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Ventromedial thalamus

Luca Posa, Danilo De Gregorio, Gabriella Gobbi, Stefano Comai
Melatonin (MLT) has been implicated in several pathophysiological states, including pain. MLT mostly activates two G-protein coupled receptors, MT1 and MT2. In this review, we present the analgesic properties of MLT in preclinical and clinical studies, giving particular emphasis to the effects mediated by MT2 receptors and to recent investigations demonstrating the analgesic effects of MT2 receptor partial agonists in chronic and acute/inflammatory pain conditions. MT2 receptors are localized in specific brain areas, including the reticular and the ventromedial nuclei of the thalamus (part of the ascending nociceptive pathway) and the ventrolateral periaqueductal grey matter (vlPAG) (part of the descending antinociceptive pathway)...
February 8, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Lauren C Anderson, Gorica D Petrovich
Renewal, or reinstatement, of responding to food cues after extinction may explain the inability to resist palatable foods and change maladaptive eating habits. Previously, we found sex differences in context-dependent renewal of extinguished Pavlovian conditioned responding to food cues. Context-induced renewal involves cue-food conditioning and extinction in different contexts and the renewal of conditioned behavior is induced by return to the conditioning context (ABA renewal). Male rats showed renewal of responding while females did not...
December 8, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Hedwig Eisenbarth, Luke J Chang, Tor D Wager
: Psychosocial stressors induce autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses in multiple body systems that are linked to health risks. Much work has focused on the common effects of stress, but ANS responses in different body systems are dissociable and may result from distinct patterns of cortical-subcortical interactions. Here, we used machine learning to develop multivariate patterns of fMRI activity predictive of heart rate (HR) and skin conductance level (SCL) responses during social threat in humans (N = 18)...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Ellen Jaspers, Joshua H Balsters, Pegah Kassraian Fard, Dante Mantini, Nicole Wenderoth
Over the last decade, structure-function relationships have begun to encompass networks of brain areas rather than individual structures. For example, corticostriatal circuits have been associated with sensorimotor, limbic, and cognitive information processing, and damage to these circuits has been shown to produce unique behavioral outcomes in Autism, Parkinson's Disease, Schizophrenia and healthy ageing. However, it remains an open question how abnormal or absent connectivity can be detected at the individual level...
November 12, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Janine Thome, Maria Densmore, Paul A Frewen, Margaret C McKinnon, Jean Théberge, Andrew A Nicholson, Julian Koenig, Julian F Thayer, Ruth A Lanius
OBJECTIVES: Although dysfunctional emotion regulatory capacities are increasingly recognized as contributing to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), little work has sought to identify biological markers of this vulnerability. Heart rate variability (HRV) is a promising biomarker that, together with neuroimaging, may assist in gaining a deeper understanding of emotion dysregulation in PTSD. The objective of the present study was, therefore, to characterize autonomic response patterns, and their related neuronal patterns in individuals with PTSD at rest...
January 2017: Human Brain Mapping
Xiaofen Ma, Junzhang Tian, Zhanhong Wu, Xiaopeng Zong, Jianwei Dong, Wenfeng Zhan, Yikai Xu, Zibo Li, Guihua Jiang
PURPOSE: To investigate the aberrant functional connectivity of the default mode network (DMN) in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and their clinical relevance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Resting-state functional MRI data were collected from 31 patients with ESRD (24 men, 24-61 years) and 31 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HCs, 21 men, 26-61years). A whole-brain seed-based functional connectivity analysis of these collected R-fMRI data was performed by locating the seeds in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) to investigate the functional connectivity of the posterior and anterior DMN over the whole brain, respectively...
2016: PloS One
Clémentine Fillinger, Ipek Yalcin, Michel Barrot, Pierre Veinante
Areas 24a and 24b of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) play a major role in cognition, emotion and pain. While their connectivity has been studied in primate and in rat, a complete mapping was still missing in the mouse. Here, we analyzed the afferents to the mouse ACC by injecting retrograde tracers in the ventral and dorsal areas of the ACC (areas 24a/b) and of the midcingulate cortex (MCC; areas 24a'/b'). Our results reveal inputs from five principal groups of structures: (1) cortical areas, mainly the orbital, medial prefrontal, retrosplenial, parietal associative, primary and secondary sensory areas and the hippocampus, (2) basal forebrain, mainly the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus, the claustrum and the horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca, (3) the thalamus, mainly the anteromedial, lateral mediodorsal, ventromedial, centrolateral, central medial and reuniens/rhomboid nuclei, (4) the hypothalamus, mainly the lateral and retromammillary areas, and (5) the brainstem, mainly the monoaminergic centers...
August 18, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
M L Sánchez, Z Díaz-Cabiale, J A Narváez, B Manso, P Salinas, E Rivada, V Smith, R Coveñas
Using an immunohistochemical technique, we mapped the immunoreactive structures containing methionine-enkephalin-Arg(6)-Gly(7)-Leu(8) (Met-8) (a marker for the pro-enkephalin system) in the human diencephalon. Compared with previous studies, we observed a more widespread distribution of Met-8 in the human diencephalon. Met-8-immunoreactive cell bodies and fibers exhibited a more widespread distribution in the hypothalamus than in the thalamus. We observed six populations of Met-8-immunoreactive cell bodies...
August 12, 2016: Neuroscience
Andrew Chih Wei Huang, Hsiang-Chin Lu, Bai Chuang Shyu
Approximately 8% of stroke patients present symptoms of central post-stroke pain (CPSP). CPSP is associated with allodynia and hypersensitivity to nociceptive stimuli. Although some studies have shown that neuropathic pain may involve the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, rostral anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, periaqueductal gray, rostral ventromedial medulla, and medial thalamus, the neural substrates and their connections that mediate CPSP remain unclear. [(14)C]-Iodoantipyrine (IAP) uptake can be measured to evaluate spontaneously active pain...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Elena Makovac, David R Watson, Frances Meeten, Sarah N Garfinkel, Mara Cercignani, Hugo Critchley, Cristina Ottaviani
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is characterized by excessive worry, autonomic dysregulation, and functional amygdala dysconnectivity, yet these illness markers have rarely been considered together, nor their interrelationship tested longitudinally. We hypothesized that an individual's capacity for emotion regulation predicts longer-term changes in amygdala functional connectivity, supporting the modification of GAD core symptoms. Sixteen patients with GAD (14 women) and individually matched controls were studied at two time points separated by one year...
June 30, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Sunil Bhattarai, Alicja Sochacka-Marlowe, Gerald Crutchfield, Ramisha Khan, Richard Londraville, Qin Liu
Krüpple-like factors (KLFs) are transcription factors with zinc finger DNA binding domains known to play important roles in brain development and central nervous system (CNS) regeneration. There is little information on KLFs expression in adult vertebrate CNS. In this study, we used in situ hybridization to examine Klf7 mRNA (klf7) and Klf6a mRNA (klf6a) expression in adult zebrafish CNS. Both klfs exhibit wide and similar expression in the zebrafish CNS. Brain areas containing strongly labeled cells include the ventricular regions of the dorsomedial telencephalon, the ventromedial telencephalon, periventricular regions of the thalamus and hypothalamus, torus longitudinalis, stratum periventriculare of the optic tectum, granular regions of the cerebellar body and valvula, and superficial layers of the facial and vagal lobes...
May 2016: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
Vaughan G Macefield, Luke A Henderson
We review our approach to functionally identifying cortical and subcortical areas involved in the generation of spontaneous fluctuations in sympathetic outflow to muscle or skin. We record muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) or skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA), via a tungsten microelectrode inserted percutaneously into the common peroneal nerve, at the same time as performing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the brain. By taking advantage of the neurovascular coupling delay associated with BOLD (blood oxygen level dependent) fMRI, and the delay associated with conduction of a burst of sympathetic impulses to the peripheral recording site, we can identify structures in which BOLD signal intensity covaries with MSNA or SSNA...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Jürgen Hänggi, Dorian Bellwald, Peter Brugger
Xenomelia is a rare condition characterized by the persistent desire for the amputation of physically healthy limbs. Associations with morphological alterations such as reduced cortical thickness and surface area. Nothing is known, however, about the potential involvement of subcortical structures. The thalamus and basal ganglia process, relay, and integrate sensorimotor information and are involved in the preparation and execution of movements. Moreover, both of these structures house somatotopic representations of all body parts...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Tomoyo Isoguchi Shiramatsu, Kazusa Takahashi, Takahiro Noda, Ryohei Kanzaki, Haruka Nakahara, Hirokazu Takahashi
The rat has long been considered an important model system for studying neural mechanisms of auditory perception and learning, and particularly mechanisms involving auditory thalamo-cortical processing. However, the functional topography of the auditory thalamus, or medial geniculate body (MGB) has not yet been fully characterized in the rat, and the anatomically-defined features of field-specific, layer-specific and tonotopic thalamo-cortical projections have never been confirmed electrophysiologically. In the present study, we have established a novel technique for recording simultaneously from a surface microelectrode array on the auditory cortex, and a depth electrode array across auditory cortical layers and within the MGB, and characterized the rat MGB and thalamo-cortical projections under isoflurane anesthesia...
September 22, 2016: Neuroscience
Matthew T Sutherland, Michael C Riedel, Jessica S Flannery, Julio A Yanes, Peter T Fox, Elliot A Stein, Angela R Laird
BACKGROUND: Whereas acute nicotine administration alters brain function which may, in turn, contribute to enhanced attention and performance, chronic cigarette smoking is linked with regional brain atrophy and poorer cognition. However, results from structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies comparing smokers versus nonsmokers have been inconsistent and measures of gray matter possess limited ability to inform functional relations or behavioral implications. The purpose of this study was to address these interpretational challenges through meta-analytic techniques in the service of clarifying the impact of chronic smoking on gray matter integrity and more fully contextualizing such structural alterations...
June 2, 2016: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Yi Lu, Hongmin Liang, Dan Han, Yin Mo, Zongfang Li, Yuqi Cheng, Xiufeng Xu, Zonglin Shen, Chunyan Tan, Wei Zhao, Yun Zhu, Xuejin Sun
Previous MRI studies confirmed abnormalities in the limbic-cortical-striatal-pallidal-thalamic (LCSPT) network or limbic-cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortical (LCSTC) circuits in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), but few studies have investigated the subcortical structural abnormalities. Therefore, we sought to determine whether focal subcortical grey matter (GM) changes might be present in MDD at an early stage. We recruited 30 first episode, untreated patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 26 healthy control subjects...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Katelyn E Sadler, Benedict J Kolber
PURPOSE: Chronic bladder pain is a debilitating condition often accompanied by alterations in affective and autonomic function. Many symptoms associated with chronic bladder pain are mediated by the central nervous system. In this review data from preclinical animal models and human neuroimaging studies were analyzed and a theoretical supraspinal bladder pain network was generated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We comprehensively reviewed the literature using PubMed® and Google Scholar™...
July 2016: Journal of Urology
Bojana Kuzmanovic, Anneli Jefferson, Kai Vogeley
People are motivated to adopt the most favorable beliefs about their future because positive beliefs are experienced as rewarding. However, it is so far inconclusive whether brain regions known to represent reward values are involved in the generation of optimistically biased belief updates. To address this question, we investigated neural correlates of belief updates that result in relatively better future outlooks, and therefore imply a positive subjective value of the judgment outcome. Participants estimated the probability of experiencing different adverse future events...
June 2016: NeuroImage
Danilo Arnone, Dominic Job, Sudhakar Selvaraj, Osamu Abe, Francesco Amico, Yuqi Cheng, Sean J Colloby, John T O'Brien, Thomas Frodl, Ian H Gotlib, Byung-Joo Ham, M Justin Kim, P Cédric M P Koolschijn, Cintia A-M Périco, Giacomo Salvadore, Alan J Thomas, Marie-José Van Tol, Nic J A van der Wee, Dick J Veltman, Gerd Wagner, Andrew M McIntosh
OBJECTIVE: Several neuroimaging meta-analyses have summarized structural brain changes in major depression using coordinate-based methods. These methods might be biased toward brain regions where significant differences were found in the original studies. In this study, a novel voxel-based technique is implemented that estimates and meta-analyses between-group differences in grey matter from individual MRI studies, which are then applied to the study of major depression. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry studies were conducted comparing participants with major depression and healthy controls by using statistical parametric maps...
April 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Iris M Balodis, Hedy Kober, Patrick D Worhunsky, Michael C Stevens, Godfrey D Pearlson, Kathleen M Carroll, Marc N Potenza
Although reward processing appears altered in addiction, few studies track neurofunctional changes following treatment or relate these to measures of reduced drug use. The current study examined neurofunctional alterations in reward processing in cocaine dependence (CD) pretreatment and posttreatment to determine whether these changes relate to clinically meaningful outcome indicators. Treatment-seeking CD outpatients (N=29) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a monetary incentive delay task (MIDT) pretreatment and posttreatment...
July 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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