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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722327/structural-neural-connectivity-of-the-vestibular-nuclei-in-the-human-brain-a-diffusion-tensor-imagings-study
#1
Sung Ho Jang, Mi Young Lee, Sang Seok Yeo, Hyeok Gyu Kwon
Many animal studies have reported on the neural connectivity of the vestibular nuclei (VN). However, little is reported on the structural neural connectivity of the VN in the human brain. In this study, we attempted to investigate the structural neural connectivity of the VN in 37 healthy subjects using diffusion tensor tractography. A seed region of interest was placed on the isolated VN using probabilistic diffusion tensor tractography. Connectivity was defined as the incidence of connection between the VN and each brain region...
April 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696725/the-anticipation-and-outcome-phases-of-reward-and-loss-processing-a-neuroimaging-meta-analysis-of-the-monetary-incentive-delay-task
#2
Stuart Oldham, Carsten Murawski, Alex Fornito, George Youssef, Murat Yücel, Valentina Lorenzetti
The processing of rewards and losses are crucial to everyday functioning. Considerable interest has been attached to investigating the anticipation and outcome phases of reward and loss processing, but results to date have been inconsistent. It is unclear if anticipation and outcome of a reward or loss recruit similar or distinct brain regions. In particular, while the striatum has widely been found to be active when anticipating a reward, whether it activates in response to the anticipation of losses as well remains ambiguous...
April 25, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628187/reciprocal-circuits-linking-the-prefrontal-cortex-with-dorsal-and-ventral-thalamic-nuclei
#3
David P Collins, Paul G Anastasiades, Joseph J Marlin, Adam G Carter
Reciprocal interactions between the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and thalamus play a critical role in cognition, but the underlying circuits remain poorly understood. Here we use optogenetics to dissect the specificity and dynamics of cortico-thalamo-cortical networks in the mouse brain. We find that cortico-thalamic (CT) neurons in prelimbic PFC project to both mediodorsal (MD) and ventromedial (VM) thalamus, where layer 5 and 6 inputs activate thalamo-cortical (TC) neurons with distinct temporal profiles. We show that TC neurons in MD and VM in turn make distinct connections in PFC, with MD preferentially and strongly activating layer 2/3 cortico-cortical (CC) neurons...
April 18, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602255/monitoring-and-control-of-amygdala-neurofeedback-involves-distributed-information-processing-in-the-human-brain
#4
Christian Paret, Jenny Zähringer, Matthias Ruf, Martin Fungisai Gerchen, Stephanie Mall, Talma Hendler, Christian Schmahl, Gabriele Ende
Brain-computer interfaces provide conscious access to neural activity by means of brain-derived feedback ("neurofeedback"). An individual's abilities to monitor and control feedback are two necessary processes for effective neurofeedback therapy, yet their underlying functional neuroanatomy is still being debated. In this study, healthy subjects received visual feedback from their amygdala response to negative pictures. Activation and functional connectivity were analyzed to disentangle the role of brain regions in different processes...
March 30, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575249/separate-neural-representations-of-prediction-error-valence-and-surprise-evidence-from-an-fmri-meta-analysis
#5
Elsa Fouragnan, Chris Retzler, Marios G Philiastides
Learning occurs when an outcome differs from expectations, generating a reward prediction error signal (RPE). The RPE signal has been hypothesized to simultaneously embody the valence of an outcome (better or worse than expected) and its surprise (how far from expectations). Nonetheless, growing evidence suggests that separate representations of the two RPE components exist in the human brain. Meta-analyses provide an opportunity to test this hypothesis and directly probe the extent to which the valence and surprise of the error signal are encoded in separate or overlapping networks...
March 25, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527494/grey-matter-volume-and-cortical-structure-in-prader-willi-syndrome-compared-to-typically-developing-young-adults
#6
Katherine E Manning, Roger Tait, John Suckling, Anthony J Holland
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder of genomic imprinting, presenting with a characteristic overeating disorder, mild to moderate intellectual disability, and a variable range of social and behavioral difficulties. Consequently, widespread alterations in neural structure and developmental and maturational trajectory would be expected. To date, there have been few quantitative and systematic studies of brain morphology in PWS, although alterations of volume and of cortical organisation have been reported...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516445/immunohistochemical-mapping-of-neurotensin-in-the-alpaca-diencephalon
#7
Manuel Lisardo Sánchez, Arturo Mangas, Luis Enrique Medina, Luis Angel Aguilar, Zaida Díaz-Cabiale, José Angel Narváez, Rafael Coveñas
INTRODUCTION: The distribution of the immunoreactive cell bodies and fibers containing neurotensin in the alpaca diencephalon was determined by an immunohistochemical technique. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was carried out in four male alpacas that lived at sea level. Brains of deeply anesthetized animals were fixed by perfusion with 4% paraformaldehyde. Cryostat sections were stained by a standard immunohistochemical method. RESULTS: Cell bodies containing neurotensin were observed in the zona incerta and hypothalamus...
2018: Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496643/distinct-recruitment-of-the-hippocampal-thalamic-and-amygdalar-neurons-projecting-to-the-prelimbic-cortex-in-male-and-female-rats-during-context-mediated-renewal-of-responding-to-food-cues
#8
Lauren C Anderson, Gorica D Petrovich
Persistent responding to food cues may underlie the difficulty to resist palatable foods and to maintain healthy eating habits. Renewal of responding after extinction is a model of persistent food seeking that can be used to study the underlying neural mechanisms. In context-mediated renewal, a return to the context in which the initial cue-food learning occurred induces robust responding to the cues that were extinguished elsewhere. Previous work found sex differences in context-mediated renewal and in the recruitment of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) during that behavior...
April 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488149/abnormal-functional-connectivity-density-in-sleep-deprived-subjects
#9
Liu Yang, Yu Lei, Lubin Wang, Pinhong Chen, Shan Cheng, Shanshan Chen, Jicheng Sun, Yanyan Li, Yihan Wang, Wendong Hu, Zheng Yang
Sleep deprivation (SD) can alter the intrinsic brain functional organization. However, its effects on intrinsic low-frequency connectivity in the whole brain have not been well characterized. In this study, we used voxel-based functional connectivity density (FCD) analysis to investigate the effects of SD on the spontaneous functional organization of the brain. Thirty-seven healthy participants underwent this within-subject crossover functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study during rested wakefulness (RW) and after 36 h of total sleep deprivation (TSD)...
February 27, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438673/distribution-of-nitric-oxide-synthase-in-the-rock-cavy-kerodon-rupestris-brain-i-the-diencephalon
#10
Maria Emanuela Martins Dos Reis, Lucimário Thiago Félix de Araújo, Wylqui Mikael Gomes de Andrade, Nayra da Silva Resende, Ruthnaldo Rodrigues Melo de Lima, Expedito Silva do Nascimento, Miriam Stela Maris de Oliveira Costa, Judney Cley Cavalcante
Nitric oxide (NO) is a highly soluble and membrane-permeable neurotransmitter, so it does not need to be packed in vesicles or have a membrane receptor. In the nervous system, NO is synthesized by the neuronal form of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzyme and has been considered as a local neurotransmitter. NOS distribution is widespread in the nervous system of various vertebrate species, which may explain its participation in many functions such as memory, blood pressure regulation and sexual behavior. Here we used immunohistochemistry against NOS and NADPH diaphorase histochemistry to map the distribution of NO in the diencephalon of the rock cavy (Kerodon rupestris), a rodent endemic to the Brazilian Northeast...
April 15, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382815/extended-amygdala-connectivity-changes-during-sustained-shock-anticipation
#11
REVIEW
Salvatore Torrisi, Adam X Gorka, Javier Gonzalez-Castillo, Katherine O'Connell, Nicholas Balderston, Christian Grillon, Monique Ernst
The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and central amygdala (CeA) of the extended amygdala are small, anatomically interconnected brain regions. They are thought to mediate responses to sustained, unpredictable threat stimuli and phasic, predictable threat stimuli, respectively. They perform these operations largely through their interconnected networks. In two previous studies, we mapped and contrasted the resting functional connectivity networks of the BNST and CeA at 7 Tesla with high resolution...
January 31, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235190/intrinsic-functional-connectivity-of-the-central-extended-amygdala
#12
Rachael M Tillman, Melissa D Stockbridge, Brendon M Nacewicz, Salvatore Torrisi, Andrew S Fox, Jason F Smith, Alexander J Shackman
The central extended amygdala (EAc)-including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and central nucleus of the amygdala (Ce)-plays a critical role in triggering fear and anxiety and is implicated in the development of a range of debilitating neuropsychiatric disorders. Although it is widely believed that these disorders reflect the coordinated activity of distributed neural circuits, the functional architecture of the EAc network and the degree to which the BST and the Ce show distinct patterns of functional connectivity is unclear...
March 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224175/thalamic-interactions-of-cerebellum-and-basal-ganglia
#13
REVIEW
Andreas Hintzen, Esther Annegret Pelzer, Marc Tittgemeyer
Cerebellum and basal ganglia are reciprocally interconnected with the neocortex via oligosynaptic loops. The signal pathways of these loops predominantly converge in motor areas of the frontal cortex and are mainly segregated on subcortical level. Recent evidence, however, indicates subcortical interaction of these systems. We have reviewed literature that addresses the question whether, and to what extent, projections of main output nuclei of basal ganglia (reticular part of the substantia nigra, internal segment of the globus pallidus) and cerebellum (deep cerebellar nuclei) interact with each other in the thalamus...
March 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188167/reconstruction-of-the-ascending-reticular-activating-system-with-diffusion-tensor-tractography-in-patients-with-a-disorder-of-consciousness-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#14
Edgar Gerardo Ordóñez-Rubiano, Jason Johnson, Cesar O Enciso-Olivera, Jorge H Marín-Muñoz, William Cortes-Lozano, Pablo E Baquero-Herrera, Edgar G Ordóñez-Mora, Hernando A Cifuentes-Lobelo
This work describes the reconstruction of the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) with diffusion tensor tractography in three patients with altered consciousness after traumatic brain injury. A diffusion tensor tractography was performed in three patients with impaired consciousness after a severe traumatic brain injury. A 1.5 T scanner was used to obtain the tensor sequences; axial tensors were acquired. Post-processing was performed, and the mean fractional anisotropy (FA) values were recorded...
September 28, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164280/functional-brain-networks-involved-in-decision-making-under-certain-and-uncertain-conditions
#15
Danielle C Farrar, Asim Z Mian, Andrew E Budson, Mark B Moss, Ronald J Killiany
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to describe imaging markers of decision-making under uncertain conditions in normal individuals, in order to provide baseline activity to compare to impaired decision-making in pathological states. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 19 healthy subjects ages 18-35 completed a novel decision-making card-matching task using a Phillips T3 Scanner and a 32-channel head coil. Functional data were collected in six functional runs...
January 2018: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053851/escitalopram-ameliorates-hypercortisolemia-and-insulin-resistance-in-low-birth-weight-men-with-limbic-brain-alterations
#16
Christian Selmer Buhl, Hans Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Poul Videbech, Allan Vaag, Niels Møller, Sten Lund, Esben Selmer Buhl
Context: Low birth weight (LBW; <2500 g) is linked to the development of insulin resistance and limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (LHPA) axis hyperactivity. Objective: Our first aim was to study insulin action, LHPA axis function, and limbic brain structures in young, healthy LBW men vs normal birthweight (NBW) controls (part 1). Our second aim was to investigate the effects of escitalopram vs placebo in LBW men in the LHPA axis and insulin sensitivity (part 2)...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993238/thalamo-insular-pathway-conveying-orofacial-muscle-proprioception-in-the-rat
#17
Fumihiko Sato, Yume Uemura, Chiharu Kanno, Yumi Tsutsumi, Akiko Tomita, Ayaka Oka, Takafumi Kato, Katsuro Uchino, Jumpei Murakami, Tahsinul Haque, Yoshihisa Tachibana, Atsushi Yoshida
Little is known about how proprioceptive signals arising from muscles reach to higher brain regions such as the cerebral cortex. We have recently shown that a particular thalamic region, the caudo-ventromedial edge (VPMcvm) of ventral posteromedial thalamic nucleus (VPM), receives the proprioceptive signals from jaw-closing muscle spindles (JCMSs) in rats. In this study, we further addressed how the orofacial thalamic inputs from the JCMSs were transmitted from the thalamus (VPMcvm) to the cerebral cortex in rats...
December 4, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884874/cerebral-dopaminergic-and-glutamatergic-transmission-relate-to-different-subjective-responses-of-acute-alcohol-intake-an-in-vivo-multimodal-imaging-study
#18
Gil Leurquin-Sterk, Jenny Ceccarini, Cleo Lina Crunelle, Akila Weerasekera, Bart de Laat, Uwe Himmelreich, Guy Bormans, Koen Van Laere
Converging preclinical evidence links extrastriatal dopamine release and glutamatergic transmission via the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) to the rewarding properties of alcohol. To date, human evidence is lacking on how and where in the brain these processes occur. Mesocorticolimbic dopamine release upon intravenous alcohol administration and mGluR5 availability were measured in 11 moderate social drinkers by single-session [(18) F]fallypride and [(18) F]FPEB positron emission tomography, respectively...
September 8, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860564/differential-effects-of-antidepressant-treatment-on-long-range-and-short-range-functional-connectivity-strength-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#19
Jing An, Li Wang, Ke Li, Yawei Zeng, Yunai Su, Zhen Jin, Xin Yu, Tianmei Si
Although we have some basic understanding of the neurochemical mechanisms of the antidepressants, the network-level effect of antidepressant treatment is still not fully understood. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of antidepressant on functional brain networks of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). We performed resting-state fMRI scans on 20 first-episode drug-naive MDD patients at baseline and after escitalopram medication for 8 weeks. Twenty healthy controls also received MRI scans with an 8-week interval...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735579/directed-threat-imagery-in-generalized-anxiety-disorder
#20
C Buff, C Schmidt, L Brinkmann, B Gathmann, S Tupak, T Straube
BACKGROUND: Worrying has been suggested to prevent emotional and elaborative processing of fears. In cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) patients are exposed to their fears during the method of directed threat imagery by inducing emotional reactivity. However, studies investigating neural correlates of directed threat imagery and emotional reactivity in GAD patients are lacking. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study aimed at delineating neural correlates of directed threat imagery in GAD patients...
March 2018: Psychological Medicine
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