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Biological Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922606/otto-a-new-strategy-to-extract-mental-disease-relevant-combinations-of-gwas-hits-from-individuals
#1
H Ehrenreich, M Mitjans, S Van der Auwera, T P Centeno, M Begemann, H J Grabe, S Bonn, K-A Nave
Despite high heritability of schizophrenia, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have not yet revealed distinct combinations of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), relevant for mental disease-related, quantifiable behavioral phenotypes. Here we propose an individual-based model to use genome-wide significant markers for extracting first genetic signatures of such behavioral continua. 'OTTO' (old Germanic=heritage) marks an individual characterized by a prominent phenotype and a particular load of phenotype-associated risk SNPs derived from GWAS that likely contributed to the development of his personal mental illness...
December 6, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922604/common-variants-on-2p16-1-6p22-1-and-10q24-32-are-associated-with-schizophrenia-in-han-chinese-population
#2
H Yu, H Yan, J Li, Z Li, X Zhang, Y Ma, L Mei, C Liu, L Cai, Q Wang, F Zhang, N Iwata, M Ikeda, L Wang, T Lu, M Li, H Xu, X Wu, B Liu, J Yang, K Li, L Lv, X Ma, C Wang, L Li, F Yang, T Jiang, Y Shi, T Li, D Zhang, W Yue
Many schizophrenia susceptibility loci have been identified through genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in European populations. However, until recently, schizophrenia GWASs in non-European populations were limited to small sample sizes and have yielded few loci associated with schizophrenia. To identify genetic risk variations for schizophrenia in the Han Chinese population, we performed a two-stage GWAS of schizophrenia comprising 4384 cases and 5770 controls, followed by independent replications of 13 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in an additional 4339 schizophrenia cases and 7043 controls of Han Chinese ancestry...
December 6, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877000/psychiatric-aspects-of-toxoplasmosis-an-indian-perspective
#3
Ajish G Mangot
Toxoplasma gondii is one of the well-studied parasites because of its medical and veterinary importance, and its suitability as a model for cell biology and molecular studies. Latent toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent host was considered benign until recently. The importance of this parasite has been steadily rising in the field of psychiatry and neurology as it has been implicated in numerous neuropsychiatric disorders. Researchers in India have unfortunately restricted themselves to finding the prevalence of toxoplasma antibodies in special populations and animals...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871720/-guidelines-for-the-prescription-of-mood-stabilizers-for-adolescents-a-literature-review
#4
G Munch, N Godart
INTRODUCTION: Adolescence is a unique phase of the human developmental process. In adolescents, psychotropic medications may have different efficacy and tolerance profiles compared to those at other stages of the lifespan. Mood stabilizers are a complex pharmacological category including lithium, some anticonvulsants, and some second generation antipsychotics. Focusing on this class of pharmacological agents, we aim to answer the following questions: in which indications and according to which modalities should mood stabilizers be prescribed during adolescence? METHODS: Information was sought from the websites of the French Haute Autorité de santé (HAS) and Agence nationale de sécurité du médicament et des produits de santé (ANSM), the American Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the British National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE)...
November 18, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867364/an-objective-screening-method-for-major-depressive-disorder-using-logistic-regression-analysis-of-heart-rate-variability-data-obtained-in-a-mental-task-paradigm
#5
Guanghao Sun, Toshikazu Shinba, Tetsuo Kirimoto, Takemi Matsui
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Heart rate variability (HRV) has been intensively studied as a promising biological marker of major depressive disorder (MDD). Our previous study confirmed that autonomic activity and reactivity in depression revealed by HRV during rest and mental task (MT) conditions can be used as diagnostic measures and in clinical evaluation. In this study, logistic regression analysis (LRA) was utilized for the classification and prediction of MDD based on HRV data obtained in an MT paradigm...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857045/long-term-pharmacotherapy-by-methylfenidate-or-atomoxetine-dat-1-10-10-adhd-children-in-correlation-with-results-of-the-imaging-methods
#6
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVES: ADHD is one of the most significant diagnostic units in child and adolescent psychiatry. The occurrence in children is 5-6% and 50-80% continued to adult age. The presence of individual genes (polymorphism) on particular symptoms and processes in ADHD are not known. It is estimated that ADHD symptoms are up to 80% to genetic. The higher density of resultant DAT 1 protein was observed in ADHD patients in comparison with controls. The question was if DAT 1 10/10 predicted bad prognoses in long term therapy...
September 18, 2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856950/the-role-of-epigenetics-in-social-psychiatry
#7
REVIEW
Jacob Peedicayil
BACKGROUND: Epigenetics refers to the study of heritable changes in gene expression not involving changes in DNA sequence and is presently an active area of research in biology and medicine. There is increasing evidence that epigenetics is involved in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders. AIMS AND METHODS: Several studies conducted to date have suggested that psychosocial factors act by modifying epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression in the brain in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders...
November 16, 2016: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810706/how-to-measuring-blood-cytokines-in-biological-psychiatry-using-commercially-available-multiplex-immunoassays
#8
Raoul Belzeaux, Marie-Noëlle Lefebvre, Anne Lazzari, Tifenn Le Carpentier, Julia-Lou Consoloni, Xavier Zendjidjian, Mocrane Abbar, Philippe Courtet, Jean Naudin, José Boucraut, Pierre Gressens, Nicolas Glaichenhaus, El Chérif Ibrahim
Cytokines produced by both immune and non-immune cells are likely to play roles in the development and/or progression of psychiatric disorders. Indeed, many investigators have compared the blood cytokine levels in psychiatric patients with those of healthy controls or monitored their levels in patients during disease progression to identify biomarkers. Nevertheless, very few studies have confirmed that such cytokines remain stable in healthy individuals through periods of weeks and months. This is an important issue to consider before using blood cytokine levels as biomarkers of disease traits, disease state, or treatment response...
January 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807243/paul-wender-a-pioneer-in-adhd-and-biological-psychiatry
#9
Fred Reimherr
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793702/clinical-and-biological-predictors-of-response-to-electroconvulsive-therapy-ect-a-review
#10
REVIEW
Martina Pinna, Mirko Manchia, Rossana Oppo, Filomena Scano, Gianluca Pillai, Anna Paola Loche, Piergiorgio Salis, Gian Paolo Minnai
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), developed in the 30's by Bini and Cerletti, remains a key element of the therapeutic armamentarium in psychiatry, particularly for severe and life-threatening psychiatric symptoms. However, despite its well-established clinical efficacy, the prescription of ECT has declined constantly over the years due to concerns over its safety (cognitive side effects) and an increasingly negative public perception. As for other treatments in the field of psychiatry, ECT is well suited to a personalized approach that would increment its efficacy, as well as reducing the impact of side effects...
October 25, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786179/the-road-to-precision-psychiatry-translating-genetics-into-disease-mechanisms
#11
REVIEW
Michael J Gandal, Virpi Leppa, Hyejung Won, Neelroop N Parikshak, Daniel H Geschwind
Hundreds of genetic loci increasing risk for neuropsychiatric disorders have recently been identified. This success, perhaps paradoxically, has posed challenges for therapeutic development, which are amplified by the highly polygenic and pleiotropic nature of these genetic contributions. Success requires understanding the biological impact of single genetic variants and predicting their effects within an individual. Comprehensive functional genomic annotation of risk loci provides a framework for interpretation of neurobiological impact, requiring experimental validation with in vivo or in vitro model systems...
October 26, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755933/psychoradiology-the-frontier-of-neuroimaging-in-psychiatry
#12
Su Lui, Xiaohong Joe Zhou, John A Sweeney, Qiyong Gong
Unlike neurologic conditions, such as brain tumors, dementia, and stroke, the neural mechanisms for all psychiatric disorders remain unclear. A large body of research obtained with structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography/single photon emission computed tomography, and optical imaging has demonstrated regional and illness-specific brain changes at the onset of psychiatric disorders and in individuals at risk for such disorders. Many studies have shown that psychiatric medications induce specific measurable changes in brain anatomy and function that are related to clinical outcomes...
November 2016: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748696/how-to-move-beyond-the-diagnostic-and-statistical-manual-of-mental-disorders-international-classification-of-diseases
#13
Barbara Schildkrout
A new nosology for mental disorders is needed as a basis for effective scientific inquiry. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and International Classification of Diseases diagnoses are not natural, biological categories, and these diagnostic systems do not address mental phenomena that exist on a spectrum. Advances in neuroscience offer the hope of breakthroughs for diagnosing and treating major mental illness in the future. At present, a neuroscience-based understanding of brain/behavior relationships can reshape clinical thinking...
October 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741957/where-teachers-are-few-documenting-available-faculty-in-five-tanzanian-medical-schools
#14
Charles A Mkony, Ephata E Kaaya, Alex J Goodell, Sarah B Macfarlane
BACKGROUND: Faced with one of the lowest physician-to-population ratios in the world, the Government of Tanzania is urging its medical schools to train more physicians. The annual number of medical students admitted across the country rose from 55 in the 1990s to 1,680 approved places for the 2015/16 academic year. These escalating numbers strain existing faculty. OBJECTIVE: To describe the availability of faculty in medical schools in Tanzania. DESIGN: We identified faculty lists published on the Internet by five Tanzanian medical schools for the 2011/12 academic year and analyzed the appointment status, rank, discipline, and qualifications of faculty members...
2016: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726054/relation-of-psychiatric-symptoms-with-epilepsy-asthma-and-allergy-in-youth-with-asd-vs-psychiatry-referrals
#15
Rebecca J Weber, Kenneth D Gadow
The present study aimed to characterize the association of psychopathology with the clinical correlates of epilepsy, asthma, and allergy within and between neurobehavioral syndromes. Participants were consecutively evaluated youth (6-18 years, 75 % male) with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 589) and non-ASD outpatient psychiatry referrals (n = 653). Informants completed a background questionnaire (parents) and a psychiatric symptom severity rating scale (parents, teachers). Youth with ASD had higher rates of epilepsy and allergy but not asthma than psychiatry referrals, even when analyses were limited to youth with IQ ≥ 70...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725660/interrogating-the-mouse-thalamus-to-correct-human-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#16
L I Schmitt, M M Halassa
While localizing sensory and motor deficits is one of the cornerstones of clinical neurology, behavioral and cognitive deficits in psychiatry remain impervious to this approach. In psychiatry, major challenges include the relative subtlety by which neural circuits are perturbed, and the limited understanding of how basic circuit functions relate to thought and behavior. Neurodevelopmental disorders offer a window to addressing the first challenge given their strong genetic underpinnings, which can be linked to biological mechanisms...
October 11, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725658/prospective-associations-of-depression-subtypes-with-cardio-metabolic-risk-factors-in-the-general-population
#17
A M Lasserre, M-P F Strippoli, J Glaus, M Gholam-Rezaee, C L Vandeleur, E Castelao, P Marques-Vidal, G Waeber, P Vollenweider, M Preisig
The mechanisms and temporal sequence underlying the association between major depressive disorder (MDD) and cardio-metabolic diseases are still poorly understood. Recent research suggests subtyping depression to study the mechanisms underlying its association with biological correlates. Accordingly, our aims were to (1) assess the prospective associations of the atypical, melancholic and unspecified subtypes of MDD with changes of fasting glucose, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure and the incidence of the metabolic syndrome, (2) determine the potential mediating role of inflammatory marker or adipokine concentrations, eating behaviors and changes in waist circumference during follow-up...
October 11, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698624/integrative-therapies-in-anxiety-treatment-with-special-emphasis-on-the-gut-microbiome
#18
Stephanie L Schnorr, Harriet A Bachner
Over the past decade, research has shown that diet and gut health affects symptoms expressed in stress related disorders, depression, and anxiety through changes in the gut microbiota. Psycho-behavioral function and somatic health interaction have often been ignored in health care with resulting deficits in treatment quality and outcomes. While mental health care requires the professional training in counseling, psychotherapy and psychiatry, complimentary therapeutic strategies, such as attention to a nutritional and diverse diet and supplementation of probiotic foods, may be integrated alongside psychotherapy treatment models...
September 2016: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27661409/diagnosis-and-causal-explanation-in-psychiatry
#19
Hane Htut Maung
In clinical medicine, a diagnosis can offer an explanation of a patient's symptoms by specifying the pathology that is causing them. Diagnoses in psychiatry are also sometimes presented in clinical texts as if they pick out pathological processes that cause sets of symptoms. However, current evidence suggests the possibility that many diagnostic categories in psychiatry are highly causally heterogeneous. For example, major depressive disorder may not be associated with a single type of underlying pathological process, but with a range of different causal pathways, each involving complex interactions of various biological, psychological, and social factors...
December 2016: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647604/personal-suffering-and-social-criticism-in-t-s-eliot-s-the-waste-land-and-a-ginsberg-s-howl-implications-for-social-psychiatry
#20
Moritz E Wigand, Hauke F Wiegand, Nicolas Rüsch, Thomas Becker
BACKGROUND: T. S. Eliot's The Waste Land and A. Ginsberg's Howl are two landmark poems of the 20th century which have a unique way of dealing with emotional suffering. AIMS: (a) To explore the interplay between emotional suffering, conflicting relationships and societal perceptions; (b) to show the therapeutic effect of the writing process; (c) to analyse the portrayal of 'madness'; and (d) to discuss, in contemporary psychiatric terms, the 'solutions' offered by the poets...
September 19, 2016: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
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