hirschsprung disease is defined by the absence of enteric neurons at the end of the bowel. The enteric nervous system (ENS) is the intrinsic nervous system of the bowel and regulates most aspects of bowel function. When the ENS is missing, there are no neurally mediated propulsive motility patterns, and the bowel remains contracted, causing functional obstruction. Symptoms of Hirschsprung disease include constipation, vomiting, abdominal distension and growth failure. Untreated disease usually causes death in childhood because bloodstream bacterial infections occur in the context of bowel inflammation (enterocolitis) or bowel perforation...
January 4, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285724/management-of-itch-in-atopic-dermatitis
#8
REVIEW
Janelle Pavlis, Gil Yosipovitch
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common itchy dermatosis that affects millions of children and adults worldwide. Chronic itch in this condition has significant impact on measures of quality of life, such as sleep. Treating itch in AD has been challenging for decades, but new drugs have emerged in the last year with significant anti-pruritic effect. The optimal treatment regimen for atopic itch addresses barrier dysfunction, inflammation, neural hypersensitivity, and the itch-scratch cycle. Topical moisturizers remain the foundation of treatment and should be used by all patients with AD-associated pruritus...
December 28, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285108/elevation-of-arachidonoylethanolamide-levels-by-activation-of-the-endocannabinoid-system-protects-against-colitis-and-ameliorates-remote-organ-lesions-in-mice
#9
Xiaolin Zhao, Peng Liang, Jin Liu, Haixia Jiang, Xiaoshuai Fan, Guo Chen, Cheng Zhou
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a potential pharmaceutical target for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). The aim of this study was to explore the effects of activation of the ECS on IBD and the associated neural inflammation-induced disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In a mouse model of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis, the inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase with URB597 elevated the arachidonoylethanolamide concentration of the colon. Macroscopic alterations of the colons were evaluated, and the 7-day survival rate of mice was analyzed...
December 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285094/neuroprotective-effects-of-astragaloside-iv-on-parkinson-disease-models-of-mice-and-primary-astrocytes
#10
Lei Xia, Dianxuan Guo, Bing Chen
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by a progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Inflammation and neural degeneration are implicated in the pathogenesis of PD. Astragaloside IV (AS-IV) has been verified to attenuate inflammation. The current study aimed to investigate the role of AS-IV in PD and the possible molecular mechanisms. Pole, traction and swim tests were performed to examine the effects of AS-IV on 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-generated behavioral deficiencies in vivo...
December 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283023/neuroinflammation-mast-cells-and-glia-dangerous-liaisons
#11
Stephen D Skaper, Laura Facci, Morena Zusso, Pietro Giusti
The perspective of neuroinflammation as an epiphenomenon following neuron damage is being replaced by the awareness of glia and their importance in neural functions and disorders. Systemic inflammation generates signals that communicate with the brain and leads to changes in metabolism and behavior, with microglia assuming a pro-inflammatory phenotype. Identification of potential peripheral-to-central cellular links is thus a critical step in designing effective therapeutics. Mast cells may fulfill such a role...
October 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276737/neural-egf-like-protein-1-nell-1-signaling-crosstalk-in-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-applications-in-regenerative-medicine
#12
Mikhail Pakvasa, Alex Alverdy, Sami Mostafa, Eric Wang, Lucy Fu, Alexander Li, Leonardo Oliveira, Aravind Athiviraham, Michael J Lee, Jennifer Moriatis Wolf, Tong-Chuan He, Guillermo A Ameer, Russell R Reid
Bone tissue regeneration holds the potential to solve both osteoporosis and large skeletal defects, two problems associated with significant morbidity. The differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into the osteogenic lineage requires a specific microenvironment and certain osteogenic growth factors. Neural EGF Like-Like molecule 1 (NELL-1) is a secreted glycoprotein that has proven, both in vitro and in vivo, to be a potent osteo-inductive factor. Furthermore, it has been shown to repress adipogenic differentiation and inflammation...
September 2017: Genes & Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274879/glial-cell-responses-in-a-murine-multifactorial-perinatal-brain-injury-model
#13
Miriam Domowicz, Natasha L Wadlington, Judith G Henry, Kasandra Diaz, Miranda J Munoz, Nancy B Schwartz
The impact of traumatic brain injury during the perinatal period, which coincides with glial cell (astrocyte and oligodendrocyte) maturation was assessed to determine whether a second insult, e.g., increased inflammation due to remote bacterial exposure, exacerbates the initial injury's effects, possibly eliciting longer-term brain damage. Thus, a murine multifactorial injury model incorporating both mechanisms consisting of perinatal penetrating traumatic brain injury, with or without intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an analog of remote pathogen exposure has been developed...
December 21, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261495/-astrocytes-and-microglia-active-players-in-synaptic-plasticity
#14
Rémi Ronzano
Synaptic plasticity consists in a change in structure and composition of presynaptic and postsynaptic compartments. For a long time, synaptic plasticity had been thought as a neuronal mechanism only under the control of neural network activity. However, recently, with the growing knowledge about glial physiology, plasticity has been reviewed as a mechanism influenced by the synaptic environment. Thus, it appears that astrocytes and microglia modulate these mechanisms modifying neural environment by clearance of neurotransmitters, releasing essential factors and modulating inflammation...
December 2017: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251112/in-vivo-long-term-tracking-of-neural-stem-cells-transplanted-into-an-acute-ischemic-stroke-model-with-reporter-gene-based-bimodal-mr-and-optical-imaging
#15
Fang Zhang, Xiaohui Duan, Liejing Lu, Xiang Zhang, Meiwei Chen, Jiaji Mao, Minghui Cao, Jun Shen
Transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) is emerging as a new therapeutic approach for stroke. Real-time imaging of transplanted NSCs is essential for successful cell delivery, safety monitoring, tracking cell fate and function, and understanding the interactions of transplanted cells with the host environment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of magnetic nanoparticle-labeled cells has been the most widely used means to track stem cells in vivo. Nevertheless, it does not allow for the reliable discrimination between live and dead cells...
October 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247260/adolescent-cocaine-exposure-induces-prolonged-synaptic-modifications-in-medial-prefrontal-cortex-of-adult-rats
#16
Wei Zhu, Xuhui Ge, Peng Gao, Min Li, Yun Guan, Xiaowei Guan
Substance used during adolescent period increases the risk of psychiatric disorders in later life, but the underlying neural mechanisms remain unclear. We hypothesize that synaptic remodeling and changes of homeostasis in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) following adolescent cocaine exposure may last for a long time, and these modifications may contribute to behavioral deficiencies in adulthood. To address this hypothesis, rats were exposed to cocaine hydrochloride from postnatal day 28 (P28) to P42. When reared to adulthood, rats were subjected to behavioral tests...
December 15, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246652/the-effect-of-minocycline-on-indolamine-2-3-dioxygenase-expression-and-the-levels-of-kynurenic-acid-and-quinolinic-acid-in-lps-activated-primary-rat-microglia
#17
Zahra Bahrami, Masoumeh Firouzi, Afrouzeh Hashemi-Monfared, Hamid Zahednasab, Mohammad Hossein Harirchian
Microglia are one of the most important neural cells in the central nervous system (CNS) which account for 10-15% of all cells found in the brain. A vast majority of studies indicate that microglia play a pivotal role in protection and damage of the CNS. It has been shown that microglia are mainly scavenger cells but also produce a barrage of factors that are involved in tissue repair and neural regeneration. Several lines of evidence indicate that unregulated activation of microglia in response to either endogenous or exogenous insults results in the production of toxic factors that propagate neuronal injury...
December 13, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238017/-the-interface-between-the-immune-system-and-autonomic-nervous-system
#18
Shunya Nakane, Akihiro Mukaino, Yukio Ando
  The nervous system and the immune system are two major systems in human body. Although it was revealed these two systems correlated, the control of immune cell dynamics by the nervous system has come to draw a lot of attention at the present time. Recent advances in basic and preclinical science reveal that reflex neural circuits inhibit the production of cytokines and inflammation in several animal models. One well-characterized cytokine-inhibiting mechanism, termed the "inflammatory reflex", is dependent upon vagus nerve stimulation that inhibits cytokine production and attenuates the inflammation...
2017: Nihon Rinshō Men'eki Gakkai Kaishi, Japanese Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233741/cyclooxygenase-enzyme-activity-does-not-impair-respiratory-motor-plasticity-after-one-night-of-intermittent-hypoxia
#19
Adrianne G Huxtable, Elizabeth Kopp, Brendan J Doughtery, Jyoti J Watters, Gordon S Mitchell
Although inflammation is prevalent in many clinical disorders challenging breathing, we are only beginning to understand the impact of inflammation on neural mechanisms of respiratory control. We recently demonstrated one form of respiratory motor plasticity is extremely sensitive to even mild inflammation induced by a single night (8 h) of intermittent hypoxia (IH-1), mimicking aspects of obstructive sleep apnea. Specifically, phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF) following moderate acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) is abolished by IH-1, but restored by high doses of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, ketoprofen...
December 9, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228949/a-mathematical-model-for-histamine-synthesis-release-and-control-in-varicosities
#20
Janet Best, H F Nijhout, Srimal Samaranayake, Parastoo Hashemi, Michael Reed
BACKGROUND: Histamine (HA), a small molecule that is synthesized from the amino acid histidine, plays an important role in the immune system where it is associated with allergies, inflammation, and T-cell regulation. In the brain, histamine is stored in mast cells and other non-neuronal cells and also acts as a neurotransmitter. The histamine neuron cell bodies are in the tuberomammillary (TM) nucleus of the hypothalamus and these neurons send projections throughout the central nervous system (CNS), in particular to the cerebral cortex, amygdala, basal ganglia, hippocampus, thalamus, retina, and spinal cord...
December 12, 2017: Theoretical Biology & Medical Modelling
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