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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927446/neurochemical-and-behavioral-characterization-of-neuronal-glutamate-transporter-eaat3-heterozygous-mice
#1
Luis F González, Francisca Henríquez-Belmar, Claudia Delgado-Acevedo, Marisol Cisternas-Olmedo, Gloria Arriagada, Ramón Sotomayor-Zárate, Dennis L Murphy, Pablo R Moya
BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a severe neuropsychiatric condition affecting 1-3% of the worldwide population. OCD has a strong genetic component, and the SLC1A1 gene that encodes neuronal glutamate transporter EAAT3 is a strong candidate for this disorder. To evaluate the impact of reduced EAAT3 expression in vivo, we studied male EAAT3 heterozygous and wild-type littermate mice using a battery of behavioral paradigms relevant to anxiety (open field test, elevated plus maze) and compulsivity (marble burying), as well as locomotor activity induced by amphetamine...
September 19, 2017: Biological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922504/selective-remodeling-of-glutamatergic-transmission-to-striatal-cholinergic-interneurons-after-dopamine-depletion
#2
Jose de Jesus Aceves Buendia, Lior Tiroshi, Wei-Hua Chiu, Joshua A Goldberg
The widely-held view that the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease arises from an under-activation of the direct pathway striatal spiny neurons (dSPNs) has gained support from a recently described weakening of the glutamatergic projection from the parafascicular nucleus (PfN) to dSPNs in experimental parkinsonism. However, the impact of the remodeling of the thalamostriatal projection cannot be fully appreciated without considering its impact on cholinergic interneurons (ChIs) that themselves preferentially activate indirect pathway spiny neurons (iSPNs)...
September 18, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921757/the-neurobiological-bases-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-the-r451c-neuroligin-3-mutation-hampers-the-expression-of-long-term-synaptic-depression-in-the-dorsal-striatum
#3
Giuseppina Martella, Maria Meringolo, Laura Trobiani, Antonella De Jaco, Antonio Pisani, Paola Bonsi
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) comprise a heterogeneous group of disorders with a complex genetic etiology. Current theories on the pathogenesis of ASDs suggest that they might arise from an aberrant synaptic transmission affecting specific brain circuits and synapses. The striatum, which is part of the basal ganglia circuit, is one of the brain regions involved in ASDs. Mouse models of ASDs have provided evidence for an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission. Here we investigated the expression of long-term synaptic plasticity at corticostriatal glutamatergic synapses in the dorsal striatum of the R451C-NL3 phenotypic mouse model of autism...
September 16, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901999/recruitment-of-prefrontal-striatal-circuit-in-response-to-skilled-motor-challenge
#4
Yumei Guo, Zhuo Wang, Sandhya Prathap, Daniel P Holschneider
A variety of physical fitness regimens have been shown to improve cognition, including executive function, yet our understanding of which parameters of motor training are important in optimizing outcomes remains limited. We used functional brain mapping to compare the ability of two motor challenges to acutely recruit the prefrontal-striatal circuit. The two motor tasks - walking in a complex running wheel with irregularly spaced rungs or walking in a running wheel with a smooth internal surface - differed only in the extent of skill required for their execution...
September 8, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890075/down-regulation-of-dorsal-striatal-%C3%AE-camkii-causes-striatum-related-cognitive-and-synaptic-disorders
#5
Qi Wang, Pengcheng Yin, Bin Yu, Zheng Zhao, Gal Richter-Levin, Lu Yu, Xiaohua Cao
Alpha calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (αCaMKII) is a serine/threonine protein kinase which is expressed abundantly in dorsal striatum and is highly involved in the corticostriatal synaptic plasticity. Nevertheless, it currently remains unclear whether and how αCaMKII plays a in the striatum-related neural disorders. To address the above issue, lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA (shRNA) was used to silence the expression of αCaMKII gene in the dorsal striatum of mice. As a consequence of down-regulation of dorsal striatal αCaMKII expression, we observed defective motor skill learning in accelerating rotarod and response learning in water cross maze...
September 8, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887182/behavioral-and-neural-mechanisms-underlying-habitual-and-compulsive-drug-seeking
#6
REVIEW
Rachel J Smith, Lillian S Laiks
Addiction is characterized by compulsive drug use despite negative consequences. Here we review studies that indicate that compulsive drug use, and in particular punishment resistance in animal models of addiction, is related to impaired cortical control over habitual behavior. In humans and animals, instrumental behavior is supported by goal-directed and habitual systems that rely on distinct corticostriatal networks. Chronic exposure to addictive drugs or stress has been shown to bias instrumental response strategies toward habit learning, and impair prefrontal cortical (PFC) control over responding...
September 5, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886498/the-neurobiology-of-brain-recovery-from-traumatic-stress-a-longitudinal-dti-study
#7
Linghui Meng, Ying Chen, Xin Xu, Taolin Chen, Su Lui, Xiaoqi Huang, John A Sweeney, Kaiming Li, Qiyong Gong
BACKGROUND: Previous studies demonstrated decreased brain microstructure integrity in people that were exposed to extreme life stress but did not meet posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnostic criteria. It is unclear how the brain recovers from traumatic stress in these trauma-exposed non-PTSD people (TENP). METHODS: Twenty-two TENP individuals were recruited from the most affected area of Wenchuan quake, and scanned twenty-five days after the quake and at a two-year follow-up...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880414/levodopa-treatment-and-dendritic-spine-pathology
#8
REVIEW
Haruo Nishijima, Tatsuya Ueno, Yukihisa Funamizu, Shinya Ueno, Masahiko Tomiyama
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with the progressive loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Levodopa is the most effective treatment for the motor symptoms of PD. However, chronic oral levodopa treatment can lead to various motor and nonmotor complications because of nonphysiological pulsatile dopaminergic stimulation in the brain. Examinations of autopsy cases with PD have revealed a decreased number of dendritic spines of striatal neurons. Animal models of PD have revealed altered density and morphology of dendritic spines of neurons in various brain regions after dopaminergic denervation or dopaminergic denervation plus levodopa treatment, indicating altered synaptic transmission...
September 7, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878666/weight-rich-club-analysis-in-the-white-matter-network-of-late-life-depression-with-memory-deficits
#9
Naikeng Mai, Xiaomei Zhong, Ben Chen, Qi Peng, Zhangying Wu, Weiru Zhang, Cong Ouyang, Yuping Ning
Patients with late-life depression (LLD) have a higher incident of developing dementia, especially individuals with memory deficits. However, little is known about the white matter characteristics of LLD with memory deficits (LLD-MD) in the human connectome, especially for the rich-club coefficient, which is an indicator that describes the organization pattern of hub in the network. To address this question, diffusion tensor imaging of 69 participants [15 LLD-MD patients; 24 patients with LLD with intact memory (LLD-IM); and 30 healthy controls (HC)] was applied to construct a brain network for each individual...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855582/altered-cross-talk-between-the-hypothalamus-and-non-homeostatic-regions-linked-to-obesity-and-difficulty-to-lose-weight
#10
Oren Contreras-Rodríguez, Raquel Vilar-López, Zane B Andrews, Juan F Navas, Carles Soriano-Mas, Antonio Verdejo-García
Interactions between the hypothalamus and non-homeostatic regions may contribute to explain the difficulty to lose weight in obesity, an assumption never tested in human longitudinal studies. We investigated whether the functional connectivity between the medial and lateral hypothalamus (MH and LH) and corticostriatal regions differs between individuals with excess weight (n = 42) and normal weight (n = 39) using a seed-based resting-state approach. In addition, we examined the longitudinal association between functional connectivity and weight loss in a 3-month follow-up diet...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842271/dopamine-d1-receptor-activation-maintains-motor-coordination-in-injured-rats-but-does-not-accelerate-the-recovery-of-the-motor-coordination-deficit
#11
Alberto Avila-Luna, Arturo Gálvez-Rosas, Alfonso Alfaro-Rodríguez, Celia Reyes-Legorreta, Paloma Garza-Montaño, Rigoberto González-Piña, Antonio Bueno-Nava
The sensorimotor cortex and the striatum are interconnected by the corticostriatal pathway, suggesting that cortical injury alters the striatal function that is associated with skilled movements and motor learning, which are functions that may be modulated by dopamine (DA). In this study, we explored motor coordination and balance in order to investigate whether the activation of D1 receptors (D1Rs) modulates functional recovery after cortical injury. The results of the beam-walking test showed motor deficit in the injured group at 24, 48 and 96h post-injury, and the recovery time was observed at 192h after cortical injury...
August 31, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841425/insensitivity-to-response-contingent-feedback-in-adolescents-with-developmental-language-disorder-dld
#12
Joanna C Lee
The aim of the study was to investigate the efficiency of the use of response-contingent feedback in adolescents with and without developmental language disorder (DLD) by using the balloon analogue risk task (BART). The BIS/BAS scales were also used to evaluate a participant's responses to reward- or punishment-related events in everyday situations. The results showed that adolescents with DLD performed on the BART at a suboptimal level due to inefficient use of response-contingent feedback. Findings of the BIS/BAS scales also generate a possible hypothesis of reduced motivational salience for larger monetary outcomes in DLD...
August 22, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839128/reinforcement-determines-the-timing-dependence-of-corticostriatal-synaptic-plasticity-in-vivo
#13
Simon D Fisher, Paul B Robertson, Melony J Black, Peter Redgrave, Mark A Sagar, Wickliffe C Abraham, John N J Reynolds
Plasticity at synapses between the cortex and striatum is considered critical for learning novel actions. However, investigations of spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) at these synapses have been performed largely in brain slice preparations, without consideration of physiological reinforcement signals. This has led to conflicting findings, and hampered the ability to relate neural plasticity to behavior. Using intracellular striatal recordings in intact rats, we show here that pairing presynaptic and postsynaptic activity induces robust Hebbian bidirectional plasticity, dependent on dopamine and adenosine signaling...
August 24, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831198/methamphetamine-abuse-impairs-motor-cortical-plasticity-and-function
#14
X Huang, Y-Y Chen, Y Shen, X Cao, A Li, Q Liu, Z Li, L-B Zhang, W Dai, T Tan, O Arias-Carrion, Y-X Xue, H Su, T-F Yuan
Exposure to addictive drugs triggers synaptic plasticity in reward-related brain regions, such as the midbrain, nucleus accumbens and the prefrontal cortex. Effects of chronic drug exposure on other brain areas have not been fully investigated. Here, we characterize synaptic plasticity in motor cortex after methamphetamine self-administration in rats. We show that this causes a loss of corticostriatal plasticity in rat brain slices and impaired motor learning in the rotarod task. These findings are paralleled by the observation of a lack of transcranial magnetic stimulation-induced potentiation or depression of motor evoked potentials in human patients with addiction, along with poor performance in rotary pursuit task...
September 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804783/functional-corticostriatal-connection-topographies-predict-goal-directed-behaviour-in-humans
#15
Andre F Marquand, Koen V Haak, Christian F Beckmann
Anatomical tracing studies in non-human primates have suggested that corticostriatal connectivity is topographically organized: nearby locations in striatum are connected with nearby locations in cortex. The topographic organization of corticostriatal connectivity is thought to underpin many goal-directed behaviours, but these topographies have not been completely characterised in humans and their relationship to uniquely human behaviours remains to be fully determined. Instead, the dominant approach employs parcellations that cannot model the continuous nature of the topography, nor accommodate overlapping cortical projections in the striatum...
August 2017: Nature Human Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790899/sensory-processing-in-the-dorsolateral-striatum-the-contribution-of-thalamostriatal-pathways
#16
Kevin D Alloway, Jared B Smith, Todd M Mowery, Glenn D R Watson
The dorsal striatum has two functionally-defined subdivisions: a dorsomedial striatum (DMS) region involved in mediating goal-directed behaviors that require conscious effort, and a dorsolateral striatum (DLS) region involved in the execution of habitual behaviors in a familiar sensory context. Consistent with its presumed role in forming stimulus-response (S-R) associations, neurons in DLS receive massive inputs from sensorimotor cortex and are responsive to both active and passive sensory stimulation. While several studies have established that corticostriatal inputs contribute to the stimulus-induced responses observed in the DLS, there is growing awareness that the thalamus has a significant role in conveying sensory-related information to DLS and other parts of the striatum...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765320/corticostriatal-signatures-of-schadenfreude-evidence-from-huntington-s-disease
#17
Sandra Baez, Mariana Pino, Mildred Berrío, Hernando Santamaría-García, Lucas Sedeño, Adolfo M García, Sol Fittipaldi, Agustín Ibáñez
Schadenfreude-pleasure at others' misfortunes-is a multidetermined social emotion which involves reward processing, mentalising and perspective-taking abilities. Patients with Huntington's disease (HD) exhibit reductions of this experience, suggesting a role of striatal degeneration in such impairment. However, no study has directly assessed the relationship between regional brain atrophy in HD and reduced schadenfreude. Here, we assessed whether grey matter (GM) atrophy in patients with HD correlates with ratings of schadenfreude...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757327/differential-electrophysiological-and-morphological-alterations-of-thalamostriatal-and-corticostriatal-projections-in-the-r6-2-mouse-model-of-huntington-s-disease
#18
Anna Parievsky, Cindy Moore, Talia Kamdjou, Carlos Cepeda, Charles K Meshul, Michael S Levine
Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal genetic disorder characterized by cell death of medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) in the striatum, traditionally attributed to excessive glutamate inputs and/or receptor sensitivity. While changes in corticostriatal projections have typically been studied in mouse models of HD, morphological and functional alterations in thalamostriatal projections have received less attention. In this study, an adeno-associated virus expressing channelrhodopsin-2 under the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIα promoter was injected into the sensorimotor cortex or the thalamic centromedian-parafascicular nuclear complex in the R6/2 mouse model of HD, to permit selective activation of corticostriatal or thalamostriatal projections, respectively...
July 27, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756273/back-to-the-future-circuit-testing-ts-ocd
#19
Frank H Burton
A decade before the rise of optogenetics, the first behavioral "circuit-test" - transgenically modulating the output of a genetically-specified brain circuit element to examine its effect on behavior - was performed. The behaviors emulated in those mice were comorbid tics and compulsions, elicited by a gene borrowed from cholera bacteria and tailored to intracellularly neuropotentiate glutamatergic somatosensory cortical and limbic output neurons of cortico/amygdalo-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) loop circuits...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736307/local-striatal-reward-signals-can-be-predicted-from-corticostriatal-connectivity
#20
Peter Smittenaar, Zeb Kurth-Nelson, Siawoosh Mohammadi, Nikolaus Weiskopf, Raymond J Dolan
A defining feature of the basal ganglia is their anatomical organization into multiple cortico-striatal loops. A central tenet of this architecture is the idea that local striatal function is determined by its precise connectivity with cortex, creating a functional topography that is mirrored within cortex and striatum. Here we formally test this idea using both human anatomical and functional imaging, specifically asking whether within striatal subregions one can predict between-voxel differences in functional signals based on between-voxel differences in corticostriatal connectivity...
July 20, 2017: NeuroImage
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