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Ventral tegmental area

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637978/mechanisms-underlying-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-opioid-receptor-agonist-induced-increases-in-extracellular-dopamine-level-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-of-freely-moving-rats
#1
Tadashi Saigusa, Yuri Aono, John L Waddington
The nucleus accumbens is a terminal area of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system that arises in the ventral tegmental area. Opioids are thought to enhance dopaminergic activity in the nucleus accumbens by activating δ- and μ-opioid receptors in the ventral tegmental area. However, δ- and μ-opioid receptor agonists increase extracellular levels of accumbal dopamine when infused directly into the nucleus accumbens of rats. Therefore, the roles of δ- and μ-opioid receptors in regulation of accumbal dopaminergic neural activity have been analyzed by using δ- and μ-opioid receptor ligands...
2017: Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635140/noradrenergic-signaling-in-the-vta-modulates-cocaine-craving
#2
Wojciech Barnaba Solecki, Klaudia Szklarczyk, Kamil Pradel, Krystyna Kwiatkowska, Grzegorz Dobrzański, Ryszard Przewłocki
Exposure to drug-associated cues evokes drug-seeking behavior and is regarded as a major cause of relapse. Conditional stimulus upregulates noradrenaline (NA) system activity, but the drug-seeking behavior depends particularly on phasic dopamine signaling downstream from the ventral tegmental area (VTA). The VTA dopamine-ergic activity is regulated via the signaling of alpha1 -adrenergic and alpha2 -adrenergic receptors (α1 -ARs and α2 -ARs); thus, the impact of the conditional stimulus on drug-seeking behavior might involve NAergic signaling in the VTA...
June 21, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634107/chronic-pramipexole-treatment-induces-compulsive-behavior-in-rats-with-6-ohda-lesions-of-the-substantia-nigra-and-ventral-tegmental-area
#3
D Dardou, L Reyrolle, C Chassain, F Durif
Dopamine replacement therapy (DRT) reduces motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD), but also induces impulsive-compulsive behavior (ICB) in up to 25% of PD patients. These non-motor side effects of DRT generally follow a gradual transition from impulsive to compulsive-like-i.e. repetitive, compelled, and non-pleasurable-behavior. Here, we investigated the effect of chronic pramipexole (PPX) treatment on the onset of compulsive-like behavior, measured via the post-training signal attenuation (PTSA) procedure, in rats with dopaminergic lesions...
June 17, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630376/functional-connectivity-disturbances-of-the-ascending-reticular-activating-system-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#4
Dario J Englot, Pierre-Francois D'Haese, Peter E Konrad, Monica L Jacobs, John C Gore, Bassel W Abou-Khalil, Victoria L Morgan
OBJECTIVE: Seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) disturb brain networks and lead to connectivity disturbances. We previously hypothesised that recurrent seizures in TLE may lead to abnormal connections involving subcortical activating structures including the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS), contributing to neocortical dysfunction and neurocognitive impairments. However, no studies of ARAS connectivity have been previously reported in patients with epilepsy. METHODS: We used resting-state functional MRI recordings in 27 patients with TLE (67% right sided) and 27 matched controls to examine functional connectivity (partial correlation) between eight brainstem ARAS structures and 105 cortical/subcortical regions...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626012/pharmacological-modulation-of-noradrenergic-arousal-circuitry-disrupts-functional-connectivity-of-the-locus-coeruleus-in-humans
#5
Andrew H Song, Aaron Kucyi, Vitaly Napadow, Emery N Brown, Marco L Loggia, Oluwaseun Akeju
State dependent activity of locus coeruleus (LC) neurons has long suggested a role for noradrenergic modulation of arousal. However, in vivo insights into noradrenergic arousal circuitry have been constrained by the fundamental inaccessibility of the human brain for invasive studies. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies performed during site-specific pharmacological manipulations of arousal levels may be used to study brain arousal circuitry. Dexmedetomidine is an anesthetic that alters the level of arousal by selectively targeting α2 adrenergic receptors on LC neurons, resulting in reduced firing rate and norepinephrine release...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625719/atypical-dopamine-transporter-inhibitors-r-modafinil-and-jhw-007-differentially-affect-d2-autoreceptor-neurotransmission-and-the-firing-rate-of-midbrain-dopamine-neurons
#6
Alicia J Avelar, J Cao, Amy Hauck Newman, Michael J Beckstead
Abuse of psychostimulants like cocaine that inhibit dopamine (DA) reuptake through the dopamine transporter (DAT) represents a major public health issue, however FDA-approved pharmacotherapies have yet to be developed. Recently a class of ligands termed "atypical DAT inhibitors" has gained attention due to their range of effectiveness in increasing extracellular dopamine (DA) levels without demonstrating significant abuse liability. These compounds not only hold promise as therapeutic agents to treat stimulant use disorders but also as experimental tools to improve our understanding of DAT function...
June 15, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624585/contributions-of-the-lateral-habenula-to-circadian-timekeeping
#7
REVIEW
Beatriz Baño-Otálora, Hugh D Piggins
Over the past 20years, substantive research has firmly implicated the lateral habenula in myriad neural processes including addiction, depression, and sleep. More recently, evidence has emerged suggesting that the lateral habenula is a component of the brain's intrinsic daily or circadian timekeeping system. This system centers on the master circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus that is synchronized to the external world through environmental light information received directly from the eye...
June 14, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624112/opposing-roles-of-rapid-dopamine-signaling%C3%A2-across-the-rostral-caudal-axis-of%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-nucleus-accumbens-shell-in-drug-induced-negative-affect
#8
Seth W Hurley, Elizabeth A West, Regina M Carelli
BACKGROUND: Negative reinforcement theories of drug addiction posit that addicts use drugs to alleviate negative mood states. In a preclinical model developed in our laboratory, rats exhibit negative affect to a normally rewarding taste cue when it predicts impending but delayed cocaine. The emergence of this state is accompanied by a reduction in dopamine concentration in the rostral nucleus accumbens shell. However, the rostral and caudal regions of the shell have been implicated in promoting opposing appetitive and aversive states, respectively...
May 11, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619944/early-life-stress-confers-lifelong-stress-susceptibility-in-mice-via-ventral-tegmental-area-otx2
#9
Catherine J Peña, Hope G Kronman, Deena M Walker, Hannah M Cates, Rosemary C Bagot, Immanuel Purushothaman, Orna Issler, Yong-Hwee Eddie Loh, Tin Leong, Drew D Kiraly, Emma Goodman, Rachael L Neve, Li Shen, Eric J Nestler
Early life stress increases risk for depression. Here we establish a "two-hit" stress model in mice wherein stress at a specific postnatal period increases susceptibility to adult social defeat stress and causes long-lasting transcriptional alterations that prime the ventral tegmental area (VTA)-a brain reward region-to be in a depression-like state. We identify a role for the developmental transcription factor orthodenticle homeobox 2 (Otx2) as an upstream mediator of these enduring effects. Transient juvenile-but not adult-knockdown of Otx2 in VTA mimics early life stress by increasing stress susceptibility, whereas its overexpression reverses the effects of early life stress...
June 16, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619286/neuroprotective-potential-of-aloe-arborescens-against-copper-induced-neurobehavioral-features-of-parkinson-s-disease-in-rat
#10
Abdellatif Abbaoui, Omar El Hiba, Halima Gamrani
Copper (Cu) is an important trace element for the organism survival, which ensures the normal functioning of different biosystems. However, excessive levels of this heavy metal are responsible for profound physiological alterations including the central nervous system. Numerous findings sustain the involvement of heavy metals, as an environmental risk factor such as copper (Cu), in the neuropathology of Parkinson's disease (PD) which is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder that principally affects the motor system...
June 12, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616718/effect-of-intrastriatal-6-ohda-lesions-on-extrastriatal-brain-structures-in-the-mouse
#11
Birte Becker, Melek Demirbas, Sonja Johann, Adib Zendedel, Cordian Beyer, Hans Clusmann, Stefan Jean-Pierre Haas, Andreas Wree, Sonny Kian Hwie Tan, Markus Kipp
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive loss of midbrain dopaminergic neurons, resulting in motor and non-motor symptoms. The underlying pathology of non-motor symptoms is poorly understood. Discussed are pathological changes of extrastriatal brain structures. In this study, we characterized histopathological alterations of extrastriatal brain structures in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) PD animal model. Lesions were induced by unilateral stereotactic injections of 6-OHDA into the striatum or medial forebrain bundle of adult male mice...
June 14, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615331/comparison-of-the-vta-and-lc-response-to-methylphenidate-a-concomitant-behavioral-and-neuronal-study-of-adolescent-male-rats
#12
Tahseen Jalal Karim, Cruz Reyes-Vazquez, Nachum Dafny
Methylphenidate (MPD), also known as Ritalin, is a psychostimulant used to treat attention hyperactivity disorder. However, it is increasingly being misused by normal adolescents for recreation and academic advantage. Therefore, it is important to elucidate the behavioral and neurophysiological effects of MPD in normal subjects. MPD inhibits the reuptake of catecholamines, mainly found in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and locus coeruleus (LC). The VTA and LC normally mediate attention, motivation, and drug reward behaviors...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614710/anterior-cingulate-cortex-modulation-of-the-ventral-tegmental-area-in-an-effort-task
#13
Thomas W Elston, David K Bilkey
Information gained during goal pursuit motivates adaptive behavior. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) supports adaptive behavior, but how ACC signals are translated into motivational signals remains unclear. Rats with implants in the ACC and ventral tegmental area (VTA), a dopaminergic brain area implicated in motivation, were trained to run laps around a rectangular track for a fixed reward, where each lap varied in physical effort (a 30-cm climbable barrier). Partial directed coherence analysis of local field potentials revealed that ACC theta (4-12 Hz) activity increased as rats entered the barrier-containing region of the maze in trials when the barrier was absent and predicted similar changes in VTA theta activity...
June 13, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611691/morphine-reward-promotes-cue-sensitive-learning-implication-of-dorsal-striatal-creb-activity
#14
Mathieu Baudonnat, Jean-Louis Guillou, Marianne Husson, Veronique D Bohbot, Lars Schwabe, Vincent David
Different parallel neural circuits interact and may even compete to process and store information: whereas stimulus-response (S-R) learning critically depends on the dorsal striatum (DS), spatial memory relies on the hippocampus (HPC). Strikingly, despite its potential importance for our understanding of addictive behaviors, the impact of drug rewards on memory systems dynamics has not been extensively studied. Here, we assessed long-term effects of drug- vs food reinforcement on the subsequent use of S-R vs spatial learning strategies and their neural substrates...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609288/eff-ect-of-a-single-asenapine-treatment-on-fos-expression-in-the-brain-catecholamine-synthesizing-neurons-impact-of-a-chronic-mild-stress-preconditioning
#15
J Osacka, L Horvathova, Z Majercikova, Alexander Kiss
OBJECTIVE: Fos protein expression in catecholamine-synthesizing neurons of the substantia nigra (SN) pars compacta (SNC, A8), pars reticulata (SNR, A9), and pars lateralis (SNL), the ventral tegmental area (VTA, A10), the locus coeruleus (LC, A6) and subcoeruleus (sLC), the ventrolateral pons (PON-A5), the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS-A2), the area postrema (AP), and the ventrolateral medulla (VLM-A1) was quantitatively evaluated aft er a single administration of asenapine (ASE) (designated for schizophrenia treatment) in male Wistar rats preconditioned with a chronic unpredictable variable mild stress (CMS) for 21 days...
April 25, 2017: Endocrine Regulations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608532/%C3%AE-opioid-receptor-dopamine-d1-receptor-heteromers-modulate-opioid-induced-locomotor-sensitization-in-a-dopamine-independent-manner
#16
Yi-Min Tao, Chuan Yu, Wei-Sheng Wang, Yuan-Yuan Hou, Xue-Jun Xu, Zhi-Qiang Chi, Yu-Qiang Ding, Yu-Jun Wang, Jing-Gen Liu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Exposure to opiates induces locomotor sensitization in rodents, which has been proposed to correspond to the compulsive drug-seeking behavior. Numerous studies have demonstrated that locomotor sensitization can occur in a dopamine transmission-independent manner, however, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The coimmunoprecipitation, BRET and cross-antagonism assays were used to demonstrating the existence of receptor heterodimers...
June 13, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606743/alpha1-adrenergic-receptor-blockade-in-the-vta-modulates-fear-memories-and-stress-responses
#17
Wojciech B Solecki, Klaudia Szklarczyk, Kamil Pradel, Grzegorz Dobrzański, Ryszard Przewłocki
Activity of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and its terminals has been implicated in the Pavlovian associative learning of both stressful and rewarding stimuli. However, the role of the VTA noradrenergic signaling in fear responses remains unclear. We aimed to examine how alpha1-adrenergic receptor (α1-AR) signaling in the VTA affects conditioned fear. The role of α1-AR was assessed using the micro-infusions into the VTA of the selective antagonists (0.1-1µg/0.5µl prazosin and 1µg/0.5µl terazosin) in acquisition and expression of fear memory...
June 9, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603026/widespread-reduction-of-dopamine-cell-bodies-and-terminals-in-adult-rats-exposed-to-a-low-dose-regimen-of-mdma-during-adolescence
#18
Cristina Cadoni, Augusta Pisanu, Nicola Simola, Lucia Frau, Pier Francesca Porceddu, Silvia Corongiu, Christian Dessì, Annesha Sil, Antonio Plumitallo, Jadwiga Wardas, Gaetano Di Chiara
Although MDMA (3,4-methylendioxymethamphetamine, ecstasy) neurotoxicity in serotonin neurons is largely recognized in a wide variety of species including man, neurotoxicity in dopamine (DA) neurons is thought to be species-specific. MDMA is mainly consumed by adolescents, often in conjunction with caffeine (Energy Drinks) and this association has been reported to exacerbate MDMA toxic effects. In order to model these aspects of MDMA use, vis-à-vis their impact on DA neurons, we investigated the effects of adolescent exposure to low doses of MDMA (5 mg/kg for 10 days), alone or in combination with caffeine (10 mg/kg) on neuronal and functional DA indices and on recognition memory in adult rats...
June 8, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597913/inherent-vulnerabilities-in-monoaminergic-pathways-predict-the-emergence-of-depressive-impairments-in-an-animal-model-of-chronic-epilepsy
#19
Jesús-Servando Medel-Matus, Don Shin, Raman Sankar, Andrey Mazarati
The objective was to determine whether the depression comorbid with epilepsy could be predicted based on inherent premorbid patterns of monoaminergic transmission. In male Wistar rats, despair-like and anhedonia-like behaviors were examined using forced swimming and taste preference tests, respectively. Serotonergic raphe nucleus (RN)-prefrontal cortex (PFC) and dopaminergic ventral tegmental area (VTA)-nucleus accumbens (NAcc) pathways were interrogated by fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV). The assays were performed before and 2 months after pilocarpine status epilepticus...
June 9, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594540/noradrenergic-modulation-of-dopamine-transmission-evoked-by-electrical-stimulation-of-the-locus-coeruleus-in-the-rat-brain
#20
Jin W Park, Rohan V Bhimani, Jinwoo Park
Central norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) are involved in a variety of physiological functions and behaviors. Accumulating evidence suggests that NE neurons originating from the locus coeruleus (LC) innervate DA neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and influence VTA-DA neural activity. However, the underlying mechanisms of how LC-NE regulates DA transmission via VTA-DA neurons remain largely unexplored. Herein, we investigated how electrical stimulation of the LC modulates VTA-DA neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens (NAc)...
June 21, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
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