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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775503/artificial-rod-and-cone-photoreceptors-with-human-like-spectral-sensitivities
#1
Byeongho Park, Heehong Yang, Tai Hwan Ha, Hyun Seo Park, Seung Ja Oh, Yong-Sang Ryu, Youngho Cho, Hyo-Suk Kim, Juyeong Oh, Dong Kyu Lee, Chulki Kim, Taikjin Lee, Minah Seo, Jaebin Choi, Young Min Jhon, Deok Ha Woo, Seok Lee, Seok Hwan Kim, Hyuk-Jae Lee, Seong Chan Jun, Hyun Seok Song, Tai Hyun Park, Jae Hun Kim
Photosensitive materials contain biologically engineered elements and are constructed using delicate techniques, with special attention devoted to efficiency, stability, and biocompatibility. However, to date, no photosensitive material has been developed to replace damaged visual-systems to detect light and transmit the signal to a neuron in the human body. In the current study, artificial nanovesicle-based photosensitive materials are observed to possess the characteristics of photoreceptors similar to the human eye...
May 18, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774782/the-neuroprotective-effect-of-ethanol-intoxication-in-tbi-is-associated-with-the-suppression-of-erbb-signaling-in-pv-positive-interneurons
#2
Akila Chandrasekar, Florian Olde Heuvel, Martin Wepler, Rida Rehman, Annette Palmer, Alberto Catanese, Birgit Linkus, Albert Ludolph, Tobias Boeckers, Markus Huber-Lang, Peter Radermacher, Francesco Roselli
Ethanol intoxication (EI) is a frequent comorbidity of TBI, but the impact of EI on TBI pathogenic cascades and prognosis is unclear: although clinical evidence suggests that EI may have neuroprotective effects, experimental support is, to date, inconclusive. We aimed at elucidating the impact of EI on TBI-associated neurological deficits, signaling pathways and pathogenic cascades, in order to identify new modifiers of TBI pathophysiology. We have shown that ethanol administration (5g/Kg) before trauma enhances behavioral recovery in a weight-drop TBI model; neuronal survival in the injured somatosensory cortex was enhanced by EI...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774242/balancing-charge-carrier-transport-in-a-quantum-dot-p-n-junction-toward-hysteresis-free-high-performance-solar-cells
#3
Yuljae Cho, Bo Hou, Jongchul Lim, Sanghyo Lee, Sangyeon Pak, John Hong, Paul Giraud, A-Rang Jang, Young-Woo Lee, Juwon Lee, Jae Eun Jang, Henry J Snaith, Stephen M Morris, Jung Inn Sohn, SeungNam Cha, Jong Min Kim
In a quantum dot solar cell (QDSC) that has an inverted structure, the QD layers form two different junctions between the electron transport layer (ETL) and the other semiconducting QD layer. Recent work on an inverted-structure QDSC has revealed that the junction between the QD layers is the dominant junction, rather than the junction between the ETL and the QD layers, which is in contrast to the conventional wisdom. However, to date, there have been a lack of systematic studies on the role and importance of the QD heterojunction structure on the behavior of the solar cell and the resulting device performance...
April 13, 2018: ACS Energy Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772594/-upper-age-limit-in-outpatient-anesthesia-opportunities-and-risks
#4
Tobias Hüppe, Nicole Kneller, Alexander Raddatz
Ambulatory surgery in elderly patients continues to increase - avoiding hospitalization and thus postoperative cognitive dysfunction in older patients being its major objectives. An upper age limit in outpatient anesthesia does not exist to date. However, functional rather than chronological age is crucial in patient selection. In consensus discussion, baseline functional status should be evaluated regularly - defined as everyday behaviors necessary to maintain daily life and encompassing areas of physical, cognitive, and social functioning...
May 2018: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772390/pathobiology-of-christianson-syndrome-linking-disrupted-endosomal-lysosomal-function-with-intellectual-disability-and-sensory-impairments
#5
Mallory Kerner-Rossi, Maria Gulinello, Steven Walkley, Kostantin Dobrenis
Christianson syndrome (CS) is a recently described rare neurogenetic disorder presenting early in life with a broad range of neurological symptoms, including severe intellectual disability with nonverbal status, hyperactivity, epilepsy, and progressive ataxia due to cerebellar atrophy. CS is due to loss-of-function mutations in SLC9A6, encoding NHE6, a sodium-hydrogen exchanger involved in the regulation of early endosomal pH. Here we review what is currently known about the neuropathogenesis of CS, based on insights from experimental models, which to date have focused on mechanisms that affect the CNS, specifically the brain...
May 14, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771949/correlates-of-domestic-violence-perpetration-reporting-among-recently-married-men-residing-in-slums-in-pune-india
#6
Ameeta S Kalokhe, Sandhya R Iyer, Keshav Gadhe, Tuman Katendra, Anuradha Paranjape, Carlos Del Rio, Rob Stephenson, Seema Sahay
Domestic violence (DV) is prevalent in low-income and slum-dwelling communities in India. To date, the focus of DV prevention in resource-poor settings has largely been with women. We herein aim to identify correlates of DV perpetration to help inform future primary prevention efforts that focus on behavioral change in men. Utilizing a cross-sectional design, potential correlates of DV perpetration were explored among a geographically-clustered random sample of 100 recently-married men residing in slums in Pune, India...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770146/effects-of-20-hz-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-on-disorders-of-consciousness-a-resting-state-electroencephalography-study
#7
Fangping He, Min Wu, Fanxia Meng, Yangfan Hu, Jian Gao, Zhongqin Chen, Wangxiao Bao, Kehong Liu, Benyan Luo, Gang Pan
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been proposed as an experimental approach for the treatment of disorders of consciousness (DOC). To date, there has been little research into the use of rTMS in DOC and the therapeutic effects have been variously documented. This study aimed to examine the effects of 20 Hz rTMS on the electroencephalography (EEG) reactivity and clinical response in patients with DOC and to explore the neuromodulatory effects of high-frequency rTMS. In this randomized, sham-controlled, crossover study, real or sham 20 Hz rTMS was applied to the left primary motor cortex (M1) of patients with DOC for 5 consecutive days...
2018: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767395/behavioral-therapy-approaches-for-the-management-of-low-back-pain-an-up-to-date-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Kristallia Vitoula, Annalena Venneri, Giustino Varrassi, Antonella Paladini, Panagiota Sykioti, Joy Adewusi, Panagiotis Zis
Low back pain is one of the most common causes for seeking medical treatment and it is estimated that one in two people will experience low back pain at some point during their lifetimes. Management of low back pain includes pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches. Non-pharmaceutical treatments include interventions such as acupuncture, spinal manipulation, and psychotherapy. The latter is especially important as patients who suffer from low back pain often have impaired quality of life and also suffer from depression...
May 16, 2018: Pain and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766755/the-role-of-maternal-acceptance-in-mediating-child-outcomes-among-substance-using-women-experiencing-intimate-partner-violence
#9
Laura Cully, Qiong Wu, Natasha Slesnick
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is prevalent in the United States, and many women who experience IPV have children in their care. Substance use is common among this population and affects parenting behaviors such as maternal acceptance and child outcomes. Maternal experience of IPV affects a mother's ability to parent and interact with her child. Little is known about the combined influence of both maternal substance use and IPV on parenting behaviors and child problem behaviors. The current study examined differences in maternal acceptance and child internalizing and externalizing behaviors among mothers who reported experiencing IPV to mothers who never reported experiencing IPV...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766612/visuomotor-coordination-and-cortical-connectivity-of-modular-motor-learning
#10
Pablo I Burgos, Juan J Mariman, Scott Makeig, Gonzalo Rivera-Lillo, Pedro E Maldonado
The ability to transfer sensorimotor skill components to new actions and the capacity to use skill components from whole actions are characteristic of the adaptability of the human sensorimotor system. However, behavioral evidence suggests complex limitations for transfer after combined or modular learning of motor adaptations. Also, to date, only behavioral analysis of the consequences of the modular learning has been reported, with little understanding of the sensorimotor mechanisms of control and the interaction between cortical areas...
May 15, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764316/systematic-review-of-empiricism-and-theory-in-domestic-minor-sex-trafficking-research
#11
Mary K Twis, Beth Anne Shelton
Empiricism and the application of human behavior theory to inquiry are regarded as markers of high-quality research. Unfortunately, scholars have noted that there are many gaps in theory and empiricism within the human trafficking literature, calling into question the legitimacy of policies and practices that are derived from the available data. To date, there has not been an analysis of the extent to which empirical methods and human behavior theory have been applied to domestic minor sex trafficking (DMST) research as a subcategory of human trafficking inquiry...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Evidence-informed Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764114/accelerating-the-worldwide-adoption-of-sugar-sweetened-beverage-taxes-strengthening-commitment-and-capacity-comment-on-the-untapped-power-of-soda-taxes-incentivizing-consumers-generating-revenue-and-altering-corporate-behavior
#12
Phillip Baker, Alexandra Jones, Anne Marie Thow
In their recent article Roache and Gostin outline why governments and public health advocates should embrace soda taxes. The evidence is strong and continues to grow: such taxes can change consumer behavior, generate significant revenue and incentivize product reformulation. In essence, such taxes are an important and now well-established instrument of fiscal and public health policy. In this commentary we expand on their arguments by considering how the worldwide adoption of such taxes might be further accelerated...
October 29, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760332/dry-thermotropic-glycolipid-self-assembly-a-review
#13
Rauzah Hashim, N Idayu Zahid, T S Velayutham, Nurul Fadhilah Kamalul Aripin, Shigesaburo Ogawa, Akihiko Sugimura
Also recognized as carbohydrate liquid crystals, glycolipids are amphiphiles whose basic unit comprises of a sugar group attached to an alkyl chain. Glycolipids are amphitropic, which means these materials form liquid crystal self-assemblies when dry (thermotropic) as well as when dissolved in solvents (lyotropic/surfactants) such as water. Many glycolipids are also naturally derived since these can be found in cell membranes. Their membrane and surfactant functions are largely understood through their lyotropic properties...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760183/neural-mechanisms-underlying-individual-differences-in-control-averse-behavior
#14
Sarah Rudorf, Katrin Schmelz, Thomas Baumgartner, Roland Wiest, Urs Fischbacher, Daria Knoch
When another person tries to control one's decisions, some people might comply, but many will feel the urge to act against that control. This control aversion can lead to suboptimal decisions and it affects social interactions in many societal domains. To date, however, it has been unclear what drives individual differences in control-averse behavior. Here, we address this issue by measuring brain activity with fMRI while healthy female and male human participants make choices that are either free or controlled by another person, with real consequences to both interaction partners...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760060/corticoinsular-circuits-encode-subjective-value-expectation-and-violation-for-effortful-goal-directed-behavior
#15
Amanda R Arulpragasam, Jessica A Cooper, Makiah R Nuutinen, Michael T Treadway
We are presented with choices each day about how to invest our effort to achieve our goals. Critically, these decisions must frequently be made under conditions of incomplete information, where either the effort required or possible reward to be gained is uncertain. Such choices therefore require the development of potential value estimates to guide effortful goal-directed behavior. To date, however, the neural mechanisms for this expectation process are unknown. Here, we used computational fMRI during an effort-based decision-making task where trial-wise information about effort costs and reward magnitudes was presented separately over time, thereby allowing us to model distinct effort/reward computations as choice-relevant information unfolded...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760054/placebo-treatment-facilitates-social-trust-and-approach-behavior
#16
Xinyuan Yan, Xue Yong, Wenhao Huang, Yina Ma
Placebo effect refers to beneficial changes induced by the use of inert treatment, such as placebo-induced relief of physical pain and attenuation of negative affect. To date, we know little about whether placebo treatment could facilitate social functioning, a crucial aspect for well-being of a social species. In the present study, we develop and validate a paradigm to induce placebo effects on social trust and approach behavior (social placebo effect), and show robust evidence that placebo treatment promotes trust in others and increases preference for a closer interpersonal distance...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757954/consumer-preference-and-attitude-regarding-online-food-products-in-hanoi-vietnam
#17
Anh Kim Dang, Bach Xuan Tran, Cuong Tat Nguyen, Huong Thi Le, Hoa Thi Do, Hinh Duc Nguyen, Long Hoang Nguyen, Tu Huu Nguyen, Hue Thi Mai, Tho Dinh Tran, Chau Ngo, Thuc Thi Minh Vu, Carl A Latkin, Melvyn W B Zhang, Roger C M Ho
This study aimed to examine: (1) how the Internet has changed consumers food-buying behavior and identify its associated factors; (2) consumers' concern about food safety information of online food products. A cross-sectional study was performed from October to December 2015 in Hanoi-a Vietnamese epicenter of food service. One thousand seven hundred and thirty six (1736) customers were randomly chosen from food establishments of 176 communes. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews using structured questionnaires...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754481/a-self-aligned-functionalization-approach-to-order-neuronal-networks-at-the-single-cell-level
#18
Adrien Casanova, Charline Blatché, Cecile Ferre, Hélène Martin, Daniel Gonzalez-Dunia, Liviu Nicu, Guilhem Larrieu
Despite significant progress, our knowledge of the functioning of the central nervous system still remains scarce to date. A better understanding of its behavior, in either normal or diseased conditions, goes through an increased knowledge of basic mechanisms involved in neuronal function, including at the single cell level. This has motivated significant efforts for the development of miniaturized sensing devices to monitor neuronal activity with high spatial and signal resolution. One of the main challenges remaining to be addressed in this domain is, however, the ability to create in vitro spatially-ordered neuronal networks at low density with a precise control of the cell location, to ensure proper monitoring of the activity of a defined set of neurons...
May 12, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754020/the-relationship-between-schizotypal-traits-and-hoarding-symptoms-an-examination-of-symptom-specificity-and-the-role-of-perceived-cognitive-failures
#19
Marc J Weintraub, Caitlin A Brown, Kiara R Timpano
BACKGROUND: Hoarding disorder presents significant individual and interpersonal consequences. Because hoarding has only recently been added to the DSM, relatively little is known about associated comorbidity patterns. Several researchers have postulated a relationship between hoarding and schizotypy. To date, however, no investigations have considered which specific types of schizotypal traits relate to hoarding symptoms. METHODS: We examined the association between hoarding and schizotypal symptoms using multivariate analyses in two samples-a sample of 120 young adults and a community sample of 291 individuals recruited from Mechanical Turk's online crowdsourcing system...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753441/a-new-tephrochronology-for-early-diverse-stone-tool-technologies-and-long-distance-raw-material-transport-in-the-middle-to-late-pleistocene-kapthurin-formation-east-africa
#20
Nick Blegen, Brian R Jicha, Sally McBrearty
The Middle to Late Pleistocene (780-10 ka) of East Africa records evidence of significant behavioral change, early fossils of Homo sapiens, and the dispersals of our species across and out of Africa. Studying human evolution in this time period thus requires an extensive and precise chronology relating behavioral evidence from archaeological sequences to aspects of hominin biology and evidence of past environments from fossils and geological sequences. Tephrochronology provides the chronostratigraphic resolution to achieve this through correlation and dating of volcanic ashes...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
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