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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331177/baseline-dependent-effects-of-amphetamine-on-attention-are-associated-with-striatal-dopamine-metabolism
#1
Karly M Turner, James Peak, Thomas H J Burne
Psychostimulants, such as amphetamine, are widely used to treat attentional deficits. In humans, response to dopaminergic medications is complex with improvement often dependent on baseline performance. Our goal was to determine if attention in rats could be improved by low dose amphetamine in a baseline-dependent manner by examining the relationship between task performance, drug response and monoamine levels in corticostriatal tissue. Firstly, rats performed a signal detection task with varying signal durations before administration of saline, 0...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322982/toward-biomarkers-of-the-addicted-human-brain-using-neuroimaging-to-predict-relapse-and-sustained-abstinence-in-substance-use-disorder
#2
REVIEW
Scott J Moeller, Martin P Paulus
The ability to predict relapse is a major goal of drug addiction research. Clinical and diagnostic measures are useful in this regard, but these measures do not fully and consistently identify who will relapse and who will remain abstinent. Neuroimaging approaches have the potential to complement these standard clinical measures to optimize relapse prediction. The goal of this review was to survey the existing drug addiction literature that either used a baseline functional or structural neuroimaging phenotype to longitudinally predict a clinical outcome, or that examined test-retest of a neuroimaging phenotype during a course of abstinence or treatment...
March 18, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294137/relationship-between-duration-of-untreated-psychosis-and-intrinsic-corticostriatal-connectivity-in-patients-with-early-phase-schizophrenia
#3
Deepak K Sarpal, Delbert G Robinson, Christina Fales, Todd Lencz, Miklos Argyelan, Katherine H Karlsgodt, Juan A Gallego, Majnu John, John M Kane, Philip R Szeszko, Anil K Malhotra
Patients with first-episode psychosis experience psychotic symptoms for a mean of up to two years prior to initiation of treatment, and long duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) is associated with poor clinical outcomes. Meanwhile, evidence compiled from numerous studies suggests that longer DUP is not associated with structural brain abnormalities. To date, few studies have examined the relationship between DUP and functional neuroimaging measures. In the present study, we used seed-based resting-state functional connectivity to examine the impact of DUP on corticostriatal circuitry...
March 15, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243821/the-impact-of-short-and-long-term-exercise-on-the-expression-of-arc-and-ampars-during-evolution-of-the-6-hydroxy-dopamine-animal-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#4
P C Garcia, C C Real, L R Britto
The loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons typical in Parkinson's disease (PD) is responsible for hyperexcitability of medium spiny neurons resulting in abnormal corticostriatal glutamatergic synaptic drive. Considering the neuroprotective effect of exercise, the changes promoted by exercise on AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs), and the role of activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) in the AMPARs trafficking, we studied the impact of short and long-term treadmill exercise during evolution of the unilateral 6-hydroxy-dopamine (6-OHDA) animal model of PD...
April 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236519/frequency-selective-alteration-in-the-resting-state-corticostriatal-thalamo-cortical-circuit-correlates-with-symptoms-severity-in-first-episode-drug-naive-patients-with-schizophrenia
#5
Shaoqiang Han, X Zong, M Hu, Yangyang Yu, Xiao Wang, Zhiliang Long, Yifeng Wang, Xiaogang Chen, Huafu Chen
Schizophrenia is a prototypical disorder of brain connectivity with altered neural activity in regions extending throughout the brain. Regions, including the subcortex and cortex, present activity mainly within a specific frequency band in resting-state. Whether these altered resting-state functional connections also present frequency specificity is unknown. In the present study, empirical mode decomposition, which is a pure data-driven method suitable for nonlinear and nonstationary signals, was used to decompose blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signals into different intrinsic frequency bands...
February 21, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228252/complete-disruption-of-the-kainate-receptor-gene-family-results-in-corticostriatal-dysfunction-in-mice
#6
Jian Xu, John J Marshall, Herman B Fernandes, Toshihiro Nomura, Bryan A Copits, Daniele Procissi, Susumu Mori, Lei Wang, Yongling Zhu, Geoffrey T Swanson, Anis Contractor
Kainate receptors are members of the glutamate receptor family that regulate synaptic function in the brain. They modulate synaptic transmission and the excitability of neurons; however, their contributions to neural circuits that underlie behavior are unclear. To understand the net impact of kainate receptor signaling, we generated knockout mice in which all five kainate receptor subunits were ablated (5ko). These mice displayed compulsive and perseverative behaviors, including over-grooming, as well as motor problems, indicative of alterations in striatal circuits...
February 21, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225752/prefrontal-cortex-output-circuits-guide-reward-seeking-through-divergent-cue-encoding
#7
James M Otis, Vijay M K Namboodiri, Ana M Matan, Elisa S Voets, Emily P Mohorn, Oksana Kosyk, Jenna A McHenry, J Elliott Robinson, Shanna L Resendez, Mark A Rossi, Garret D Stuber
The prefrontal cortex is a critical neuroanatomical hub for controlling motivated behaviours across mammalian species. In addition to intra-cortical connectivity, prefrontal projection neurons innervate subcortical structures that contribute to reward-seeking behaviours, such as the ventral striatum and midline thalamus. While connectivity among these structures contributes to appetitive behaviours, how projection-specific prefrontal neurons encode reward-relevant information to guide reward seeking is unknown...
February 22, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223037/asymmetric-dopaminergic-degeneration-and-levodopa-alter-functional-corticostriatal-connectivity-bilaterally-in-experimental-parkinsonism
#8
Cyril Monnot, Xiaoqun Zhang, Sahar Nikkhou-Aski, Peter Damberg, Per Svenningsson
Asymmetric dopamine loss is commonly found in early Parkinson's disease (PD), but its effects on functional networks have been difficult to delineate in PD patients because of variations in age, disease duration and therapy. Here we used unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned (6-OHDA) rats and controls and treated them with a single intraperitoneal injection of levodopa (L-DOPA) before performing diffusion weighted MRI and resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI). In accordance with a neurodegeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway, diffusion tensor imaging showed increased radial diffusivity and decreased fractional anisotropy in the lesioned substantia nigra...
February 20, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202664/lrrk2-mouse-models-dissecting-the-behavior-striatal-neurochemistry-and-neurophysiology-of-pd-pathogenesis
#9
REVIEW
Mattia Volta, Heather Melrose
Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are the most common genetic cause of familial Parkinson's disease (PD), resembling the sporadic disorder. Intensive effort has been directed toward LRRK2 mouse modeling and investigation, aimed at reproducing the human disease to inform mechanistic studies of pathogenesis and design of neuroprotective therapies. The physiological function of LRRK2 is still under exploration, but a clear role in striatal neurophysiology and animal behavior has emerged. Alterations in LRRK2 impair dopamine (DA) transmission, regulation and signaling, in addition to corticostriatal synaptic plasticity...
February 8, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193688/compulsive-social-behavior-emerges-after-selective-ablation-of-striatal-cholinergic-interneurons
#10
Yanina V Martos, Barbara Y Braz, Juan P Beccaria, M Gustavo Murer, Juan E Belforte
The mechanisms underlying social dysfunction in neuropsychiatric conditions like obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette syndrome (TS) remain uncertain. Dysfunctions in basal ganglia, including reduced number of striatal cholinergic interneurons (SCIN), have been involved in their pathophysiology. To explore the role of SCIN in relation to perseverative behaviors we characterized a new transgenic mouse model in which inducible ablation of SCIN is achieved with high efficiency in a cell-type and region specific manner...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186152/association-of-polygenic-risk-for-major-psychiatric-illness-with-subcortical-volumes-and-white-matter-integrity-in-uk-biobank
#11
L M Reus, X Shen, J Gibson, E Wigmore, L Ligthart, M J Adams, G Davies, S R Cox, S P Hagenaars, M E Bastin, I J Deary, H C Whalley, A M McIntosh
Major depressive disorder (MDD), schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BP) are common, disabling and heritable psychiatric diseases with a complex overlapping polygenic architecture. Individuals with these disorders, as well as their unaffected relatives, show widespread structural differences in corticostriatal and limbic networks. Structural variation in many of these brain regions is also heritable and polygenic but whether their genetic architecture overlaps with that of major psychiatric disorders is unknown...
February 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159646/metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-2-inhibits-thalamically-driven-glutamate-and-dopamine-release-in-the-dorsal-striatum
#12
Kari A Johnson, Yolanda Mateo, David M Lovinger
The striatum plays critical roles in action control and cognition, and activity of striatal neurons is driven by glutamatergic input. Inhibition of glutamatergic inputs to projection neurons and interneurons of the striatum by presynaptic G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) stands to modulate striatal output and striatum-dependent behaviors. Despite knowledge that a substantial number of glutamatergic inputs to striatal neurons originate in the thalamus, most electrophysiological studies assessing GPCR modulation do not differentiate between effects on corticostriatal and thalamostriatal transmission, and synaptic inhibition is frequently assumed to be mediated by activation of GPCRs on corticostriatal terminals...
January 31, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149392/engaging-cognitive-circuits-to-promote-motor-recovery-in-degenerative-disorders-exercise-as-a-learning-modality
#13
Michael W Jakowec, Zhou Wang, Daniel Holschneider, Jeff Beeler, Giselle M Petzinger
Exercise and physical activity are fundamental components of a lifestyle essential in maintaining a healthy brain. This is primarily due to the fact that the adult brain maintains a high degree of plasticity and activity is essential for homeostasis throughout life. Plasticity is not lost even in the context of a neurodegenerative disorder, but could be maladaptive thus promoting disease onset and progression. A major breakthrough in treating brain disorders such as Parkinson's disease is to drive neuroplasticity in a direction to improve motor and cognitive dysfunction...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126211/corrigendum-to-acupuncture-treatment-modulates-the-corticostriatal-reward-circuitry-in-major-depressive-disorder-j-psychiatr-res-84-2017-18-26
#14
Zengjian Wang, Xiaoyun Wang, Jian Liu, Jun Chen, Xian Liu, Guangning Nie, Kristen Jorgenson, Ki Cheul Sohn, Ruiwang Huang, Ming Liu, Bo Liu, Jian Kong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 23, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123021/differential-encoding-of-time-by-prefrontal-and-striatal-network-dynamics
#15
Konstantin I Bakhurin, Vishwa Goudar, Justin L Shobe, Leslie D Claar, Dean V Buonomano, Sotiris C Masmanidis
Telling time is fundamental to many forms of learning and behavior, including the anticipation of rewarding events. Although the neural mechanisms underlying timing remain unknown, computational models have proposed that the brain represents time in the dynamics of neural networks. Consistent with this hypothesis, changing patterns of neural activity dynamically in a number of brain areas-including the striatum and cortex-has been shown to encode elapsed time. To date, however, no studies have explicitly quantified and contrasted how well different areas encode time by recording large numbers of units simultaneously from more than one area...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121722/omega-3-supplementation-and-the-neural-correlates-of-negative-affect-and-impulsivity-a-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial-in-midlife-adults
#16
Annie T Ginty, Matthew F Muldoon, Dora C H Kuan, Brittney Schirda, Thomas W Kamarck, J Richard Jennings, Stephen B Manuck, Peter J Gianaros
OBJECTIVE: In clinical trials, omega-3 fatty acid supplementation improves symptoms in psychiatric disorders involving dysregulated mood and impulse control, yet it is unclear whether in healthy adults omega-3 fatty acid supplementation affects mood, impulse control and the brain systems supporting these processes. Accordingly, this study tested the hypotheses that eciosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acid supplementation reduces negative affect and impulsive behaviors in healthy adults and that these changes correspond to alterations in corticolimbic and corticostriatal brain systems which support affective and impulsive processes...
January 24, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102227/singular-location-and-signaling-profile-of-adenosine-a2a-cannabinoid-cb1-receptor-heteromers-in-the-dorsal-striatum
#17
Estefanía Moreno, Anna Chiarlone, Mireia Medrano, Mar Puigdellívol, Lucka Bibic, Lesley A Howell, Eva Resel, Nagore Puente, María J Casarejos, Juan Perucho, Joaquín Botta, Nuria Suelves, Francisco Ciruela, Silvia Ginés, Ismael Galve-Roperh, Vicent Casadó, Pedro Grandes, Beat Lutz, Krisztina Monory, Enric I Canela, Carmen Lluís, Peter J McCormick, Manuel Guzmán
The dorsal striatum is a key node for many neurobiological processes such as motor activity, cognitive functions, and affective processes. The proper functioning of striatal neurons relies critically on metabotropic receptors. Specifically, the main adenosine and endocannabinoid receptors present in the striatum, ie, adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) and cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R), are of pivotal importance in the control of neuronal excitability. Facilitatory and inhibitory functional interactions between striatal A2AR and CB1R have been reported, and evidence supports that this cross-talk may rely, at least in part, on the formation of A2AR-CB1R heteromeric complexes...
January 19, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101525/untangling-basal-ganglia-network-dynamics-and-function-role-of-dopamine-depletion-and-inhibition-investigated-in-a-spiking-network-model
#18
Mikael Lindahl, Jeanette Hellgren Kotaleski
The basal ganglia are a crucial brain system for behavioral selection, and their function is disturbed in Parkinson's disease (PD), where neurons exhibit inappropriate synchronization and oscillations. We present a spiking neural model of basal ganglia including plausible details on synaptic dynamics, connectivity patterns, neuron behavior, and dopamine effects. Recordings of neuronal activity in the subthalamic nucleus and Type A (TA; arkypallidal) and Type I (TI; prototypical) neurons in globus pallidus externa were used to validate the model...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097219/key-role-of-the-dopamine-d4-receptor-in-the-modulation-of-corticostriatal-glutamatergic-neurotransmission
#19
Jordi Bonaventura, César Quiroz, Ning-Sheng Cai, Marcelo Rubinstein, Gianluigi Tanda, Sergi Ferré
Polymorphic variants of the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) have been repeatedly associated with numerous neuropsychiatric disorders. Yet, the functional role of the D4 receptor and the functional differences of the products of DRD4 polymorphic variants remained enigmatic. Immunohistochemical and optogenetic-microdialysis experiments were performed in knock-in mice expressing a D4 receptor with the long intracellular domain of a human DRD4 polymorphic variant associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
January 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069435/astrocytes-and-presynaptic-plasticity-in-the-striatum-evidence-and-unanswered-questions
#20
REVIEW
Anton Dvorzhak, Igor Melnick, Rosemarie Grantyn
One of the main functions of astrocytes is to ensure glutamate homeostasis by glutamate uptake and glutamine synthesis. However, during the past ten years it has become clear that astrocytes may also induce changes in synaptic glutamate release when respective pathways must cope with the consequences of brain damage or other alterations in their functional requirements. The loss of glutamatergic synapses in Parkinson's and Huntington's disease is likely to associate with a continuous redistribution of presynaptic activity within the pool of surviving synapses, and astrocytes may have a role in the maintenance of independent control at individual glutamate release sites...
January 6, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
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