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Biological Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038767/evaluation-of-plasma-cytokines-in-patients-with-cocaine-use-disorders-in-abstinence-identifies-transforming-growth-factor-alpha-tgf%C3%AE-as-a-potential-biomarker-of-consumption-and-dual-diagnosis
#1
Rosa Maza-Quiroga, Nuria García-Marchena, Pablo Romero-Sanchiz, Vicente Barrios, María Pedraz, Antonia Serrano, Raquel Nogueira-Arjona, Juan Jesus Ruiz, Maribel Soria, Rafael Campos, Julie Ann Chowen, Jesus Argente, Marta Torrens, Meritxell López-Gallardo, Eva María Marco, Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca, Francisco Javier Pavón, Pedro Araos
BACKGROUND: Cocaine use disorder (CUD) is a complex health condition, especially when it is accompanied by comorbid psychiatric disorders (dual diagnosis). Dual diagnosis is associated with difficulties in the stratification and treatment of patients. One of the major challenges in clinical practice of addiction psychiatry is the lack of objective biological markers that indicate the degree of consumption, severity of addiction, level of toxicity and response to treatment in patients with CUD...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031921/disconnectionism-in-biological-psychiatry
#2
Aaron F Alexander-Bloch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021832/pharmacogenomics-in-the-treatment-of-mood-disorders-strategies-and-opportunities-for-personalized-psychiatry
#3
REVIEW
Azmeraw T Amare, Klaus Oliver Schubert, Bernhard T Baune
Personalized medicine (personalized psychiatry in a specific setting) is a new model towards individualized care, in which knowledge from genomics and other omic pillars (microbiome, epigenomes, proteome, and metabolome) will be combined with clinical data to guide efforts to new drug development and targeted prescription of the existing treatment options. In this review, we summarize pharmacogenomic studies in mood disorders that may lay the foundation towards personalized psychiatry. In addition, we have discussed the possible strategies to integrate data from omic pillars as a future path to personalized psychiatry...
September 2017: EPMA Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991256/genome-wide-association-analysis-identifies-30-new-susceptibility-loci-for-schizophrenia
#4
Zhiqiang Li, Jianhua Chen, Hao Yu, Lin He, Yifeng Xu, Dai Zhang, Qizhong Yi, Changgui Li, Xingwang Li, Jiawei Shen, Zhijian Song, Weidong Ji, Meng Wang, Juan Zhou, Boyu Chen, Yahui Liu, Jiqiang Wang, Peng Wang, Ping Yang, Qingzhong Wang, Guoyin Feng, Benxiu Liu, Wensheng Sun, Baojie Li, Guang He, Weidong Li, Chunling Wan, Qi Xu, Wenjin Li, Zujia Wen, Ke Liu, Fang Huang, Jue Ji, Stephan Ripke, Weihua Yue, Patrick F Sullivan, Michael C O'Donovan, Yongyong Shi
We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) with replication in 36,180 Chinese individuals and performed further transancestry meta-analyses with data from the Psychiatry Genomics Consortium (PGC2). Approximately 95% of the genome-wide significant (GWS) index alleles (or their proxies) from the PGC2 study were overrepresented in Chinese schizophrenia cases, including ∼50% that achieved nominal significance and ∼75% that continued to be GWS in the transancestry analysis. The Chinese-only analysis identified seven GWS loci; three of these also were GWS in the transancestry analyses, which identified 109 GWS loci, thus yielding a total of 113 GWS loci (30 novel) in at least one of these analyses...
October 9, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986182/on-the-transdiagnostic-nature-of-peripheral-biomarkers-in-major-psychiatric-disorders-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Jairo Vinícius Pinto, Thiago C Moulin, Olavo B Amaral
The search for biomarkers has been a leading endeavor in biological psychiatry. To analyze its evolution over the years, we performed a systematic review to evaluate (a) the most studied peripheral molecular markers in major psychiatric disorders, (b) the main features of studies proposing them as biomarkers and (c) whether their patterns of variation are similar across disorders. Of the six molecules most commonly studied as plasmatic markers of schizophrenia, major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder, five (BDNF, TNF-alpha, IL-6, C-reactive protein and cortisol) were the same across diagnoses...
October 3, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977440/advancing-psychiatric-genetics-through-dissecting-heterogeneity
#6
Karen Hodgson, Peter McGuffin, Cathryn M Lewis
There has been substantial progress in psychiatric genetics in recent years, through collaborative efforts to build large samples sizes for case/control analyses for a number of psychiatric disorders. The identification of replicated trait-associated genomic loci represents a large stride forward in a field where little is known about the biological processes involved in disorder. As researchers build on this early foundation, they are beginning to advance the field towards more fine-grained approaches that interrogate the many sources of heterogeneity within psychiatric genetics that can obscure the identification of genotypic influences on disorder...
October 1, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969442/psychiatric-genomics-an-update-and-an-agenda
#7
Patrick F Sullivan, Arpana Agrawal, Cynthia M Bulik, Ole A Andreassen, Anders D Børglum, Gerome Breen, Sven Cichon, Howard J Edenberg, Stephen V Faraone, Joel Gelernter, Carol A Mathews, Caroline M Nievergelt, Jordan W Smoller, Michael C O'Donovan
The Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) is the largest consortium in the history of psychiatry. This global effort is dedicated to rapid progress and open science, and in the past decade it has delivered an increasing flow of new knowledge about the fundamental basis of common psychiatric disorders. The PGC has recently commenced a program of research designed to deliver "actionable" findings-genomic results that 1) reveal fundamental biology, 2) inform clinical practice, and 3) deliver new therapeutic targets...
October 3, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963561/drug-enrichment-and-discovery-from-schizophrenia-genome-wide-association-results-an-analysis-and-visualisation-approach
#8
H A Gaspar, G Breen
Using successful genome-wide association results in psychiatry for drug repurposing is an ongoing challenge. Databases collecting drug targets and gene annotations are growing and can be harnessed to shed a new light on psychiatric disorders. We used genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary statistics from the Psychiatric Genetics Consortium (PGC) Schizophrenia working group to build a drug repositioning model for schizophrenia. As sample size increases, schizophrenia GWAS results show increasing enrichment for known antipsychotic drugs, selective calcium channel blockers, and antiepileptics...
September 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958978/the-impact-of-translational-neuroscience-on-revisiting-psychiatric-diagnosis-state-of-the-art-and-conceptual-analysis
#9
Massimiliano Aragona
This paper reviews translational research in psychiatry, focusing on those programs addressing the problem of the validity of psychiatric diagnoses. In medicine in general, and in psychiatry in particular, the term "translational" is used with different meanings. A conceptual analysis suggests that in psychiatry there are at least seven different types of translational research: T1 ("bench-to-bedside" development of tools and treatments), T2 (application of animal models to human psychiatry), T3 (papers focusing on the mind-brain gap, studying biological, neurobiological and cognitive dysfunctions), T4 (personalized therapies and prediction of treatment responses), T5 ("bedside-to-bench" translation of population data for laboratories), T6 (implementation of treatments at population level, including accessibility and quality of services), T7 (improving translational knowledge in residents" trainings and researchers" careers)...
September 29, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948971/purinergic-system-in-psychiatric-diseases
#10
REVIEW
A Cheffer, A R G Castillo, J Corrêa-Velloso, M C B Gonçalves, Y Naaldijk, I C Nascimento, G Burnstock, H Ulrich
Psychiatric disorders are debilitating diseases, affecting >80 million people worldwide. There are no causal cures for psychiatric disorders and available therapies only treat the symptoms. The etiology of psychiatric disorders is unknown, although it has been speculated to be a combination of environmental, stress and genetic factors. One of the neurotransmitter systems implicated in the biology of psychiatric disorders is the purinergic system. In this review, we performed a comprehensive search of the literature about the role and function of the purinergic system in the development and predisposition to psychiatric disorders, with a focus on depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, autism, anxiety and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder...
September 26, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942748/nutritional-psychiatry-the-present-state-of-the-evidence
#11
Wolfgang Marx, Genevieve Moseley, Michael Berk, Felice Jacka
Mental illness, including depression, anxiety and bipolar disorder, accounts for a significant proportion of global disability and poses a substantial social, economic and heath burden. Treatment is presently dominated by pharmacotherapy, such as antidepressants, and psychotherapy, such as cognitive behavioural therapy; however, such treatments avert less than half of the disease burden, suggesting that additional strategies are needed to prevent and treat mental disorders. There are now consistent mechanistic, observational and interventional data to suggest diet quality may be a modifiable risk factor for mental illness...
September 25, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942195/short-overview-on-metabolomic-approach-and-redox-changes-in-psychiatric-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Gordana Nedic Erjavec, Marcela Konjevod, Matea Nikolac Perkovic, Dubravka Svob Strac, Lucija Tudor, Coral Barbas, Tilman Grune, Neven Zarkovic, Nela Pivac
Schizophrenia, depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are severe mental disorders and complicated diagnostic entities, due to their phenotypic, biological and genetic heterogeneity, unknown etiology, and poorly understood alterations in biological pathways and biological mechanisms. Disturbed homeostasis between overproduction of oxidant species, overcoming redox regulation and a lack of cellular antioxidant defenses, resulting in free radical-mediated pathology and subsequent neurotoxicity contributes to development of depression, schizophrenia and PTSD, their heterogeneous clinical presentation and resistance to treatment...
September 6, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941093/staging-in-bipolar-disorder-from-theoretical-framework-to-clinical-utility
#13
Michael Berk, Robert Post, Aswin Ratheesh, Emma Gliddon, Ajeet Singh, Eduard Vieta, Andre F Carvalho, Melanie M Ashton, Lesley Berk, Susan M Cotton, Patrick D McGorry, Brisa S Fernandes, Lakshmi N Yatham, Seetal Dodd
Illness staging is widely utilized in several medical disciplines to help predict course or prognosis, and optimize treatment. Staging models in psychiatry in general, and bipolar disorder in particular, depend on the premise that psychopathology moves along a predictable path: an at-risk or latency stage, a prodrome progressing to a first clinical threshold episode, and one or more recurrences with the potential to revert or progress to late or end-stage manifestations. The utility and validity of a staging model for bipolar disorder depend on its linking to clinical outcome, treatment response and neurobiological measures...
October 2017: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934028/toward-neuroproteomics-in-biological-psychiatry-a-systems-approach-unravels-okadaic-acid-induced-alterations-in-the-neuronal-phosphoproteome
#14
Joana Machado Oliveira, Cristóvão B da Cruz E Silva, Thorsten Müller, Tânia Soares Martins, Marta Cova, Odete A B da Cruz E Silva, Ana Gabriela Henriques
Neuroproteomics is an evolving field of postgenomic medicine, highlighting the convergence of psychiatry/neurology and proteomics, yet compared with neurogenetics, it has received little attention. This study in rat primary neuronal cultures provides an example of a neuroproteomic approach relevant to the study of psychiatric disease pathophysiology, focusing on Alzheimer's disease. In this context, okadaic acid (OA) is routinely used in experimental designs to investigate phosphorylation-mediated events. It is a potent protein phosphatase (PP) inhibitor, particularly of PP1 and PP2A...
September 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924186/interactome-analysis-reveals-znf804a-a-schizophrenia-risk-gene-as-a-novel-component-of-protein-translational-machinery-critical-for-embryonic-neurodevelopment
#15
Y Zhou, F Dong, T A Lanz, V Reinhart, M Li, L Liu, J Zou, H S Xi, Y Mao
Recent genome-wide association studies identified over 100 genetic loci that significantly associate with schizophrenia (SZ). A top candidate gene, ZNF804A, was robustly replicated in different populations. However, its neural functions are largely unknown. Here we show in mouse that ZFP804A, the homolog of ZNF804A, is required for normal progenitor proliferation and neuronal migration. Using a yeast two-hybrid genome-wide screen, we identified novel interacting proteins of ZNF804A. Rather than transcriptional factors, genes involved in mRNA translation are highly represented in our interactome result...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924181/common-and-dissociable-regional-cerebral-blood-flow-differences-associate-with-dimensions-of-psychopathology-across-categorical-diagnoses
#16
A N Kaczkurkin, T M Moore, M E Calkins, R Ciric, J A Detre, M A Elliott, E B Foa, A Garcia de la Garza, D R Roalf, A Rosen, K Ruparel, R T Shinohara, C H Xia, D H Wolf, R E Gur, R C Gur, T D Satterthwaite
The high comorbidity among neuropsychiatric disorders suggests a possible common neurobiological phenotype. Resting-state regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) can be measured noninvasively with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and abnormalities in regional CBF are present in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Regional CBF may also provide a useful biological marker across different types of psychopathology. To investigate CBF changes common across psychiatric disorders, we capitalized upon a sample of 1042 youths (ages 11-23 years) who completed cross-sectional imaging as part of the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918940/biological-psychiatry-a-new-approach-to-reviews
#17
EDITORIAL
John H Krystal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910997/paediatric-nuclear-medicine-imaging
#18
Lorenzo Biassoni, Marina Easty
Background: Nuclear medicine imaging explores tissue viability and function by using radiotracers that are taken up at cellular level with different mechanism. This imaging technique can also be used to assess blood flow and transit through tubular organs. Nuclear medicine imaging has been used in paediatrics for decades and this field is continuously evolving. Sources of data: The data presented comes from clinical experience and some milestone papers on the subject...
September 1, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886752/protocol-for-the-management-of-psychiatric-patients-with-psychomotor-agitation
#19
Eduard Vieta, Marina Garriga, Laura Cardete, Miquel Bernardo, María Lombraña, Jordi Blanch, Rosa Catalán, Mireia Vázquez, Victòria Soler, Noélia Ortuño, Anabel Martínez-Arán
BACKGROUND: Psychomotor agitation (PMA) is a state of motor restlessness and mental tension that requires prompt recognition, appropriate assessment and management to minimize anxiety for the patient and reduce the risk for escalation to aggression and violence. Standardized and applicable protocols and algorithms can assist healthcare providers to identify patients at risk of PMA, achieve timely diagnosis and implement minimally invasive management strategies to ensure patient and staff safety and resolution of the episode...
September 8, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884728/-psychiatry-of-the-future-multidimensionality-of-the-problems-of-modern-psychiatry-and-development-of-classification-systems
#20
E V Makushkin, S N Oskolkova, G A Fastovtsov
The success and achievements in the area of neurosciences due to the development of neuroimaging, neurochemical and genome studies provide tasks for psychiatry determined by the necessity to develop new classifications of mental diseases, primarily ICD-11, specify clinical diagnostic criteria and rethink the essence of some mental disorders. In spite of the multiple direction of scientific opinions on the discussed issues, the development of modern psychiatry is characterized by intensive search of biological background of psychiatric disorders and elaboration of effective approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of mental diseases, including medical rehabilitation of patients...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
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