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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142089/motor-cognitive-and-functional-declines-contribute-to-a-single-progressive-factor-in-early-hd
#1
Scott A Schobel, Giuseppe Palermo, Peggy Auinger, Jeffrey D Long, Shiyang Ma, Omar S Khwaja, Dylan Trundell, Merit Cudkowicz, Steven Hersch, Cristina Sampaio, E Ray Dorsey, Blair R Leavitt, Karl D Kieburtz, Jeffrey J Sevigny, Douglas R Langbehn, Sarah J Tabrizi
OBJECTIVE: To identify an improved measure of clinical progression in early Huntington disease (HD) using data from prospective observational cohort studies and placebo group data from randomized double-blind clinical trials. METHODS: We studied Unified Huntington Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS) and non-UHDRS clinical measures and brain measures of progressive atrophy in 1,668 individuals with early HD followed up prospectively for up to 30 to 36 months of longitudinal clinical follow-up...
November 15, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136290/the-role-of-ca-2-dependent-k-channels-at-the-rat-corticostriatal-synapses-revealed-by-paired-pulse-stimulation
#2
Angel A Robles G, Ana V Vega, Carolina Gonzalez-Sandoval, Jaime Barral
Potassium channels play an important role in modulating synaptic activity both at presynaptic and postsynaptic levels. We have shown before that presynaptically located KV and KIR channels modulate the strength of corticostriatal synapses in rat brain, but the role of other types of potassium channels at these synapses remains largely unknown. Here we show that calcium-dependent potassium channels BK-type but not SK-type channels are located presynaptically in corticostriatal synapses. We stimulated cortical neurons in rat brain slices and recorded postsynaptic excitatory potentials (EPSP) in medium spiny neurons (MSN) in dorsal neostriatum...
November 14, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127484/progress-in-developing-transgenic-monkey-model-for-huntington-s-disease
#3
REVIEW
Brooke R Snyder, Anthony W S Chan
Huntington's disease (HD) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder that has no cure. Although treatments can often be given to relieve symptoms, the neuropathology associated with HD cannot be stopped or reversed. HD is characterized by degeneration of the striatum and associated pathways that leads to impairment in motor and cognitive functions as well as psychiatric disturbances. Although cell and rodent models for HD exist, longitudinal study in a transgenic HD nonhuman primate (i.e., rhesus macaque; HD monkeys) shows high similarity in its progression with human patients...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122402/altered-corticostriatal-pathway-in-first-episode-paranoid-schizophrenia-resting-state-functional-and-causal-connectivity-analyses
#4
Huan Huang, Chang Shu, Jun Chen, Jilin Zou, Cheng Chen, Shihao Wu, Ling Xiao, Zhongchun Liu, Huiling Wang, Yuan Zhou, Gaohua Wang, Tianzi Jiang
Neuroimaging studies suggest the abnormal structure and function of basal ganglion may contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. However, little is investigated about the both aberrant functional and causal connectivity of striatum in first-episode paranoid schizophrenia (FEPS). Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to characterize the functional connectivity (FC) and casual connectivity within the corticostriatal circuit in 31 patients with FEPS and 33 healthy controls. Degree centrality (DC) was used to explore the regions influenced in schizophrenia at the whole-brain level...
August 15, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121220/pathway-specific-control-of-striatal-neuron-vulnerability-by-corticostriatal-cannabinoid-cb1-receptors
#5
Andrea Ruiz-Calvo, Irene B Maroto, Raquel Bajo-Grañeras, Anna Chiarlone, Ángel Gaudioso, José J Ferrero, Eva Resel, José Sánchez-Prieto, José A Rodríguez-Navarro, Giovanni Marsicano, Ismael Galve-Roperh, Luigi Bellocchio, Manuel Guzmán
The vast majority of neurons within the striatum are GABAergic medium spiny neurons (MSNs), which receive glutamatergic input from the cortex and thalamus, and form two major efferent pathways: the direct pathway, expressing dopamine D1 receptor (D1R-MSNs), and the indirect pathway, expressing dopamine D2 receptor (D2R-MSNs). While molecular mechanisms of MSN degeneration have been identified in animal models of striatal damage, the molecular factors that dictate a selective vulnerability of D1R-MSNs or D2R-MSNs remain unknown...
October 31, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106535/developmental-changes-in-the-integration-of-affective-and-cognitive-corticostriatal-pathways-are-associated-with-reward-driven-behavior
#6
Bart Larsen, Timothy D Verstynen, Fang-Cheng Yeh, Beatriz Luna
The relative influence of affective and cognitive processes on behavior is increasingly understood to transform through development, from adolescence into adulthood, but the neuroanatomical mechanisms underlying this change are not well understood. We analyzed diffusion magnetic resonance imaging in 115 10- to 28-year-old participants to identify convergent corticostriatal projections from cortical systems involved in affect and cognitive control and determined the age-related differences in their relative structural integrity...
July 5, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101523/functional-comparison-of-corticostriatal-and-thalamostriatal-postsynaptic-responses-in-striatal-neurons-of-the-mouse
#7
M A Arias-García, D Tapia, J A Laville, V M Calderón, Y Ramiro-Cortés, J Bargas, E Galarraga
Synaptic inputs from cortex and thalamus were compared in electrophysiologically defined striatal cell classes: direct and indirect pathways' striatal projection neurons (dSPNs and iSPNs), fast-spiking interneurons (FS), cholinergic interneurons (ChINs), and low-threshold spiking-like (LTS-like) interneurons. Our purpose was to observe whether stimulus from cortex or thalamus had equivalent synaptic strength to evoke prolonged suprathreshold synaptic responses in these neuron classes. Subthreshold responses showed that inputs from either source functionally mix up in their dendrites at similar electrotonic distances from their somata...
November 3, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063520/individual-differences-in-skewed-financial-risk-taking-across-the-adult-life-span
#8
Kendra L Seaman, Josiah K Leong, Charlene C Wu, Brian Knutson, Gregory R Samanez-Larkin
Older adults are disproportionately targeted by fraud schemes that advertise unlikely but large returns (positively skewed risks). We examined adult age differences in choice and neural activity as individuals considered risky gambles. Gambles were symmetric (50% chance of modest win or loss), positively skewed (25% chance of large gain), or negatively skewed (25% chance of large loss). The willingness to accept positively skewed relative to symmetric gambles increased with age, and this effect replicated in an independent behavioral study...
October 23, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063448/prenatal-methamphetamine-exposure-is-associated-with-corticostriatal-white-matter-changes-in-neonates
#9
Fleur L Warton, Paul A Taylor, Christopher M R Warton, Christopher D Molteno, Pia Wintermark, Nadine M Lindinger, Lilla Zöllei, Andre van der Kouwe, Joseph L Jacobson, Sandra W Jacobson, Ernesta M Meintjes
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have shown that prenatal exposure to methamphetamine is associated with alterations in white matter microstructure, but to date no tractography studies have been performed in neonates. The striato-thalamo-orbitofrontal circuit and its associated limbic-striatal areas, the primary circuit responsible for reinforcement, has been postulated to be dysfunctional in drug addiction. This study investigated potential white matter changes in the striatal-orbitofrontal circuit in neonates with prenatal methamphetamine exposure...
October 23, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058672/a-corticostriatal-deficit-promotes-temporal-distortion-of-automatic-action-in-ageing
#10
Miriam Matamales, Zala Skrbis, Matthew R Bailey, Peter D Balsam, Bernard W Balleine, Jürgen Götz, Jesus Bertran-Gonzalez
The acquisition of motor skills involves implementing action sequences that increase task efficiency while reducing cognitive loads. This learning capacity depends on specific cortico-basal ganglia circuits that are affected by normal ageing. Here, combining a series of novel behavioural tasks with extensive neuronal mapping and targeted cell manipulations in mice, we explored how ageing of cortico-basal ganglia networks alters the microstructure of action throughout sequence learning. We found that, after extended training, aged mice produced shorter actions and displayed squeezed automatic behaviours characterised by ultrafast oligomeric action chunks that correlated with deficient reorganisation of corticostriatal activity...
October 23, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054293/corticostriatal-plasticity-neuronal-ensembles-and-regulation-of-drug-seeking-behavior
#11
Ana-Clara Bobadilla, Jasper A Heinsbroek, Cassandra D Gipson, William C Griffin, Christie D Fowler, Paul J Kenny, Peter W Kalivas
The idea that interconnected neuronal ensembles code for specific behaviors has been around for decades; however, recent technical improvements allow studying these networks and their causal role in initiating and maintaining behavior. In particular, the role of ensembles in drug-seeking behaviors in the context of addiction is being actively investigated. Concurrent with breakthroughs in quantifying ensembles, research has identified a role for synaptic glutamate spillover during relapse. In particular, the transient relapse-associated changes in glutamatergic synapses on accumbens neurons, as well as in adjacent astroglia and extracellular matrix, are key elements of the synaptic plasticity encoded by drug use and the metaplasticity induced by drug-associated cues that precipitate drug-seeking behaviors...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045559/segregated-excitatory-inhibitory-recurrent-subnetworks-in-layer-5-of-the-rat-frontal-cortex
#12
Mieko Morishima, Kenta Kobayashi, Shigeki Kato, Kazuto Kobayashi, Yasuo Kawaguchi
A prominent feature of neocortical pyramidal cells (PCs) is their numerous projections to diverse brain areas. In layer 5 (L5) of the rat frontal cortex, there are 2 major subtypes of PCs that differ in their long-range axonal projections, corticopontine (CPn) cells and crossed corticostriatal (CCS) cells. The outputs of these L5 PCs can be regulated by feedback inhibition from neighboring cortical GABAergic cells. Two major subtypes of GABAergic cells are parvalbumin (PV)-positive and somatostatin (SOM)-positive cells...
December 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028949/pyramidal-cell-subtypes-and-their-synaptic-connections-in-layer-5-of-rat-frontal-cortex
#13
Yasuo Kawaguchi
The frontal cortical areas make a coordinated response that generates appropriate behavior commands, using individual local circuits with corticostriatal and corticocortical connections in longer time scales than sensory areas. In secondary motor cortex (M2), situated between the prefrontal and primary motor areas, major subtypes of layer 5 corticostriatal cells are crossed-corticostriatal (CCS) cells innervating both sides of striatum, and corticopontine (CPn) cells projecting to the ipsilateral striatum and pontine nuclei...
December 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024667/parallel-but-dissociable-processing-in-discrete-corticostriatal-inputs-encodes-skill-learning
#14
David A Kupferschmidt, Konrad Juczewski, Guohong Cui, Kari A Johnson, David M Lovinger
Changes in cortical and striatal function underlie the transition from novel actions to refined motor skills. How discrete, anatomically defined corticostriatal projections function in vivo to encode skill learning remains unclear. Using novel fiber photometry approaches to assess real-time activity of associative inputs from medial prefrontal cortex to dorsomedial striatum and sensorimotor inputs from motor cortex to dorsolateral striatum, we show that associative and sensorimotor inputs co-engage early in action learning and disengage in a dissociable manner as actions are refined...
October 11, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024650/a-corticostriatal-balancing-act-supports-skill-learning
#15
Victoria L Corbit, Susanne E Ahmari, Aryn H Gittis
In this issue of Neuron, Kupferschmidt et al. (2017) reveal the shifting dynamics of functionally defined corticostriatal pathways during skill learning in mice using fiber photometry. They show different time courses in plasticity of associative and sensorimotor circuits across learning that involve changes at both the synaptic and cortical level.
October 11, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016850/mice-lacking-cyclin-dependent-kinase-like-5-manifest-autistic-and-adhd-like-behaviors
#16
Cian-Ling Jhang, Tzyy-Nan Huang, Yi-Ping Hsueh, Wenlin Liao
Neurodevelopmental disorders frequently share common clinical features and appear high rate of comorbidity, such as those present in patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). While characterizing behavioral phenotypes in the mouse model of cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) disorder, a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in the X-linked gene encoding CDKL5, we found that these mice manifested behavioral phenotypes mimicking multiple key features of ASD, such as impaired social interaction and communication, as well as increased stereotypic digging behaviors...
October 15, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993741/executive-control-and-striatal-resting-state-network-interact-with-risk-factors-to-influence-treatment-outcomes-in-alcohol-use-disorder
#17
Milky Kohno, Laura E Dennis, Holly McCready, William F Hoffman
Alterations within mesocorticolimbic terminal regions commonly occur with alcohol use disorder (AUD). As pathological drug-seeking behavior may arise as a consequence of alcohol-induced neuroadaptations, it is critical to understand how such changes increase the likelihood of relapse. This report examined resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) using both a seed-based and model-free approach in individuals in treatment for AUD and how dysregulation of network connectivity contributes to treatment outcomes...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990298/commentary-on-lichenstein-et-al-2017-escalating-cannabis-use-weak-corticostriatal-connections-and-negative-outcomes
#18
Francesca M Filbey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988338/opposing-collicular-influences-on-the-parafascicular-pf-and-posteromedial-pom-thalamic-nuclei-relationship-to-pom-induced-inhibition-in-the-substantia-nigra-pars-reticulata-snr
#19
Glenn D R Watson, Kevin D Alloway
The superior colliculus activates the zona incerta (ZI), which sends GABAergic projections to the posteromedial (POm) thalamic nucleus. Consistent with this circuit, we previously showed that stimulation of the superior colliculus activates ZI and causes inhibition of neuronal activity in POm (Watson et al., J Neurosci 35:9463-9476, 2015). Other studies, however, have shown that collicular stimulation activates the intralaminar nuclei of the thalamus. The present study extends these reports by showing that unilateral collicular stimulation causes bilateral activation of Pf that is concomitant with bilateral inhibition of POm...
October 7, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956336/regulation-of-striatal-neuron-activity-by-cyclic-nucleotide-signaling-and-phosphodiesterase-inhibition-implications-for-the-treatment-of-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Fernando E Padovan-Neto, Anthony R West
Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis and inactivation of cyclic nucleotides (cAMP/cGMP) in the brain. Several classes of PDE enzymes with distinct tissue distributions, cyclic nucleotide selectivity, and regulatory factors are highly expressed in brain regions subserving cognitive and motor processes known to be disrupted in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Furthermore, small-molecule inhibitors of several different PDE family members alter cyclic nucleotide levels and favorably enhance motor performance and cognition in animal disease models...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
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