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Ventromedial thalamus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735579/directed-threat-imagery-in-generalized-anxiety-disorder
#1
C Buff, C Schmidt, L Brinkmann, B Gathmann, S Tupak, T Straube
BACKGROUND: Worrying has been suggested to prevent emotional and elaborative processing of fears. In cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) patients are exposed to their fears during the method of directed threat imagery by inducing emotional reactivity. However, studies investigating neural correlates of directed threat imagery and emotional reactivity in GAD patients are lacking. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study aimed at delineating neural correlates of directed threat imagery in GAD patients...
July 24, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666153/electroencephalographic-findings-in-patients-with-circumscribed-thalamic-lesions
#2
Elene Tsoures, Jan Lewerenz, Elmar Pinkhardt, Albert C Ludolph, Susanne Fauser
INTRODUCTION: Thalamo-cortical networks have mainly been studied in the generation of idiopathic (genetic) epilepsies. The purpose of this study was to analyze EEG patterns and the occurrence of focal (symptomatic) epileptic seizures in patients with acquired circumscribed thalamic lesions. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Among 596 patients with thalamic lesions, we identified 47 patients in whom circumscribed thalamic lesions were detected by MRI and who underwent an EEG examination at the same stay at hospital...
June 15, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614906/heterogeneous-organization-and-connectivity-of-the-chicken-auditory-thalamus-gallus-gallus
#3
Yuan Wang, Diego A R Zorio, Harvey J Karten
The auditory ascending system contains parallel pathways in vertebrate brains. In chickens (Gallus gallus), three pathways arise from nucleus laminaris (NL), nucleus angularis (NA), and regio intermedius (RI) in the brainstem, innervating three subdivisions of the nucleus mesencephalicus lateralis pars dorsalis (MLd) in the midbrain. The current study reveals the segregation of these pathways in their subsequent projections to the nucleus ovoidalis (Ov) in the thalamus. Based on cytoarchitecture and myelin distribution, we identified seven Ov subregions, including five neuronal clusters within the Ov proper, the nucleus semilunaris parovoidalis (SPO), and the circum-ovoidalis (cOv)...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558004/diagnostic-potential-of-multimodal-neuroimaging-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#4
Jooyeon Jamie Im, Binna Kim, Jaeuk Hwang, Jieun E Kim, Jung Yoon Kim, Sandy Jeong Rhie, Eun Namgung, Ilhyang Kang, Sohyeon Moon, In Kyoon Lyoo, Chang-Hyun Park, Sujung Yoon
Despite accumulating evidence of physiological abnormalities related to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the current diagnostic criteria for PTSD still rely on clinical interviews. In this study, we investigated the diagnostic potential of multimodal neuroimaging for identifying posttraumatic symptom trajectory after trauma exposure. Thirty trauma-exposed individuals and 29 trauma-unexposed healthy individuals were followed up over a 5-year period. Three waves of assessments using multimodal neuroimaging, including structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion-weighted MRI, were performed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528379/collateralization-of-projections-from-the-paraventricular-nucleus-of-the-thalamus-to-the-nucleus-accumbens-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-and-central-nucleus-of-the-amygdala
#5
Xinwen Dong, Sa Li, Gilbert J Kirouac
The paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT) is a midline thalamic nucleus with dense projections to the nucleus accumbens (NAc), dorsolateral region of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTDL) and the lateral/capsular region of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeL/CeC). Recent experimental evidence indicates that the PVT is involved in both appetitive and aversive behaviors. However, it is unknown if subgroups of neurons in the PVT innervate different subcortical targets or if the same neurons issue collaterals to multiple areas...
May 20, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430035/noninvasive-neuromodulation-and-thalamic-mapping-with-low-intensity-focused-ultrasound
#6
Robert F Dallapiazza, Kelsie F Timbie, Stephen Holmberg, Jeremy Gatesman, M Beatriz Lopes, Richard J Price, G Wilson Miller, W Jeffrey Elias
OBJECTIVE Ultrasound can be precisely focused through the intact human skull to target deep regions of the brain for stereotactic ablations. Acoustic energy at much lower intensities is capable of both exciting and inhibiting neural tissues without causing tissue heating or damage. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the effects of low-intensity focused ultrasound (LIFU) for neuromodulation and selective mapping in the thalamus of a large-brain animal. METHODS Ten Yorkshire swine ( Sus scrofa domesticus) were used in this study...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382578/orofacial-proprioceptive-thalamus-of-the-rat
#7
Atsushi Yoshida, Takashi Fujio, Fumihiko Sato, Md Sams Sazzad Ali, Tahsinul Haque, Haruka Ohara, Masayuki Moritani, Takafumi Kato, Jonathan O Dostrovsky, Yoshihisa Tachibana
The ascending pathway mediating proprioception from the orofacial region is still not fully known. The present study elucidated the relay of jaw-closing muscle spindle (JCMS) inputs from brainstem to thalamus in rats. We injected an anterograde tracer into the electrophysiologically identified supratrigeminal nucleus (Su5), known to receive JCMS input. Many thalamic axon terminals were labeled and were found mainly contralaterally in a small, unpredicted area of the caudo-ventromedial edge (VPMcvm) of ventral posteromedial thalamic nucleus (VPM)...
April 5, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338795/-mom-i-don-t-want-to-hear-it-brain-response-to-maternal-praise-and-criticism-in-adolescents-with-major-depressive-disorder
#8
Jennifer S Silk, Kyung Hwa Lee, Rosalind D Elliott, Jill M Hooley, Ronald E Dahl, Anita Barber, Greg J Siegle
Recent research has implicated altered neural response to interpersonal feedback as an important factor in adolescent depression, with existing studies focusing on responses to feedback from virtual peers. We investigated whether depressed adolescents differed from healthy youth in neural response to social evaluative feedback from mothers. During neuroimaging, twenty adolescents in a current episode of major depressive disorder (MDD) and 28 healthy controls listened to previously recorded audio clips of their own mothers' praise, criticism and neutral comments...
May 1, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294134/influence-of-familial-risk-for-depression-on-cortico-limbic-connectivity-during-implicit-emotional-processing
#9
Carolin Wackerhagen, Torsten Wüstenberg, Sebastian Mohnke, Susanne Erk, Ilya M Veer, Johann D Kruschwitz, Maria Garbusow, Lydia Romund, Kristina Otto, Janina I Schweiger, Heike Tost, Andreas Heinz, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Henrik Walter, Nina Romanczuk-Seiferth
Imbalances in cortico-limbic activity and functional connectivity (FC) supposedly underlie biased emotional processing and present putative intermediate phenotypes (IPs) for major depressive disorder (MDD). To prove the validity of these IPs, we assessed them in familial risk. In 70 healthy first-degree relatives of MDD patients and 70 controls, brain activity and seed-based amygdala FC were assessed during an implicit emotional processing task for fMRI containing angry and fearful faces. Using the generalized psychophysiological interaction approach, amygdala FC was assessed (a) across conditions to provide comparable data to previous studies and (b) compared between conditions to elucidate its implications for emotional processing...
July 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284776/neural-underpinnings-of-prosexual-effects-induced-by-gamma-hydroxybutyrate-in-healthy-male-humans
#10
Oliver G Bosch, Michael M Havranek, Andrea Baumberger, Katrin H Preller, Robin von Rotz, Marcus Herdener, Rainer Kraehenmann, Philipp Staempfli, Milan Scheidegger, Tim Klucken, Erich Seifritz, Boris B Quednow
Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a GHB-/GABAB-receptor agonist currently used as treatment for narcolepsy but also as a drug of abuse. Non-medical GHB users have repeatedly reported prosexual effects including libido-enhancement and lowering of attractiveness standards for partner selection. Here, we examined the putative prosexual effects of oral GHB in healthy males in two experiments both employing randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, balanced, and cross-over study designs. In experiment I, subjective effects of 20 and 35mg/kg GHB vs...
March 8, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265059/neural-basis-of-impaired-safety-signaling-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#11
Annemieke M Apergis-Schoute, Claire M Gillan, Naomi A Fineberg, Emilio Fernandez-Egea, Barbara J Sahakian, Trevor W Robbins
The ability to assign safety to stimuli in the environment is integral to everyday functioning. A key brain region for this evaluation is the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). To investigate the importance of vmPFC safety signaling, we used neuroimaging of Pavlovian fear reversal, a paradigm that involves flexible updating when the contingencies for a threatening (CS+) and safe (CS-) stimulus reverse, in a prototypical disorder of inflexible behavior influenced by anxiety, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)...
March 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263830/repeated-corticosterone-injections-in-adult-mice-alter-stress-hormonal-receptor-expression-in-the-cerebellum-and-motor-coordination-without-affecting-spatial-learning
#12
Guillaume Harlé, Robert Lalonde, Coralie Fonte, Armelle Ropars, Jean-Pol Frippiat, Catherine Strazielle
Receptors for glucocorticoid (GR) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) are largely found in brain sensorimotor structures, particularly in cerebellum, underlining a potential role of stress hormones in the regulation of motor function. Since CRH is involved in neuroplasticity, known for its trophic effect on synapses, we investigated how manipulations in corticosterone serum levels can modulate the CRH system in the cerebellum and affect motor coordination. Corticosterone at doses of either 15 or 30mg/kg was injected in mice and the status of hormonal expression evaluated in cerebellum, hippocampus, and hypothalamus in undisturbed housing conditions or after different behavioral tests...
March 2, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263454/neuroplasticity-of-supraspinal-structures-associated-with-pathological-pain
#13
Pere Boadas-Vaello, Judit Homs, Francisco Reina, Ana Carrera, Enrique Verdú
Peripheral nerve and spinal cord injuries, along with other painful syndromes such as fibromyalgia, diabetic neuropathy, chemotherapeutic neuropathy, trigeminal neuralgia, complex regional pain syndrome, and/or irritable bowel syndrome, cause several neuroplasticity changes in the nervous system along its entire axis affecting the different neuronal nuclei. This paper reviews these changes, focusing on the supraspinal structures that are involved in the modulation and processing of pain, including the periaqueductal gray matter, red nucleus, locus coeruleus, rostral ventromedial medulla, thalamus, hypothalamus, basal ganglia, cerebellum, habenula, primary, and secondary somatosensory cortex, motor cortex, mammillary bodies, hippocampus, septum, amygdala, cingulated, and prefrontal cortex...
March 6, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183259/targeting-melatonin-mt2-receptors-a-novel-pharmacological-avenue-for-inflammatory-and-neuropathic-pain
#14
Luca Posa, Danilo De Gregorio, Gabriella Gobbi, Stefano Comai
Melatonin (MLT) has been implicated in several pathophysiological states, including pain. MLT mostly activates two G-protein coupled receptors, MT1 and MT2. In this review, we present the analgesic properties of MLT in preclinical and clinical studies, giving particular emphasis to the effects mediated by MT2 receptors and to recent investigations demonstrating the analgesic effects of MT2 receptor partial agonists in chronic and acute/inflammatory pain conditions. MT2 receptors are localized in specific brain areas, including the reticular and the ventromedial nuclei of the thalamus (part of the ascending nociceptive pathway) and the ventrolateral periaqueductal grey matter (vlPAG) (part of the descending antinociceptive pathway)...
February 8, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940080/sex-specific-recruitment-of-a-medial-prefrontal-cortex-hippocampal-thalamic-system-during-context-dependent-renewal-of-responding-to-food-cues-in-rats
#15
Lauren C Anderson, Gorica D Petrovich
Renewal, or reinstatement, of responding to food cues after extinction may explain the inability to resist palatable foods and change maladaptive eating habits. Previously, we found sex differences in context-dependent renewal of extinguished Pavlovian conditioned responding to food cues. Context-induced renewal involves cue-food conditioning and extinction in different contexts and the renewal of conditioned behavior is induced by return to the conditioning context (ABA renewal). Male rats showed renewal of responding while females did not...
March 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881783/multivariate-brain-prediction-of-heart-rate-and-skin-conductance-responses-to-social-threat
#16
Hedwig Eisenbarth, Luke J Chang, Tor D Wager
Psychosocial stressors induce autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses in multiple body systems that are linked to health risks. Much work has focused on the common effects of stress, but ANS responses in different body systems are dissociable and may result from distinct patterns of cortical-subcortical interactions. Here, we used machine learning to develop multivariate patterns of fMRI activity predictive of heart rate (HR) and skin conductance level (SCL) responses during social threat in humans (N = 18)...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859903/corticostriatal-connectivity-fingerprints-probability-maps-based-on-resting-state-functional-connectivity
#17
Ellen Jaspers, Joshua H Balsters, Pegah Kassraian Fard, Dante Mantini, Nicole Wenderoth
Over the last decade, structure-function relationships have begun to encompass networks of brain areas rather than individual structures. For example, corticostriatal circuits have been associated with sensorimotor, limbic, and cognitive information processing, and damage to these circuits has been shown to produce unique behavioral outcomes in Autism, Parkinson's Disease, Schizophrenia and healthy ageing. However, it remains an open question how abnormal or absent connectivity can be detected at the individual level...
November 12, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647521/desynchronization-of-autonomic-response-and-central-autonomic-network-connectivity-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#18
Janine Thome, Maria Densmore, Paul A Frewen, Margaret C McKinnon, Jean Théberge, Andrew A Nicholson, Julian Koenig, Julian F Thayer, Ruth A Lanius
OBJECTIVES: Although dysfunctional emotion regulatory capacities are increasingly recognized as contributing to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), little work has sought to identify biological markers of this vulnerability. Heart rate variability (HRV) is a promising biomarker that, together with neuroimaging, may assist in gaining a deeper understanding of emotion dysregulation in PTSD. The objective of the present study was, therefore, to characterize autonomic response patterns, and their related neuronal patterns in individuals with PTSD at rest...
January 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27560146/spatial-disassociation-of-disrupted-functional-connectivity-for-the-default-mode-network-in-patients-with-end-stage-renal-disease
#19
Xiaofen Ma, Junzhang Tian, Zhanhong Wu, Xiaopeng Zong, Jianwei Dong, Wenfeng Zhan, Yikai Xu, Zibo Li, Guihua Jiang
PURPOSE: To investigate the aberrant functional connectivity of the default mode network (DMN) in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and their clinical relevance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Resting-state functional MRI data were collected from 31 patients with ESRD (24 men, 24-61 years) and 31 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HCs, 21 men, 26-61years). A whole-brain seed-based functional connectivity analysis of these collected R-fMRI data was performed by locating the seeds in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) to investigate the functional connectivity of the posterior and anterior DMN over the whole brain, respectively...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539453/afferents-to-anterior-cingulate-areas-24a-and-24b-and-midcingulate-areas-24a-and-24b-in-the-mouse
#20
Clémentine Fillinger, Ipek Yalcin, Michel Barrot, Pierre Veinante
Areas 24a and 24b of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) play a major role in cognition, emotion and pain. While their connectivity has been studied in primate and in rat, a complete mapping was still missing in the mouse. Here, we analyzed the afferents to the mouse ACC by injecting retrograde tracers in the ventral and dorsal areas of the ACC (areas 24a/b) and of the midcingulate cortex (MCC; areas 24a'/b'). Our results reveal inputs from five principal groups of structures: (1) cortical areas, mainly the orbital, medial prefrontal, retrosplenial, parietal associative, primary and secondary sensory areas and the hippocampus, (2) basal forebrain, mainly the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus, the claustrum and the horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca, (3) the thalamus, mainly the anteromedial, lateral mediodorsal, ventromedial, centrolateral, central medial and reuniens/rhomboid nuclei, (4) the hypothalamus, mainly the lateral and retromammillary areas, and (5) the brainstem, mainly the monoaminergic centers...
August 18, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
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