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Psycho-social theories

Calum Munro, Louise Randell, Stephen M Lawrie
: The need for novel approaches to understanding and treating anorexia nervosa (AN) is well recognized. The aim of this paper is to describe an integrative bio-psycho-social theory of maintaining factors in AN. We took a triangulation approach to develop a clinically relevant theory with face validity and internal consistency. We developed theoretical ideas from our clinical practice and reviewed theoretical ideas within the eating disorders and wider bio-psycho-social literature. The synthesis of these ideas and concepts into a clinically meaningful framework is described here...
October 13, 2016: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
Kjersti S Gulliksen, Ragnfrid H S Nordbø, Ester M S Espeset, Finn Skårderud, Arne Holte
INTRODUCTION: Studies show that patients' perception of their illness has a direct influence both on their utilization of health services and their adherence to treatment plans. This may be particularly relevant to the treatment of Anorexia Nervosa (AN). Previous studies on AN have typically explored single psycho-social factors that patients with AN relate to the emergence of their illness. There is a need for more coherent systematic descriptions of the complexity of the patients' narratives about how their illness emerged...
October 11, 2016: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
Sera Nia Manning
The health service is having to plan for an increasingly older population putting extra demand on services, with a greater emphasis on providing care at home. A health board in Wales brought in an Early Response Service, which assessed whether patients attending accident and emergency needed to be admitted to hospital or could receive care at home. This qualitative study looked at the experiences of both patients and staff members in both settings. A multiple case study was undertaken using semi-structured interviews...
October 2, 2016: British Journal of Community Nursing
Ankush Kawali, Ringhoo Theresa Jose, Aishwarya, Mathew Kurian, Kushal Kacha, Padmamalini Mahendradas, Rohit Shetty
BACKGROUND: Psycho-immunology is an emerging branch of science which studies the interaction between the brain and the immune system. The purpose of this study is to identify the types of personality factors in patients with non-infectious uveitis and to find its association with a particular uveitic entity if any. This is a prospective, observational, case-control study of 186 patients with non-infectious uveitis (group A) and controls from general ophthalmology outpatient department (group B)...
December 2016: Journal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection
Maria Grazia Spurio
For a long time, terms like "mind" and "emotion" have rarely been taken into account, not even mentioned in the medical texts. The latest scientific researches, including the studies of Candace Pert, on the contrary, have emphasized that the entire body thinks, because every single cell hears, and feels emotions. The international researcher has discovered the endocrines and a vast number of neuropeptides, that work as an "information network" that interconnects the entire body, the "psychic" molecules are transmitted and travel, communicating information as in a circular and recursive body - mind mechanism...
September 2016: Psychiatria Danubina
Michela Brambilla, Maria Cotelli, Rosa Manenti, Jessica Dagani, Davide Sisti, Marco Rocchi, Matteo Balestrieri, Stefano Pini, Sara Raimondi, Francesco Maria Saviotti, Paolo Scocco, Giovanni de Girolamo
Deficits in social cognition, including emotional processing, are hallmarks of schizophrenia and antipsychotic agents seem to be ineffectual to improve these symptoms. However, oxytocin does seem to have beneficial effects on social cognition. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of four months of treatment with intranasal oxytocin, in 31 patients with schizophrenia, on distinct aspects of social cognition. This was assessed using standardized and experimental tests in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial...
October 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Mantosh J Dewan
The focus on recent advances in the neurobiology of schizophrenia has pushed aside the psychological understanding of the person with schizophrenia for several decades. However, a useful functional psychology of schizophrenia (in distinction to a psychological approach to symptoms) remains clinically important for several reasons: it is a core part of the bio-psycho-social formulation; it helps us understand and connect with persons with schizophrenia; and it provides a framework by which to organize our treatment efforts (both psychotherapeutic and particularly biological), which can improve adherence and outcomes...
August 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Aleksandra Kupferberg, Lucy Bicks, Gregor Hasler
Depression is associated with social risk factors, social impairments and poor social functioning. This paper gives an overview of these social aspects using the NIMH Research and Domain Criteria 'Systems for Social Processes' as a framework. In particular, it describes the bio-psycho-social interplay regarding impaired affiliation and attachment (social anhedonia, hyper-sensitivity to social rejection, competition avoidance, increased altruistic punishment), impaired social communication (impaired emotion recognition, diminished cooperativeness), impaired social perception (reduced empathy, theory-of-mind deficits) and their impact on social networks and the use of social media...
October 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Samantha Flynn, Nicholas J Hulbert-Williams, Lee Hulbert-Williams, Ros Bramwell
OBJECTIVE: Few empirical studies have explored cancer-related experiences of people with an intellectual disability (ID), despite rising cancer incidence in this population. The present research aims to better understand the experiences of this population from multiple perspectives, generating theory and further research questions. METHODS: Six people with ID and cancer, alongside twelve participants from their supportive network (including: family, social and healthcare professionals), were interviewed; transcripts were analysed using grounded theory...
July 8, 2016: Psycho-oncology
Jennifer R Banas, David Victorson, Sandra Gutierrez, Evelyn Cordero, Judy Guitleman, Niina Haas
Cancer and its treatment can significantly impact health-related quality of life (HRQOL) (J Pain Symptom Manag 9 (3):186-192, 1994; Soc Sci Med 46:1569-1584, 1998), particularly for Hispanics (Healthcare Financ Rev 29 (4):23-40, 2008; Psycho-Oncology 21 (2):115-124, 2012). Moreover, providers of cancer support for this population may encounter unique challenges. Grounded in social capital theory, this study identified Spanish-speaking, Hispanic breast cancer survivor support needs and preferences for a mHealth intervention...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
Julian Raffay, Emily Wood, Andrew Todd
BACKGROUND: Within the UK National Health Service (NHS), Spiritual and Pastoral Care (SPC) Services (chaplaincies) have not traditionally embraced research due to the intangible nature of their work. However, small teams like SPC can lead the way towards services across the NHS becoming patient- centred and patient-led. Using co-production principles within research can ensure it, and the resulting services, are truly patient-led. METHODS: A series of interviews were conducted with service users across directorates of a large NHS mental health Trust...
2016: BMC Psychiatry
M Richter, S Günther, M Herke
Life course influences are being increasingly considered as a key to better understanding of health and social inequalities in health. Our aim is to examine the potential of a broader interdisciplinary perspective on the life course and health, one that integrates sociological and psychological theory and generates greater dialogue between epidemiology and the social sciences. The paper reviews major principles and concepts applied in different disciplines that deal with life course and proposes a theory-driven research framework which better informs interdisciplinary exchange and illustrates how a bio-psycho-social perspective on life course can be infused more fully into epidemiology...
June 17, 2016: Das Gesundheitswesen
David Rogerson, Hora Soltani, Robert Copeland
BACKGROUND: Long-term weight management consists of weight-loss, weight-loss maintenance, and weight-gain stages. Qualitative insights into weight management are now appearing in the literature however research appears to be biased towards explorations of weight-loss maintenance. The qualitative understanding of weight loss, which begets weight-loss maintenance and might establish the experiences and behaviours necessary for successful long-term weight management, is comparatively under-investigated...
2016: BMC Public Health
Rodolfo Rossi, Stanley Zammit, Katherine S Button, Marcus R Munafò, Glyn Lewis, Anthony S David
Psychotic Experiences (PEs) during adolescence index increased risk for psychotic disorders and schizophrenia in adult life. Working memory (WM) deficits are a core feature of these disorders. Our objective was to examine the relationship between PEs and WM in a general population sample of young people in a case control study. 4744 individuals of age 17-18 from Bristol and surrounding areas (UK) were analyzed in a cross-sectional study nested within the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort study...
2016: PloS One
Michela Piredda, Valentina Biagioli, Giulia Gambale, Elisa Porcelli, Claudio Barbaranelli, Alvisa Palese, Maria Grazia De Marinis
BACKGROUND: Effective measures of nursing care dependency in neurorehabilitation are warranted to plan nursing interventions to help patients avoid increasing dependency. OBJECTIVE: The Care Dependency Scale (CDS) is a theory-based, comprehensive tool to evaluate functional disability. This study aimed to modify the CDS for neurological and neurorehabilitation patients (Neuro-CDS) and to test its psychometric properties in adult neurorehabilitation inpatients. METHODS: Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed using a Maximum Likelihood robust (MLR) estimator...
2016: NeuroRehabilitation
Dominique Van de Velde, Ignaas Devisch, Patricia De Vriendt
Purpose To explore the perspectives of male clients in a neurological rehabilitation setting with regard to the occupational therapy they have received and the client-centred approach. Method This study involved a qualitative research design based on the grounded theory tradition. Individual in-depth interviews were used to collect data. Data were analysed using a constant comparative method. Seven male participants from an inpatient neurological setting were included using a theoretical sampling technique...
August 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
Ovidiu Alexinschi, Roxana Chirita, Padurariu Manuela, Alin Ciobica, Romeo Dobrin, F D Petrariu, Daniel Timofte, Vasile Chirita
The modern treatment for alcohol dependence is still problematic, in many cases with the costs exceeding benefits. In these conditions a new management approach was developed lately, known as the systemic therapy. In this way, the crystallization and practical transposition of this new treatment approach is represented by the Clubs of Alcoholics in Treatment. These clubs are in fact a form of psycho-social intervention consisting of multi-family communities in order to maintain long-term abstinence from alcohol and to change their lifestyle and behavior...
October 2015: Revista Medico-chirurgicală̆ a Societă̆ţ̜ii de Medici ş̧i Naturaliş̧ti Din Iaş̧i
A Saxton, K Fahy, C Hastie
BACKGROUND: Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) rates continue to rise in the developed world. A recent study found that any skin-to-skin contact and breastfeeding within 30min of birth was associated with an almost 50% reduction in PPH rates. Improved oxytocin release is the biological reason proposed to explain this. The combination of skin-to-skin contact and breastfeeding within 30min of birth is termed 'Pronurturance'. Midwifery theory and research claims that optimal third stage care is more holistic than simple Pronurturnace which suggests that further reductions in PPH rates may be possible...
June 2016: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
Laura McGowan, Martin Caraher, Monique Raats, Fiona Lavelle, Lynsey Hollywood, Dawn McDowell, Michelle Spence, Amanda McCloat, Elaine Mooney, Moira Dean
Domestic cooking skills (CS) and food skills (FS) encompass multiple components, yet there is a lack of consensus on their constituent parts, inter-relatedness or measurement, leading to limited empirical support for their role in influencing dietary quality. This review assessed the measurement of CS and FS in adults (>16 years); critically examining study designs, psychometric properties of measures, theoretical basis and associations of CS/FS with diet. Electronic databases (PsychInfo), published reports and systematic reviews on cooking and home food preparation interventions (Rees et al...
November 30, 2015: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
John G Eastwood, Lynn A Kemp, Bin B Jalaludin
The study reported here is part of a critical realist multilevel study. It seeks to identify and explain complex perinatal contextual social and psychosocial mechanisms that may influence the developmental origins of health and disease, with a focus on the role of postnatal depression. The aims of the greater study are to: (1) describe the phenomenon of postnatal depression in South Western Sydney; and (2) identify mechanisms that would add to our understanding of the psycho-social causes of maternal depression...
2015: SpringerPlus
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