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Mathias Cobbaut, Rita Derua, Peter J Parker, Etienne Waelkens, Veerle Janssens, Johan Van Lint
The protein kinase D (PKD) family is regulated through multi-site phosphorylation, including autophosphorylation. For example, PKD displays in vivo autophosphorylation on Ser-742 (and Ser-738 in vitro) in the activation loop and Ser-910 in the C-tail (hPKD1 numbering). In this paper, we describe the surprising observation that PKD also displays in vitro autocatalytic activity towards a Tyr residue in the P+1 loop of the activation segment. We define the molecular determinants for this unusual activity and identify a Cys residue (C705 in PKD1) in the catalytic loop as of utmost importance...
June 22, 2018: FEBS Letters
Ndukaku Okorie
In this paper, I discuss the question of partiality and impartiality in the application of triage. Triage is a process in medical research which recommends that patients should be sorted for treatment according to the degree or severity of their injury. In employing the triage protocol, however, the question of partiality arises because socially vulnerable groups will be neglected since there is the likelihood that the social determinants of a patient's health may diminish her chance of survival. As a process that is based on the severity of a patient's injury, triage will be unfair, and hence negatively partial, to socially vulnerable people...
June 22, 2018: Developing World Bioethics
José Manuel Guevara-Vela, David Ochoa-Resendiz, Aurora Costales, Ramón Hernández-Lamoneda, Angel Martin Pendas
In this paper we present real space analyses of the nature of the dihalogen-water cage interactions in the 5^{12} and 5^{12}6^2 clathrate cages containing chlorine and bromine, respectively. Our Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules and Interacting Quantum Atoms results provide strong indications that halogen bonding is present even though the lone pairs of water molecules are already engaged in hydrogen bonding interactions.
June 22, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Valeria Filippou, Charalampos Tsoumpas
PURPOSE: Printing technology, capable of producing three-dimensional (3D) objects, has evolved in recent years and provides potential for developing reproducible and sophisticated physical phantoms. 3D printing technology can help rapidly develop relatively low cost phantoms with appropriate complexities, which are useful in imaging or dosimetry measurements. The need for more realistic phantoms is emerging since imaging systems are now capable of acquiring multimodal and multiparametric data...
June 22, 2018: Medical Physics
Teodora Alexa-Stratulat, Marius Neagu, Anca-Iulia Neagu, Ioana Dana Alexa, Beatrice Gabriela Ioan
The article explores the challenges of ensuring voluntary and informed consent which is obtained from potential research subjects in the north-eastern part of Romania. This study is one of the first empirical papers of this nature in Romania. The study used a quantitative survey design using the adapted Quality of Informed Consent (QuIC) questionnaire. The target population consisted of 100 adult persons who voluntarily enrolled in clinical trials. The informed consent form must contain details regarding the potential risks and benefits, the aim of the clinical trial, study design, confidentiality, insurance and contact details in case of additional questions...
June 22, 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Karen Croot
Lexical retrieval impairments (also known as anomia or word-finding deficits) are an early and prominent symptom in primary progressive aphasia (PPA), causing distress and frustration to individuals with PPA and their communication partners, and prompting research on lexical retrieval treatment. This paper reviews the research on lexical retrieval treatment in PPA from the earliest reports in the 1990s to early 2018 and considers the implications of this research for clinical practice. The number of published studies has increased markedly over the past decade, consisting primarily of behavioral studies, with rapid recent growth in noninvasive brain stimulation studies...
July 2018: Seminars in Speech and Language
Maya L Henry, Stephanie M Grasso
Speech-language pathologists play a crucial role in the assessment and treatment of individuals with primary progressive aphasia (PPA). The speech-language evaluation is a critical aspect of the diagnostic and rehabilitative process, informing differential diagnosis as well as intervention planning and monitoring of cognitive-linguistic status over time. The evaluation should include a thorough case history and interview and a detailed assessment of speech-language and cognitive functions, with tasks designed to detect core and associated deficits outlined in current diagnostic criteria...
July 2018: Seminars in Speech and Language
Sally P Weaver
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Having a research curriculum in addition to hosting a resident research day stimulates research activity in residency programs. Research collaborations outside an individual residency program may also promote research in residency. This paper describes a community-wide health research forum that engages faculty and residents in research while bringing together potential research collaborators from the community. METHODS: A yearly research forum has been held at a large community-based family medicine residency program for the past 10 years...
June 2018: Family Medicine
Ming Chang, Yaw-Jen Chang, Pei Yu Chao, Qing Yu
Cancer cells secrete many exosomes, which facilitate metastasis and the later growth of cancer. For early cancer diagnosis, the detection of exosomes is a crucial step. Exosomes exist in biological fluid, such as blood, which contains various proteins. It is necessary to remove the proteins in the biological fluid to avoid test interference. This paper presented a novel method for exosome isolation using Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), which were synthesized using the chemical co-precipitation method and then coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG)...
2018: PloS One
Victoria Hemming, Terry V Walshe, Anca M Hanea, Fiona Fidler, Mark A Burgman
INTRODUCTION: Natural resource management uses expert judgement to estimate facts that inform important decisions. Unfortunately, expert judgement is often derived by informal and largely untested protocols, despite evidence that the quality of judgements can be improved with structured approaches. We attribute the lack of uptake of structured protocols to the dearth of illustrative examples that demonstrate how they can be applied within pressing time and resource constraints, while also improving judgements...
2018: PloS One
R B Giesberts, M C van der Steen, P G M Maathuis, A T Besselaar, E E G Hekman, G J Verkerke
BACKGROUND: Clubfeet are commonly treated using the Ponseti method. This method involves weekly manipulation and casting which gradually corrects the position of the foot. However, the reasons for following a weekly interval are not clear. QUESTION / PURPOSE: The aim is to investigate the influence of the cast change interval on treatment outcomes in the Ponseti method. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of comparative studies in which the cast change interval was varied...
2018: PloS One
Tomaž Šolc, Mihael Mohorčič, Carolina Fortuna
Lack of unallocated spectrum and increasing demand for bandwidth in wireless networks is forcing new devices and technologies to share frequency bands. Spectrum sensing is a key enabler for frequency sharing and there is a large body of existing work on signal detection methods. However a unified methodology that would be suitable for objective comparison of detection methods based on experimental evaluations is missing. In this paper we propose such a methodology comprised of seven steps that can be applied to evaluate methods in simulation or practical experiments...
2018: PloS One
Ninja Ritter Klejnstrup, Julie Buhl-Wiggers, Sam Jones, John Rand
Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. It is also a dynamic contributor to poverty through its effects on children's cognitive development. This paper examines the degree to which malaria in early childhood impacts on educational achievement in later childhood. The substantial decline in malaria in the region over recent years allows an assessment of its impact to be made. Focusing on Tanzania, we combine data from the Malaria Atlas Project and the 2010-2014 Uwezo household surveys (N = 246,325)...
2018: PloS One
Marius Galabe Sampid, Haslifah M Hasim, Hongsheng Dai
In this paper, we propose a model for forecasting Value-at-Risk (VaR) using a Bayesian Markov-switching GJR-GARCH(1,1) model with skewed Student's-t innovation, copula functions and extreme value theory. A Bayesian Markov-switching GJR-GARCH(1,1) model that identifies non-constant volatility over time and allows the GARCH parameters to vary over time following a Markov process, is combined with copula functions and EVT to formulate the Bayesian Markov-switching GJR-GARCH(1,1) copula-EVT VaR model, which is then used to forecast the level of risk on financial asset returns...
2018: PloS One
Encarnación Castillo, Diego P Morales, Antonio García, Luis Parrilla, Víctor U Ruiz, José A Álvarez-Bermejo
Non-invasive fetal electrocardiography (ECG) is based on the acquisition of signals from abdominal surface electrodes. The composite abdominal signal consists of the maternal electrocardiogram along with the fetal electrocardiogram and other electrical interferences. These recordings allow for the acquisition of valuable and reliable information that helps ensure fetal well-being during pregnancy. This paper introduces a procedure for fetal heart rate extraction from a single-channel abdominal ECG signal. The procedure is composed of three main stages: a method based on wavelet for signal denoising, a new clustering-based methodology for detecting fetal QRS complexes, and a final stage to correct false positives and false negatives...
2018: PloS One
Aled Jones, Ben Hannigan, Michael Coffey, Alan Simpson
CONTEXT: In response to political and social factors over the last sixty years mental health systems internationally have endeavoured to transfer the delivery of care from hospitals into community settings. As a result, there has been increased emphasis on the need for better quality care planning and care coordination between hospital services, community services and patients and their informal carers. The aim of this systematic review of international research is to explore which interventions have proved more or less effective in promoting personalized, recovery oriented care planning and coordination for community mental health service users...
2018: PloS One
Aparna Komarraju, Twyla B Bartel, Lisa A Dickinson, Frederick D Grant, Tracy L Yarbrough
INTRODUCTION: Increasingly, emerging technologies are expanding instructional possibilities, with new methods being adopted to improve knowledge acquisition and retention. Within medical education, many new techniques have been employed in the undergraduate setting, with less utilization thus far in the continuing medical education (CME) sphere. This paper discusses the use of a new method for CME-the "flipped classroom," widely used in undergraduate medical education. This method engages learners by providing content before the live ("in class") session that aids in preparation and fosters in-class engagement...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions
C Thompson, D Smith, S Cummins
In the UK, food poverty has been associated with conditions such as obesity, malnutrition, hypertension, iron deficiency, and impaired liver function. Food banks, the primary response to food poverty on the ground, typically rely on community referral and distribution systems that involve health and social care professionals and local authority public health teams. The perspectives of these key stakeholders remain underexplored. This paper reports on a qualitative study of the health and wellbeing challenges of food poverty and food banking in London...
May 16, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Marco Giovannini, Huaqing Ren, Jian Cao, Kornel Ehmann
Core needle biopsies are widely adopted medical procedures that consist in the removal of biological tissue to better identify a lesion or an abnormality observed through a physical exam or a radiology scan. These procedures can provide significantly more information than most medical tests and they are usually performed on bone lesions, breast masses, lymph nodes and the prostate. The quality of the samples mainly depends on the forces exerted by the needle during the cutting process. The reduction of these forces is critical to extract high-quality tissue samples...
June 15, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Madeleine Asklöf, Preben Kjølhede, Ninnie Borendal Wodlin, Lena Nilsson
The aim of this descriptive review is to summarise the current knowledge of non-invasive bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) used with gynaecological surgical patients in regard to postoperative development of lymphoedema and determination of perioperative fluid balance, and as a prognostic factor in cancer mortality and a predictor of postoperative complications. The databases PubMed, MEDLINE, Scopus Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, and reference lists of selected articles were searched for relevant articles published during the period January 2008-April 2018...
June 18, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
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