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Psychiatric Epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788381/the-role-of-apathy-and-depression-on-verbal-learning-and-memory-performance-after-stroke
#1
Keera N Fishman, Andrea R Ashbaugh, Krista L Lanctôt, Megan L Cayley, Nathan Herrmann, Brian J Murray, Michelle Sicard, Karen Lien, Demetrios J Sahlas, Richard H Swartz
Objective: Psychiatric symptoms, including depression and apathy, may significantly impede functional and cognitive capabilities following a cerebrovascular event. This study examined the role of apathy and depression on learning and memory performance in stroke patients. Method: Stroke patients (n = 140 [119 ischemic, 21 hemorrhagic], mean age = 60.6 [SD = 15.1]) completed the Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II)...
May 18, 2018: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781946/co-occurrence-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-cardiovascular-disease-among-ethnic-racial-groups-in-the-united-states
#2
Carmen Vidal, Ruth Polo, Kiara Alvarez, Irene Falgas-Bague, Ye Wang, Benjamin Lê Cook, Margarita Alegría
OBJECTIVE: Trauma and/or symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been linked to the onset of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the exact mechanism has not been determined. We examine if the risk of CVD is different among those who have a history of trauma without PTSD symptoms, those who have experienced trauma and developed any symptoms of PTSD, and those with a PTSD diagnosis. Furthermore, we examine whether this association varies across ethnic/racial groups. METHODS: We used two datasets that form part of the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES) - the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS) and the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R)...
May 17, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776984/impact-of-psychiatric-comorbidities-on-health-care-utilization-and-cost-of-care-in-multiple-myeloma
#3
Shehzad Niazi, Ryan D Frank, Mayank Sharma, Vivek Roy, Steve Ames, Teresa Rummans, Aaron Spaulding, Taimur Sher, Meghna Ailawadhi, Kirtipal Bhatia, Salman Ahmed, Winston Tan, Asher Chanan-Khan, Sikander Ailawadhi
Approximately one third of cancer patients suffer from comorbid mood disorders that are associated with increased cost and poorer outcomes. The majority of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) are treated with corticosteroids; as many as three fourths of those taking corticosteroids develop neuropsychiatric complications, likely increasing morbidity and cost of care. MM patients diagnosed between 1991 and 2010 and reported in the Surveillance Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare database were characterized as MM-Only, MM+Psychiatric (any psychiatric condition, preexisting or post-MM), or MM+Depression (depression as the only psychiatric diagnosis, preexisting or post-MM)...
May 22, 2018: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756044/gender-dysphoria-in-adults-an-overview-and-primer-for-psychiatrists
#4
William Byne, Dan H Karasic, Eli Coleman, A Evan Eyler, Jeremy D Kidd, Heino F L Meyer-Bahlburg, Richard R Pleak, Jack Pula
Regardless of their area of specialization, adult psychiatrists are likely to encounter gender-variant patients; however, medical school curricula and psychiatric residency training programs devote little attention to their care. This article aims to assist adult psychiatrists who are not gender specialists in the delivery of respectful, clinically competent, and culturally attuned care to gender-variant patients, including those who identify as transgender or transsexual or meet criteria for the diagnosis of Gender Dysphoria (GD) as defined by The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th edition)...
2018: Transgender Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753571/subway-related-trauma-an-urban-public-health-issue-with-a-high-case-fatality-rate
#5
Simon G Rodier, Charles J DiMaggio, Stephen Wall, Vasiliy Sim, Spiros G Frangos, Patricia Ayoung-Chee, Marko Bukur, Manish Tandon, S Rob Todd, Gary T Marshall
BACKGROUND: Between 1990 and 2003, there were 668 subway-related fatalities in New York City. However, subway-related trauma remains an understudied area of injury-related morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to characterize the injuries and events leading up to the injuries of all patients admitted after subway-related trauma. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective case series of subway-related trauma at a Level I trauma center from 2001 to 2016...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747656/maternal-drug-use-and-the-risk-of-anorectal-malformations-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Nadine Zwink, Ekkehart Jenetzky
BACKGROUND: Origin of anorectal malformations (ARM) are considered multifactorial. Several genetic and non-genetic risk factors are discussed in literature. Maternal periconceptional medical drug use as possible risk factor, however, has not been reviewed systematically. METHODS: Studies published between 1977 and April 2017 were reviewed through systematic search in PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge and Scopus databases. Furthermore, related and cross-referencing publications were reviewed...
May 10, 2018: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742478/autoimmune-phenotypes-in-schizophrenia-reveal-novel-treatment-targets
#7
REVIEW
Emily G Severance, Faith B Dickerson, Robert H Yolken
Typical and atypical antipsychotics are the first-line treatments for schizophrenia, but these classes of drugs are not universally effective, and they can have serious side effects that impact compliance. Antipsychotic drugs generally target the dopamine pathways with some variation. As research of schizophrenia pathophysiology has shifted away from a strictly dopamine-centric focus, the development of new pharmacotherapies has waned. A field of inquiry with centuries-old roots is gaining traction in psychiatric research circles and may represent a new frontier for drug discovery in schizophrenia...
May 6, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741616/a-systematic-review-of-genome-wide-research-on-psychotic-experiences-and-negative-symptom-traits-new-revelations-and-implications-for-psychiatry
#8
Angelica Ronald, Oliver Pain
We present a systematic review of genome-wide research on psychotic experience and negative symptom traits (PENS) in the community. We integrate these new findings, most of which have emerged over the last four years, with more established behaviour genetic and epidemiological research. The review includes the first genome-wide association studies of PENS, including a recent meta-analysis, and the first SNP heritability estimates. Sample sizes of < 10,000 participants mean that no genome-wide significant variants have yet been replicated...
May 8, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739475/an-outbreak-of-streptococcus-pyogenes-in-a-mental-health-facility-advantage-of-well-timed-whole-genome-sequencing-over-emm-typing
#9
Sarah M Bergin, Balamurugan Periaswamy, Timothy Barkham, Hong Choon Chua, Yee Ming Mok, Daniel Shuen Sheng Fung, Alex Hsin Chuan Su, Yen Ling Lee, Ming Lai Ivan Chua, Poh Yong Ng, Wei Jia Wendy Soon, Collins Wenhan Chu, Siyun Lucinda Tan, Mary Meehan, Brenda Sze Peng Ang, Yee Sin Leo, Matthew T G Holden, Partha De, Li Yang Hsu, Swaine L Chen, Paola Florez de Sessions, Kalisvar Marimuthu
OBJECTIVEWe report the utility of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) conducted in a clinically relevant time frame (ie, sufficient for guiding management decision), in managing a Streptococcus pyogenes outbreak, and present a comparison of its performance with emm typing.SETTINGA 2,000-bed tertiary-care psychiatric hospital.METHODSActive surveillance was conducted to identify new cases of S. pyogenes. WGS guided targeted epidemiological investigations, and infection control measures were implemented. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based genome phylogeny, emm typing, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were performed...
May 9, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736133/psychiatric-epidemiology-and-mental-health-service-in-the-tibet-autonomous-region-of-the-people-s-republic-of-china
#10
Liang Xie, Geng Wei, Yan Xu, Yueqin Huang, Xiehe Liu, Tao Li, Wan-Jun Guo
Little is known internationally about the psychiatric epidemiology and mental health services in Tibet. This article reviews the relevant research of psychiatric epidemiology and mental health services in the Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR), P. R. China. There is a substantive number of people suffering from mental disorders and psychological problems in an area with a general lack of modern mental health institutions and professionals.
April 25, 2018: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725700/profiles-of-childhood-trauma-and-psychopathology-us-national-epidemiologic-survey
#11
Emma Curran, Gary Adamson, Michael Rosato, Paul De Cock, Gerard Leavey
PURPOSE: Childhood trauma may increase vulnerability to numerous specific psychiatric disorders, or a generalised liability to experience dimensions of internalising or externalising psychopathology. We use a nationally representative sample (N = 34,653) to examine the long-term consequences of childhood trauma and their combined effect as predictors of subsequent psychopathology. METHODS: Data from the US National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions were used...
May 3, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722101/recent-developments-in-the-genetics-of-adhd
#12
Oliver Grimm, Sarah Kittel-Schneider, Andreas Reif
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental psychiatric disorder which affects children and adults. ADHD is one of the psychiatric disorders with the strongest genetic basis according to familial, twin and SNP-based epidemiological studies. In this review, we provide an update of recent insights in the genetic basis of ADHD. We discuss recent progress from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) looking at common variants as well as rare copy number variations (CNVs). New analysis of gene groups, so-called functional ontologies, provide some insight into the gene networks afflicted, pointing to the role of neurodevelopmentally expressed gene-networks...
May 2, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717684/prevalence-of-vitamin-d-deficiency-in-adult-patients-admitted-to-a-psychiatric-hospital
#13
Dipen Patel, Manjunath Minajagi
Aims and methodVitamin D deficiency is increasing in the general population, and is linked with physical and mental illness. However, evidence on its prevalence in people with mental illness is limited. This study investigated vitamin D deficiency in 104 adult patients admitted to a psychiatric hospital in the UK. RESULTS: Forty-nine per cent were vitamin D deficient (serum 25(OH)D 50 nmol/L). There were no statistically significant differences in mean serum vitamin D between different subgroups of mental illness...
May 2, 2018: BJPsych Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713103/a-case-of-concomitant-pseudocyesis-and-couvade-syndrome-variant
#14
Srinagesh Mannekote Thippaiah, Vinu George, Badari Birur, Ananda Pandurangi
Per DSM-V, pseudocyesis is included under the category "other specified somatic symptom and related disorder" and is defined as a false belief of being pregnant that is associated with objective signs and reported symptoms of pregnancy. The male counterpart of pseudocyesis is Couvade syndrome, also called "sympathetic pregnancy" where a man experiences symptoms of pregnancy when his female partner is pregnant. There are extensive reports on pseudocyesis and Couvade syndrome in psychiatric literature but none with features of both, in a single case...
March 13, 2018: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708042/the-epidemiology-of-5-methoxy-n-n-dimethyltryptamine-5-meo-dmt-use-benefits-consequences-patterns-of-use-subjective-effects-and-reasons-for-consumption
#15
Alan K Davis, Joseph P Barsuglia, Rafael Lancelotta, Robert M Grant, Elise Renn
BACKGROUND/AIM: 5-Methoxy- N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) is a psychoactive compound found in several plants and in high concentrations in Bufo alvarius toad venom. Synthetic, toad, and plant-sourced 5-MeO-DMT are used for spiritual and recreational purposes and may have psychotherapeutic effects. However, the use of 5-MeO-DMT is not well understood. Therefore, we examined patterns of use, motivations for consumption, subjective effects, and potential benefits and consequences associated with 5-MeO-DMT use...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706161/the-epigenetic-clock-at-birth-associations-with-maternal-antenatal-depression-and-child-psychiatric-problems
#16
Anna Suarez, Jari Lahti, Darina Czamara, Marius Lahti-Pulkkinen, Anna K Knight, Polina Girchenko, Esa Hämäläinen, Eero Kajantie, Jari Lipsanen, Hannele Laivuori, Pia M Villa, Rebecca M Reynolds, Alicia K Smith, Elisabeth B Binder, Katri Räikkönen
OBJECTIVE: Maternal antenatal depression may compromise the fetal developmental milieu and contribute to individual differences in aging and disease trajectories in later life. We evaluated the association between maternal antenatal depression and a novel biomarker of aging at birth, namely epigenetic gestational age (GA) based on fetal cord blood methylation data. We also examined whether this biomarker prospectively predicts and mediates maternal effects on early childhood psychiatric problems...
May 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704416/kleptomania-or-common-theft-diagnostic-and-judicial-difficulties
#17
REVIEW
Justyna Sipowicz, Ryszard Kujawski
First descriptions of kleptomania as a mental disorder date back to the nineteenth century. For the first time, kleptomania as an accompanying symptom rather than a formal diagnosis was included in the classification of psychiatric disorders of the American Psychiatric Association DSM-I in 1952. It was included in the International Classification of Diseases ICD-10 and classified under "habit and impulse disorders". Kleptomania is a serious disorder, as numerous thefts are impulsively carried out, carrying the risk of detection and consequently criminal liability...
February 28, 2018: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699524/epidemiological-study-of-child-and-adolescent-psychiatric-disorders-in-lithuania
#18
Sigita Lesinskiene, Sigita Girdzijauskiene, Grazina Gintiliene, Dovile Butkiene, Dainius Puras, Robert Goodman, Einar Heiervang
BACKGROUND: From the public health perspective, epidemiological data of child mental health and psychosocial correlates were necessary and very lacking in Lithuanian society that has been undergoing rapid socio-economic change since the past decades. Together with determining the prevalence rates of disorders and assessing the needs for the services, this study has also shifted attention from the highly selective samples of children attending children and adolescent mental health services towards less severe cases of psychopathology as well as different attitudes of parents and teachers...
April 24, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695074/socioeconomic-status-and-self-rated-oral-health-diminished-return-among-hispanic-whites
#19
Shervin Assari
Background. An extensive body of knowledge has documented weaker health effects of socio-economic status (SES) for Blacks compared to Whites, a phenomenon also known as Blacks&rsquo; diminished return. It is, however, unknown whether the same diminished return also holds for other ethnic minorities such as Hispanics or not. Aim. Using a nationally representative sample, the current study aimed to compare Non-Hispanic and Hispanic Whites for the effects of SES on self-rated oral health. Methods. For the current cross-sectional study, we used data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES), 2001⁻2003...
April 24, 2018: Dentistry journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693592/ethnic-variations-in-psychosocial-and-health-correlates-of-eating-disorders
#20
Shervin Assari, Mariana R DeFreitas
The aim of this study is to explore ethnic variations in psychosocial and health correlates of eating disorders in the United States, Specifically, we compared associations between gender, socioeconomic status (SES), body mass index (BMI), physical and mental self-rated health (SRH), and major depressive disorder (MDD) with eating disorders (EDs) across 10 different ethnic groups in the United States. Data was obtained from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES), a national household probability sample collected in 2001⁻2003...
April 25, 2018: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
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