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TGF AND bone

Ugo Ripamonti, Ruqayya Parak, Roland M Klar, Caroline Dickens, Therese Dix-Peek, Raquel Duarte
OBJECTIVES: To investigate cementogenesis and alveolar bone induction during in vivo periodontal tissue regeneration upon implantation of hTGF-β3 in furcation defects of Papio ursinus and to evaluate the feasibility of gene expression studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Class II furcation defects (day 0) were prepared in mandibular first and second molars of three P. ursinus and on day 30 implanted with and without 75μg hTGF-β3 in Matrigel(®) matrix. On day 0, 30 and 90, cementum and alveolar bone were harvested for gene expression analyses...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
Wei Zhu, Chi Xu, Bu-Peng Ma, Zhi-Bo Zheng, Yu-Long Li, Qi Ma, Guo-Liang Wu, Xi-Sheng Weng
BACKGROUND: Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology holds great promise for treating diseases or injuries that affect human bones with enhanced performance over traditional techniques. Different patterns of design can lead to various mechanical properties and biocompatibility to various degrees. However, there is still a long way to go before we can fully take advantage of 3D printing technologies. METHODS: This study tailored 3D printed scaffolds with gelatin and platelets to maximize bone regeneration...
2016: Chinese Medical Journal
Amal H Hamza, Widad M Al-Bishri, Laila A Damiati, Hanaa H Ahmed
BACKGROUND: The progresses made in stem cell therapy offer an innovative approach and exhibit great potential for the repair of damaged organs and tissues. This study was conducted with a view to find the mechanisms responsible for the effectiveness of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) in the suppression of diabetes and experimentally-induced diabetic nephropathy. METHODS: To realize this objective, diabetic and diabetic nephropathy subject groups that underwent MSC treatment were studied through numerous biochemistry and molecular genetics analyses...
October 23, 2016: Renal Failure
Yuya Nakatani, Hideki Agata, Yoshinori Sumita, Takamitsu Koga, Izumi Asahina
OBJECTIVE: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is typically isolated and applied immediately after preparation, making it both a time- and labor-intensive addition to the operative procedure. Thus, it would be convenient if PRP could be preserved. We evaluated the efficacy of freeze-dried PRP (FD-PRP), as compared with freshly isolated PRP (f-PRP) for bone engineering. DESIGN: FD-PRP was prepared by lyophilization of f-PRP and was subsequently preserved at -20°C for one month...
October 15, 2016: Archives of Oral Biology
Yanzhu Zhu, Feibo Xu, Xijun Yan, Liguang Miao, Haitao Li, Chongwei Hu, Zhongying Wang, Shizhen Lian, Zhuo Feng, Yanfei Li
Aluminum (Al) exposure impairs bone formation, and bone formation is mediated by the osteoblasts. But effects of Al on the osteoblasts function remain elusive. The osteoblasts were exposed to 0, 0.0252, 0.126, 0.252mg/mL AlCl3·6H2O for 24h. The osteoblasts viability, TGF-β1, BMP-2, IGF-I and Cbfα1 mRNA expressions, and GSH-Px and SOD activities, ROS concentration were determined. The osteoblasts ultrastructural features were also observed. The results showed that AlCl3 suppressed the osteoblasts viability, TGF-β1, BMP-2, IGF-I and Cbfα1 mRNA expressions, GSH-Px and SOD activities, and elevated ROS concentration compared with the CG...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Howa Begam, Samit Kumar Nandi, Biswanath Kundu, Abhijit Chanda
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are the most significant growth factors that belong to the Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGF-β) super-family. Though more than twenty members of this family have been identified so far in humans, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved two growth factors: BMP-2 and BMP-7 for treatments of spinal fusion and long-bone fractures with collagen carriers. Currently BMPs are clinically used in spinal fusion, oral and maxillofacial surgery and also in the repair of long bone defects...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Lijiang Ma, Wendy K Chung
Group 1 pulmonary hypertension or pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare disease characterized by proliferation and occlusion of small pulmonary arterioles, leading to progressive elevation of pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance, and right ventricular failure. Historically it has been associated with a high mortality rate, although over the last decade, treatment has improved survival. PAH includes idiopathic PAH (IPAH), heritable PAH (HPAH), and PAH associated with certain medical conditions...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Pathology
Kai Li, Jiangming Yu, Youtao Xie, Mingyu You, Liping Huang, Xuebin Zheng
Ideal coatings for orthopedic implants should be able to induce excellent osseointegration with host bone tissue, which requires good osteogenic responses and limited inflammatory reactions. Cerium oxide (CeO2) ceramics have anti-oxidative properties and can be used to decrease mediators of inflammation, making them attractive for biomedical application. In this study, two kinds of CeO2 incorporated calcium silicate coatings (CS-10Ce and CS-30Ce) were prepared via plasma spraying technique, and the effects of CeO2 addition on the responses of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and RAW264...
October 20, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
A Mardomi, M Sabzichi, M Hussein Somi, D Shanehbandi, R Rahbarghazi, O Taj Sanjarani, N Samadi
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) display differential migration ability toward different tumor-released factors. Migration of MSCs is highly important in induction of proliferation and invasiveness of hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. In this study, the role of CXCR4/CXCL12 axis and TGF-βR signaling were evaluated in the migration of MSCs toward HepG2 cells. The MSCs were incubated with SDF-1α (CXCL12), antagonists of CXCR4, TGF-βR, and co-receptor of TGF-β, (endoglin) for 48h. Then, the migration of these cells toward HepG2 cells was analyzed using in vitro migration assay...
September 30, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Biology
F Chen, S X Pan, H L Feng
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the distribution and content of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in concentrated growth factors (CGF) gel, and to clarify the difference among different layers of CGF. METHODS: Venous blood samples were collected from 6 healthy volunteers to prepare CGF. The distribution, integrated optical density (IOD) and average optical density (AOD) of TGF-β1 and VEGF in CGF gel and red blood cell (RBC) layer were measured using immunohistochemistry...
October 18, 2016: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
M Gokulnath, R Swetha, G Thejaswini, P Shilpa, N Selvamurugan
Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) plays a significant role in breast cancer mediated bone metastasis, and it stimulated expression of matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13; an invasive and metastasis gene) via activating transcription factor-3 (ATF-3) in human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB231). We further dissected the role of ATF-3 and its interacting proteins (activator protein-1; AP-1) for TGF-β1-stimulation of MMP-13 expression in these cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiment identified the TGF-β1-stimulation of ATF-3 interaction at the AP-1 site of the MMP-13 promoter in a sustained and prolonged manner in MDA-MB231 cells...
October 15, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Thangavelu Soundara Rajan, Sabrina Giacoppo, Oriana Trubiani, Francesca Diomede, Adriano Piattelli, Placido Bramanti, Emanuela Mazzon
Conditioned medium derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) shows immunomodulatory and neuroprotective effects in preclinical models. Given the difficulty to harvest MSCs from bone marrow and adipose tissues, research has been focused to find alternative resources for MSCs, such as oral-derived tissues. Recently, we have demonstrated the protective effects of MSCs obtained from healthy human periodontal ligament tissue (hPDLSCs) in murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model. In the present in vitro study, we have investigated the immunomodulatory and neuroprotective effects of conditioned medium obtained from hPDLSCs of Relapsing Remitting- Multiple sclerosis (RR-MS) patients on NSC34 mouse motoneurons stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
October 11, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
Lei Hu, Ying Wen, Junji Xu, Tingting Wu, Chunmei Zhang, Jinsong Wang, Jie Du, Songlin Wang
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-mediated bone regeneration is used to replace lost bone. However, methods to accelerate the process and stabilize regenerated bone remain limited. Therefore, we investigated the effect of bisphosphonates (BPs) on the function of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) to determine if they might enhance MSC-mediated bone regeneration. We isolated and cultured BMMSCs from BALB/c mice and treated the cells with 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, or 10 μM zoledronic acid (ZA; Zometa, a commercially available BP)...
October 13, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
H-L Fu, H-X Pan, B Zhao, B-C Dong, L Shao, G-S Fu, Q Wang, M Li
OBJECTIVE: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) act as key regulators of diverse cellular activities by regulating the expression of protein-coding genes. Osteoblast differentiation, a fundamental step in skeletal development, involves the activation of several signaling pathways, including transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), and Wnt signaling pathways. MATERIALS AND METHODS: miRNA expression was measured using TaqManRT-PCR. Western blot was used to detect the protein expression of Smad1...
September 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Tao Wang, Xinping Zhang, Daniel D Bikle
5-10% of fractures fail to heal normally leading to additional surgery, morbidity, and altered quality of life. Fracture healing involves the coordinated action of stem cells primarily coming from the periosteum which differentiate into the chondrocytes and osteoblasts, forming first the soft (cartilage) callus followed by the hard (bone) callus. These stem cells are accompanied by a vascular invasion that appears critical for the differentiation process and which may enable the entry of osteoclasts necessary for the remodeling of the callus into mature bone...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Daniel M Vasconcelos, Raquel M Gonçalves, Catarina R Almeida, Inês O Pereira, Marta I Oliveira, Nuno Neves, Andreia M Silva, António C Ribeiro, Carla Cunha, Ana R Almeida, Cristina C Ribeiro, Ana M Gil, Elisabeth Seebach, Katharina L Kynast, Wiltrud Richter, Meriem Lamghari, Susana G Santos, Mário A Barbosa
The hypothesis behind this work is that fibrinogen (Fg), classically considered a pro-inflammatory protein, can promote bone repair/regeneration. Injury and biomaterial implantation naturally lead to an inflammatory response, which should be under control, but not necessarily minimized. Herein, porous scaffolds entirely constituted of Fg (Fg-3D) were implanted in a femoral rat bone defect and investigated at two important time points, addressing the bone regenerative process and the local and systemic immune responses, both crucial to elucidate the mechanisms of tissue remodelling...
December 2016: Biomaterials
Yueliang Zheng, Wenwei Cai, Shengang Zhou, Liming Xu, Chengxing Jiang
Our study aims to investigate the effects of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) as well as the underlying mechanism. In our study, Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: control group; ALI group; ALI+MSCs group and ALI+MSCs claudin-4 siRNA group. MRC-5 and BEAS-2B cell lines were used for in vitro assay. Flow cytometry, western blot, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, CCK-8 assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were involved to measure the pathological changes in lung tissues...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
Chi-Young Yun, Hwajung Choi, Young-Jae You, Jin-Young Yang, Jin-A Baek, Eui-Sic Cho
Dentin is the major part of tooth and formed by odontoblasts. Under the influence of the inner enamel epithelium, odontoblasts differentiate from ectomesenchymal cells of the dental papilla and secrete pre-dentin which then undergo mineralization into dentin. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β)/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling is essential for dentinogenesis; however, the precise molecular mechanisms remain unclear. To understand the role of TGF-β/BMP signaling in odontoblast differentiation and dentin formation, we generated mice with conditional ablation of Smad4, a key intracellular mediator of TGF-β/BMP signaling, using Osr2 or OC-Cre mice...
September 2016: Anatomy & Cell Biology
Kanna Nagaishi, Yuka Mizue, Takako Chikenji, Miho Otani, Masako Nakano, Naoto Konari, Mineko Fujimiya
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have contributed to the improvement of diabetic nephropathy (DN); however, the actual mediator of this effect and its role has not been characterized thoroughly. We investigated the effects of MSC therapy on DN, focusing on the paracrine effect of renal trophic factors, including exosomes secreted by MSCs. MSCs and MSC-conditioned medium (MSC-CM) as renal trophic factors were administered in parallel to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced type 2 diabetic mice and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced insulin-deficient diabetic mice...
October 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
Xudong Sun, Jianyu Liu, Cuicui Zhuang, Xu Yang, Yanfei Han, Bing Shao, Miao Song, Yanfei Li, Yanzhu Zhu
Aluminum (Al) is recognized worldwide as serious inorganic contaminants. Exposure to Al is associated with low BMD and an increased risk of osteoporosis. However, the precise molecular mechanisms remains unclear. Thus, in this study, rats were orally exposed to 0 (control group, CG) and 0.4g/L AlCl3 (AlCl3 treated group, AG) in drinking water for 120 days; osteoblasts were treated with AlCl3 (0.12mg/mL) and/or TGF-β1 (4.5ng/mL) for 24h. We found that AlCl3 decreased the BMD, damaged femoral ultrastructure, decreased the activities of GSH-Px and SOD, and increased the levels of ROS and MDA in bone, decreased the activity of B-ALP and content of PINP, and increased the activity of TRACP-5b and content of NTX-I in serum, decreased mRNA expressions of TGF-β1, TβRI, TβRII and Smad4, protein expressions of TGF-β1, p-Smad2/3 and Smad2/3/4 complex, and increased Smad7 mRNA expression in bone and in osteoblasts...
October 5, 2016: Toxicology
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