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Psychiatric Epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636768/driving-aggression-and-anxiety-intersections-assessment-and-interventions
#1
Heidi M Zinzow, Stephanie M Jeffirs
OBJECTIVE: Driving aggression and anxiety are significant contributors to risky driving and motor vehicle crashes (MVCs), which are leading causes of U.S. morbidity and mortality. Even though aggression and anxiety can be conceptualized as related features of the fight-or-flight response, literature on these topics has not been integrated. Driving aggression and anxiety are also transdiagnostic constructs that span multiple psychiatric disorders. Assessment and treatment of these complex problems must be understood to reduce the public health burden of MVCs...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622818/use-of-a-smartphone-application-to-screen-for-depression-and-suicide-in-south-korea
#2
Seung-Ho Jang, Young Sup Woo, Jeong-Wan Hong, Bo-Hyun Yoon, Tae-Yeon Hwang, Moon-Doo Kim, Sang-Yeol Lee, Won-Myong Bahk
OBJECTIVE: This is a cross-sectional study using a free depression and suicide screening smartphone application, which contains the data from the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) and a Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R). METHOD: The free application was downloaded worldwide from Apple's App Store and Android Market, and the participants who downloaded the application were actively measured. RESULTS: The subjects totaled 208,683 men and women...
May 2017: General Hospital Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622809/racial-and-ethnic-differences-in-mental-healthcare-utilization-consistent-with-potentially-effective-care-the-role-of-patient-preferences
#3
Anika L Hines, Lisa A Cooper, Leiyu Shi
OBJECTIVE: Ethnic minorities are less likely than Whites to initiate and continue mental healthcare. Minorities also prefer non-medical approaches to address mental health issues. We evaluated sector-type as a modifier of the association of race/ethnicity with service utilization for mental health. We hypothesized that minorities utilize non-mental health sectors at rates consistent with guidelines and similar to Whites. METHODS: We examined data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiologic Studies (CPES) (n=3803)...
May 2017: General Hospital Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620379/neuroimmune-interactions-in-schizophrenia-focus-on-vagus-nerve-stimulation-and-activation-of-the-alpha-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor
#4
REVIEW
Fabiana Maria das Graças Corsi-Zuelli, Fernanda Brognara, Gustavo Fernando da Silva Quirino, Carlos Hiroji Hiroki, Rafael Sobrano Fais, Cristina Marta Del-Ben, Luis Ulloa, Helio Cesar Salgado, Alexandre Kanashiro, Camila Marcelino Loureiro
Schizophrenia is one of the most debilitating mental disorders and is aggravated by the lack of efficacious treatment. Although its etiology is unclear, epidemiological studies indicate that infection and inflammation during development induces behavioral, morphological, neurochemical, and cognitive impairments, increasing the risk of developing schizophrenia. The inflammatory hypothesis of schizophrenia is also supported by clinical studies demonstrating systemic inflammation and microglia activation in schizophrenic patients...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620340/a-new-questionnaire-for-estimating-the-severity-of-visual-height-intolerance-and-acrophobia-by-a-metric-interval-scale
#5
Doreen Huppert, Eva Grill, Thomas Brandt
AIMS: To construct and validate a short scale for the assessment of the severity of visual height intolerance (vHI) and acrophobia. METHODS: The questionnaire was developed from two earlier representative epidemiological studies (n = 5,529). Items were applied in a telephone survey of a representative population-based sample. RESULTS: A total of 1,960 persons were included. The life-time prevalence of vHI was 32.7% (f: 36.1%; m: 28.4%); 12% of these persons fulfilled the psychiatric criteria of acrophobia...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619855/pediatric-ptsd-clinical-forensic-and-diagnostic-understanding
#6
Frank K Tedeschi, Stephen B Billick
Exposure to trauma is a common event in the lives of children and adolescents living in the United States. Although a minority of youth develop full posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after a traumatic event, those who do tend to have an extended course of symptoms in multiple functional domains and higher rates of psychiatric comorbidities. Pediatric PTSD can play an important role in legal settings, and requires that an expert witness be well versed in advances in clinical and conceptual models of this diagnosis and familiar with current research devoted to the posttraumatic response in youth...
June 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601722/simplifying-profiles-of-comorbidity-in-bipolar-disorder
#7
Lori R Eisner, Sheri L Johnson, Eric A Youngstrom, Jennifer G Pearlstein
BACKGROUND: Comorbid psychiatric symptoms in bipolar disorder (BD) predict poorer course of illness and treatment outcome. The sheer number of comorbid symptoms has thwarted developing treatments to address these comorbid concerns. The goal of this study was to develop a more parsimonious approach to understanding clusters of comorbid symptoms within BD. METHOD: Data were collected as part of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Structured diagnostic interviews were conducted with 43,093 participants using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DSM-IV (AUDADIS-IV)...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601132/acute-brain-failure-pathophysiology-diagnosis-management-and-sequelae-of-delirium
#8
REVIEW
José R Maldonado
Delirium is the most common psychiatric syndrome found in the general hospital setting, with an incidence as high as 87% in the acute care setting. Delirium is a neurobehavioral syndrome caused by the transient disruption of normal neuronal activity secondary to systemic disturbances. The development of delirium is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, cost of care, hospital-acquired complications, placement in specialized intermediate and long-term care facilities, slower rate of recovery, poor functional and cognitive recovery, decreased quality of life, and prolonged hospital stays...
July 2017: Critical Care Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600931/prospective-memory-deficits-in-patients-with-depression-a-meta-analysis
#9
Fu-Chun Zhou, Yuan-Yuan Wang, Wei Zheng, Qinge Zhang, Gabor S Ungvari, Chee H Ng, Juan Zhang, Yu-Tao Xiang
BACKGROUND: Prospective memory (PM) can be impaired in patients with psychiatric disorders including depression. This meta-analysis systematically examined PM in patients with depression. METHODS: The meta-analysis was conducted according to the guidelines from Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE). Case-control studies on PM in patients with depression were included. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using random effect models...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589245/quitting-mental-health-services-among-racial-and-ethnic-groups-of-americans-with-depression
#10
Orion Mowbray, Rosalyn Denise Campbell, Irang Kim, Jessica A Scott
Research on racial/ethnic differences in quitting mental health services has yet to examine the multiple forms of services offered and reasons why racial/ethnic groups quit. Data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES) examined whether race/ethnicity was related to quitting nine types of mental health services within a multivariate framework, and whether any racial/ethnic differences emerged among 16 assessed reasons for quitting mental health services (N = 437). Odds of quitting mental health services provided by social workers, non-medical health professionals, counselors, psychiatrists, and psychologists varied significantly by race/ethnicity...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589236/geographic-variation-in-mental-health-care-disparities-among-racially-ethnically-diverse-adults-with-psychiatric-disorders
#11
Giyeon Kim, Natalie Dautovich, Katy-Lauren Ford, Daniel E Jimenez, Benjamin Cook, Richard M Allman, Patricia Parmelee
PURPOSE: The main purpose of this paper is to examine geographic variation in unmet need for mental health care among racially/ethnically diverse adults with psychiatric disorders in the US. METHODS: Drawn from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES; 2001-2003), adults with any past year psychiatric disorder diagnosis (n = 3211) from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds were selected for analyses. Using weighted data, descriptive analyses and logistic regression analyses were conducted...
June 6, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587553/guidelines-of-the-brazilian-association-of-studies-on-alcohol-and-other-drugs-abead-for-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-psychiatric-comorbidity-with-alcohol-and-other-substance-and-dependence
#12
Marcos Zaleski, Ronaldo Ramos Laranjeira, Ana Cecília Petta Roselli Marques, Lílian Ratto, Marcos Romano, Hamer Nastasy Palhares Alves, Márcia Britto de Macedo Soares, Valter Abelardino, Félix Kessler, Sílvia Brasiliano, Sérgio Nicastri, Patrícia Brunferntrinker Hochgraf, Analice de Paula Gigliotti, Tadeu Lemos
In recent years, several studies have been focused on the comorbidity of psychiatric disorders with alcohol and other substance dependence. In this context, the Brazilian Association of Studies on Alcohol and Other Drugs initiated a project to establish Brazilian Guidelines. The aim of this study was to review diagnostic and therapeutic criteria for the most prevalent psychiatric comorbidities. Randomized clinical trials, epidemiological studies, animal testing and other forms of research are reviewed herein...
June 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576305/cystic-fibrosis-transmembrane-regulator-modulators-implications-for-the-management-of-depression-and-anxiety-in-cystic-fibrosis
#13
REVIEW
Jaideep S Talwalkar, Jonathan L Koff, Hochang B Lee, Clemente J Britto, Arielle M Mulenos, Anna M Georgiopoulos
BACKGROUND: Individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) are at high risk for depression and anxiety, which are associated with worse medical outcomes. Novel therapies for CF hold great promise for improving physical health, but the effects of these therapies on mental health remain poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: This review aims to familiarize psychiatrists with the potential effect of novel CF therapies on depression and anxiety. METHODS: We discuss novel therapies that directly target the mutant CF protein, the CF transmembrane regulator (CFTR), which are called CFTR modulators...
April 5, 2017: Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573761/sex-differences-in-the-associations-between-vagal-reactivity-and-oppositional-defiant-disorder-symptoms
#14
Pablo Vidal-Ribas, Andrew Pickles, Florin Tibu, Helen Sharp, Jonathan Hill
BACKGROUND: Vagal reactivity to stress in children has been associated with future psychiatric outcomes. However, results have been mixed possibly because these effects are in opposite direction in boys and girls. These sex differences are relevant in the context of development of psychopathology, whereby the rates of psychiatric disorders differ by sex. In this study, we aimed to examine the association between vagal reactivity, assessed as a reduction in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) in response to a challenge, and the development of future oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms in boys and girls...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572429/an-architect-for-mental-health-an-appreciation-of-michele-tansella
#15
EDITORIAL
Graham Thornicroft
Michele Tansella, Professor of Psychiatry at the University of Verona, died in 2015. This editorial pays tribute to his contributions to scholarship in the field of psychiatric epidemiology and health service research, and to his highly effective efforts to improve mental healthcare, locally, nationally and internationally.
June 2017: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572274/caspr2-autoantibodies-are-raised-during-pregnancy-in-mothers-of-children-with-mental-retardation-and-disorders-of-psychological-development-but-not-autism
#16
Ester Coutinho, Leslie Jacobson, Marianne Giørtz Pedersen, Michael Eriksen Benros, Bent Nørgaard-Pedersen, Preben Bo Mortensen, Paul J Harrison, Angela Vincent
BACKGROUND, METHODS AND OBJECTIVES: Maternal autoantibodies to neuronal proteins may be one cause of neurodevelopmental disorders. This exploratory study used the Danish archived midgestational sera and their nationwide registers to search for antibodies to the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2) in maternal sera, and to relate them to subsequent psychiatric diagnoses in the woman or her child. RESULTS: In a sample of 192 women, there was no association between antibody status and subsequent psychosis in the mothers...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28564699/suicide-rates-after-discharge-from-psychiatric-facilities-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Daniel Thomas Chung, Christopher James Ryan, Dusan Hadzi-Pavlovic, Swaran Preet Singh, Clive Stanton, Matthew Michael Large
Importance: High rates of suicide after psychiatric hospitalization are reported in many studies, yet the magnitude of the increases and the factors underlying them remain unclear. Objectives: To quantify the rates of suicide after discharge from psychiatric facilities and examine what moderates those rates. Data Sources: English-language, peer-reviewed publications published from January 1, 1946, to May 1, 2016, were located using MEDLINE, PsychINFO, and EMBASE with the search terms ((suicid*)...
May 31, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558532/development-of-a-short-self-report-disability-questionnaire-for-health-conditions
#18
Johannes F L M van Kemenade, Clemens M H Hosman
For use in mental epidemiological survey research, a short self-report questionnaire measuring current disability is needed to assess the severity of health symptoms of respondents. A questionnaire, measuring current disability at the somatic, mental, and social domains in the environments of work, family (social) life, and leisure time was made along guidelines issued at the 54th World Health Assembly regarding the acceptance of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. This article presents the reliability and validity of the Self-Report Disability Questionnaire (SRDQ)...
January 1, 2017: Psychological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555381/do-racial-patterns-in-psychological-distress-shed-light-on-the-black-white-depression-paradox-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
David M Barnes, Lisa M Bates
PURPOSE: Major epidemiologic studies in the US reveal a consistent "paradox" by which psychiatric outcomes such as major depressive disorder (MDD) are less prevalent among Blacks relative to Whites, despite greater exposure to social and economic stressors and worse physical health outcomes. A second paradox, which has received less attention and has never been systematically documented, is the discrepancy between these patterns and Black-White comparisons in psychological distress, which reveal consistently higher levels among Blacks...
May 29, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549241/establishing-the-brief-assessment-of-cognition-short-form
#20
Max Lam, Mingyuan Wang, Wanping Huang, Goi Khia Eng, Attilio Rapisarda, Michael Kraus, Sim Kang, R S E Keefe, Jimmy Lee
The study aims to identify and validate a parsimonious subset of tests in the commonly used Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) that allows the evaluation of global cognitive ability. Several permutations of subtests from the BACS were examined to identify the best subset of tests to compose the short form measure. The Brief Assessment of Cognition-Short Form (BAC-SF) was evaluated for convergent validity in healthy and psychiatric samples (N = 3718). Verbal Memory, Digit Sequencing, and Symbol Coding subtests were found to best summarize the variance of composite scores in both Asian and US Norming samples (r = 0...
October 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
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