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Biological Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445399/advances-in-psychiatric-diagnosis-past-present-and-future
#1
EDITORIAL
Carol S North, Alina M Surís
This editorial examines controversies identified by the articles in this special issue, which explore psychopathology in the broad history of the classification of selected psychiatric disorders and syndromes over time through current American criteria. Psychiatric diagnosis has a long history of scientific investigation and application, with periods of rapid change, instability, and heated controversy associated with it. The articles in this issue examine the history of psychiatric nomenclature and explore current and future directions in psychiatric diagnosis through the various versions of accepted diagnostic criteria and accompanying research literature addressing the criteria...
April 26, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439103/brain-age-predicts-mortality
#2
J H Cole, S J Ritchie, M E Bastin, M C Valdés Hernández, S Muñoz Maniega, N Royle, J Corley, A Pattie, S E Harris, Q Zhang, N R Wray, P Redmond, R E Marioni, J M Starr, S R Cox, J M Wardlaw, D J Sharp, I J Deary
Age-associated disease and disability are placing a growing burden on society. However, ageing does not affect people uniformly. Hence, markers of the underlying biological ageing process are needed to help identify people at increased risk of age-associated physical and cognitive impairments and ultimately, death. Here, we present such a biomarker, 'brain-predicted age', derived using structural neuroimaging. Brain-predicted age was calculated using machine-learning analysis, trained on neuroimaging data from a large healthy reference sample (N=2001), then tested in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (N=669), to determine relationships with age-associated functional measures and mortality...
April 25, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433458/linking-the-biological-underpinnings-of-depression-role-of-mitochondria-interactions-with-melatonin-inflammation-sirtuins-tryptophan-catabolites-dna-repair-and-oxidative-and-nitrosative-stress-with-consequences-for-classification-and-cognition
#3
REVIEW
George Anderson
The pathophysiological underpinnings of neuroprogressive processes in recurrent major depressive disorder (rMDD) are reviewed. A wide array of biochemical processes underlie MDD presentations and their shift to a recurrent, neuroprogressive course, including: increased immune-inflammation, tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs), mitochondrial dysfunction, aryl hydrocarbonn receptor activation, and oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS), as well as decreased sirtuins and melatonergic pathway activity. These biochemical changes may have their roots in central, systemic and/or peripheral sites, including in the gut, as well as in developmental processes, such as prenatal stressors and breastfeeding consequences...
April 19, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426908/clinically-useful-brain-imaging-for-neuropsychiatry-how-can-we-get-there
#4
REVIEW
Michael P Milham, R Cameron Craddock, Arno Klein
Despite decades of research, visions of transforming neuropsychiatry through the development of brain imaging-based "growth charts" or "lab tests" have remained out of reach. In recent years, there is renewed enthusiasm about the prospect of achieving clinically useful tools capable of aiding the diagnosis and management of neuropsychiatric disorders. The present work explores the basis for this enthusiasm. We assert that there is no single advance that currently has the potential to drive the field of clinical brain imaging forward...
April 20, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407461/the-biological-basis-to-personality-disorders
#5
Malathi L Perugula, Puneet D Narang, Steven B Lippmann
Objective: To provide understanding into the biological basis of thinking and behavior in people with personality disorders, explain anatomic findings, and appraise therapeutic options. Data Sources: PubMed was searched with no date restrictions using the terms personality disorders DSM-5, cluster B personality disorders, biological psychiatry of personality disorders, neurobiology of personality disorders, and neurobiology of cluster B personality disorders. Study Selection/Data Extraction: We identified 2,790 English-language articles and utilized 18 in this report...
April 13, 2017: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398342/two-subgroups-of-antipsychotic-naive-first-episode-schizophrenia-patients-identified-with-a-gaussian-mixture-model-on-cognition-and-electrophysiology
#6
N Bak, B H Ebdrup, B Oranje, B Fagerlund, M H Jensen, S W Düring, M Ø Nielsen, B Y Glenthøj, L K Hansen
Deficits in information processing and cognition are among the most robust findings in schizophrenia patients. Previous efforts to translate group-level deficits into clinically relevant and individualized information have, however, been non-successful, which is possibly explained by biologically different disease subgroups. We applied machine learning algorithms on measures of electrophysiology and cognition to identify potential subgroups of schizophrenia. Next, we explored subgroup differences regarding treatment response...
April 11, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375061/novel-biotherapies-are-needed-in-youth-mental-health
#7
G Paul Amminger, Maximus Berger, Simon M Rice, Christopher G Davey, Miriam R Schäfer, Patrick D McGorry
Adverse effects and lack of efficacy in a significant number of patients limit pharmaceutical interventions in youth psychiatry. This is exemplified by the fact that no medication is currently approved for the treatment of non-OCD anxiety disorders or major depressive disorder in young people younger than 18 years of age in Australia. Here, emerging biological therapies for youth with mental health problems are discussed. There is an urgent need for more research into biological interventions with acceptable risk-benefit balances...
April 2017: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373794/evaluation-of-oxidative-stress-in-bipolar-disorder-in-terms-of-total-oxidant-status-total-antioxidant-status-and-oxidative-stress-index
#8
Merve Cingi Yirün, Kübranur Ünal, Neslihan Altunsoy Şen, Onur Yirün, Çiğdem Aydemir, Erol Göka
INTRODUCTION: Bipolar disorder is one of the most debilitating psychiatric disorders characterized by disruptive episodes of mania/hypomania and depression. Considering the complex role of biological and environmental factors in the etiology of affective disorders, recent studies have focused on oxidative stress, which may damage nerve cell components and take part in pathophysiology. The aim of the present study was to contribute to the data about oxidative stress in bipolar disorder by detecting the total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) levels of manic episode (ME) and euthymic (EU) patients and by comparing these results with those of healthy controls (HCs)...
September 2016: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373691/blocking-human-fear-memory-with-the-matrix-metalloproteinase-inhibitor-doxycycline
#9
D R Bach, A Tzovara, J Vunder
Learning to predict threat is a fundamental ability of many biological organisms, and a laboratory model for anxiety disorders. Interfering with such memories in humans would be of high clinical relevance. On the basis of studies in cell cultures and slice preparations, it is hypothesised that synaptic remodelling required for threat learning involves the extracellular enzyme matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9. However, in vivo evidence for this proposal is lacking. Here we investigate human Pavlovian fear conditioning under the blood-brain barrier crossing MMP inhibitor doxycyline in a pre-registered, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial...
April 4, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373686/an-update-on-stem-cell-biology-and-engineering-for-brain-development
#10
C J C Parr, S Yamanaka, H Saito
Two recent technologies, induced-pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and direct somatic reprogramming, have shown enormous potential for cell-based therapies against intractable diseases such as those that affect the central nervous system. Already, methods that generate most major cell types of the human brain exist. Whether the cell types are directly reprogrammed from human somatic cells or differentiated from an iPSC intermediate, the overview presented here demonstrates how these protocols vary greatly in their efficiencies, purity and maturation of the resulting cells...
April 4, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367707/pharmacological-treatment-of-unipolar-depressive-disorders-summary-of-wfsbp-guidelines
#11
Michael Bauer, Emanuel Severus, Hans-Jürgen Möller, Allan H Young
OBJECTIVE: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a severe mood disorder affecting individuals of all ages and is characterised by single or recurrent major depressive episodes. Key elements of acute and maintenance treatment of MDD include pharmacotherapy, and psychological approaches such as psychoeducation and adherence monitoring. METHODS: This summary of the 'Practice guidelines for the biological treatment of unipolar depressive disorders' comprises acute, continuation and maintenance treatment developed by an international Task Force of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP), and focuses on pharmacological treatment options...
April 3, 2017: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365467/the-lipidome-in-major-depressive-disorder-shared-genetic-influence-for-ether-phosphatidylcholines-a-plasma-based-phenotype-related-to-inflammation-and-disease-risk
#12
E E M Knowles, K Huynh, P J Meikle, H H H Göring, R L Olvera, S R Mathias, R Duggirala, L Almasy, J Blangero, J E Curran, D C Glahn
BACKGROUND: The lipidome is rapidly garnering interest in the field of psychiatry. Recent studies have implicated lipidomic changes across numerous psychiatric disorders. In particular, there is growing evidence that the concentrations of several classes of lipids are altered in those diagnosed with MDD. However, for lipidomic abnormalities to be considered potential treatment targets for MDD (rather than secondary manifestations of the disease), a shared etiology between lipid concentrations and MDD should be demonstrated...
February 21, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361166/-the-first-mental-health-act-in-china-2013-an%C3%A2-historical-step-towards-human-rights
#13
X Zhao
In the past, the mentally ill used to be relentlessly stigmatized and their basic needs grossly neglected in China. Only the coastal cities with their Western oriented universities provided Western type mental healthcare. In general, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) embracing medicinal herbs and acupuncture was practiced. Mental hospitals were non-existent before 1889 and care of the chronically mentally ill rested with their families and the community; however, the prevalence and spectrum of mental disorders were similar to those in Western countries...
March 30, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353229/the-utility-of-multiplex-assays-for-identification-of-proteomic-signatures-in-psychiatry
#14
Junfang Chen, Paul C Guest, Emanuel Schwarz
As substantial efforts are being made to identify biological markers of psychiatric illnesses, it is becoming clear that clinically useful accuracy will require larger sets of readouts that potentially span different technological platforms. For discovery of proteomic biomarkers, simultaneous measurement of analytes in small sample quantities has developed into a widely used technology of similar quality as the respective single-plex assays. Multiplex assay systems therefore hold promise for biomarker discovery and development in many complex disease areas including psychiatry...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347522/keep-calm-and-carry-on-mental-disorder-is-not-more-organic-than-any-other-medical-condition
#15
J A Micoulaud-Franchi, C Quiles, M Masson
Psychiatry as a discipline should no longer be grounded in the dualistic opposition between organic and mental disorders. This non-dualistic position refusing the partition along functional versus organic lines is in line with Jean Delay, and with Robert Spitzer who wanted to include in the definition of mental disorder discussed by the DSM-III task force the statement that "mental disorders are a subset of medical disorders". However, it is interesting to note that Spitzer and colleagues ingeniously introduced the definition of "mental disorder" in the DSM-III in the following statement: "there is no satisfactory definition that specifies precise boundaries for the concept "mental disorder" (also true for such concepts as physical disorder and mental and physical health)"...
March 24, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343453/a-trans-diagnostic-perspective-on-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#16
C M Gillan, N A Fineberg, T W Robbins
Progress in understanding the underlying neurobiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has stalled in part because of the considerable problem of heterogeneity within this diagnostic category, and homogeneity across other putatively discrete, diagnostic categories. As psychiatry begins to recognize the shortcomings of a purely symptom-based psychiatric nosology, new data-driven approaches have begun to be utilized with the goal of solving these problems: specifically, identifying trans-diagnostic aspects of clinical phenomenology based on their association with neurobiological processes...
March 27, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328411/a-brief-summary-of-the-articles-appearing-in-this-issue-of-biological-psychiatry
#17
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324134/-between-psyche-and-brain-state-of-the-art-in-psychiatry
#18
T Fuchs
Since its development around 1800 psychiatry has been oscillating between the poles of the sciences and the humanities, being directed towards subjective experience on the one hand and towards the neural substrate on the other hand. Today, this dualism seems to have been overcome by a naturalism, which identifies subjective experience with neural processes, according to Griesinger's frequently quoted statement "mental diseases are brain diseases". The progress achieved by the neurobiological paradigm on the level of a fundamental science is in contrast to the tendency to isolate mental illnesses from the patients' social relationships and to neglect subjectivity and intersubjectivity in their explanation...
March 21, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322278/early-life-adversity-and-telomere-length-a-meta-analysis
#19
K K Ridout, M Levandowski, S J Ridout, L Gantz, K Goonan, D Palermo, L H Price, A R Tyrka
Early adversity, in the form of abuse, neglect, socioeconomic status and other adverse experiences, is associated with poor physical and mental health outcomes. To understand the biologic mechanisms underlying these associations, studies have evaluated the relationship between early adversity and telomere length, a marker of cellular senescence. Such results have varied in regard to the size and significance of this relationship. Using meta-analytic techniques, we aimed to clarify the relationship between early adversity and telomere length while exploring factors affecting the association, including adversity type, timing and study design...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322274/a-rare-missense-variant-in-rcl1-segregates-with-depression-in-extended-families
#20
N Amin, F M S de Vrij, M Baghdadi, R W W Brouwer, J G J van Rooij, O Jovanova, A G Uitterlinden, A Hofman, H L A Janssen, S Darwish Murad, R Kraaij, J Stedehouder, M C G N van den Hout, J M Kros, W F J van IJcken, H Tiemeier, S A Kushner, C M van Duijn
Depression is the most prevalent psychiatric disorder with a complex and elusive etiology that is moderately heritable. Identification of genes would greatly facilitate the elucidation of the biological mechanisms underlying depression, however, its complex etiology has proved to be a major bottleneck in the identification of its genetic risk factors, especially in genome-wide association-like studies. In this study, we exploit the properties of a genetic isolate and its family-based structure to explore whether relatively rare exonic variants influence the burden of depressive symptoms in families...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
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