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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786160/aberrant-learning-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-neurocomputational-study-on-bradykinesia
#1
Mauro Ursino, Chiara Baston
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a progressive decline in motor functions, such as bradykinesia, caused by the pathological denervation of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons within the basal ganglia (BG). It is acknowledged that dopamine (DA) directly affects the modulatory role of BG towards the cortex. However, a growing body of literature is suggesting that DA induced aberrant synaptic plasticity could play a role in the core symptoms of PD, thus recalling for a "reconceptualization" of the pathophysiology...
May 22, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770921/neuronal-adenosine-a-2a-receptor-overexpression-is-neuroprotective-towards-3-nitropropionic-acid-induced-striatal-toxicity-a-rat-model-of-huntington-s-disease
#2
Maria Rosaria Domenici, Valentina Chiodi, Mirko Averna, Monica Armida, Antonella Pèzzola, Rita Pepponi, Antonella Ferrante, Michael Bader, Kjell Fuxe, Patrizia Popoli
The A2A adenosine receptor (A2A R) is widely distributed on different cellular types in the brain, where it exerts a broad spectrum of pathophysiological functions, and for which a role in different neurodegenerative diseases has been hypothesized or demonstrated. To investigate the role of neuronal A2A Rs in neurodegeneration, we evaluated in vitro and in vivo the effect of the neurotoxin 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) in a transgenic rat strain overexpressing A2A Rs under the control of the neural-specific enolase promoter (NSEA2A rats)...
May 16, 2018: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768273/subcaudate-tractotomy-white-matter-anatomy-and-variability-a-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#3
Kartik D Bhatia, Luke A Henderson, Eugene Hsu, Mark Yim
BACKGROUND: Subcaudate tractotomy is a functional ablative procedure performed for treatment-resistant psychiatric disease, targeting the white matter tracts ventral to the head of the caudate nucleus. The white matter anatomy of this region has extensive interindividual variability, and this is thought to impact upon the treatment response to ablative and deep brain stimulation procedures. OBJECTIVE: We aim to assess in detail the white matter tract anatomy and topographic variability underlying subcaudate tractotomy...
May 16, 2018: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756234/inhaling-xenon-ameliorates-l-dopa-induced-dyskinesia-in-experimental-parkinsonism
#4
Jérôme Baufreton, Tomislav Milekovic, Qin Li, Steve McGuire, Eduardo Martin Moraud, Grégory Porras, Shiqi Sun, Wai Kin D Ko, Marine Chazalon, Stéphanie Morin, Elisabeth Normand, Géraldine Farjot, Aude Milet, Jan Pype, Elsa Pioli, Gregoire Courtine, Baptiste Bessière, Erwan Bezard
Parkinson's disease motor symptoms are treated with levodopa, but long-term treatment leads to disabling dyskinesia. Altered synaptic transmission and maladaptive plasticity of corticostriatal glutamatergic projections play a critical role in the pathophysiology of dyskinesia. Because the noble gas xenon inhibits excitatory glutamatergic signaling, primarily through allosteric antagonism of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors, we aimed to test its putative antidyskinetic capabilities. We first studied the direct effect of xenon gas exposure on corticostriatal plasticity in a murine model of levodopa-induced dyskinesia We then studied the impact of xenon inhalation on behavioral dyskinetic manifestations in the gold-standard rat and primate models of PD and levodopa-induced dyskinesia...
May 14, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752589/novelty-modulates-human-striatal-activation-and-prefrontal-striatal-effective-connectivity-during-working-memory-encoding
#5
Lena S Geiger, Carolin Moessnang, Axel Schäfer, Zhenxiang Zang, Maria Zangl, Hengyi Cao, Tamar R van Raalten, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Heike Tost
The functional role of the basal ganglia (BG) in the gating of suitable motor responses to the cortex is well established. Growing evidence supports an analogous role of the BG during working memory encoding, a task phase in which the "input-gating" of relevant materials (or filtering of irrelevant information) is an important mechanism supporting cognitive capacity and the updating of working memory buffers. One important aspect of stimulus relevance is the novelty of working memory items, a quality that is understudied with respect to its effects on corticostriatal function and connectivity...
May 11, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746646/corticostriatal-connectivity-in-antisocial-personality-disorder-by-mao-a-genotype-and-its-relationship-to-aggressive-behavior
#6
Nathan J Kolla, Katharine Dunlop, Jeffrey H Meyer, Jonathan Downar
Background: The influence of genetic variation on resting-state neural networks represents a burgeoning line of inquiry in psychiatric research. Monoamine oxidase A, an X-linked gene, is one example of a molecular target linked to brain activity in psychiatric illness. Monoamine oxidase A genetic variants, including the high and low variable nucleotide tandem repeat polymorphisms, have been shown to differentially affect brain functional connectivity in healthy humans. However, it is currently unknown whether these same polymorphisms influence resting-state brain activity in clinical conditions...
May 9, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713659/dopamine-and-proximity-in-motivation-and-cognitive-control
#7
Andrew Westbrook, Michael Frank
Cognitive control - the ability to override a salient or prepotent action to execute a more deliberate one - is required for flexible, goal-directed behavior, and yet it is subjectively costly: decision-makers avoid allocating control resources, even when doing so affords more valuable outcomes. Dopamine likely offsets effort costs just as it does for physical effort. And yet, dopamine can also promote impulsive action, undermining control. We propose a novel hypothesis that reconciles opposing effects of dopamine on cognitive control: during action selection, striatal dopamine biases benefits relative to costs, but does so preferentially for "proximal" motor and cognitive actions...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704424/the-role-of-corticostriatal-hypothalamic-neural-circuits-in-feeding-behaviour-implications-for-obesity
#8
REVIEW
Rachel E Clarke, Antonio Verdejo-Garcia, Zane B Andrews
Emerging evidence from human imaging studies suggests that obese individuals have altered connectivity between the hypothalamus, the key brain region controlling energy homeostasis, and cortical regions involved in decision making and reward processing. Historically, animal studies have demonstrated that the lateral hypothalamus is the key hypothalamic region involved in feeding and reward. The lateral hypothalamus is a heterogeneous structure comprised of several distinct types of neurons which are scattered throughout...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703994/behavioral-and-neurobiological-mechanisms-of-punishment-implications-for-psychiatric-disorders
#9
Philip Jean-Richard-Dit-Bressel, Simon Killcross, Gavan P McNally
Punishment involves learning about the relationship between behavior and its adverse consequences. Punishment is fundamental to reinforcement learning, decision-making and choice, and is disrupted in psychiatric disorders such as addiction, depression, and psychopathy. However, little is known about the brain mechanisms of punishment and much of what is known is derived from study of superficially similar, but fundamentally distinct, forms of aversive learning such as fear conditioning and avoidance learning...
March 27, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689344/the-relationship-between-interleukin-6-and-functional-connectivity-in-methamphetamine-users
#10
Milky Kohno, Jennifer M Loftis, Marilyn Huckans, Laura E Dennis, Holly McCready, William F Hoffman
Methamphetamine (MA) causes an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines in animal models and in humans. Resulting activation of microglia and neuro-inflammation could, via effects on reward networks, mediate behavioral characteristics of addiction. We examined the relationship between interleukin-6 (IL-6) and corticolimbic and striatolimbic resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC). Thirty adults diagnosed with MA dependence and 20 control subjects underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan and gave a blood sample for determination of plasma IL-6 levels...
April 21, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671352/huntington-s-disease-novel-therapeutic-perspectives-hanging-in-the-balance
#11
Ana Saavedra, Gerardo García-Díaz Barriga, Esther Pérez-Navarro, Jordi Alberch
Huntington's disease (HD), an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by an expansion of CAG repeats in the huntingtin gene, has long been characterized by the presence of motor symptoms due to the loss of striatal projection neurons. Cognitive dysfunction and neuropsychiatric symptoms are also present and they occur in the absence of cell death in most mouse models, pointing to neuronal dysfunction and abnormal synaptic plasticity as causative mechanisms. Areas covered: Here, we focus on those common mechanisms altered by the presence of mutant huntingtin affecting corticostriatal and hippocampal function as therapeutic targets that could prove beneficial to ameliorate both cognitive and motor function in HD...
April 19, 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650697/cell-type-specific-contributions-of-medial-prefrontal-neurons-to-flexible-behaviors
#12
Hirofumi Nakayama, Ines Ibañez-Tallon, Nathaniel Heintz
Behavioral flexibility and impulse control are necessary for successful execution of adaptive behavior. They are impaired in patients with damage to the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and in some clinically important conditions such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Although the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been investigated as a critical structure for behavioral flexibility and impulse control, the contribution of the underlying pyramidal neuron cell types in the mPFC remained to be understood. Here we show that interneuron-mediated local inactivation of pyramidal neurons in the mPFC of male and female mice induces both premature responses and choice bias, and establish that these impulsive and compulsive responses are modulated independently...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622050/amygdala-prefrontal-connectivity-during-appraisal-of-symptom-related-stimuli-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#13
Sandra Paul, Jan C Beucke, Christian Kaufmann, Anna Mersov, Stephan Heinzel, Norbert Kathmann, Daniela Simon
BACKGROUND: Cognitive models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) posit dysfunctional appraisal of disorder-relevant stimuli in patients, suggesting disturbances in the processes relying on amygdala-prefrontal connectivity. Recent neuroanatomical models add to the traditional view of dysfunction in corticostriatal circuits by proposing alterations in an affective circuit including amygdala-prefrontal connections. However, abnormalities in amygdala-prefrontal coupling during symptom provocation, and particularly during conditions that require stimulus appraisal, remain to be demonstrated directly...
April 6, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615610/alcohol-exposure-disrupts-mu-opioid-receptor-mediated-long-term-depression-at-insular-cortex-inputs-to-dorsolateral-striatum
#14
Braulio Muñoz, Brandon M Fritz, Fuqin Yin, Brady K Atwood
Drugs of abuse, including alcohol, ablate the expression of specific forms of long-term synaptic depression (LTD) at glutamatergic synapses in dorsal striatum (DS), a brain region involved in goal-directed and habitual behaviors. This loss of LTD is associated with altered DS-dependent behavior. Given the role of the µ-opioid receptor (MOR) in behavioral responding for alcohol, we explored the impact of alcohol on various forms of MOR-mediated synaptic depression that we find are differentially expressed at specific DS synapses...
April 3, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578407/pauses-in-cholinergic-interneuron-firing-exert-an-inhibitory-control-on-striatal-output-in-vivo
#15
Stefano Zucca, Aya Zucca, Takashi Nakano, Sho Aoki, Jeffery Wickens
The cholinergic interneurons (CINs) of the striatum are crucial for normal motor and behavioral functions of the basal ganglia. Striatal CINs exhibit tonic firing punctuated by distinct pauses. Pauses occur in response to motivationally significant events, but their function is unknown. Here we investigated the effects of pauses in CIN firing on spiny projection neurons (SPNs) - the output neurons of the striatum - using in vivo whole cell and juxtacellular recordings in mice. We found that optogenetically-induced pauses in CIN firing inhibited subthreshold membrane potential activity and decreased firing of SPNs...
March 26, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577894/bilateral-quinolinic-acid-induced-lipid-peroxidation-decreased-striatal-monoamine-levels-and-neurobehavioral-deficits-are-ameliorated-by-gip-receptor-agonist-d-ala-2-gip-in-rat-model-of-huntington-s-disease
#16
Mahip K Verma, Rajan Goel, Krishnadas Nandakumar, Kumar V S Nemmani
Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited complex progressive neurodegenerative disorder with an established etiopathology linked to neuronal oxidative stress and corticostriatal excitotoxicity. Present study explores the effects of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) receptor agonist on the neurobehavioral sequelae of quinolinic acid-induced phenotype of Huntington's disease in rats. Bilateral administration of quinolinic acid (300 nmol/4µL) to the rat striatum led to characteristic deficits in, locomotor activity, motor coordination, neuromuscular coordination and short-term episodic memory...
March 22, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559904/longitudinal-diffusion-tensor-imaging-resembles-patterns-of-pathology-progression-in-behavioral-variant-frontotemporal-dementia-bvftd
#17
Jan Kassubek, Hans-Peter Müller, Kelly Del Tredici, Michael Hornberger, Matthias L Schroeter, Karsten Müller, Sarah Anderl-Straub, Ingo Uttner, Murray Grossman, Heiko Braak, John R Hodges, Olivier Piguet, Markus Otto, Albert C Ludolph
Objective: Recently, the characteristic longitudinal distribution pattern of the underlying phosphorylated TDP-43 (pTDP-43) pathology in the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) excluding Pick's disease (PiD) across specific brain regions was described. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether in vivo investigations of bvFTD patients by use of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were consistent with these proposed patterns of progression. Methods: Sixty-two bvFTD patients and 47 controls underwent DTI in a multicenter study design...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554302/ventral-striatal-d2-3-receptor-availability-is-associated-with-impulsive-choice-behavior-as-well-aslimbic-corticostriatal-connectivity
#18
Rebecca L Barlow, Martin Gorges, Alfie Wearn, Heiko G Niessen, Jan Kassubek, Jeffrey W Dalley, Anton Pekcec
Background: Low dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in the nucleus accumbens (NAcb) shell is associated with highly-impulsive behavior in rats, as measured by premature responses in a cued attentional task. However, it is unclear whether dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in the NAcb is equally linked to intolerance for delayed rewards, a related form of impulsivity. Methods: We investigated the relationship between D2/3 receptor availability in the NAcb and impulsivity in a delay-discounting task (DDT) where animals must choose between immediate small-magnitude rewards and delayed larger-magnitude rewards...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545770/centrality-of-early-synaptopathy-in-parkinson-s-disease
#19
REVIEW
Paola Imbriani, Tommaso Schirinzi, Maria Meringolo, Nicola B Mercuri, Antonio Pisani
Significant advances have been made in the understanding of the numerous mechanisms involved in Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis. The identification of PD pathogenic mutations and the use of different animal models have contributed to better elucidate the processes underlying the disease. Here, we report a brief survey of some relevant cellular mechanisms, including autophagic-lysosomal dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and mitochondrial impairment, with the main aim to focus on their potential convergent roles in determining early alterations at the synaptic level, mainly consisting in a decrease in dopamine release at nigrostriatal terminals and loss of synaptic plasticity at corticostriatal synapses...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541852/neuroinflammation-in-l-dopa-induced-dyskinesia-beyond-the-immune-function
#20
REVIEW
Augusta Pisanu, Laura Boi, Giovanna Mulas, Saturnino Spiga, Sandro Fenu, Anna R Carta
Neuroinflammation is a main component of Parkinson's disease (PD) neuropathology, where unremitting reactive microglia and microglia-secreted soluble molecules such as cytokines, contribute to the neurodegenerative process as part of an aberrant immune reaction. Besides, pro-inflammatory cytokines, predominantly TNF-α, play an important neuromodulatory role in the healthy and diseased brain, being involved in neurotransmitter metabolism, synaptic scaling and brain plasticity. Recent preclinical studies have evidenced an exacerbated neuroinflammatory reaction in the striatum of parkinsonian rats that developed dyskinetic responses following L-DOPA administration...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
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