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Biological Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885784/making-psychiatric-semiology-great-again-a-semiologic-not-nosologic-challenge
#1
J-A Micoulaud-Franchi, C Quiles, J-M Batail, C Lancon, M Masson, G Dumas, M Cermolacce
This article analyzes whether psychiatric disorders can be considered different from non-psychiatric disorders on a nosologic or semiologic point of view. The supposed difference between psychiatric and non-psychiatric disorders relates to the fact that the individuation of psychiatric disorders seems more complex than for non-psychiatric disorders. This individuation process can be related to nosologic and semiologic considerations. The first part of the article analyzes whether the ways of constructing classifications of psychiatric disorders are different than for non-psychiatric disorders...
June 6, 2018: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860152/commentary-on-grey-matter-or-social-matters-causal-attributions-in-the-era-of-biological-psychiatry
#2
EDITORIAL
Anna Sedda
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 31, 2018: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29794033/prediction-of-response-to-drug-therapy-in-psychiatric-disorders
#3
REVIEW
Shani Stern, Sara Linker, Krishna C Vadodaria, Maria C Marchetto, Fred H Gage
Personalized medicine has become increasingly relevant to many medical fields, promising more efficient drug therapies and earlier intervention. The development of personalized medicine is coupled with the identification of biomarkers and classification algorithms that help predict the responses of different patients to different drugs. In the last 10 years, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved several genetically pre-screened drugs labelled as pharmacogenomics in the fields of oncology, pulmonary medicine, gastroenterology, haematology, neurology, rheumatology and even psychiatry...
May 2018: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788473/enhancing-psychosis-spectrum-nosology-through-an-international-data-sharing-initiative
#4
Anna R Docherty, Eduardo Fonseca-Pedrero, Martin Debbané, Raymond C K Chan, Richard J Linscott, Katherine G Jonas, David C Cicero, Melissa J Green, Leonard J Simms, Oliver Mason, David Watson, Ulrich Ettinger, Monika Waszczuk, Alexander Rapp, Phillip Grant, Roman Kotov, Colin G DeYoung, Camilo J Ruggero, Nicolas R Eaton, Robert F Krueger, Christopher Patrick, Christopher Hopwood, F Anthony O'Neill, David H Zald, Christopher C Conway, Daniel E Adkins, Irwin D Waldman, Jim van Os, Patrick F Sullivan, John S Anderson, Andrey A Shabalin, Scott R Sponheim, Stephan F Taylor, Rachel G Grazioplene, Silviu A Bacanu, Tim B Bigdeli, Corinna Haenschel, Dolores Malaspina, Diane C Gooding, Kristin Nicodemus, Frauke Schultze-Lutter, Neus Barrantes-Vidal, Christine Mohr, William T Carpenter, Alex S Cohen
The latent structure of schizotypy and psychosis-spectrum symptoms remains poorly understood. Furthermore, molecular genetic substrates are poorly defined, largely due to the substantial resources required to collect rich phenotypic data across diverse populations. Sample sizes of phenotypic studies are often insufficient for advanced structural equation modeling approaches. In the last 50 years, efforts in both psychiatry and psychological science have moved toward (1) a dimensional model of psychopathology (eg, the current Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology [HiTOP] initiative), (2) an integration of methods and measures across traits and units of analysis (eg, the RDoC initiative), and (3) powerful, impactful study designs maximizing sample size to detect subtle genomic variation relating to complex traits (the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium [PGC])...
May 16, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779187/dualism-and-its-place-in-a-philosophical-structure-for-psychiatry
#5
Hane Htut Maung
It is often claimed in parts of the psychiatric literature that neuroscientific research into the biological basis of mental disorder undermines dualism in the philosophy of mind. This paper shows that such a claim does not apply to all forms of dualism. Focusing on Kenneth Kendler's discussion of the mind-body problem in biological psychiatry, I argue that such criticism of dualism often conflates the psychological and phenomenal concepts of the mental. Moreover, it fails to acknowledge that there are different varieties of dualism, and so overlooks the important metaphysical insights of contemporary dualist philosophers...
May 19, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749310/biological-and-psychological-influences-of-cross-sex-hormone-in-transgender
#6
Ling Shiao Ling, Hatta Sidi, Raja Adam Raja Lope, Srijit Das, Azlin Baharudin
Transgender is a complex state of bio-psycho-social dimension of human sexuality. It encompasses cognitive-emotional-behavior component that makes the person unique in his or her sexual expression. Transgender tend to use cross sex hormone in order to eradicate their secondary sexual characteristics and to facilitate the shift to their experienced gender. The common masculinising sex hormone use, i.e. Female to Male Treatment Options (FMTO) is testosterone and for feminising hormone i.e. Male to Female Treatment Options (MFTO) is a combination of estrogen with anti-androgen, respectively...
May 11, 2018: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740357/a-perspective-on-a-possible-relation-between-the-psychopathology-of-the-schizophrenia-schizoaffective-spectrum-and-unconjugated-bilirubin-a-longitudinal-protocol-study
#7
João Gama Marques, Filipe Arantes-Gonçalves
Some authors suggest a relation between Unconjugated Bilirubin (UCB) plasma high levels and schizophrenia, as schizophrenia patients have been showing higher UCB levels when compared with other psychiatric patients and general population. These higher UCB levels have been already correlated with acute psychotic states, positive symptoms, and poor outcome in patients with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders share common symptoms but there aren't yet accepted biomarkers for their distinction...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739519/preserving-the-person-in-contemporary-psychiatry
#8
REVIEW
Glen O Gabbard
Psychodynamic psychiatry is a way of thinking that places the person at the heart of diagnostic understanding and treatment. This emphasis on unique characteristics of an individual is at odds with much of contemporary psychiatric thought, which is geared to identifying a set of criteria designed to identify discrete diagnostic categories with biological underpinnings. This article addresses component parts of the person that are linked to psychodynamic constructs and lie at the heart of diagnostic understanding and treatment in psychodynamic psychiatry...
June 2018: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710118/disorganized-gyrification-network-properties-during-the-transition-to-psychosis
#9
Tushar Das, Stefan Borgwardt, Daniel J Hauke, Fabienne Harrisberger, Undine E Lang, Anita Riecher-Rössler, Lena Palaniyappan, André Schmidt
Importance: There is urgent need to improve the limited prognostic accuracy of clinical instruments to predict psychosis onset in individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis. As yet, no reliable biological marker has been established to delineate CHR individuals who will develop psychosis from those who will not. Objectives: To investigate abnormalities in a graph-based gyrification connectome in the early stages of psychosis and to test the accuracy of this systems-based approach to predict a transition to psychosis among CHR individuals...
April 25, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687938/trait-and-state-biomarkers-for-psychiatric-disorders-importance-of-infrastructure-to-bridge-the-gap-between-basic-and-clinical-research-and-industry
#10
Yukiko Y Lema, Nao J Gamo, Kun Yang, Koko Ishizuka
To further improve clinical activities in psychiatry by early diagnosis and early intervention with novel mechanism-guided treatments, there is a great need for biomarkers that reflect 'trait' and 'state' in major mental disorders. Stable trait biomarkers would allow early diagnosis, prognosis, and hopefully early intervention in these disorders, while dynamic state markers that reflect symptomatic changes would help to develop treatments that target these molecular mechanisms. However, in the search for such biomarkers, and eventually translating them to the clinic and industry, challenges currently exist at multiple levels, from basic scientific understanding, patient sample collection, and sample and data management, to bridging the gap between basic and clinical research and industry...
April 24, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679360/mental-health-of-the-male-adolescent-and-young-man-the-copenhagen-statement
#11
REVIEW
Timothy R Rice, Lesha D Shah, Pilar Trelles, Shih-Ku Lin, Dinne Skjærlund Christensen, Andreas Walther, Leo Sher
BACKGROUND: Male adolescents and young men benefit when their mental health care is specialized to match their unique gendered and developmental needs. Sensitivity to the social circumstances of this population is important; additionally, the emerging ability to tailor care through knowledge gleaned from the intersection of psychiatry, neurology, and endocrinology informs care. DATA SOURCES: This article summarized the views of six experts in the area of the adolescent and young adult male mental health...
April 20, 2018: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669557/discovery-biology-of-neuropsychiatric-syndromes-dbns-a-center-for-integrating-clinical-medicine-and-basic-science
#12
Biju Viswanath, Naren P Rao, Janardhanan C Narayanaswamy, Palanimuthu T Sivakumar, Arun Kandasamy, Muralidharan Kesavan, Urvakhsh Meherwan Mehta, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian, John P John, Odity Mukherjee, Meera Purushottam, Ramakrishnan Kannan, Bhupesh Mehta, Thennarasu Kandavel, B Binukumar, Jitender Saini, Deepak Jayarajan, A Shyamsundar, Sydney Moirangthem, K G Vijay Kumar, Jagadisha Thirthalli, Prabha S Chandra, Bangalore N Gangadhar, Pratima Murthy, Mitradas M Panicker, Upinder S Bhalla, Sumantra Chattarji, Vivek Benegal, Mathew Varghese, Janardhan Y C Reddy, Padinjat Raghu, Mahendra Rao, Sanjeev Jain
BACKGROUND: There is emerging evidence that there are shared genetic, environmental and developmental risk factors in psychiatry, that cut across traditional diagnostic boundaries. With this background, the Discovery biology of neuropsychiatric syndromes (DBNS) proposes to recruit patients from five different syndromes (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, Alzheimer's dementia and substance use disorders), identify those with multiple affected relatives, and invite these families to participate in this study...
April 18, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649926/social-versus-biological-psychiatry-it-s-time-for-integration
#13
Corrado De Rosa, Gaia Sampogna, Mario Luciano, Valeria Del Vecchio, Michele Fabrazzo, Andrea Fiorillo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2018: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629061/depression-from-the-perspective-of-modern-and-persian-medicine
#14
Majid Anushiravani, Ali Akhondpour Manteghi, Ali Taghipur, Mahdi Eslami
Background: Depression is one of the five most-common diseases globally, and is expected to be the second leading cause of disability by 2020 and its economic and social burden is a major problem worldwide. Objective: The aim of this research was to elucidate the causes and symptoms of depression according to Persian Medicine (PM) and classic medicine. Methods: In this study, works that were investigated were the Canon of Medicine , Al-Hawi Fi Teb , Kamel Al-Sina'a , Zakhireh Kharazmshahi and Exir A'azam ...
February 2018: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614391/grey-matter-or-social-matters-causal-attributions-in-the-era-of-biological-psychiatry
#15
EDITORIAL
Peter Brugger, Ira Kurthen, Neda Rashidi-Ranjbar, Bigna Lenggenhager
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 31, 2018: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604314/zebrafish-models-relevant-to-studying-central-opioid-and-endocannabinoid-systems
#16
REVIEW
Konstantin A Demin, Darya A Meshalkina, Elana V Kysil, Kristina A Antonova, Andrey D Volgin, Oleg A Yakovlev, Polina A Alekseeva, Maria M Firuleva, Anton M Lakstygal, Murilo S de Abreu, Leonardo J G Barcellos, Wandong Bao, Ashton J Friend, Tamara G Amstislavskaya, Denis B Rosemberg, Pavel E Musienko, Cai Song, Allan V Kalueff
The endocannabinoid and opioid systems are two interplaying neurotransmitter systems that modulate drug abuse, anxiety, pain, cognition, neurogenesis and immune activity. Although they are involved in such critical functions, our understanding of endocannabinoid and opioid physiology remains limited, necessitating further studies, novel models and new model organisms in this field. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is rapidly emerging as one of the most effective translational models in neuroscience and biological psychiatry...
March 28, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593585/functional-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-the-new-mrs-for-cognitive-neuroscience-and-psychiatry-research
#17
REVIEW
Jeffrey A Stanley, Naftali Raz
Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H MRS) is a well-established technique for quantifying the brain regional biochemistry in vivo . In most studies, however, the 1 H MRS is acquired during rest with little to no constraint on behavior. Measured metabolite levels, therefore, reflect steady-state concentrations whose associations with behavior and cognition are unclear. With the recent advances in MR technology-higher-field MR systems, robust acquisition techniques and sophisticated quantification methods-1 H MRS is now experiencing a resurgence...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574735/commentary-whither-the-epigenetics-of-child-psychopathology-some-reflections-provoked-by-barker-et-al-2018
#18
Edmund J S Sonuga-Barke, Pasco Fearon
Barker et al.'s. () review addresses one of the most fundamental questions in the fields of child psychology and psychiatry - How can adverse experiences shape development to a sufficient degree and in profound and enduring ways to create long term risk for later mental disorder and disability? In particular they discuss the plausibility of differential methylation as an epigenetic mechanism by which such exposures can become neuro-biologically embedded. Our commentary rises six question relating to key issues that need to be addressed as we search for definitive evidence from human studies that such mechanisms actually do make an important causal contribution to abnormal trajectories of development to disorder...
April 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571586/personalized-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-in-psychiatry
#19
REVIEW
Luca Cocchi, Andrew Zalesky
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique that allows for modulating the activity of local neural populations and related neural networks. TMS is touted as a viable intervention to normalize brain activity and alleviate some psychiatric symptoms. However, TMS interventions are known to be only moderately reliable, and the efficacy of such therapies remains to be proven for psychiatric disorders other than depression. We review new opportunities to personalize TMS interventions using neuroimaging and computational modeling, aiming to optimize treatment to suit particular individuals and clinical subgroups...
March 20, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560922/a-brief-summary-of-the-articles-appearing-in-this-issue-of-biological-psychiatry-cognitive-neuroscience-and-neuroimaging
#20
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
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