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Biological Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649926/social-versus-biological-psychiatry-it-s-time-for-integration
#1
Corrado De Rosa, Gaia Sampogna, Mario Luciano, Valeria Del Vecchio, Michele Fabrazzo, Andrea Fiorillo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2018: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629061/depression-from-the-perspective-of-modern-and-persian-medicine
#2
Majid Anushiravani, Ali Akhondpour Manteghi, Ali Taghipur, Mahdi Eslami
Background: Depression is one of the five most-common diseases globally, and is expected to be the second leading cause of disability by 2020 and its economic and social burden is a major problem worldwide. Objective: The aim of this research was to elucidate the causes and symptoms of depression according to Persian Medicine (PM) and classic medicine. Methods: In this study, works that were investigated were the Canon of Medicine , Al-Hawi Fi Teb , Kamel Al-Sina'a , Zakhireh Kharazmshahi and Exir A'azam ...
February 2018: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614391/grey-matter-or-social-matters-causal-attributions-in-the-era-of-biological-psychiatry
#3
EDITORIAL
Peter Brugger, Ira Kurthen, Neda Rashidi-Ranjbar, Bigna Lenggenhager
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 31, 2018: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604314/zebrafish-models-relevant-to-studying-central-opioid-and-endocannabinoid-systems
#4
REVIEW
Konstantin A Demin, Darya A Meshalkina, Elana V Kysil, Kristina A Antonova, Andrey D Volgin, Oleg A Yakovlev, Polina A Alekseeva, Maria M Firuleva, Anton M Lakstygal, Murilo S de Abreu, Leonardo J G Barcellos, Wandong Bao, Ashton J Friend, Tamara G Amstislavskaya, Denis B Rosemberg, Pavel E Musienko, Cai Song, Allan V Kalueff
The endocannabinoid and opioid systems are two interplaying neurotransmitter systems that modulate drug abuse, anxiety, pain, cognition, neurogenesis and immune activity. Although they are involved in such critical functions, our understanding of endocannabinoid and opioid physiology remains limited, necessitating further studies, novel models and new model organisms. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is rapidly emerging as one of the most effective translational models in neuroscience and biological psychiatry. Due to their high physiological and genetic homology to humans, zebrafish may be effectively used to study the endocannabinoid and opioid systems...
March 28, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593585/functional-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-the-new-mrs-for-cognitive-neuroscience-and-psychiatry-research
#5
REVIEW
Jeffrey A Stanley, Naftali Raz
Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H MRS) is a well-established technique for quantifying the brain regional biochemistry in vivo . In most studies, however, the1 H MRS is acquired during rest with little to no constraint on behavior. Measured metabolite levels, therefore, reflect steady-state concentrations whose associations with behavior and cognition are unclear. With the recent advances in MR technology-higher-field MR systems, robust acquisition techniques and sophisticated quantification methods-1 H MRS is now experiencing a resurgence...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574735/commentary-whither-the-epigenetics-of-child-psychopathology-some-reflections-provoked-by-barker-et-al-2018
#6
Edmund J S Sonuga-Barke, Pasco Fearon
Barker et al.'s. () review addresses one of the most fundamental questions in the fields of child psychology and psychiatry - How can adverse experiences shape development to a sufficient degree and in profound and enduring ways to create long term risk for later mental disorder and disability? In particular they discuss the plausibility of differential methylation as an epigenetic mechanism by which such exposures can become neuro-biologically embedded. Our commentary rises six question relating to key issues that need to be addressed as we search for definitive evidence from human studies that such mechanisms actually do make an important causal contribution to abnormal trajectories of development to disorder...
April 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571586/personalized-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-in-psychiatry
#7
REVIEW
Luca Cocchi, Andrew Zalesky
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique that allows for modulating the activity of local neural populations and related neural networks. TMS is touted as a viable intervention to normalize brain activity and alleviate some psychiatric symptoms. However, TMS interventions are known to be only moderately reliable, and the efficacy of such therapies remains to be proven for psychiatric disorders other than depression. We review new opportunities to personalize TMS interventions using neuroimaging and computational modeling, aiming to optimize treatment to suit particular individuals and clinical subgroups...
March 20, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560922/a-brief-summary-of-the-articles-appearing-in-this-issue-of-biological-psychiatry-cognitive-neuroscience-and-neuroimaging
#8
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560916/on-the-hierarchical-organization-of-psychopathology-and-optimizing-symptom-assessments-for-biological-psychiatry
#9
Robert M Bilder
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528294/clinical-applications-of-stochastic-dynamic-models-of-the-brain-part-ii-a-review
#10
REVIEW
James A Roberts, Karl J Friston, Michael Breakspear
Brain activity derives from intrinsic dynamics (due to neurophysiology and anatomical connectivity) in concert with stochastic effects that arise from sensory fluctuations, brainstem discharges, and random microscopic states such as thermal noise. The dynamic evolution of systems composed of both dynamic and random fluctuations can be studied with stochastic dynamic models (SDMs). This article, Part II of a two-part series, reviews applications of SDMs to large-scale neural systems in health and disease. Stochastic models have already elucidated a number of pathophysiological phenomena, such as epilepsy and hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, although their use in biological psychiatry remains rather nascent...
April 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528293/clinical-applications-of-stochastic-dynamic-models-of-the-brain-part-i-a-primer
#11
REVIEW
James A Roberts, Karl J Friston, Michael Breakspear
Biological phenomena arise through interactions between an organism's intrinsic dynamics and stochastic forces-random fluctuations due to external inputs, thermal energy, or other exogenous influences. Dynamic processes in the brain derive from neurophysiology and anatomical connectivity; stochastic effects arise through sensory fluctuations, brainstem discharges, and random microscopic states such as thermal noise. The dynamic evolution of systems composed of both dynamic and random effects can be studied with stochastic dynamic models (SDMs)...
April 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528288/a-brief-summary-of-the-articles-appearing-in-this-issue-of-biological-psychiatry-cognitive-neuroscience-and-neuroimaging
#12
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521409/-personalised-psychiatry-no-substitute-for-personal-care
#13
J van Os
Personalised psychiatry is the promise that biological stratification and analysis of 'big' data will enable clinical prediction.<br/> AIM: To analyse promises and problems regarding personalised medicine in the psychiatry.<br/> METHOD: Analysis of current challenges.<br/> RESULTS: Essential challenges are: 1. Biological psychiatry yields weak findings and clinically negligible diagnostic likelihood ratios. 2. The impact of biological stratification in medicine is relatively small yet may result in explosive health care costs...
2018: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521408/-transdiagnostic-psychiatry-work-in-progress
#14
T A M J van Amelsvoort, M C Klaassen, O A van den Heuvel
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing awareness that the current approach to clinical thought and work in psychiatry in relation to psychiatric diagnosis, treatment and research has its limitations. This necessitates a process to reform both the clinical practice and future scientific research. One way to reform this is the transdiagnostic approach. AIM: To clarify the psychological, biological and therapeutic aspects of a transdiagnostic approach in psychiatry. METHOD: An analysis of new approaches based on recent findings from the recent literature...
2018: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521406/-personalised-medicine-in-forensic-psychiatry-an-example-for-other-domains-of-psychiatry
#15
K R Goethals
Personalised medicine promises to provide us with a diagnostic predictive system of stratification that is based on a wide variety of tests; these can include biological, cognitive, demographic, psychopathological tests and other clearly defined tests. The purpose of forensic psychiatry is not only to take care of and treat mentally impaired patients but also to engage in risk assessment and risk management.<br/> AIM: To explain risk assessment in forensic psychiatry as a nomothetic approach to personalised medicine, and also to demonstrate the link with offence paralleling behaviour, which is an illustration of the ideographic approach...
2018: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521401/-psychiatric-diagnosis-personalised-by-definition
#16
M W Hengeveld, A T F Beekman
BACKGROUND: Personalised psychiatry requires a psychiatric diagnosis which aims to determine the causes of the mental disorder and the context within which it has developed, including the factors of most importance for the choice of an appropriate treatment. AIM: To show that psychiatric diagnosis is personalised by definition. METHOD: Description of the differences between psychiatric classification and psychiatric diagnosis, including a discussion of symptom network diagnosis and diagnosis of meaningful connections...
2018: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516086/notice-of-retraction-and-replacement-karalunas-et-al-subtyping-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-using-temperament-dimensions-toward-biologically-based-nosologic-criteria-jama-psychiatry-2014-71-9-1015-1024
#17
Sarah L Karalunas, Damien Fair, Erica D Musser, Kamari Aykes, Swathi P Iyer, Joel T Nigg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 7, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499963/damage-to-the-left-uncinate-fasciculus-is-associated-with-heightened-schizotypal-traits-a-multimodal-lesion-mapping-study
#18
Anne-Laure Lemaitre, Gilles Lafargue, Hugues Duffau, Guillaume Herbet
A growing body of evidence suggests that individuals with pronounced schizotypal traits also display particular neurophysiological and morphological features - notably with regard to left frontotemporal connectivity. However, the studies published to date have focused on subclinical subjects and psychiatric patients, rather than brain-damaged patients. Here, we used the French version of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire to assess schizotypal traits in a sample of 97 patients having undergone surgical resection of a diffuse low-grade glioma...
February 27, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496143/considerations-for-optimal-use-of-postmortem-human-brains-for-molecular-psychiatry-lessons-from-schizophrenia
#19
Cynthia Shannon Weickert, Debora A Rothmond, Tertia D Purves-Tyson
Schizophrenia is a disabling disease impacting millions of people around the world, for which there is no known cure. Current antipsychotic treatments for schizophrenia mainly target psychotic symptoms, do little to ameliorate social or cognitive deficits, have side-effects that cause weight gain, and diabetes and 30% of people do not respond. Thus, better therapeutics for schizophrenia aimed at the route biologic changes are needed and discovering the underlying neurobiology is key to this quest. Postmortem brain studies provide the most direct and detailed way to determine the pathophysiology of schizophrenia...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488895/-the-concept-of-urban-resilience-and-its-relation-to-resilience-in-mental-health-prospects-for-research-in-schizophrenia
#20
N G Christodoulou, M L Wassenhoven, S T Rassia
The relationship between schizophrenia and the city is well known and widely documented in the literature, albeit with many questions still unanswered. While it is clear that there is a higher incidence of schizophrenia in cities, there is little known on causality - or its direction - in that relationship. Also, despite the fact that several clinical and epidemiological parameters play a role in the relationship between schizophrenia and the city, this relationship has not been investigated or interpreted holistically...
October 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
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