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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145465/hospital-associated-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-risk-factors-in-south-african-tertiary-public-hospitals
#1
Liliwe L Shuping, Lazarus Kuonza, Alfred Musekiwa, Samantha Iyaloo, Olga Perovic
INTRODUCTION: Hospital-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (HA-MRSA) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. We conducted a study to determine risk factors for HA-MRSA in order to inform control strategies in South Africa. METHODS: We used surveillance data collected from five tertiary hospitals in Gauteng and Western Cape provinces during 2014 for analysis. A case of HA-MRSA was defined as isolation of MRSA from a blood culture 48 hours after admission and/or if the patient was hospitalised in the six months prior to the current culture...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144532/is-there-a-role-for-combination-anti-remodelling-therapy-for-heart-failure-secondary-to-chronic-rheumatic-mitral-regurgitation
#2
Ruchika Meel, Ferande Peters, Elena Libhaber, Mohammed R Essop
INTRODUCTION: The value of combination anti-remodelling therapy for heart failure (HF) secondary to mitral regurgitation (MR) is unknown. We studied the effect of anti-remodelling therapy on clinical and echocardiographic parameters in patients with severe chronic rheumatic mitral regurgitation (CRMR) presenting in HF. METHODS: Thirty-one patients (29 females) at Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital, treated with combination therapy for HF due to CRMR and New York Heart Association functional class II-III symptoms, underwent prospective six-month follow up...
September 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143956/-intensive-home-treatment-a-first-observational-evaluation
#3
R A Gotink, G Bergsma, M T Hoogwegt, C L Mulder, A R Van Gool
Yulius intensive home treatment (iht) offers six weeks of home-care to psychiatric patients in crisis who would normally be hospitalised.<br/> AIM: To study patient characteristics and the content and outcomes of iht.<br/> METHOD: We followed the handling of 75 consecutive applications for iht. Details were recorded before and after admission to the treatment.<br/> RESULTS: Fifteen patients were referred in order to shorten the period of hospitalisation, and 60 were referred in order to prevent hospitalisation; 59 of the 75 persons admitted for the treatment received iht, and 41 patients finished the six-week module and provided follow-up data...
2017: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142125/emergence-of-double-and-triple-gene-reassortant-g1p-8-rotaviruses-possessing-a-ds-1-like-backbone-post-rotavirus-vaccine-introduction-in-malawi
#4
Khuzwayo C Jere, Chrispin Chaguza, Naor Bar-Zeev, Jenna Lowe, Chikondi Peno, Benjamin Kumwenda, Osamu Nakagomi, Jacqueline E Tate, Umesh D Parashar, Robert S Heyderman, Neil French, Nigel A Cunliffe, Iturriza-Gomara Miren
To combat the high burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis, multiple African countries have introduced rotavirus vaccines into their childhood immunisation programmes. Malawi incorporated a G1P[8] rotavirus vaccine (Rotarix™) into its immunisation schedule in 2012. Utilising a surveillance platform of hospitalised rotavirus gastroenteritis cases, we examined the phylodynamics of G1P[8] rotavirus strains that circulated in Malawi before (1998 - 2012) and after (2013 - 2014) vaccine introduction. Analysis of whole genomes obtained through next generation sequencing revealed that all randomly-selected pre-vaccine G1P[8] strains sequenced (n=32) possessed a Wa-like genetic constellation, whereas post-vaccine G1P[8] strains (n=18) had a DS-1-like constellation...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140557/withdrawn-pharmacological-cardioversion-for-atrial-fibrillation-and-flutter
#5
REVIEW
John Cordina, Gillian E Mead
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation is the commonest cardiac dysrhythmia. It is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. There are two approaches to the management of atrial fibrillation: controlling the ventricular rate or converting to sinus rhythm in the expectation that this would abolish its adverse effects. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of pharmacological cardioversion of atrial fibrillation in adults on the annual risk of stroke, peripheral embolism, and mortality...
November 15, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140555/withdrawn-electrical-cardioversion-for-atrial-fibrillation-and-flutter
#6
REVIEW
Gillian E Mead, Andrew Elder, Andrew D Flapan, John Cordina
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation increases stroke risk and adversely affects cardiovascular haemodynamics. Electrical cardioversion may, by restoring sinus rhythm, improve cardiovascular haemodynamics, reduce the risk of stroke, and obviate the need for long-term anticoagulation. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of electrical cardioversion of atrial fibrillation or flutter on the risk of thromboembolic events, strokes and mortality (primary outcomes), the rate of cognitive decline, quality of life, the use of anticoagulants and the risk of re-hospitalisation (secondary outcomes) in adults (>18 years)...
November 15, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138901/-which-factors-are-associated-with-the-use-of-potentially-inadequate-medications-pim-in-the-elderly-results-from-the-german-health-interview-and-examination-survey-degs1
#7
Heinz G Endres, Petra Kaufmann-Kolle, Hildtraud Knopf, Petra A Thürmann
BACKGROUND: Recent studies demonstrate a relationship between the prescription of potentially inappropriate medications (PIM) for patients 65 years or older and an increased risk for adverse events, in particular hospitalisations. The RKI conducted DEGS1-Survey ("German health interview and examination survey for adults") provides a representative sample of the target population to identify determinants for PIM use. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine characteristics of older persons in Germany, who currently use PIM, and if there are subpopulations among older persons with a particularly high PIM use...
November 14, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138207/impact-of-improved-insulation-and-heating-on-mortality-risk-of-older-cohort-members-with-prior-cardiovascular-or-respiratory-hospitalisations
#8
Nicholas Preval, Michael Keall, Lucy Telfar-Barnard, Arthur Grimes, Philippa Howden-Chapman
OBJECTIVES: We carried out an evaluation of a large-scale New Zealand retrofit programme using administrative data that provided the statistical power to assess the effect of insulation and/or heating retrofits on cardiovascular and respiratory-related mortality in people aged 65 and over with prior respiratory or circulatory hospitalisations. DESIGN: Quasi-experimental cohort study based on administrative data. SETTING: New Zealand. PARTICIPANTS: From a larger study cohort of over 900 000 people, we selected two subcohorts: 3287 people who were aged 65 and over and had experienced pretreatment period cardiovascular-related hospitalisation (ICD-10 chapter 9), and 1561 people aged 65 and over who had experienced pretreatment respiratory-related hospitalisation (ICD-10 chapter 10)...
November 14, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137700/limitation-of-therapeutic-effort-in-patients-hospitalised-in-departments-of-internal-medicine
#9
R García Caballero, B Herreros, D Real de Asúa, S Gámez, G Vega, L García Olmos
INTRODUCTION: There is little information on the limitation of therapeutic effort (LTE) in patients admitted to hospital internal medicine units. OBJECTIVES: To describe the indicated LTE regimens in the departments of internal medicine and the characteristics of the patients who undergo them. PATIENTS AND METHODS: An observational, descriptive retrospective study was conducted on 4 hospitals of the Community of Madrid. The study collected demographic and comorbidity data and the LTE orders prescribed for all patients who died during a period of 6 months...
November 11, 2017: Revista Clínica Española
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135978/association-between-the-2012-health-and-social-care-act-and-specialist-visits-and-hospitalisations-in-england-a-controlled-interrupted-time-series-analysis
#10
James A Lopez Bernal, Christine Y Lu, Antonio Gasparrini, Steven Cummins, J Frank Wharham, Steven B Soumerai
BACKGROUND: The 2012 Health and Social Care Act (HSCA) in England led to among the largest healthcare reforms in the history of the National Health Service (NHS). It gave control of £67 billion of the NHS budget for secondary care to general practitioner (GP) led Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCGs). An expected outcome was that patient care would shift away from expensive hospital and specialist settings, towards less expensive community-based models. However, there is little evidence for the effectiveness of this approach...
November 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133462/improving-picc-use-and-outcomes-in-hospitalised-patients-an-interrupted-time-series-study-using-magic-criteria
#11
Lakshmi Swaminathan, Scott Flanders, Mary Rogers, Yvonne Calleja, Ashley Snyder, Rama Thyagarajan, Priscila Bercea, Vineet Chopra
BACKGROUND: Although important in clinical care, reports of inappropriate peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) use are growing. OBJECTIVE: To test whether implementation of the Michigan Appropriateness Guide for Intravenous Catheters (MAGIC) can improve PICC use and patient outcomes. DESIGN: Quasi-experimental, interrupted time series design at one study site with nine contemporaneous external controls. SETTING: Ten hospitals participating in a state-wide quality collaborative from 1 August 2014 to 31 July 2016...
November 13, 2017: BMJ Quality & Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133337/identification-of-myocardial-infarction-type-from-electronic-hospital-data-in-england-and-australia-a-comparative-data-linkage-study
#12
Lee Nedkoff, Derrick Lopez, Michael Goldacre, Frank Sanfilippo, Michael Hobbs, F Lucy Wright
OBJECTIVE: To determine the utility of International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes in investigating trends in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) using person-linked electronic hospitalisation data in England and Western Australia (WA). METHODS: All hospital admissions with myocardial infarction (MI) as the principal diagnosis were identified from 2000 to 2013 from both jurisdictions...
November 12, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133324/effects-of-falls-prevention-interventions-on-falls-outcomes-for-hospitalised-adults-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis
#13
Susan C Slade, David L Carey, Anne-Marie Hill, Meg E Morris
INTRODUCTION: Falls are a major global public health problem and leading cause of accidental or unintentional injury and hospitalisation. Falls in hospital are associated with longer length of stay, readmissions and poor outcomes. Falls prevention is informed by knowledge of reversible falls risk factors and accurate risk identification. The extent to which hospital falls are prevented by evidence-based practice, patient self-management initiatives, environmental modifications and optimisation of falls prevention systems awaits confirmation...
November 12, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133106/considerations-for-general-anaesthesia-in-parkinson-s-disease
#14
REVIEW
Daniel P Roberts, Simon J G Lewis
Parkinson's disease is a common neurodegenerative disorder in the elderly which when present has a significant influence on surgical management. These patients necessitate additional perioperative and anaesthetic considerations across disease specific domains as well as in relation to the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. This brief review focuses on the factors which contribute to perioperative morbidity, including the use of medications that may exacerbate symptoms or adversely interact with treatments for Parkinson's disease...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132658/-elderly-hospitalised-people-and-walking-capacities
#15
Camille Castel, Pascale Lescure, Gilles Loggia, Rémi Morello, Rémi De Mil, Guillaume Saint-Lorant
Falls in the elderly are frequent. A study carried out over 6 months in a university hospital's acute geriatric unit highlighted the real walking capacities of hospitalised elderly people. It also changed the perception of caregivers, doctors and nurses with regard to the real physical aptitudes of these patients enabling the risk of falls to be reduced in preparation for their return home or to a residential care home.
November 2017: Soins. Gérontologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132500/-falls-not-a-priority-insights-on-discharging-older-people-admitted-to-hospital-for-a-fall-back-to-the-community
#16
Claudia Meyer, Emma Renehan, Frances Batchelor, Catherine Said, Terry Haines, Rohan Elliott, Dianne Goeman
Falls are common among older people and a leading cause of injury-related hospitalisation. The immediate post-hospitalisation period is a risky time for further falls. This paper explores discharge strategies from the perspectives of older people hospitalised for a fall and liaison nurses assisting people to return home. Exploratory mixed methods were used. Semi-structured interviews with older people were conducted regarding their experience of the fall and discharge strategies. Quality of life, falls risk and functional capacity were measured by questionnaire...
November 14, 2017: Australian Journal of Primary Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132245/radial-vs-coccygeal-artery-doppler-blood-pressure-measurement-in-conscious-cats
#17
Florian K Zeugswetter, Alexander Tichy, Katharina Weber
Objectives The aims of the study were to compare the results of systolic blood pressure (SBP) measurements at the radial and coccygeal artery by Doppler ultrasonography and to assess the impact of gender, age, body weight, body condition score (BCS) and stress score on disagreements. Methods Eighty cats were included in this prospective, block randomised crossover trial. Blood pressure measurements were performed at home, during hospitalisation or in a local animal shelter by a single trained observer according to the latest ISFM consensus guidelines...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131754/perioperative-local-and-systemic-warming-in-surgical-site-infection-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
K Ousey, K-L Edward, S Lui, J Stephenson, K Walker, J Duff, D Leaper
OBJECTIVE: Surgical site infection (SSI) is a common cause of postoperative morbidity. Perioperative hypothermia may contribute to surgical complications including increased risk of SSI. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, the effectiveness of active and passive perioperative warming interventions to prevent SSI was compared with standard (non-warming) care. METHOD: Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid EMBASE; EBSCO CINAHL Plus; The Cochrane Wounds Specialised Register, and The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched, with no restrictions on language, publication date or study setting for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster RCTs...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129177/copd-x-australian-and-new-zealand-guidelines-for-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-2017-update
#19
Ian A Yang, Juliet L Brown, Johnson George, Sue Jenkins, Christine F McDonald, Vanessa M McDonald, Kirsten Phillips, Brian J Smith, Nicholas A Zwar, Eli Dabscheck
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by persistent respiratory symptoms and chronic airflow limitation, and is associated with exacerbations and comorbidities. Advances in the management of COPD are updated quarterly in the national COPD guidelines, the COPD-X plan, published by Lung Foundation Australia in conjunction with the Thoracic Society of Australia and New Zealand and available at http://copdx.org.au. Main recommendations: Spirometry detects persistent airflow limitation (post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC < 0...
November 20, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128936/hospital-time-prior-to-death-and-pancreas-histopathology-implications-for-future-studies
#20
Irina Kusmartseva, Maria Beery, Tiffany Philips, Stephen Selman, Priyanka Jadhav, Clive Wasserfall, Axel Muller, Alberto Pugliese, Jeffrey A Longmate, Desmond A Schatz, Mark A Atkinson, John S Kaddis
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Diabetes research studies routinely rely upon the use of tissue samples from human organ donors. It remains unclear whether the length of hospital stay prior to organ donation affects the presence of cells infiltrating the pancreas or the frequency of replicating beta cells. METHODS: To address this, 39 organ donors without diabetes were matched for age, sex, BMI and ethnicity in groups of three. Within each group, donors varied by length of hospital stay immediately prior to organ donation (<3 days, 3 to <6 days, or ≥6 days)...
November 11, 2017: Diabetologia
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