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Biological Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328411/a-brief-summary-of-the-articles-appearing-in-this-issue-of-biological-psychiatry
#1
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March 1, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324134/-between-psyche-and-brain-state-of-the-art-in-psychiatry
#2
T Fuchs
Since its development around 1800 psychiatry has been oscillating between the poles of the sciences and the humanities, being directed towards subjective experience on the one hand and towards the neural substrate on the other hand. Today, this dualism seems to have been overcome by a naturalism, which identifies subjective experience with neural processes, according to Griesinger's frequently quoted statement "mental diseases are brain diseases". The progress achieved by the neurobiological paradigm on the level of a fundamental science is in contrast to the tendency to isolate mental illnesses from the patients' social relationships and to neglect subjectivity and intersubjectivity in their explanation...
March 21, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322278/early-life-adversity-and-telomere-length-a-meta-analysis
#3
K K Ridout, M Levandowski, S J Ridout, L Gantz, K Goonan, D Palermo, L H Price, A R Tyrka
Early adversity, in the form of abuse, neglect, socioeconomic status and other adverse experiences, is associated with poor physical and mental health outcomes. To understand the biologic mechanisms underlying these associations, studies have evaluated the relationship between early adversity and telomere length, a marker of cellular senescence. Such results have varied in regard to the size and significance of this relationship. Using meta-analytic techniques, we aimed to clarify the relationship between early adversity and telomere length while exploring factors affecting the association, including adversity type, timing and study design...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322274/a-rare-missense-variant-in-rcl1-segregates-with-depression-in-extended-families
#4
N Amin, F M S de Vrij, M Baghdadi, R W W Brouwer, J G J van Rooij, O Jovanova, A G Uitterlinden, A Hofman, H L A Janssen, S Darwish Murad, R Kraaij, J Stedehouder, M C G N van den Hout, J M Kros, W F J van IJcken, H Tiemeier, S A Kushner, C M van Duijn
Depression is the most prevalent psychiatric disorder with a complex and elusive etiology that is moderately heritable. Identification of genes would greatly facilitate the elucidation of the biological mechanisms underlying depression, however, its complex etiology has proved to be a major bottleneck in the identification of its genetic risk factors, especially in genome-wide association-like studies. In this study, we exploit the properties of a genetic isolate and its family-based structure to explore whether relatively rare exonic variants influence the burden of depressive symptoms in families...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289284/the-schizophrenia-risk-gene-znf804a-clinical-associations-biological-mechanisms-and-neuronal-functions
#5
REVIEW
H Chang, X Xiao, M Li
ZNF804A (zinc-finger protein 804A) has been recognized as a schizophrenia risk gene across multiple world populations. Its intronic single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1344706 is among one of the strongest susceptibility variants that have achieved genome-wide significance in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for schizophrenia and has been widely and intensively studied. To elucidate the biological mechanisms underlying the genetic risk conferred by rs1344706, we retrospectively analyzed the progresses in brain gene expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analyses, ZNF804A-induced pathway alterations in neural cells and changes in synaptic phenotypes associated with ZNF804A expression...
March 14, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289276/david-skae-and-his-nineteenth-century-etiologic-psychiatric-diagnostic-system-looking-forward-by-looking-back
#6
K S Kendler
The Kraepelinian syndromal approach to diagnosis taken by DSM-III and its successors, which defines disorders by their clinical phenomenon, has come under rising criticism with increasing calls for an etiologically based nosology. The relative virtues of a syndromal versus etiologic psychiatric nosology have actually been debated within our field for a long time. To deepen and historically contextualize our current discussion, I review in detail the proposal for etiologic diagnostic systems for insanity by David Skae (1814-1873)...
March 14, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286989/a-precision-medicine-initiative-for-alzheimer-s-disease-the-road-ahead-to-biomarker-guided-integrative-disease-modeling
#7
REVIEW
H Hampel, S E O'Bryant, S Durrleman, E Younesi, K Rojkova, V Escott-Price, J-C Corvol, K Broich, B Dubois, S Lista
After intense scientific exploration and more than a decade of failed trials, Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains a fatal global epidemic. A traditional research and drug development paradigm continues to target heterogeneous late-stage clinically phenotyped patients with single 'magic bullet' drugs. Here, we propose that it is time for a paradigm shift towards the implementation of precision medicine (PM) for enhanced risk screening, detection, treatment, and prevention of AD. The overarching structure of how PM for AD can be achieved will be provided through the convergence of breakthrough technological advances, including big data science, systems biology, genomic sequencing, blood-based biomarkers, integrated disease modeling and P4 medicine...
April 2017: Climacteric: the Journal of the International Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242200/nutritional-psychiatry-where-to-next
#8
REVIEW
Felice N Jacka
The nascent field of 'Nutritional Psychiatry' offers much promise for addressing the large disease burden associated with mental disorders. A consistent evidence base from the observational literature confirms that the quality of individuals' diets is related to their risk for common mental disorders, such as depression. This is the case across countries and age groups. Moreover, new intervention studies implementing dietary changes suggest promise for the prevention and treatment of depression. Concurrently, data point to the utility of selected nutraceuticals as adjunctive treatments for mental disorders and as monotherapies for conditions such as ADHD...
February 21, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236993/-what-role-for-paraclinical-investigations-within-clinical-trials-conducted-in-psychiatric-patients
#9
A Kaladjian, M Adida, N Simon, R Belzeaux, O Blin, E Fakra, J-M Azorin
As in the usual care of patients, paraclinical investigations have today only a very modest role in clinical trials in psychiatry, mainly to complete the pre-therapeutical assessments prior to inclusion of subjects or to monitor treatment tolerance. Yet, the accumulation of data in neurosciences suggests the next emergence of biomarkers, whose interest is that they are closely associated to the biological disturbances underlying psychiatric illnesses, and that they are accessible by means of technological tools such as imaging devices...
December 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236988/-what-can-we-expect-from-clinical-trials-in-psychiatry
#10
A Marsot, Q Boucherie, F Kheloufi, C Riff, D Braunstein, J Dupouey, R Guilhaumou, X Zendjidjian, S Bonin-Guillaume, E Fakra, M Guye, V Jirsa, J-M Azorin, R Belzeaux, M Adida, J Micallef, O Blin
Clinical trials in psychiatry allow to build the regulatory dossiers for market authorization but also to document the mechanism of action of new drugs, to build pharmacodynamics models, evaluate the treatment effects, propose prognosis, efficacy or tolerability biomarkers and altogether to assess the impact of drugs for patient, caregiver and society. However, clinical trials have shown some limitations. Number of recent dossiers failed to convince the regulators. The clinical and biological heterogeneity of psychiatric disorders, the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics properties of the compounds, the lack of translatable biomarkers possibly explain these difficulties...
December 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218249/complexity-variability-assessment-of-nonlinear-time-varying-cardiovascular-control
#11
Gaetano Valenza, Luca Citi, Ronald G Garcia, Jessica Noggle Taylor, Nicola Toschi, Riccardo Barbieri
The application of complex systems theory to physiology and medicine has provided meaningful information about the nonlinear aspects underlying the dynamics of a wide range of biological processes and their disease-related aberrations. However, no studies have investigated whether meaningful information can be extracted by quantifying second-order moments of time-varying cardiovascular complexity. To this extent, we introduce a novel mathematical framework termed complexity variability, in which the variance of instantaneous Lyapunov spectra estimated over time serves as a reference quantifier...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188505/undergraduate-neuroscience-majors-a-missed-opportunity-for-psychiatry-workforce-development
#12
Matthew N Goldenberg, John H Krystal
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to determine whether and to what extent medical students with an undergraduate college major in neuroscience, relative to other college majors, pursue psychiatry relative to other brain-based specialties (neurology and neurosurgery) and internal medicine. METHODS: The authors analyzed data from AAMC matriculation and graduation surveys for all students who graduated from US medical schools in 2013 and 2014 (n = 29,714). Students who majored in neuroscience, psychology, and biology were compared to all other students in terms of their specialty choice at both time points...
February 10, 2017: Academic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184309/plans-hopes-and-ideas-for-mental-health
#13
EDITORIAL
John R Ashton
Mental health and the failings of the mental health services are in the spotlight as never before. Nowhere is this more apparent than in the often dire situation with regard to child and adolescent mental health. At the same time, there is a renewed interest in the scope for prevention of mental illness and distress, and in population approaches to mental well-being. It may come as a surprise to some that others have given such serious consideration to strategic approaches to public mental health as long ago as the 1950s...
February 2017: BJPsych Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162776/the-future-of-psychiatry-brain-devices
#14
Jorge Alberto Costa E Silva, Ricardo Ewbank Steffen
Recent advances in deep brain stimulators and brain-machine interfaces have greatly expanded the possibilities of neuroprosthetics and neuromodulation. Together with advances in neuroengineering, nanotechnology, molecular biology and material sciences, it is now possible to address fundamental questions in neuroscience in new, more powerful ways. It is now possible to apply these new technologies in ways that range from augmenting and restoring function to neuromodulation modalities that treat neuropsychiatric disorders...
April 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158281/is-investigator-background-related-to-outcome-in-head-to-head-trials-of-psychotherapy-and-pharmacotherapy-for-adult-depression-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Ioana A Cristea, Claudio Gentili, Pietro Pietrini, Pim Cuijpers
BACKGROUND: The influence of factors related to the background of investigators conducting trials comparing psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy has remained largely unstudied. Specializations emphasizing biological determinants of mental disorders, like psychiatry, might favor pharmacotherapy, while others stressing psychosocial factors, like psychology, could promote psychotherapy. Yet financial conflict of interest (COI) could be a confounding factor as authors with a medical specialization might receive more sponsoring from the pharmaceutical industry...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138115/mania-in-wolfram-s-disease-from-bedside-to-bench
#16
Seshadri Sekhar Chatterjee, Sayantanava Mitra, Salil Kumar Pal
Wolfram syndrome is a relatively unexplored entity in clinical psychiatry. Historically, the discovery of a specific WFS1 gene had generated huge fanfare regarding specific genetic causations of psychiatric disorders. While the initial enthusiasm has faded now, association of Wolfram syndrome with psychiatric illnesses like schizophrenia, psychosis and suicidal behavior still remain important for understanding biological underpinnings of such disorders. We report a case of Wolfram syndrome presenting with multiple manic episodes, discuss possible genetic underpinnings for the affective symptoms and then discuss certain issues regarding management...
February 28, 2017: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131433/the-effect-of-mindfulness-meditation-training-on-biological-acute-stress-responses-in-generalized-anxiety-disorder
#17
Elizabeth A Hoge, Eric Bui, Sophie A Palitz, Noah R Schwarz, Maryann E Owens, Jennifer M Johnston, Mark H Pollack, Naomi M Simon
Mindfulness-Based interventions have increased in popularity in psychiatry, but the impact of these treatments on disorder-relevant biomarkers would greatly enhance efficacy and mechanistic evidence. If Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is successfully treated, relevant biomarkers should change, supporting the impact of treatment and suggesting improved resilience to stress. Seventy adults with GAD were randomized to receive either Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) or an attention control class; before and after, they underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST)...
January 25, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127931/public-attitudes-towards-psychiatry-and-psychiatric-treatment-at-the-beginning-of-the-21st-century-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-population-surveys
#18
Matthias C Angermeyer, Sandra van der Auwera, Mauro G Carta, Georg Schomerus
Public attitudes towards psychiatry are crucial determinants of help-seeking for mental illness. It has been argued that psychiatry as a discipline enjoys low esteem among the public, and a "crisis" of psychiatry has been noted. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of population studies examining public attitudes towards various aspects of psychiatric care. Our search in PubMed, Web of Science, PsychINFO and bibliographies yielded 162 papers based on population surveys conducted since 2000 and published no later than 2015...
February 2017: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127906/a-network-theory-of-mental-disorders
#19
Denny Borsboom
In recent years, the network approach to psychopathology has been advanced as an alternative way of conceptualizing mental disorders. In this approach, mental disorders arise from direct interactions between symptoms. Although the network approach has led to many novel methodologies and substantive applications, it has not yet been fully articulated as a scientific theory of mental disorders. The present paper aims to develop such a theory, by postulating a limited set of theoretical principles regarding the structure and dynamics of symptom networks...
February 2017: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121394/symptoms-of-major-depression-their-stability-familiality-and-prediction-by-genetic-temperamental-and-childhood-environmental-risk-factors
#20
Kenneth S Kendler, Steven H Aggen
BACKGROUND: Psychiatry has long sought to develop biological diagnostic subtypes based on symptomatic differences. This effort assumes that symptoms reflect, with good fidelity, underlying etiological processes. We address this question for major depression (MD). METHODS: We examine, in twins from a population-based registry, similarity in symptom endorsement in individuals meeting criteria for last-year MD at separate interview waves and in concordant twin pairs...
January 25, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
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