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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530637/cell-penetrating-peptides-selectively-targeting-smad3-inhibit-profibrotic-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling
#1
Jeong-Han Kang, Mi-Yeon Jung, Xueqian Yin, Mahefatiana Andrianifahanana, Danielle M Hernandez, Edward B Leof
TGF-β is considered a master switch in the pathogenesis of organ fibrosis. The primary mediators of this activity are the SMAD proteins, particularly SMAD3. In the current study, we have developed a cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) conjugate of the HIV TAT protein that is fused to an aminoterminal sequence of sorting nexin 9 (SNX9), which was previously shown to bind phosphorylated SMAD3 (pSMAD3). We determined that specifically preventing the nuclear import of pSMAD3 using the TAT-SNX9 peptide inhibited profibrotic TGF-β activity in murine cells and human lung fibroblasts as well as in vivo with no demonstrable toxicity...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527661/modulation-of-adipocyte-function-by-the-tgf-%C3%AE-family
#2
Yuhang Qiao, Shozo Tomonaga, Masashi Suenaga, Tohru Matsui, Masayuki Funaba
Members of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family are known to regulate the commitment of mesenchymal stem cells to an adipocyte lineage and the differentiation of preadipocytes to adipocytes. However, the roles of TGF-β family members in mature adipocytes are not known. The present study explored the modulation of cell function in 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with the TGF-β family members TGF-β1, activin A, activin B, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 4, and BMP7. These TGF-β family members modulated the expression of some adipokines; activin A upregulated leptin expression, and activin B downregulated the expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1...
May 17, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521202/dual-growth-factor-loaded-nonmulberry-silk-fibroin-carbon-nanofiber-composite-3d-scaffolds-for-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo-bone-regeneration
#3
Deboki Naskar, Ananta K Ghosh, Mahitosh Mandal, Piyali Das, Samit K Nandi, Subhas C Kundu
In recent years the potential application of nanocomposite biomaterials in tissue engineering field is gaining importance because of the combined features of all the individual components. A bottom-up approach is acquired in this study to recreate the bone microenvironment. The regenerated silk protein fibroin obtained from nonmulberry tropical tasar Antheraea mylitta species is reinforced with functionalized carbon nano fiber (CNF) and the composite sponges are fabricated using facile green aqueous based method...
May 10, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518137/nerve-growth-factor-from-chinese-cobra-venom-stimulates-chondrogenic-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#4
Zhenhui Lu, Danqing Lei, Tongmeng Jiang, Lihui Yang, Li Zheng, Jinmin Zhao
Growth factors such as transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-β1), have critical roles in the regulation of the chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which promote cartilage repair. However, the clinical applications of the traditional growth factors are limited by their high cost, functional heterogeneity and unpredictable effects, such as cyst formation. It may be advantageous for cartilage regeneration to identify a low-cost substitute with greater chondral specificity and easy accessibility...
May 18, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514770/mm-bmscs-induce-na%C3%A3-ve-cd4-t-lymphocytes-dysfunction-through-fibroblast-activation-protein-%C3%AE
#5
Xiaofei Wu, Yadan Wang, Jian Xu, Ting Luo, Jun Deng, Yu Hu
BACKGROUND: The tumor microenvironment plays a major role in multiple myelomas (MM). MM-BMSCs (bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells) can support tumor growth and immune surveillance escape. On the other hand, fibroblast activation protein α, expressed by cancer stroma cells including BMSCs, has been shown to potentiate epithelial cancers growth and immune suppression. RESULTS: MM-BMSC inhibited proliferation of T cells (P = 0.0138), promoted senescence of T cells (P < 0...
April 30, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513838/the-emerging-role-of-npnt-in-tissue-injury-repair-and-bone-homeostasis
#6
REVIEW
Youqiang Sun, Vincent Kuek, Heng Qiu, Jennifer Tickner, Leilei Chen, Haibin Wang, Wei He, Jiake Xu
Nephronectin (NPNT), a highly conserved extracellular matrix protein, plays an important role in regulating cell adhesion, differentiation, spreading and survival. NPNT protein belongs to epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like superfamily and exhibits several common structural determinants; including EGF-like repeat domains, MAM domain (Meprin, A5 Protein, and Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Phosphatase µ), RGD motif (Arg-Gly-Asp) and a coiled-coil domain. It regulates integrins-mediated signaling pathways via the interaction of its RGD motif with integrin α8β1...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512472/pulsed-electromagnetic-field-regulates-microrna-21-expression-to-activate-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling-in-human-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-to-enhance-osteoblast-differentiation
#7
Nagarajan Selvamurugan, Zhiming He, Daniel Rifkin, Branka Dabovic, Nicola C Partridge
Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) have been documented to promote bone fracture healing in nonunions and increase lumbar spinal fusion rates. However, the molecular mechanisms by which PEMF stimulates differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) into osteoblasts are not well understood. In this study the PEMF effects on hBMSCs were studied by microarray analysis. PEMF stimulation of hBMSCs' cell numbers mainly affected genes of cell cycle regulation, cell structure, and growth receptors or kinase pathways...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500074/disease-specific-effects-of-matrix-and-growth-factors-on-adhesion-and-migration-of-rheumatoid-synovial-fibroblasts
#8
Stephanie Lefèvre, Maria Schwarz, Florian M P Meier, Birgit Zimmermann-Geller, Ingo H Tarner, Markus Rickert, Jürgen Steinmeyer, Michael Sauerbier, Stefan Rehart, Ulf Müller-Ladner, Elena Neumann
In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), cartilage and bone matrix are degraded, and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, acting as cellular activators, are liberated. Similar to ECM proteins, matrix-bound chemokines, cytokines, and growth factors (GFs) influence functional properties of key cells in RA, especially synovial fibroblasts. The role of these molecules on attachment, migration, and proinflammatory and prodestructive activation of RASFs was analyzed. Adhesion/migration of RASFs were examined under GF-enriched (GF(+)) or -reduced (GF(-)) conditions with or without addition of matrix-associated GFs, TGF-β, and platelet-derived GF to GF(-) or culture supernatants...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497879/bone-morphogenetic-protein-5-a-key-molecule-that-mediates-differentiation-in-mc3t3e1-osteoblast-cell-line
#9
Viji Vijayan, Sakshi Gupta, Sarika Gupta
Bone morphogenetic protein-5 (BMP-5) is a member of the TGF receptor-β family with osteoinductive property. However, its physiological role in osteoblast differentiation is not defined. This study highlights the importance of BMP-5 in MC3T3E1 osteoblast differentiation. Pre-osteoblasts exposed to osteogenic media (ascorbic acid, 50 µg/ml and β-glycerophosphate, 10 mM) showed high protein expression of BMP-5 in cell lysates and cell culture supernatants, which peaked during early time-points of differentiation and declined with onset of mineralization...
May 12, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496199/upregulation-and-biological-function-of-transmembrane-protein-119-in-osteosarcoma
#10
Zhen-Huan Jiang, Jun Peng, Hui-Lin Yang, Xing-Li Fu, Jin-Zhi Wang, Lei Liu, Jian-Nong Jiang, Yong-Fei Tan, Zhi-Jun Ge
Osteosarcoma is suggested to be caused by genetic and molecular alterations that disrupt osteoblast differentiation. Recent studies have reported that transmembrane protein 119 (TMEM119) contributes to osteoblast differentiation and bone development. However, the level of TMEM119 expression and its roles in osteosarcoma have not yet been elucidated. In the present study, TMEM119 mRNA and protein expression was found to be up-regulated in osteosarcoma compared with normal bone cyst tissues. The level of TMEM119 protein expression was strongly associated with tumor size, clinical stage, distant metastasis and overall survival time...
May 12, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495881/dynamic-expression-and-regulatory-mechanism-of-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling-in-chicken-embryonic-stem-cells-differentiating-into-spermatogonial-stem-cells
#11
Qisheng Zuo, Kai Jin, Yani Zhang, Jiuzhou Song, Bichun Li
This study investigated the dynamic expression and regulatory mechanism of TGF-β signaling involved in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) differentiation into male germ cells. Candidate genes involved in TGF-β signaling pathway were screened from RNA-seq, which were further validated by quantitative real time PCR(qRT-PCR). Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) was used to induce differentiation of ESCs in vitro Inhibition of TGF-β signaling pathway was reflected by western blot of SMAD 2 and SMAD 5 expression. Differentiating efficiency of germ cells was evaluated by immunofluorescence and fluorescence activated cell sorting(FACS)...
May 11, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490693/-comparison-of-differentiated-endothelial-cells-from-the-embryonic-stem-cells-with-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells
#12
Yangui Wang, Xiaoxiao Mao, Tianlun Yang
To compare the differentiated endothelial cells from the embryonic stem cells in vitro with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs).
 Methods: Induction of the stem cells HUES9 to endothelial cells follows 2 steps. Stem cells were treated with CHIR99021 (10 µmol/L) and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (25 ng/mL) for 3 days to keep mesoderm state, then subsequent exposure them to VEGF165 (200 ng/mL) and Forskolin (2 µmol/L) to differentiate into endothelial cells. The morphology of differentiated endothelial cells were compared with HUVECs...
April 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489883/bmp-7-induces-apoptosis-in-human-germinal-center-b-cells-and-is-influenced-by-tgf-%C3%AE-receptor-type-i-alk5
#13
Lise K Bollum, Kanutte Huse, Morten P Oksvold, Baoyan Bai, Vera I Hilden, Lise Forfang, Sun Ok Yoon, Sébastien Wälchli, Erlend B Smeland, June H Myklebust
Selection and maturation of B cells into plasma cells producing high-affinity antibodies occur in germinal centers (GC). GCs form transiently in secondary lymphoid organs upon antigen challenge, and the GC reaction is a highly regulated process. TGF-β is a potent negative regulator, but the influence of other family members including bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) is less known. Studies of human peripheral blood B lymphocytes showed that BMP-6 suppressed plasmablast differentiation, whereas BMP-7 induced apoptosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486664/microrna-21-plays-a-pivotal-role-in-the-oocyte-secreted-factor-induced-suppression-of-cumulus-cell-apoptosis%C3%A2
#14
Xiao Han, Rui Xue, Hong-Jie Yuan, Tian-Yang Wang, Juan Lin, Jie Zhang, Bo Liang, Jing-He Tan
It is known that oocytes and cumulus cells (CCs) are more resistant to apoptosis than other compartments of the antral follicle. However, although oocyte-secreted factors (OSFs) have been found to be involved in suppressing bovine CC apoptosis, little is known about the intra-cellular mechanisms by which OSFs render CCs resistant to apoptosis. Here we show that coculture with mouse or pig cumulus-denuded oocytes, culture with recombinant mouse growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9) or culture in pig oocyte-conditioned medium (POCM) significantly inhibited CC apoptosis of mouse oocytectomized cumulus oophorus complexes (OOXs)...
May 8, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486014/tissue-tgf-%C3%AE-expression-following-conventional-radiotherapy-and-pulsed-low-dose-rate-radiation
#15
Joshua E Meyer, Niklas K Finnberg, Lili Chen, Dusica Cvetkovic, Bin Wang, Lanlan Zhou, Yanqun Dong, Mark A Hallman, Chang-Ming C Ma, Wafik S El-Deiry
The release of inflammatory cytokines has been implicated in the toxicity of conventional radiotherapy (CRT). Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) has been suggested to be a risk marker for pulmonary toxicity following radiotherapy. Pulsed low-dose rate radiotherapy (PLDR) is a technique that involves spreading out a conventional radiotherapy dose into short pulses of dose with breaks in between to reduce toxicities. We hypothesized that the more tolerable toxicity profile of PLDR compared with CRT may be related to differential expression of inflammatory cytokines such as TGF-β in normal tissues...
May 9, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474060/-changes-of-tgf-%C3%AE-1-expression-during-orthodontic-tooth-movement-in-rats-with-osteoporosis
#16
Ming-He Li, Yang Wang, Nan-Nan Liao, Jin-Yuan Li, Qing Dong
PURPOSES: To observe the expression and distribution of TGF-β1 in periodontal tissue under intervention of Strontium ranelate and Qianggu capsule during orthodontic tooth movement in rats, and explore the efficacy of the 2 drugs. METHODS: Seventy male SD rats of 3 months old were selected in the study, and randomly divided into control group, model control group, Strontium ranelate group, Qianggu capsule group, each group had 15 animals. Retinoic acid was given by gavage to animals in the control group, Strontium ranelate group, Qianggu capsule group for 2 weeks, and bone density was detected to determine successful establishment of osteoporosis model...
February 2017: Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue, Shanghai Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468283/heparin-heparan-sulphate-and-the-tgf-%C3%AE-cytokine-superfamily
#17
REVIEW
Chris C Rider, Barbara Mulloy
Of the circa 40 cytokines of the TGF-β superfamily, around a third are currently known to bind to heparin and heparan sulphate. This includes TGF-β1, TGF-β2, certain bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and growth and differentiation factors (GDFs), as well as GDNF and two of its close homologues. Experimental studies of their heparin/HS binding sites reveal a diversity of locations around the shared cystine-knot protein fold. The activities of the TGF-β cytokines in controlling proliferation, differentiation and survival in a range of cell types are in part regulated by a number of specific, secreted BMP antagonist proteins...
April 29, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467108/gremlin1-accelerates-hepatic-stellate-cell-activation-through-upregulation-of-tgf-beta-expression
#18
Yan-Qiong Zhang, Lin-Yan Wan, Xiao-Min He, Yi-Ran Ni, Chang Wang, Chang-Bai Liu, Jiang-Feng Wu
Gremlin1, the antagonist of bone morphogenetic protein-7 and one of the target genes of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signal pathway, plays an important role in embryonic development and its expression decreases along with aging. To explore the expression of gremlin1 in liver fibrosis and the causal link between gremlin1 and hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation, we detected the expression of gremlin1 in mice with hepatic fibrosis induced by porcine serum using real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and immunohistochemical staining...
May 3, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466138/a-translational-approach-from-an-animal-model-identifies-cd80-as-a-candidate-gene-for-the-study-of-bone-phenotypes-in-postmenopausal-women
#19
L Panach, E Serna, J J Tarín, A Cano, M Á García-Pérez
This study represented a translational study that first compared gene expression of B cells of BM from ovariectomized and control mice, and then analyzed some of the differentially expressed genes in women. Results showed novel genetic associations with bone phenotypes and points to the CD80 gene as relevant in postmenopausal bone loss. INTRODUCTION: Osteoporosis is a multifactorial disease with a strong genetic component. However, to date, research into osteoporosis has only been able to explain a small part of its heritability...
May 2, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462179/use-of-platelet-rich-plasma-in-the-management-of-periodontal-intra-osseous-defects-a-clinical-study
#20
Md Jalaluddin, Dhirendra K Singh, Ipsita Jayanti, Prasad Kulkarni, Mohamed Faizuddin, Fouzia Tarannum
BACKGROUND: Periodontal disease is characterized by the presence of gingival inflammation, periodontal pocket formation, loss of connective tissue attachment, and alveolar bone around the affected tooth. Alveolar bone support and attachment apparatus regeneration has been achieved through various processes and have given elusive results. An expedient and cost-effective approach to obtain autologous platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β is the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP)...
March 2017: Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry
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