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Xinyue Zhao, Jixian Yang, Fang Ma
For wastewater-related issues (WRI), life cycle assessment (LCA) is often used to evaluate environmental impacts and derive optimization strategies. To promote the application of LCA for WRI, it is critical to incorporate local impact of water pollutants. Organic pollution, a main type of water pollution, has not been given much consideration in current LCA systems. This paper investigates the necessity of setting a regionalized impact category to reflect the local impact of organic pollution. A case study is conducted concerning an upgraded wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in China, which is assumed to meet different sewage control strategies...
December 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Shuying Wang, Xiaona Huang, Haoxuan Sun, Chunyang Wu
Inverted planar perovskite solar cells (PSCs), which are regarded as promising devices for new generation of photovoltaic systems, show many advantages, such as low-temperature film formation, low-cost fabrication, and smaller hysteresis compared with those of traditional n-i-p PSCs. As an important carrier transport layer in PSCs, the hole transport layer (HTL) considerably affects the device performance. Therefore, HTL modification becomes one of the most critical issues in improving the performance of PSCs...
December 13, 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
Teddy S Youn, Patrick Lavin, Morgan Patrylo, Joseph Schindler, Howard Kirshner, David M Greer, Matthew Schrag
BACKGROUND: Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is an ophthalmological emergency, the retinal analog of a stroke. To date there is no consensus or national guidelines on how this disorder should be managed. As academic neurologists and ophthalmologists treat CRAO frequently, we set out to understand how these clinicians approach patients with CRAO with a national survey. METHODS: We identified university-associated teaching hospitals offering vascular neurology, neuro-ophthalmology and/or retina fellowships in the US and asked the directors of the programs to respond to questions in an open response format to profile the acute management of CRAO at their institution...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Neurology
Sabin Lessard, Cíntia Dalila Soares
In this paper we consider class-structured populations in discrete time in the limit of weak selection and with the inverse of the intensity of selection as unit of time. The aim is to establish a continuous model that approximates the discrete model. More precisely, we study frequency-dependent growth in an infinite haploid population structured into a finite number of classes such that individuals in each class contribute to a given subset of classes from one time step to the next. These contributions take the form of generalized fecundity parameters with perturbations of order 1 / N that depends on the class frequencies of each type and the type frequencies...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Dagan Zhang, Bingbing Gao, Yangtian Chen, Hong Liu
We report a method for converting the colorimetric results of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) into length based on the coffee-ring effect, so that the quantitative detection of analytes can be carried out simply using a ruler. The influence of the shape and lamination of the paper strip on the test results is studied. As a demonstration, human IgG is quantitatively analyzed. It is found that the width of the colored stains correlates with the concentration of the analyte which can be measured for quantitative analysis...
December 13, 2017: Lab on a Chip
Nilanjan Dey, Satadru Jha, Santanu Bhattacharya
Chromogenic probe with oxidized bis-indolyl scaffold has been synthesized for the detection of a nerve gas mimicking agent, DCNP (diethyl cyanophosphonate) at pH 8.0 in water. The mechanism of interaction was proposed as the release of cyanide ion through the indole group mediating the hydrolysis of phosphorous-hetero atom bond and, thereafter, the Michael addition of the liberated CN- ion to the electron deficient C[double bond, length as m-dash]C bond of the bis-indolyl moiety. The reaction featured a remarkable change in color from red to colorless at ambient condition...
December 13, 2017: Analyst
Demetrio Sartiano, Salvador Sales
The aim of this paper is to report the design of a low-cost plastic optical fiber (POF) pressure sensor, embedded in a mattress. We report the design of a multipoint sensor, a cheap alternative to the most common fiber sensors. The sensor is implemented using Arduino board, standard LEDs for optical communication in POF (λ = 645 nm) and a silicon light sensor. The Super ESKA® plastic fibers were used to implement the fiber intensity sensor, arranged in a 4 × 4 matrix. During the breathing cycles, the force transmitted from the lungs to the thorax is in the order of tens of Newtons, and the respiration rate is of one breath every 2-5 s (0...
December 13, 2017: Sensors
Xuexian Gao, Haidong Zheng
Environmental regulators often use environmental policy to induce green investment by firms. However, if an environmental policy fails to exert a long-run effect on regulating the economic agents' behavior, it may be more reasonable to think of the firm as the leader in the game, since the investment in green technology is usually a strategic decision. In this paper, we consider a three-stage Stackelberg game to address the interaction between a profit-maximizing firm (Stackelberg leader) facing emission-dependent demand, and the environmental regulator (Stackelberg follower)...
December 13, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Jae B Park
p38 Mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) is a protein kinase critically involved in the progress of inflammation/stress-associated diseases. Our data suggested that javamide analogues may contain strong anti-inflammation activities, but there is little information about their effects on p38 MAPK. Therefore, in this paper, the effects of thirty javamide analogues on p38 MAPK were investigated using in silico screening and in vitro p38 MAPK assay methods. The javamide analogues were synthesized and their chemical structures were confirmed using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic methods...
December 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Bo Jia, Daming Fan, Jinwei Li, Zhenhua Duan, Liuping Fan
This paper investigated the effects of guar gum with sorbitol coating on the oil absorption of French fries by combined dye oil methods, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that pretreatment of blanching with calcium ions and coating with guar gum and sorbitol could significantly reduce the structural oil (STO) and penetrated surface oil (PSO) of French fries and have no negative effects on its texture and also effectively control the final moisture content (p < 0...
December 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Muhammad Aslam, Xiaopeng Hu, Fan Wang
Smart reconfiguration of a dynamic networking environment is offered by the central control of Software-Defined Networking (SDN). Centralized SDN-based management architectures are capable of retrieving global topology intelligence and decoupling the forwarding plane from the control plane. Routing protocols developed for conventional Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) utilize limited iterative reconfiguration methods to optimize environmental reporting. However, the challenging networking scenarios of WSNs involve a performance overhead due to constant periodic iterative reconfigurations...
December 13, 2017: Sensors
Ş Camcıoğlu, B Özyurt, I C Doğan, H Hapoğlu
In this work the application of response surface methodology (RSM) to proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller parameter tuning for electrocoagulation (EC) treatment of pulp and paper mill wastewater was researched. Dynamic data for two controlled variables (pH and electrical conductivity) were obtained under pseudo random binary sequence (PRBS) input signals applied to manipulated variables (acid and supporting electrolyte flow rates). Third order plus time delay model parameters were evaluated through System Identification Toolbox™ in MATLAB®...
December 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Wenjie Chen, Guoru Huang, Han Zhang
With rapid urbanization, inundation-induced property losses have become more and more severe. Urban inundation modeling is an effective way to reduce these losses. This paper introduces a simplified urban stormwater inundation simulation model based on the United States Environmental Protection Agency Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) and a geographic information system (GIS)-based diffusive overland-flow model. SWMM is applied for computation of flows in storm sewer systems and flooding flows at junctions, while the GIS-based diffusive overland-flow model simulates surface runoff and inundation...
December 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
I K Tsoukalas, C K Makropoulos, S N Michas
Rapid urbanization affecting demand patterns, coupled with potential water shortages due to supply side impacts of climatic changes, has led to the emergence of new technologies for water and wastewater reuse. Sewer mining (SM) is a novel decentralized option that could potentially provide non-potable water for urban uses, including for example the irrigation of urban green spaces, providing a mid-scale solution to effective wastewater reuse. SM is based on extracting wastewater from local sewers and treatment at the point of demand and entails in some cases the return of treatment residuals back to the sewer system...
December 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Wenmin Cai, Jiajun Chen, Qingwei Wang, Meng Wei
Presently, the large amount of industrial leaded wastewater creates a great challenge to both environmental governance and wastewater recycling. Lead complexes in washed water must be removed mostly before the washed water can be recycled. This paper reports the mechanism and factors of removing Pb complexes in simulated washed water by the sulfide precipitation method. The reaction time, sodium sulfide dosage, pH, and polymeric aluminum chloride (PAC) dosage were analyzed and the optimal conditions were explored...
December 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Jiayan Zhang, Cuicui Du, Xugang Feng
In this paper, the measurement of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in a wastewater treatment process is analyzed and an intelligent integrated prediction method based on case-based reasoning (CBR) is proposed in order to overcome difficulties. Due to the fact that there are many factors that influence the accuracy of the prediction model, the radial basis function, which is a neural network with a 3 layer feedforward network, is employed to reduce the dimension of input values. Under these circumstances, a back propagation neural network combining with a nearest neighbor retrieval strategy is adopted to match case...
December 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Frances Bunn, Claire Goodman, Peter Reece Jones, Bridget Russell, Daksha Trivedi, Alan Sinclair, Antony Bayer, Greta Rait, Jo Rycroft-Malone, Chris Burton
BACKGROUND: Dementia and diabetes mellitus are common long-term conditions that coexist in a large number of older people. People living with dementia and diabetes may be at increased risk of complications such as hypoglycaemic episodes because they are less able to manage their diabetes. OBJECTIVES: To identify the key features or mechanisms of programmes that aim to improve the management of diabetes in people with dementia and to identify areas needing further research...
December 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Marian C Turkel, Jean Watson, Joseph Giovannoni
The concepts caring science and science of caring have different meanings; however, they are often used interchangeably. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the synthesis of the scholarly literature on the definitions of the science of caring and caring science and to affirm the authors' perspective relating to the language of caring science. Caring science advances the epistemology and ontology of caring. Ideas related to caring science inquiry are presented, and the authors acknowledge the future of caring science as unitary caring science...
January 2018: Nursing Science Quarterly
Marian Turkel, Jacqueline Fawcett, Peggy L Chinn, Rosemary Eustace, Phyllis Shanley Hansell, Marlaine C Smith, Jean Watson, Rothlyn Zahourek
In this essay, several nurse scholars who are particularly concerned about the contemporary state of nursing science present their specific concerns (dark clouds) about the advancement of our discipline and the ways in which the concerns have been addressed (bright lights). This essay is the first of two essays that were catalyzed by Barrett's paper, "Again, What Is Nursing Science?" The second essay will be published in the next issue Nursing Science Quarterly.
January 2018: Nursing Science Quarterly
Amit S Gharpure, Neel B Bhatavadekar
We have done our best to provide a scientifically accurate picture of the current evidence on the socket-shield technique in our systematic review paper. The text of the original paper in our opinion is clear and self-explanatory and presents an unbiased assessment of this technique. We have satisfactorily addressed all the points raised by our colleagues and have supported our responses with adequate citations. We strongly feel that the evidence supporting this technique is extremely weak at the moment. As researchers of the healthcare profession, we require concrete evidence on proposed clinical techniques before they can be routinely used for patients...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Oral Implantology
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