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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155800/nicotinic-receptors-mediate-stress-nicotine-detrimental-interplay-via-dopamine-cells-activity
#1
C Morel, S P Fernandez, F Pantouli, F J Meye, F Marti, S Tolu, S Parnaudeau, H Marie, F Tronche, U Maskos, M Moretti, C Gotti, M-H Han, A Bailey, M Mameli, J Barik, P Faure
Epidemiological studies report strong association between mood disorders and tobacco addiction. This high comorbidity requires adequate treatment but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. We demonstrate that nicotine exposure, independent of drug withdrawal effects, increases stress sensitivity, a major risk factor in mood disorders. Nicotine and stress concur to induce long-lasting cellular adaptations within the dopamine (DA) system. This interplay is underpinned by marked remodeling of nicotinic systems, causing increased ventral tegmental area (VTA) DA neurons' activity and stress-related behaviors, such as social aversion...
July 25, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153928/enhancing-excitability-of-dopamine-neurons-promotes-motivational-behaviour-through-increased-action-initiation
#2
Linde Boekhoudt, Ellen C Wijbrans, Jodie H K Man, Mieneke C M Luijendijk, Johannes W de Jong, Geoffrey van der Plasse, Louk J M J Vanderschuren, Roger A H Adan
Motivational deficits are a key symptom in multiple psychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder, schizophrenia and addiction. A likely neural substrate for these motivational deficits is the brain dopamine (DA) system. In particular, DA signalling in the nucleus accumbens, which originates from DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), has been identified as a crucial substrate for effort-related and activational aspects of motivation. Unravelling how VTA DA neuronal activity relates to motivational behaviours is required to understand how motivational deficits in psychiatry can be specifically targeted...
November 16, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149481/neuroprotective-effects-of-melatonin-on-amphetamine-induced-dopaminergic-fiber-degeneration-in-the-hippocampus-of-postnatal-rats
#3
Tanawan Leeboonngam, Ratchadaporn Pramong, Kwankanit Sae-Ung, Piyarat Govitrapong, Pansiri Phansuwan-Pujito
Chronic amphetamine (AMPH) abuse leads to damage of the hippocampus, the brain area associated with learning and memory process. Previous results have shown that AMPH-induced dopamine neurotransmitter release, reactive oxygen species formation and degenerative protein aggregation lead to neuronal death. Melatonin, a powerful antioxidant, plays a role as a neuroprotective agent. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the protective effect of melatonin on AMPH-induced hippocampal damage in the postnatal rat acts through the dopaminergic pathway...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146239/innately-activated-tlr4-signal-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-is-sustained-by-crf-amplification-loop-and-regulates-impulsivity
#4
Irina Balan, Kaitlin T Warnock, Adam Puche, Marjorie C Gondre-Lewis, Laure Aurelian
Cognitive impulsivity is a heritable trait believed to represent the behavior that defines the volition to initiate alcohol drinking. We have previously shown that a neuronal Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signal located in the central amygdala (CeA) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) controls the initiation of binge drinking in alcohol-preferring P rats, and TLR4 expression is upregulated by alcohol-induced corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) at these sites. However, the function of the TLR4 signal in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAc-shell), a site implicated in the control of reward, drug-seeking behavior and impulsivity and the contribution of other signal-associated genes, are still poorly understood...
November 13, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142291/resveratrol-modulates-cocaine-induced-inhibitory-synaptic-plasticity-in-vta-dopamine-neurons-by-inhibiting-phosphodiesterases-pdes
#5
Yan Li, Laikang Yu, Li Zhao, Fanxing Zeng, Qing-Song Liu
Resveratrol is a natural phytoalexin synthesized by plants, including grapes. It displays a wide range of neuroprotective benefits associated with anti-aging. Recent studies have shown that resveratrol regulates dopaminergic transmission and behavioral effects of drugs of abuse. The goal of the present study is to investigate whether and how resveratrol alters basal inhibitory synaptic transmission and cocaine-induced inhibitory synaptic plasticity in dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA). We report that resveratrol elevated cAMP levels by itself and further potentiated a forskolin-induced increase in cAMP levels in midbrain slices, consistent with reported effects of inhibition of phosphodiesterases (PDEs)...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138105/adrenergic-receptor-agonists-modulation-of-dopaminergic-and-non-dopaminergic-neurons-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area
#6
Kamil Pradel, Tomasz Blasiak, Wojciech B Solecki
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) neuronal population consists of dopaminergic (DAergic) and non-DAergic neurons (mainly GABAergic), the activity of which is intertwined with VTA behavioral functions. Both DAergic and GABAergic neurons in the VTA have been shown to express adrenergic receptors (ARs) and respond to AR stimulation. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the effects of selective AR agonists on DAergic and non-DAergic neuronal activity in the central and lateral parts of the VTA using in vivo electrophysiological recording combined with microiontophoretic drug application in anaesthetized rats...
November 11, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137945/the-effects-of-local-microinjection-of-selective-dopamine-d1-and-d2-receptor-agonists-and-antagonists-into-the-dorsal-raphe-nucleus-on-sleep-and-wakefulness-in-the-rat
#7
Jaime M Monti, Héctor Jantos
The effects of the dopamine (DA) D1 and D2 receptor agonists SKF38393, bromocriptine and quinpirole, respectively, on spontaneous sleep were analyzed in adult rats prepared for chronic sleep recordings. Local administration of the DAergic agonists into the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) during the light phase of the light-dark cycle induced a significant reduction of rapid-eye movement sleep (REMS) and the number of REM periods. Additionally, bromocriptine and quinpirole significantly increased wakefulness (W)...
November 11, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137815/local-injection-of-d-lys-3-ghrp-6-in-the-rat-amygdala-dentate-gyrus-or-ventral-tegmental-area-impairs-memory-consolidation
#8
Siamak Beheshti, Neda Aslani
It is well known that the hormone ghrelin affects learning and memory in different experimental models of learning. Though, the effect of antagonism of ghrelin receptor type 1a (GHS-R1a) in various regions of the brain and on different stages of learning has not been examined. In this study the effect of injection of a GHS-R1a selective antagonist (d-Lys-3-GHRP-6) into the basolateral amygdala, dentate gyrus or ventral tegmental area was examined on memory consolidation in the passive avoidance task. Adult male Wistar rats weighing 230-280g were used...
November 4, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133763/effects-of-melatonin-levels-on-neurotoxicity-of-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-in-a-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Yan Li, Shu-Mei Wang, Lei Guo, Jian Zhu, Ying Wang, Lei Li, Yan-Xin Zhao
BACKGROUND: Damage of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) results in similar characteristics to the cognitive deficiency seen with the progress of Parkinson's disease (PD). Since the course of mPFC damage is still unclear, our study aimed to investigate the effects of melatonin (MT) on neurotoxicity in the mPFC of a rat model of PD. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-four normal, male Wistar rats were randomly divided into the following five groups: normal + normal saline (NS), normal + 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), sham pinealectomy (PX) + 6-OHDA, PX + 6-OHDA, and MT + 6-OHDA...
November 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127598/gaba-uptake-inhibition-reduces-in-vivo-extraction-fraction-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area-of-long-evans-rats-measured-by-quantitative-microdialysis-under-transient-conditions
#10
Shannon L Zandy, Rueben A Gonzales
Inhibitory signaling in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is involved in the mechanism of action for many drugs of abuse. Although drugs of abuse have been shown to alter extracellular γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentration in the VTA, knowledge on how uptake mechanisms are regulated in vivo is limited. Quantitative (no-net-flux) microdialysis is commonly used to examine the extracellular concentration and clearance of monoamine neurotransmitters, however it is unclear whether this method is sensitive to changes in clearance for amino acid neurotransmitters such as GABA...
November 10, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126932/docosahexaenoic-acid-dha-enhances-the-therapeutic-potential-of-neonatal-neural-stem-cell-transplantation-post-traumatic-brain-injury
#11
Hussein Ghazale, Naify Ramadan, Sara Mantash, Kazem Zibara, Sally El-Sitt, Hala Darwish, Farah Chamaa, Rose Mary Boustany, Stefania Mondello, Wassim Abou-Kheir, Jihane Soueid, Firas Kobeissy
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability worldwide with 1.5 million people inflicted yearly. Several neurotherapeutic interventions have been proposed including drug administration as well as cellular therapy involving neural stem cells (NSCs). Among the proposed drugs is docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a polyunsaturated fatty acid, exhibiting neuroprotective properties. In this study, we utilized an innovative intervention of neonatal NSCs transplantation in combination with DHA injections in order to ameliorate brain damage and promote functional recovery in an experimental model of TBI...
November 7, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114204/acute-ethanol-administration-upregulates-synaptic-%C3%AE-4-subunit-of-neuronal-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-within-the-nucleus-accumbens-and-amygdala
#12
Josephine R Tarren, Henry A Lester, Arnauld Belmer, Selena E Bartlett
Alcohol and nicotine are two of the most frequently abused drugs, with their comorbidity well described. Previous data show that chronic exposure to nicotine upregulates high-affinity nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in several brain areas. Effects of ethanol on specific brain nAChR subtypes within the mesolimbic dopaminergic (DA) pathway may be a key element in the comorbidity of ethanol and nicotine. However, it is unknown how alcohol affects the abundance of these receptor proteins. In the present study, we measured the effect of acute binge ethanol on nAChR α4 subunit levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), nucleus accumbens (NAc), ventral tegmental area (VTA), and amygdala (Amg) by western blot analysis using a knock-in mouse line, generated with a normally functioning α4 nAChR subunit tagged with yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113897/long-lasting-effects-of-chronic-win55-212-2-treatment-on-mesostriatal-dopaminergic-and-cannabinoid-systems-in-the-rat-brain
#13
Panagiotis Perdikaris, Martha Tsarouchi, Eleni Fanarioti, Evangelos Natsaridis, Ada Mitsacos, Panagiotis Giompres
Cannabinoid administration modulates dopamine transmission via an indirect, multisynaptic mechanism that includes the activation of cannabinoid type-1 receptor (CB1R). The present study evaluated in rodents, the effects of acute and chronic (20 days) WIN55,212-2 administration, a non-selective CB1R agonist, on dopamine uptake and synthesis in the mesolimbic and nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathways and associate them to its effects on the endocannabinoid system. The effect of spontaneous withdrawal, after different abstinence periods (7 days, 20 days), was also assessed...
November 4, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111478/verbal-working-memory-and-functional-large-scale-networks-in-schizophrenia
#14
Maria R Dauvermann, Thomas Wj Moorhead, Andrew R Watson, Barbara Duff, Liana Romaniuk, Jeremy Hall, Neil Roberts, Graham L Lee, Zoë A Hughes, Nicholas J Brandon, Brandon Whitcher, Douglas Hr Blackwood, Andrew M McIntosh, Stephen M Lawrie
The aim of this study was to test whether bilinear and nonlinear effective connectivity (EC) measures of working memory fMRI data can differentiate between patients with schizophrenia (SZ) and healthy controls (HC). We applied bilinear and nonlinear Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM) for the analysis of verbal working memory in 16 SZ and 21 HC. The connection strengths with nonlinear modulation between the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra (VTA/SN) were evaluated...
October 23, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109253/a-transient-dopamine-signal-encodes-subjective-value-and-causally-influences-demand-in-an-economic-context
#15
Scott A Schelp, Katherine J Pultorak, Dylan R Rakowski, Devan M Gomez, Gregory Krzystyniak, Raibatak Das, Erik B Oleson
The mesolimbic dopamine system is strongly implicated in motivational processes. Currently accepted theories suggest that transient mesolimbic dopamine release events energize reward seeking and encode reward value. During the pursuit of reward, critical associations are formed between the reward and cues that predict its availability. Conditioned by these experiences, dopamine neurons begin to fire upon the earliest presentation of a cue, and again at the receipt of reward. The resulting dopamine concentration scales proportionally to the value of the reward...
November 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107956/estradiol-increases-the-sensitivity-of-ventral-tegmental-area-dopamine-neurons-to-dopamine-and-ethanol
#16
Bertha J Vandegrift, Chang You, Rosalba Satta, Mark S Brodie, Amy W Lasek
Gender differences in psychiatric disorders such as addiction may be modulated by the steroid hormone estrogen. For instance, 17β-estradiol (E2), the predominant form of circulating estrogen in pre-menopausal females, increases ethanol consumption, suggesting that E2 may affect the rewarding properties of ethanol and thus the development of alcohol use disorder in females. The ventral tegmental area (VTA) is critically involved in the rewarding and reinforcing effects of ethanol. In order to determine the role of E2 in VTA physiology, gonadally intact female mice were sacrificed during diestrus II (high E2) or estrus (low E2) for electrophysiology recordings...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107581/developmental-estrogen-exposures-and-disruptions-to-maternal-behavior-and-brain-effects-of-ethinyl-estradiol-a-common-positive-control
#17
Mary C Catanese, Laura N Vandenberg
Due of its structural similarity to the endogenous estrogen 17β-estradiol (E2), the synthetic estrogen 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) is widely used to study the effects of estrogenic substances on sensitive organs at multiple stages of development. Here, we investigated the effects of EE2 on maternal behavior and the maternal brain in females exposed during gestation and the perinatal period. We assessed several components of maternal behavior including nesting behavior and pup retrieval; characterized the expression of estrogen receptor (ER)α in the medial preoptic area (MPOA), a brain region critical for the display of maternal behavior; and measured expression of tyrosine hydroxylase, a marker for dopaminergic cells, in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a brain region important in maternal motivation...
November 7, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103933/optogenetic-blockade-of-dopamine-transients-prevents-learning-induced-by-changes-in-reward-features
#18
Chun Yun Chang, Matthew Gardner, Maria Gonzalez Di Tillio, Geoffrey Schoenbaum
Prediction errors are critical for associative learning [1, 2]. Transient changes in dopamine neuron activity correlate with positive and negative reward prediction errors and can mimic their effects [3-15]. However, although causal studies show that dopamine transients of 1-2 s are sufficient to drive learning about reward, these studies do not address whether they are necessary (but see [11]). Further, the precise nature of this signal is not yet fully established. Although it has been equated with the cached-value error signal proposed to support model-free reinforcement learning, cached-value errors are typically confounded with errors in the prediction of reward features [16]...
October 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101619/impairment-of-non-associative-learning-in-a-rat-experimental-model-of-preclinical-stage-of-parkinson-s-disease
#19
I N Abdurasulova, I V Ekimova, A V Matsulevich, A R Gazizova, V M Klimenko, Yu F Pastukhov
An experimental model of the preclinical stage of Parkinson's disease was induced by double intranasal administration of the proteasome inhibitor lactacystin. The results demonstrated signs of cognitive impairments expressed as impaired non-associative learning. This was related to degeneration of one-third of dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area of the midbrain and their axons in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Impairment of non-associative learning may be an early non-motor marker of Parkinson's disease indicating the start of neurodegenerative processes in the dopaminergic mesocortical system of the brain...
September 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100904/nicotine-induced-creb-and-deltafosb-activity-is-modified-by-caffeine-in-the-brain-reward-system-of-the-rat
#20
Przemysław Kowiański, Grażyna Lietzau, Aleksandra Steliga, Ewelina Czuba, Beata Ludkiewicz, Monika Waśkow, Jan H Spodnik, Janusz Moryś
Coffee and nicotine consumption are frequently combined, indicating possible intensifying effect of caffeine on smoking behavior, although neurobiological background of this phenomenon remains unknown. We aimed at determining the effect of caffeine and nicotine, applied separately or simultaneously, on activation of six structures of the brain reward system: nucleus accumbens (NAc), ventral tegmental area (VTA), amygdala (Amg), hippocampus (Hip), medial prefrontal cortex (mPfr) and dorsal striatum (CdP) in the adult male Wistar rats...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
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