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Psychiatric Epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341166/-identification-of-neurodegenerative-diseases-in-administrative-databases-in-france-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#1
REVIEW
A Gallini, F Moisan, G Maura, L Carcaillon-Bentata, E Leray, J Haesebaert, A Bruandet, E Moutengou, L Luciano, A Weill, B Marin, V Gardette
BACKGROUND: Given the health, social and economic burden of neurodegenerative diseases (ND), the development of epidemiologic studies is required. Administrative databases, such as the French national health insurance database (SNIIRAM) could represent an opportunity for researchers. ND could be presumed from drug reimbursement data, hospital stays or registration of a chronic condition. The aim of this study was to describe, in French administrative databases, algorithms used to identify Alzheimer's disease and associated disorders (ADAD), Parkinson's disease and associated disorders (PDAD), multiple sclerosis (MS), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)...
March 21, 2017: Revue D'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327851/-perceptions-on-healthcare-in-people-with-self-identified-mental-health-problems-in-the-rural-areas-of-peru
#2
Javier E Saavedra, Verousckha Uchofen-Herrera
Person-centered health and community health perspectives on its needs and resources are mandatory in healthcare policies in highly cultural diverse contexts. From this point of view, epidemiology needs to be centered not only on the disease, but also on the health diagnosis and its context, including the points of view of people and the community about their problems and needs. This article describes and qualitatively analyzes the views of adults with self-identified mental health disorders (MHD) in rural regions on the coast, highlands, and jungle of Peru, as causal factors, personal resources, and healthcare expectations from health facilities, using the narrative approach of ideographic formulation proposed by the World Psychiatric Association...
October 2016: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327508/adverse-childhood-experiences-commitment-offense-and-race-ethnicity-are-the-effects-crime-race-and-ethnicity-specific
#3
Matt DeLisi, Justin Alcala, Abdi Kusow, Andy Hochstetler, Mark H Heirigs, Jonathan W Caudill, Chad R Trulson, Michael T Baglivio
Adverse childhood experiences are associated with an array of health, psychiatric, and behavioral problems including antisocial behavior. Criminologists have recently utilized adverse childhood experiences as an organizing research framework and shown that adverse childhood experiences are associated with delinquency, violence, and more chronic/severe criminal careers. However, much less is known about adverse childhood experiences vis-à-vis specific forms of crime and whether the effects vary across race and ethnicity...
March 22, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322246/genetic-correlation-between-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-and-schizophrenia
#4
Russell L McLaughlin, Dick Schijven, Wouter van Rheenen, Kristel R van Eijk, Margaret O'Brien, René S Kahn, Roel A Ophoff, An Goris, Daniel G Bradley, Ammar Al-Chalabi, Leonard H van den Berg, Jurjen J Luykx, Orla Hardiman, Jan H Veldink
We have previously shown higher-than-expected rates of schizophrenia in relatives of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), suggesting an aetiological relationship between the diseases. Here, we investigate the genetic relationship between ALS and schizophrenia using genome-wide association study data from over 100,000 unique individuals. Using linkage disequilibrium score regression, we estimate the genetic correlation between ALS and schizophrenia to be 14.3% (7.05-21.6; P=1 × 10(-4)) with schizophrenia polygenic risk scores explaining up to 0...
March 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321919/borderline-personality-disorder-and-regularly-drinking-alcohol-before-sex
#5
Ronald G Thompson, Nicholas R Eaton, Mei-Chen Hu, Deborah S Hasin
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Drinking alcohol before sex increases the likelihood of engaging in unprotected intercourse, having multiple sexual partners and becoming infected with sexually transmitted infections. Borderline personality disorder (BPD), a complex psychiatric disorder characterised by pervasive instability in emotional regulation, self-image, interpersonal relationships and impulse control, is associated with substance use disorders and sexual risk behaviours. However, no study has examined the relationship between BPD and drinking alcohol before sex in the USA...
March 20, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320448/sleep-disturbance-and-its-associations-with-severity-of-dependence-depression-and-quality-of-life-among-heroin-dependent-patients-a-cross-sectional-descriptive-study
#6
Vincent Chin-Hung Chen, Hua Ting, Meng-Huan Wu, Tsang-Yaw Lin, Michael Gossop
BACKGROUND: Sleep disturbance is common and may adversely affect treatment outcome, mental health, and quality of life in heroin-dependent patients. Previous studies have focused upon patients receiving treatment. We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study to explore the 1-month prevalence of sleep disturbance and its associations with socio-demographic, substance-related characteristics, severity of dependence, severity of depression, and quality of life among heroin-dependent patients before entering treatment program...
March 20, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314762/cerebral-microhemorrhages-mechanisms-consequences-and-prevention
#7
Zoltan I Ungvari, Stefano Tarantini, Angelia C Kirkpatrick, Anna Csiszar, Calin I Prodan
The increasing prevalence of multifocal cerebral microhemorrhages (CMHs, also known as "cerebral microbleeds") is a significant, newly recognized problem in the aging population of the Western world. CMHs are associated with rupture of small intracerebral vessels and are thought to progressively impair neuronal function, potentially contributing to cognitive decline, geriatric psychiatric syndromes and gait disorders. Clinical studies show that aging and hypertension significantly increase prevalence of CMHs...
March 17, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303534/chronic-tobacco-smoking-on-psychopathological-symptoms-impulsivity-and-cognitive-deficits-in-hiv-infected-individuals
#8
Linda Chang, Ahnate Lim, Eric Lau, Daniel Alicata
HIV-infected individuals (HIV+) has 2-3 times the rate of tobacco smoking than the general population, and whether smoking may lead to greater psychiatric symptoms or cognitive deficits remains unclear. We evaluated the independent and combined effects of being HIV+ and chronic tobacco-smoking on impulsivity, psychopathological symptoms and cognition. 104 participants [27 seronegative (SN)-non-Smokers, 26 SN-Smokers, 29 HIV+ non-Smokers, 22 HIV+ Smokers] were assessed for psychopathology symptoms (Symptom Checklist-90, SCL-90), depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale, CES-D), impulsivity (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, BIS), decision-making (The Iowa Gambling Task, IGT, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, WCST), and cognition (seven neurocognitive domains)...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297592/a-systematized-review-of-atypical-antipsychotics-in-pregnant-women-balancing-between-risks-of-untreated-illness-and-risks-of-drug-related-adverse-effects
#9
Sarah Tosato, Umberto Albert, Simona Tomassi, Felice Iasevoli, Claudia Carmassi, Silvia Ferrari, Maria Giulia Nanni, Alessandra Nivoli, Umberto Volpe, Anna Rita Atti, Andrea Fiorillo
OBJECTIVE: To summarize risks related to (1) illness and (2) second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) treatment in pregnant women and their offspring. Concerning illness-related risks, we focused on bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, psychiatric disorders for which SGAs are preferentially prescribed. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Ovid, Scopus, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library were searched from the date of the first available article to October 2015 using the following key terms: pregnancy OR gestation OR bipolar disorder OR schizophrenia...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292624/differential-neuropsychological-functioning-between-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-with-and-without-conduct-disorder
#10
Yu-Ju Lin, Susan Shur-Fen Gau
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate neuropsychological functioning of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with and without comorbidities of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and/or conduct disorder (CD) and the mediation effects of the neuropsychological functions in the relationship between ADHD and ODD/CD symptoms to increase our understanding about these frequently co-occurring disorders. METHODS: Adolescents aged 11-18 years were interviewed by the Kiddie epidemiologic version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia to confirm their previous and current ADHD status and other psychiatric diagnoses...
March 11, 2017: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287497/role-of-genetics-in-the-etiology-of-autistic-spectrum-disorder-towards-a-hierarchical-diagnostic-strategy
#11
REVIEW
Cyrille Robert, Laurent Pasquier, David Cohen, Mélanie Fradin, Roberto Canitano, Léna Damaj, Sylvie Odent, Sylvie Tordjman
Progress in epidemiological, molecular and clinical genetics with the development of new techniques has improved knowledge on genetic syndromes associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The objective of this article is to show the diversity of genetic disorders associated with ASD (based on an extensive review of single-gene disorders, copy number variants, and other chromosomal disorders), and consequently to propose a hierarchical diagnostic strategy with a stepwise evaluation, helping general practitioners/pediatricians and child psychiatrists to collaborate with geneticists and neuropediatricians, in order to search for genetic disorders associated with ASD...
March 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277029/physical-psychiatric-comorbidity-patterns-and-explanations-for-ethnic-group-differences
#12
Christy L Erving
OBJECTIVE: This paper examines ethnic differences in the co-occurrence of physical and psychiatric health problems (physical-psychiatric comorbidity) for women and men. The following ethnic groups are included: Non-Latino Whites, African Americans, Caribbean Blacks, Spanish Caribbean Blacks, Mexicans, Cubans, Puerto Ricans, Other Latinos, Chinese, Filipinos, Vietnamese, and Other Asian Americans. In addition, the study assesses the extent to which social factors (socioeconomic status, stress exposure, social support) account for ethnic differences in physical-psychiatric comorbidity (PPC)...
February 7, 2017: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271905/a-comprehensive-overview-of-the-neuropsychiatry-of-parkinson-s-disease-a-review
#13
Muhammad Adnan Khan, Syed A Quadri, Hassaan Tohid
Parkinson's disease is a widespread neurological illness. However, its psychiatric links have also been discussed lately by many authors, which has brought more depth to the specialized field of neuropsychiatry. Neuropsychiatric complications are commonly seen in Parkinson's patients, including major depression, anxiety, psychosis and hallucination, and cognitive abnormality. Almost all of these complications have a distinct pathophysiology and treatment. In this article we review the most recent studies about the association of these symptoms with Parkinson's disease and highlight the epidemiology, diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment of the neuropsychiatric complications, with more emphasis on the pathophysiology of these complications...
2017: Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260159/emerging-biomarkers-and-screening-for-cognitive-frailty
#14
REVIEW
Qingwei Ruan, Grazia D'Onofrio, Daniele Sancarlo, Antonio Greco, Madia Lozupone, Davide Seripa, Francesco Panza, Zhuowei Yu
Physical frailty and cognitive frailty are two important targets of secondary intervention in aging research to narrow the gap between life and health span. The objective of the present narrative review was to examine clinical and epidemiological studies investigating the recently proposed construct of cognitive frailty and its subtypes, with a focus on operational definitions, clinical criteria, and emerging biomarkers potentially useful for the screening of this novel entity. Both physical frailty and frailty indexes with a multidimensional nature were associated with late-life cognitive impairment/decline, incident dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment, vascular dementia, non-AD dementias, and AD pathology proposing cognitive frailty as a clinical entity with cognitive impairment related to physical causes with a potential reversibility...
March 4, 2017: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254608/the-center-for-epidemiologic-studies-depression-ces-d-scale-measures-a-continuum-from-well-being-to-depression-testing-two-key-predictions-of-positive-clinical-psychology
#15
Andy P Siddaway, Alex M Wood, Peter J Taylor
BACKGROUND: Two core but untested predictions of Positive Clinical Psychology (PCP) are that (1) Many psychiatric problems can be understood as one end of bipolar continua with well-being, and (2) that reducing psychiatric symptoms will provide an equal (near linear) decrease in risk for several other psychiatric variables, irrespective of position on continua. AIMS: We test these predictions in relation to a purported well-being/depression continuum, as measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D), a popular measure of depressive experiences in research and clinical practice...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254245/design-of-a-multisite-study-assessing-the-impact-of-tic-disorders-on-individuals-families-and-communities
#16
E F Augustine, H R Adams, R H Bitsko, E van Wijngaarden, A H Claussen, A Thatcher, C E Hanks, A B Lewin, T G O'Connor, A Vierhile, M L Danielson, R Kurlan, T K Murphy, J W Mink
BACKGROUND: Tic disorders, including Tourette syndrome, are complex, multisymptom diseases, yet the impact of these disorders on affected children, families, and communities is not well understood. METHODS: To improve the understanding of the impacts of Tourette syndrome, two research groups conducted independent cross-sectional studies using qualitative and quantitative measures. They focused on similar themes, but distinct scientific objectives, and the sites collaborated to align methods of independent research proposals with the aim of increasing the analyzable sample size...
March 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242045/epidemiology-of-overdose-episodes-from-the-period-prior-to-hospitalization-for-drug-poisoning-until-discharge-in-japan-an-exploratory-descriptive-study-using-a-nationwide-claims-database
#17
Yasuyuki Okumura, Nobuo Sakata, Kunihiko Takahashi, Daisuke Nishi, Hisateru Tachimori
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the nationwide epidemiology of the annual rate, causative substance, and clinical course of overdose-related admission. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of overdose episodes from the period prior to hospitalization for drug poisoning until discharge to home. METHODS: We assessed all cases of admission due to overdose (21,663 episodes) in Japan from October 2012 through September 2013 using the National Database of Health Insurance Claims and Specific Health Checkups of Japan...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240821/-invited-review-genetic-research-on-alcohol-use-outcomes-in-african-american-populations-a-review-of-the-literature-associated-challenges-and-implications
#18
REVIEW
Danielle M Dick, Peter Barr, Mignonne Guy, Aashir Nasim, Denise Scott
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There have been remarkable advances in understanding genetic influences on complex traits; however, individuals of African descent have been underrepresented in genetic research. METHODS: We review the limitations of existing genetic research on alcohol phenotypes in African Americans (AA) including both twin and gene identification studies, possible reasons for underrepresentation of AAs in genetic research, the implications of the lack of racially diverse samples, and special considerations regarding conducting genetic research in AA populations...
February 27, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239599/iran-diabetes-research-roadmap-idrr-study-a-preliminary-study-on-diabetes-research-in-the-world-and-iran
#19
Ensieh Nasli-Esfahani, Farshad Farzadfar, Marjan Kouhnavard, Robabeh Ghodssi-Ghassemabadi, Alireza Khajavi, Maryam Peimani, Rezvan Razmandeh, Mahboobeh Vala, Gita Shafiee, Camelia Rambod, Mahnaz Sanjari, Maryam Aalaa, Maryam Ghodsi, Farideh Razi, Fatemeh Bandarian, Bagher Larijani
BACKGROUNDS: Diabetes is one of the most common metabolic disorders worldwide. This study aim was to provide detail analysis of diabetes research output and its trend in Iran as well as in the world and compare them. METHODS: Data was retrieved from PubMed database using a suitable search strategy and application of proper operator "AND", "OR" and "NOT". All English documents published from 2008 to 2012 were included. Meeting abstract, letter to the editor, guidelines, consensus and reviews were excluded...
2017: Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237759/the-psychometric-validity-of-the-center-for-epidemiological-studies-depression-scale-ces-d-in-first-episode-schizophrenia-spectrum
#20
Sarah E Herniman, Kelly A Allott, Eóin Killackey, Robert Hester, Sue M Cotton
Depressive pathology is common in first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders (FES), and is frequently assessed using the Center for Epidemiological Studies - Depression Scale (CES-D), an instrument designed for use in community samples. Despite its widespread use, no prior study has examined the psychometric validity of the CES-D in assessing depressive pathology in FES. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric validity of the CES-D in FES. This study involved secondary analysis of baseline data from a single blind, randomized controlled trial of vocational intervention for individuals with FES (N=91; age range: 15-25 years)...
February 11, 2017: Psychiatry Research
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