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Psychiatric Epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933010/differential-recall-bias-intermediate-confounding-and-mediation-analysis-in-life-course-epidemiology-an-analytic-framework-with-empirical-example
#1
Mashhood A Sheikh, Birgit Abelsen, Jan Abel Olsen
The mechanisms by which childhood socioeconomic status (CSES) affects adult mental health, general health, and well-being are not clear. Moreover, the analytical assumptions employed when assessing mediation in social and psychiatric epidemiology are rarely explained. The aim of this paper was to explain the intermediate confounding assumption, and to quantify differential recall bias in the association between CSES, childhood abuse, and mental health (SCL-10), general health (EQ-5D), and subjective well-being (SWLS)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931895/self-stigma-in-depressive-patients-association-of-cognitive-schemata-depression-and-self-esteem
#2
Sakie Shimotsu, Naoshi Horikawa
Many empirical studies have indicated that various psychosocial and psychiatric variables are correlated with levels of self-stigma. Treatment methods for reducing self-stigma have been investigated in recent years, especially those examining the relationship between negative cognitive schemata and self-stigma. This study examined the relationship of self-stigma with cognitive schemata, depression, and self-esteem in depressive patients. Furthermore, structural equation modeling (SEM) was conducted to evaluate three hypothetical models...
December 2016: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922603/digital-footprints-facilitating-large-scale-environmental-psychiatric-research-in-naturalistic-settings-through-data-from-everyday-technologies
#3
N Bidargaddi, P Musiat, V-P Makinen, M Ermes, G Schrader, J Licinio
Digital footprints, the automatically accumulated by-products of our technology-saturated lives, offer an exciting opportunity for psychiatric research. The commercial sector has already embraced the electronic trails of customers as an enabling tool for guiding consumer behaviour, and analogous efforts are ongoing to monitor and improve the mental health of psychiatric patients. The untargeted collection of digital footprints that may or may not be health orientated comprises a large untapped information resource for epidemiological scale research into psychiatric disorders...
December 6, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917803/relationship-between-internet-addiction-and-alexithymia-among-university-students
#4
Seher Baysan-Arslan, Sevsen Cebeci, Mehmet Kaya, Metin Canbal
PURPOSE: Epidemiological studies concerning internet addiction found that 50% of internet addicts also have other kinds of psychiatric disorders. This study aims to examine the relationship between alexithymia and internet addiction levels among Turgut Özal University students in Ankara, Turkey. METHOD: University students (1,107 students; 452 students from 12 associate degree programs and 655 students from 10 undergraduate programs) participated in the study. The researchers used the personal information form, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale and the Internet Addiction Scale...
December 1, 2016: Clinical and Investigative Medicine. Médecine Clinique et Experimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910804/sudden-cardiac-death-a-nationwide-cohort-study-among-the-young
#5
Bjarke Risgaard
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a tragic event affecting millions of individuals worldwide. Although several studies have investigated the epidemiology of SCD, these studies may have been affected by reporting and referral biases, which are reflected in the very different incidence rates and causes of deaths that have previously been reported. Among SCD victims aged < 36 years, inherited cardiac diseases are well known to play an important role. However, the extent to which inherited cardiac diseases also play a role in SCD victims aged < 50 years has not been completely described...
December 2016: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900640/statistical-effects-of-religious-participation-and-marriage-on-substance-use-and-abuse-in-racial-and-ethnic-minorities
#6
Kristine Ria Hearld, Amy Badham, Henna Budhwani
Substance use and abuse, which includes alcohol use, alcohol dependence, drug use, and drug dependence, inflicts a substantial toll on Americans. Although studies have demonstrated the protective effect of social support, such as religious participation and via marriage, understanding their influence on racial and ethnic minorities is limited. Thus, the aim of this study is to assess the impact of social support on substance use and abuse in racial and ethnic minorities. The Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys, sponsored by the National Institute of Mental Health, a repository of race, ethnicity, and mental health data, was leveraged to develop four models using multivariate analysis, specifically logistic regression to estimate the probability of meeting the criteria for substance use and abuse...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889466/lower-cortisol-level-in-response-to-a-psychosocial-stressor-in-young-females-with-self-harm
#7
Paul L Plener, Katrin Zohsel, Erika Hohm, Arlette F Buchmann, T Banaschewski, Ulrich S Zimmermann, Manfred Laucht
BACKGROUND: Self-harm is highly prevalent in adolescence, often serving an emotion regulation function. Social stressors such as bullying are associated with self-harm. The neurobiological background of the relationship between social stressors and self-harm needs to be further understood to inform prevention and therapy. METHODS: Participants were members of an epidemiological cohort study. 130 female participants underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) at age 19...
November 14, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883948/prevalence-sociodemographic-correlates-and-dsm-5-substance-use-disorders-and-other-psychiatric-disorders-among-sexual-minorities-in-the-united-states
#8
Bradley T Kerridge, Roger P Pickering, Tulshi D Saha, W June Ruan, S Patricia Chou, Haitao Zhang, Jeesun Jung, Deborah S Hasin
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to present current nationally representative data on the prevalences, sociodemographic correlates and risk of DSM-5 substance use disorders and other psychiatric disorders among sexual minorities (SMs) relative to heterosexuals, and among SMs by gender. METHODS: Data were derived from the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III. RESULTS: In the general noninstitutionalized population, 1...
November 7, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881525/rationale-and-protocol-for-using-a-smartphone-application-to-study-autism-spectrum-disorders-smartautism
#9
Olivier Bonnot, Dominique Bonneau, Aude Doudard, Philippe Duverger
INTRODUCTION: Longitudinal studies on the evolution of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms are limited and have primarily used repeated measurements performed several months apart. However, measurements of changes in everyday life should more closely reflect the 'real life' of the patient and his or her family. We propose to study the child's ASD symptoms and their effect on the quality of life, psychological status and anxiety of the child's parents over a 6-month period using SMARTAUTISM, a smartphone application...
November 22, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880812/quantifying-risk-for-anxiety-disorders-in-preschool-children-a-machine-learning-approach
#10
Kimberly L H Carpenter, Pablo Sprechmann, Robert Calderbank, Guillermo Sapiro, Helen L Egger
Early childhood anxiety disorders are common, impairing, and predictive of anxiety and mood disorders later in childhood. Epidemiological studies over the last decade find that the prevalence of impairing anxiety disorders in preschool children ranges from 0.3% to 6.5%. Yet, less than 15% of young children with an impairing anxiety disorder receive a mental health evaluation or treatment. One possible reason for the low rate of care for anxious preschoolers is the lack of affordable, timely, reliable and valid tools for identifying young children with clinically significant anxiety...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879194/prescription-patterns-and-drug-costs-in-german-patients-with-dementia-in-nursing-homes-and-home-care-settings%C3%A2
#11
Louis Jacob, Jens Bohlken, Karel Kostev
AIMS: To analyze prescription patterns and drug costs in German patients with dementia who are in home-care settings and nursing homes. METHODS: The present retrospective study based on the Disease Analyzer epidemiological database and included 41,064 patients treated by general practitioners (GPs) and 20,649 patients treated by psychiatric practitioners (PPs), who were diagnosed with dementia in 2014. Four different types of antidementia therapy were included in the analysis...
November 23, 2016: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871760/hepatitis-c-treatment-clinical-issues-for-psychiatrists-in-the-post-interferon-era
#12
REVIEW
Yvonne Chasser, Arthur Y Kim, Oliver Freudenreich
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a widespread and costly cause of morbidity and mortality globally and in the United States. The treatment of HCV has been revolutionized with the recent development of direct-acting antiviral medications. These new treatments are substantially better tolerated and more efficacious than previously used interferon-based therapies. Despite these innovations, sustained virologic response has remained low, hovering at approximately 9% of all infected persons...
September 14, 2016: Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871720/-guidelines-for-the-prescription-of-mood-stabilizers-for-adolescents-a-literature-review
#13
G Munch, N Godart
INTRODUCTION: Adolescence is a unique phase of the human developmental process. In adolescents, psychotropic medications may have different efficacy and tolerance profiles compared to those at other stages of the lifespan. Mood stabilizers are a complex pharmacological category including lithium, some anticonvulsants, and some second generation antipsychotics. Focusing on this class of pharmacological agents, we aim to answer the following questions: in which indications and according to which modalities should mood stabilizers be prescribed during adolescence? METHODS: Information was sought from the websites of the French Haute Autorité de santé (HAS) and Agence nationale de sécurité du médicament et des produits de santé (ANSM), the American Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the British National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE)...
November 18, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871229/-the-cango-lyec-project-healing-the-elephant-hiv-related-vulnerabilities-of-post-conflict-affected-populations-aged-13-49-years-living-in-three-mid-northern-uganda-districts
#14
Samuel S Malamba, Herbert Muyinda, Patricia M Spittal, John P Ekwaru, Noah Kiwanuka, Martin D Ogwang, Patrick Odong, Paul K Kitandwe, Achilles Katamba, Kate Jongbloed, Nelson K Sewankambo, Eugene Kinyanda, Alden Blair, Martin T Schechter
BACKGROUND: The protracted war between the Government of Uganda and the Lord's Resistance Army in Northern Uganda (1996-2006) resulted in widespread atrocities, destruction of health infrastructure and services, weakening the social and economic fabric of the affected populations, internal displacement and death. Despite grave concerns that increased spread of HIV/AIDS may be devastating to post conflict Northern Uganda, empirical epidemiological data describing the legacy of the war on HIV infection are scarce...
November 21, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868174/-acromegaly-recognition-of-a-rare-disease-in-psychiatric-practice
#15
A J de Kort, D Postulart, G A A M Wetzer, S H P P Roerink
Acromegaly is a rare disease which is caused by a tumour in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. The tumour stimulates excessive production of the growth hormone. As a result, all the organs and tissues in the body are induced to grow. This growth is responsible for a wide range of symptoms, some of which can be neuro-psychiatric.<br/> AIM: To promote the early detection of acromegaly so that treatment can be started as soon as possible and further damage can be prevented.<br/> METHOD: We searched PubMed for articles relating to quality of life and cognitive, psychological and psychiatric symptoms and personality changes associated with acromegaly...
2016: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859934/classifying-child-and-adolescent-psychiatric-disorder-by-problem-checklists-and-standardized-interviews
#16
Michael H Boyle, Laura Duncan, Kathy Georgiades, Kathryn Bennett, Andrea Gonzalez, Ryan J Van Lieshout, Peter Szatmari, Harriet L MacMillan, Anna Kata, Mark A Ferro, Ellen L Lipman, Magdalena Janus
This paper discusses the need for research on the psychometric adequacy of self-completed problem checklists to classify child and adolescent psychiatric disorder based on proxy assessments by parents and self-assessments by adolescents. We put forward six theoretical arguments for expecting checklists to achieve comparable levels of reliability and validity with standardized diagnostic interviews for identifying child psychiatric disorder in epidemiological studies and clinical research. Empirically, the modest levels of test-retest reliability exhibited by standardized diagnostic interviews - 0...
November 14, 2016: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859626/depressive-symptoms-and-early-mortality-following-lung-transplantation-a-pilot-study
#17
P J Smith, J A Blumenthal, L D Snyder, J P Mathew, M Durheim, B M Hoffman, S Rivelli, S M Palmer
Impaired psychological function is common among lung transplant candidates and may affect clinical outcomes following transplantation. Although numerous studies have examined the relationship between pre-transplant depression, quality of life (QoL), and post-transplant outcomes, few have examined the relationship between depression and QoL shortly following transplantation and subsequent clinical outcomes. We therefore examined the association between depression, QoL, and short-term mortality in a consecutive series of lung transplant recipients METHODS: Depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9; Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; Centers for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale) and QoL (UCSD Shortness of Breath Questionnaire; Pulmonary Quality of Life Scale) were assessed prior to transplantation (median 0...
November 16, 2016: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837521/bipolar-disorder-in-children-and-adolescents-diagnostic-inpatient-rates-from-2000-to-2013-in-germany
#18
Pradeep Rao, Julie K Moore, Richard Stewart, Kevin Runions, Natasha Bear, Janice W Y Wong, Martin Holtmann, Florian D Zepf
BACKGROUND: Despite growing consensus on nosology and epidemiology of bipolar disorder (BD) in minors, differences remain. We contribute to this discussion by measuring long-term trends in the inpatient discharge rates of BD in minors. METHODS: Nationwide German inpatient discharge diagnoses of BD and other related psychiatric disorders were mapped between 2008 and 2013 using registry data from the German Federal Health Monitoring System. This was compared with previously published data, 2000-2007, to assess long-term trends in diagnosis of BD at discharge...
December 2016: International Journal of Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836241/psychiatric-correlates-of-past-year-adult-bullying-behaviors-findings-from-the-national-epidemiology-survey-of-alcohol-and-related-conditions
#19
Katherine A McMillan, Audur S Thorisdottir, Gordon J G Asmundson
Previous research on bully perpetration and psychiatric outcomes has been limited to examination of lifetime associations and has not included evaluation of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), despite previously reported correlations between PTSD and anger and aggression. The purpose of the present study was to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the association between bullying behaviour and mental disorders within a past-year framework. Data was obtained from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; n=34,653), a nationally-representative survey of American adults...
October 28, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836200/ptsd-in-court-i-introducing-ptsd-for-court
#20
Gerald Young
The first part of the series of three articles on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in Court to appear in the journal reviews the history of the construct of PTSD and its presentation in the DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) and the ICD-11 (International Classification of Diseases, 11th Edition; World Health Organization, 2018). There are 20 symptoms of PTSD in the DSM-5. PTSD symptoms are arranged into a four-cluster model, which has received partial support in the literature...
November 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
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