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Ventral tegmental area

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214679/estradiol-is-a-critical-regulator-of-food-reward-behavior
#1
Jennifer E Richard, Lorena López-Ferreras, Rozita H Anderberg, Kajsa Olandersson, Karolina P Skibicka
Food intake is reduced by estrogenic hormones, levels of which vary throughout life and fluctuate throughout the ovarian cycle in females. However, estrogens have also been shown to increase reward derived from drugs of abuse, where motivational properties of drugs and progression to addiction are potentiated by estrogens. Whether reward derived from food, and specifically motivational properties of food, are altered by estrogens remains unknown. Here we investigated the effect of the estrous cycle on food reward behavior and show estrous cycle dictated variability in food motivation, measured by progressive ratio operant conditioning, in female rats...
January 28, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209735/the-epac-phospholipase-c%C3%AE%C2%B5-pathway-regulates-endocannabinoid-signaling-and-cocaine-induced-disinhibition-of-vta-dopamine-neurons
#2
Jiaqing Tong, Xiaojie Liu, Casey Vickstrom, Yan Li, Laikang Yu, Youming Lu, Alan V Smrcka, Qing-Song Liu
Exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) is a direct effector for the ubiquitous second messenger cAMP. Epac activates the phospholipase Cε (PLCε) pathway. PLCβ has been linked to the synthesis of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). Here, we report that Epac facilitates endocannabinoid-mediated retrograde synaptic depression through activation of PLCε. Intracellular loading of a selective Epac agonist 8-CPT-2Me-cAMP into ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons enabled previously ineffective stimuli to induce depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition (DSI) and long-term depression of IPSCs (I-LTD) in the VTA...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194850/cannabidiol-reduces-ethanol-consumption-motivation-and-relapse-in-mice
#3
Adrián Viudez-Martínez, María S García-Gutiérrez, Carmen María Navarrón, María Isabel Morales-Calero, Francisco Navarrete, Ana Isabel Torres-Suárez, Jorge Manzanares
This study evaluated the effects of cannabidiol (CBD) on ethanol reinforcement, motivation and relapse in C57BL/6 J mice. The effects of CBD (60 mg/kg, i.p.) on blood ethanol concentration, hypothermia and handling-induced convulsions associated to acute ethanol administration were evaluated. The two-bottle choice paradigm was performed to assess the effects of CBD (30, 60 and 120 mg/kg/day, i.p.) on ethanol intake and preference. In addition, an oral ethanol self-administration experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of CBD [a single s...
February 13, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194001/enhancing-vta-cav1-3-l-type-ca-2-channel-activity-promotes-cocaine-and-mood-related-behaviors-via-overlapping-ampa-receptor-mechanisms-in-the-nucleus-accumbens
#4
A Martínez-Rivera, J Hao, T F Tropea, T P Giordano, M Kosovsky, R C Rice, A Lee, R L Huganir, J Striessnig, N A Addy, S Han, A M Rajadhyaksha
Genetic factors significantly influence susceptibility for substance abuse and mood disorders. Rodent studies have begun to elucidate a role of Cav1.3 L-type Ca(2+) channels in neuropsychiatric-related behaviors, such as addictive and depressive-like behaviors. Human studies have also linked the CACNA1D gene, which codes for the Cav1.3 protein, with bipolar disorder. However, the neurocircuitry and the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of Cav1.3 in neuropsychiatric phenotypes are not well established...
February 14, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192395/cadherins-mediate-cocaine-induced-synaptic-plasticity-and-behavioral-conditioning
#5
Fergil Mills, Andrea K Globa, Shuai Liu, Catherine M Cowan, Mahsan Mobasser, Anthony G Phillips, Stephanie L Borgland, Shernaz X Bamji
Drugs of abuse alter synaptic connections in the reward circuitry of the brain, which leads to long-lasting behavioral changes that underlie addiction. Here we show that cadherin adhesion molecules play a critical role in mediating synaptic plasticity and behavioral changes driven by cocaine. We demonstrate that cadherin is essential for long-term potentiation in the ventral tegmental area and is recruited to the synaptic membranes of excitatory synapses onto dopaminergic neurons following cocaine-mediated behavioral conditioning...
February 13, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188587/circadian-rhythms-and-substance-abuse-chronobiological-considerations-for-the-treatment-of-addiction
#6
REVIEW
Ian C Webb
Reward-related learning, including that associated with drugs of abuse, is largely mediated by the dopaminergic mesolimbic pathway. Mesolimbic neurophysiology and motivated behavior, in turn, are modulated by the circadian timing system which generates ∼24-h rhythms in cellular activity. Both drug taking and seeking and mesolimbic dopaminergic neurotransmission can vary widely over the day. Moreover, circadian clock genes are expressed in ventral tegmental area dopaminergic cells and in mesolimbic target regions where they can directly modulate reward-related neurophysiology and behavior...
February 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187919/dopamine-d3-and-acetylcholine-nicotinic-receptor-heteromerization-in-midbrain-dopamine-neurons-relevance-for-neuroplasticity
#7
Leonardo Bontempi, Paola Savoia, Federica Bono, Chiara Fiorentini, Cristina Missale
Activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) promotes the morphological remodeling of cultured dopamine (DA) neurons, an effect requiring functional DA D3 receptors (D3R). The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms mediating D3R-nAChR cross-talk in the modulation of DA neuron structural plasticity. By using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer(2) (BRET(2)) and proximity ligation assay (PLA), evidence for the existence of D3R-nAChR heteromers has been obtained. In particular, BRET(2) showed that the D3R directly and specifically interacts with the β2 subunit of the nAChR...
February 7, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186690/reduced-levels-of-cacna1c-attenuate-mesolimbic-dopamine-system-function
#8
Chantelle E Terrillion, David T Dao, Roger Cachope, Mary Kay Lobo, Adam C Puche, Joseph F Cheer, Todd D Gould
Genetic variation in CACNA1C, which codes for the L-type calcium channel (LTCC) Cav 1.2, is associated with clinical diagnoses of bipolar disorder, depression, and schizophrenia. Dysregulation of the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system is linked to these syndromes and LTCCs are required for normal DAergic neurotransmission between the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc). It is unclear, however, how variations in CACNA1C genotype, and potential subsequent changes in expression levels in these regions, modify risk...
February 10, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185645/mu-opioid-receptors-in-gamma-aminobutyric-acidergic-forebrain-neurons-moderate-motivation-for-heroin-and-palatable-food
#9
Pauline Charbogne, Olivier Gardon, Elena Martín-García, Helen L Keyworth, Aya Matsui, Anna E Mechling, Thomas Bienert, Taufiq Nasseef, Anne Robé, Luc Moquin, Emmanuel Darcq, Sami Ben Hamida, Patricia Robledo, Audrey Matifas, Katia Befort, Claire Gavériaux-Ruff, Laura-Adela Harsan, Dominik von Elverfeldt, Jurgen Hennig, Alain Gratton, Ian Kitchen, Alexis Bailey, Veronica A Alvarez, Rafael Maldonado, Brigitte L Kieffer
BACKGROUND: Mu opioid receptors (MORs) are central to pain control, drug reward, and addictive behaviors, but underlying circuit mechanisms have been poorly explored by genetic approaches. Here we investigate the contribution of MORs expressed in gamma-aminobutyric acidergic forebrain neurons to major biological effects of opiates, and also challenge the canonical disinhibition model of opiate reward. METHODS: We used Dlx5/6-mediated recombination to create conditional Oprm1 mice in gamma-aminobutyric acidergic forebrain neurons...
December 26, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178514/projection-target-defined-effects-of-orexin-and-dynorphin-on-vta-dopamine-neurons
#10
Corey Baimel, Benjamin K Lau, Min Qiao, Stephanie L Borgland
Circuit-specific signaling of ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons drives different aspects of motivated behavior, but the neuromodulatory control of these circuits is unclear. We tested the actions of co-expressed lateral hypothalamic peptides, orexin A (oxA) and dynorphin (dyn), on projection-target-defined dopamine neurons in mice. We determined that VTA dopamine neurons that project to the nucleus accumbens lateral shell (lAcbSh), medial shell (mAcbSh), and basolateral amygdala (BLA) are largely non-overlapping cell populations with different electrophysiological properties...
February 7, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167137/deletion-of-rictor-in-catecholaminergic-neurons-alters-locomotor-activity-and-ingestive-behavior
#11
Sophia Kaska, Rebecca Brunk, Vedrana Bali, Megan Kechner, Michelle S Mazei-Robison
While the etiology of depression is not fully understood, increasing evidence from animal models suggests a role for the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in pathogenesis. In this paper, we investigate the potential role of VTA mechanistic target of rapamycin 2 (TORC2) signaling in mediating susceptibility to chronic social defeat stress (CSDS), a well-established mouse model of depression. Utilizing genetic and viral knockout of Rictor (rapamycin-insensitive companion of target of rapamycin), a requisite component of TORC2, we demonstrate that decreasing Rictor-dependent TORC2 signaling in catecholaminergic neurons, or within the VTA specifically, does not alter susceptibility to CSDS...
February 3, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161387/intranasal-oxytocin-but-not-vasopressin-augments-neural-responses-to-toddlers-in-human-fathers
#12
Ting Li, Xu Chen, Jennifer Mascaro, Ebrahim Haroon, James K Rilling
This study investigates paternal brain function with the hope of better understanding the neural basis for variation in caregiving involvement among men. The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) are implicated in paternal caregiving in humans and other species. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject pharmaco-functional MRI experiment, we randomized 30 fathers of 1-2year old children to receive either 24IU intranasal OT before one scan and placebo before the other scan (n=15) or 20IU intranasal AVP before one scan and placebo before the other scan (n=15)...
February 1, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153913/an-anatomically-resolved-mouse-brain-proteome-reveals-parkinson-disease-relevant-pathways
#13
Sung Yun Jung, Jong Min Choi, Maxime W C Rousseaux, Anna Malovannaya, Jean J Kim, Joachim Kutzera, Yi Wang, Yin Huang, Weimin Zhu, Suman Maity, Huda Yahya Zoghbi, Jun Qin
Here we present a mouse brain protein atlas that covers 17 surgically distinct neuroanatomical regions of the adult mouse brain, each less than 1mm3 in size. The protein expression levels are determined for 6,500 to 7,500 gene protein products from each region and over 12,000 gene protein products for the entire brain, documenting the physiological repertoire of mouse brain proteins in an anatomically resolved and comprehensive manner. We explored the utility of our spatially-defined protein profiling methods in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD)...
February 2, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147243/song-associated-reward-correlates-with-endocannabinoid-related-gene-expression-in-male-european-starlings-sturnus-vulgaris
#14
Allison H Hahn, Devin P Merullo, Jeremy A Spool, Caroline S Angyal, Sharon A Stevenson, Lauren V Riters
Vocal communication is required for successful social interactions in numerous species. During the breeding season, songbirds produce songs that are reinforced by behavioral consequences (e.g., copulation). However, some songbirds also produce songs not obviously directed at other individuals. The consequences maintaining or reinforcing these songs are less obvious and the neural mechanisms associated with undirected communication are not well-understood. Previous studies indicate that undirected singing is intrinsically rewarding and mediated by opioid or dopaminergic systems; however, endocannabinoids are also involved in regulating reward and singing behavior...
January 29, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143769/muscarinic-cholinergic-receptor-antagonists-in-the-vta-and-rmtg-have-opposite-effects-on-morphine-induced-locomotion-in-mice
#15
Stephan Steidl, Ekamjeet S Dhillon, Natasha Sharma, Jessica Ludwig
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg) each contribute to opiate reward and each receive inputs from the laterodorsal tegmental and pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei, the two principle brainstem cholinergic cell groups. We compared the contributions of VTA or RMTg muscarinic cholinergic receptors to locomotion induced by morphine infusions into the same sites. VTA co-infusion of atropine completely blocked VTA morphine-induced locomotion providing additional support for the important role of VTA muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the stimulant effects of opiates...
January 29, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142074/within-vs-between-subject-effects-of-intranasal-oxytocin-on-the-neural-response-to-cooperative-and-non-cooperative-social-interactions
#16
Xu Chen, Pritam Gautam, Ebrahim Haroon, James K Rilling
The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) plays a critical role in modulating social behavior across a wide range of vertebrate species. In humans, intranasal oxytocin (INOT) has been shown to modulate various aspects of social behavior, such as empathy, trust, in-group preference, and memory of socially relevant cues. Most INOT studies employ cross-sectional designs despite the enhanced statistical power and reduction in error variance associated with individual differences characteristic of within-subject designs. Using the Prisoner Dilemma task, which models a real-life dyadic social interaction, our group has systematically explored the effect of INOT on social cooperation and non-cooperation using a cross-sectional design...
January 16, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138040/comparative-effects-of-ly3020371-a-potent-and-selective-mglu2-3-receptor-antagonist-and-ketamine-a-non-competitive-nmda-receptor-antagonist-in-rodents-evidence-supporting-use-for-the-treatment-of-depression
#17
Jeffrey M Witkin, Stephen Mitchell, Keith Wafford, Guy Carter, Gary Gilmour, Jennifer Li, Brian Eastwood, Carl Overshiner, Xia Li, Linda Rorick-Kehn, Kurt Rasmussen, Wesley Anderson, Alexander Nikolayev, Vladamir Tolstikov, Ming-Shang Kuo, John Catlow, Renhua Li, Stephen Smith, Charles Mitch, Paul Ornstein, Stephen Swanson, James Monn
The ability of the NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine to alleviate symptoms in patients suffering from treatment resistant depression (TRD) is well documented. In this report, we directly compare in vivo biological responses in rodents elicited by a recently discovered mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist (LY3020371) with those produced by ketamine. Both LY3020371 and ketamine increased the number of spontaneously active DA cells in the ventral tegmental area of anesthetized rats, increased O2 in the anterior cingulate cortex, promoted wakefulness, enhanced the efflux of biogenic amines in the prefrontal cortex, and produced antidepressant-related behavioral effects in SSRI-sensitive and -insensitive rodent models...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135243/hormonal-gain-control-of-a-medial-preoptic-area-social-reward-circuit
#18
Jenna A McHenry, James M Otis, Mark A Rossi, J Elliott Robinson, Oksana Kosyk, Noah W Miller, Zoe A McElligott, Evgeny A Budygin, David R Rubinow, Garret D Stuber
Neural networks that control reproduction must integrate social and hormonal signals, tune motivation, and coordinate social interactions. However, the neural circuit mechanisms for these processes remain unresolved. The medial preoptic area (mPOA), an essential node for social behaviors, comprises molecularly diverse neurons with widespread projections. Here we identify a steroid-responsive subset of neurotensin (Nts)-expressing mPOA neurons that interface with the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to form a socially engaged reward circuit...
January 30, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131726/transplantation-site-influences-the-phenotypic-differentiation-of-dopamine-neurons-in-ventral-mesencephalic-grafts-in-parkinsonian-rats
#19
Marija Fjodorova, Eduardo M Torres, Stephen B Dunnett
Foetal midbrain progenitors have been shown to survive, give rise to different classes of dopamine neurons and integrate into the host brain alleviating Parkinsonian symptoms following transplantation in patients and animal models of the disease. Dopamine neuron subpopulations in the midbrain, namely A9 and A10, can be identified anatomically based on cell morphology and ascending axonal projections. G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium channel Girk2 and the calcium binding protein Calbindin are the two best available histochemical markers currently used to label (with some overlap) A9- and A10-like dopamine neuron subtypes, respectively, in tyrosine hydroxylase expressing neurons both in the midbrain and grafts...
January 25, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131626/alcohol-vapor-exposure-differentially-impacts-mesocorticolimbic-cytokine-expression-in-a-sex-region-and-duration-specific-manner
#20
Lydia N Baxter-Potter, Angela M Henricks, Anthony L Berger, Kennedy V Bieniasz, Janelle M Lugo, Ryan J McLaughlin
Alcohol exposure elicits the production of cytokines that regulate the host response to infection, immunity, inflammation, and trauma. Although increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines has been linked to symptoms of alcoholism, few studies have evaluated whether cytokine expression changes across the development of alcohol dependence, or whether these changes are region and/or sex specific. In the present study, we subjected adult male and female rats to different regimens of alcohol vapor exposure (acute, subchronic, or chronic) and measured relative mRNA expression for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) in reward-related brain regions...
January 25, 2017: Neuroscience
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