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Psychiatric Epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325848/a-genetic-investigation-of-sex-bias-in-the-prevalence-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#1
Joanna Martin, Raymond K Walters, Ditte Demontis, Manuel Mattheisen, S Hong Lee, Elise Robinson, Isabell Brikell, Laura Ghirardi, Henrik Larsson, Paul Lichtenstein, Nicholas Eriksson, Thomas Werge, Preben Bo Mortensen, Marianne Giørtz Pedersen, Ole Mors, Merete Nordentoft, David M Hougaard, Jonas Bybjerg-Grauholm, Naomi R Wray, Barbara Franke, Stephen V Faraone, Michael C O'Donovan, Anita Thapar, Anders D Børglum, Benjamin M Neale
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) shows substantial heritability and is two to seven times more common in male individuals than in female individuals. We examined two putative genetic mechanisms underlying this sex bias: sex-specific heterogeneity and higher burden of risk in female cases. METHODS: We analyzed genome-wide autosomal common variants from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium and iPSYCH Project (n = 20,183 cases, n = 35,191 controls) and Swedish population register data (n = 77,905 cases, n = 1,874,637 population controls)...
December 2, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325616/huntington-disease
#2
Rhia Ghosh, Sarah J Tabrizi
Huntington disease is a monogenic neurodegenerative disorder that displays an autosomal-dominant pattern of inheritance. It is characterized by motor, psychiatric, and cognitive symptoms that progress over 15-20 years. Since the identification of the causative genetic mutation in 1993 much has been discovered about the underlying pathogenic mechanisms, but as yet there are no disease-modifying therapies available. This chapter reviews the epidemiology, genetic basis, pathogenesis, presentation, and clinical management of Huntington disease...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323557/neuropsychological-assessment-of-412-hiv-infected-individuals-in-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-brazil
#3
Maria Rita Polo Gascón, José Ernesto Vidal, Yolanda Marques Mazzaro, Jerusa Smid, Rosa Maria Nascimento Marcusso, Claudio Garcia Capitão, Elizeu Macedo Coutinho, Glaucia Rosana Guerra Benute, Mara Cristina Souza De Lucia, Augusto César Penalva de Oliveira
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remain frequent even among individuals receiving combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). In addition, HAND may adversely affect the quality of life and adherence to cART. There is scarce epidemiological information about HAND in Latin America. This cross-sectional study recruited HIV-infected patients from a tertiary teaching institution in São Paulo, Brazil, between May 2013 and February 2015. The patients were adults with at least 4 years of education and patients with current neurological or psychiatric diseases were excluded...
January 2018: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322163/pragmatic-psychiatric-epidemiology-if-you-can-t-count-it-it-won-t-count
#4
John J McGrath, Preben Bo Mortensen, Harvey A Whiteford
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 10, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321054/the-association-between-daily-concentrations-of-air-pollution-and-visits-to-a-psychiatric-emergency-unit-a-case-crossover-study
#5
Anna Oudin, Daniel Oudin Åström, Peter Asplund, Steinn Steingrimsson, Zoltan Szabo, Hanne Krage Carlsen
BACKGROUND: Air pollution is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Experimental studies, and a few epidemiological studies, suggest that air pollution may cause acute exacerbation of psychiatric disorders, and even increase the rate of suicide attempts, but epidemiological studies on air pollution in association with psychiatric disorders are still few. Our aim was to investigate associations between daily fluctuations in air pollution concentrations and the daily number of visits to a psychiatric emergency unit...
January 10, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306693/the-iraqi-national-study-of-suicide-report-on-suicide-data-in-iraq-in-2015-and-2016
#6
Mohammed J Abbas, Nesif Alhemiary, Emad Abdul Razaq, Shakir Naosh, Louis Appleby
BACKGROUND: Very little is known regarding the epidemiology of suicides in Iraq, given the lack of a national surveillance system. Therefore, the government initiated this project "The Iraqi National Study of Suicide METHODS: The study covered 13 (out of 18) provinces in Iraq. A data collection form was designed by the researchers. The forms were completed by police stations in the 13 provinces. Data were extracted from the legal investigation (which include police investigation, family reports and postmortem reports) of cases of when there was no clear cause of death and where there was final verdict of suicide made by judge after examining these reports...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302150/the-forgotten-plague-psychiatric-manifestations-of-ebola-zika-and-emerging-infectious-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Veronica Tucci, Nidal Moukaddam, Jonathan Meadows, Suhal Shah, Sagar C Galwankar, G Bobby Kapur
The media and public health generally focus on the biological and physical ramifications of epidemics. Mental health issues that coincide with emerging diseases and epidemics are rarely examined and sometimes, even eschewed due to cultural considerations. Psychiatric manifestations of various infectious diseases, especially with a focus on Ebola Virus disease (EVD) and Zika Virus, are discussed in this commentary to illustrate the continued need of care after the resolution of the actual illness. Various infectious diseases have associations with mental illness, such as an increased risk of obsessive-compulsive disorders and Tourette syndrome in children with Group B streptococcal infection...
October 2017: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296086/brain-functional-integration-an-epidemiologic-study-on-stress-producing-dissociative-phenomena
#8
Raffaele Sperandeo, Vincenzo Monda, Giovanni Messina, Marco Carotenuto, Nelson Mauro Maldonato, Enrico Moretto, Elena Leone, Vincenzo De Luca, Marcellino Monda, Antonietta Messina
Dissociative phenomena are common among psychiatric patients; the presence of these symptoms can worsen the prognosis, increasing the severity of their clinical conditions and exposing them to increased risk of suicidal behavior. Personality disorders as long duration stressful experiences may support the development of dissociative phenomena. In 933 psychiatric outpatients consecutively recruited, presence of dissociative phenomena was identified with the Dissociative Experience Scale (DES). Dissociative phenomena were significantly more severe in the group of people with mental disorders and/or personality disorders...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288080/onchocerciasis-associated-epilepsy-an-additional-reason-for-strengthening-onchocerciasis-elimination-programs
#9
REVIEW
Robert Colebunders, F J Nelson Siewe, An Hotterbeekx
A high prevalence of epilepsy has been observed in onchocerciasis-endemic regions with high onchocerciasis transmission. Recent epidemiological studies suggest that Onchocerca volvulus infection is the trigger causing the seizures, which appear in previously healthy children between the ages of 3 and 18 years. Persons with onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy present with a wide spectrum of seizures, including atonic and myoclonic neck seizures; but also absences and most frequently generalized tonic-clonic seizures...
December 26, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285868/behavioral-responses-to-surveys-about-nicotine-dependence
#10
Glenn W Harrison
Behavioral responses to surveys can significantly affect inferences about population prevalence unless correctly modeled statistically. An important case study is the prevalence of nicotine dependence, a formal psychiatric disorder satisfying clinical criteria. Data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions in the United States are used, along with a flexible semi-nonparametric sample selection model. Corrections for sample selection responses to "gateway" survey questions lead to significantly higher estimates of the prevalence of nicotine dependence among current daily smokers...
December 2017: Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285215/depression-and-its-impact-on-health-related-quality-of-life-among-chinese-inpatients-with-lung-cancer
#11
Wen Gu, Yan-Min Xu, Jun-Hong Zhu, Bao-Liang Zhong
Depression is of great concern for patients with cancer. A detailed epidemiological profile of depression in Chinese patients with lung cancer and whether depression impacts patients' health-related quality of life (HRQOL) remain unknown. This study examined the prevalence and socio-demographic and clinical correlates of depression and its effect on HRQOL in Chinese inpatients with lung cancer of two large general hospitals. A total of 148 inpatients were consecutively recruited, and administered with a standardized questionnaire to collect socio-demographic and clinical data...
December 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280226/gambling-and-physical-intimate-partner-violence-results-from-the-national-epidemiologic-survey-on-alcohol-and-related-conditions-nesarc
#12
Amanda Roberts, Jason Landon, Stephen Sharman, Jahn Hakes, Aino Suomi, Sean Cowlishaw
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Links between intimate partner violence (IPV) and gambling problems are under researched in general population samples. Understanding these relationships will allow for improved identification and intervention. We investigated these relationships and sought to determine whether links were attenuated by axis I and II disorders. METHODS: This study examined data from waves 1 and 2 (N = 25,631) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC); a nationally representative survey of U...
December 27, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277117/sex-differences-and-the-influence-of-social-factors-in-a-chilean-urban-psychiatric-hospital-population
#13
Miguel Roselló Peñaloza, Pablo Gómez Fuentealba, Patricia Castillo Gallardo
BACKGROUND: The epidemiological literature has reported differences by sex in the prevalence of psychiatric diagnoses. However, we know little about how other socio-demographic factors participate in these differences. AIM: To identify the socio-demographic factors that correlate with prevalent psychiatric diagnoses in women and men in a Chilean urban psychiatric hospital population. METHOD: Socio-demographic information (age, educational level, marital status, family group and work status), psychiatric diagnoses and sex of the population were collected for 3,920 patients of a tertiary care hospital during a period of 8 years (2007-2014)...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243079/should-clinicians-split-or-lump-psychiatric-symptoms-the-structure-of-psychopathology-in-two-large-pediatric-clinical-samples-from-england-and-norway
#14
Lorena Fernández de la Cruz, Pablo Vidal-Ribas, Nada Zahreddine, Børge Mathiassen, Per Håkan Brøndbo, Emily Simonoff, Robert Goodman, Argyris Stringaris
It has been suggested that the structure of psychiatric phenomena can be reduced to a few symptom dimensions. These proposals, mainly based on epidemiological samples, may not apply to clinical populations. We tested the structure of psychiatric symptoms across two pediatric clinical samples from England (N = 8434) and Norway (N = 5866). Confirmatory factor analyses of the parent-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) evaluated the relative fit of several models, including a first-order model, a second-order model with the widely-established broad symptom dimensions of internalizing-externalizing, and two bi-factor models capturing a general psychopathology factor...
December 14, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241771/alopecia-areata-disease-characteristics-clinical-evaluation-and-new-perspectives-on-pathogenesis
#15
REVIEW
Lauren C Strazzulla, Eddy Hsi Chun Wang, Lorena Avila, Kristen Lo Sicco, Nooshin Brinster, Angela M Christiano, Jerry Shapiro
Alopecia areata (AA) is a common, inflammatory, nonscarring type of hair loss. Significant variations in the clinical presentation of AA have been observed, ranging from small, well-circumscribed patches of hair loss to a complete absence of body and scalp hair. Patients affected by AA encompass all age groups, sexes, and ethnicities, and may experience frustration with the unpredictable nature of their disease for which there is currently no definitive treatment. The cause of AA remains incompletely understood, though it is believed to result-at least in part-from a loss of immune privilege in the hair follicle, autoimmune-mediated hair follicle destruction, and the upregulation of inflammatory pathways...
January 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233952/epidemiological-study-of-mortality-rate-from-alcohol-and-illicit-drug-abuse-in-iran
#16
Seyed Mohammad Sadegh Ghoreishi, Fatemeh Shahbazi, Seyed Davood Mirtorabi, Mohammad Reza Ghadirzadeh, Seyed Saeed Hashemi Nazari
BACKGROUND: The estimate of mortality associated with illicit opiate use provides useful information to those directing and monitoring local, national and international policies and programs. This study investigated the epidemiology of mortality due to the illegal consumption of narcotics and psychotropic substances in the Iran to provide evidence-based public health data for useful programs and actions aimed at preventing drug-related mortality. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Research in Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226228/seminar-program-for-postgraduate-specialty-training-in-general-practice-proposal-for-a-5-year-thematic-catalogue
#17
Susanne Sommer, Erika Baum, Julia Magez, Jean-Francois Chenot, Gesine Weckmann, Jost Steinhäuser, Susanne Heim, Dagmar Schneider, Stephan Fuchs
Introduction: In different German regions, seminar programs have been conducted for General practice residents. In each region, selection and teaching of learning content is conducted in a different manner. So far, no structured, standardized curriculum has been implemented nationwide. We have investigated, if the development of a common 5-year program of learning topics is conceivable between the different university departments of General practice in Germany. Method: The seminar program working group of the DEGAM (German College of General Practitioners and Family Physicians) has conducted an online survey based on information gathered via preliminary telephone conference (n=7; physicians with postgraduate teaching experience) among all German university departments of General Practice and two non-university teaching institutions, identified via the internet...
2017: GMS Journal for Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223515/-patients-assaulted-in-psychiatric-institutions-literature-review-and-clinical-implications
#18
A Ladois-Do Pilar Rei, S Chraïbi
BACKGROUND: The psychiatric ward is a place where all forms of violence are treated. Occasionally, this violence involves acts of aggression between patients in emergency psychiatric units or hospital wards. Such events can lead to the development or worsening of posttraumatic stress disorder. METHODS: To establish the context, we first examined the epidemiology data concerning posttraumatic stress disorder in psychiatric patients who were frequently exposed to assaults...
December 6, 2017: Revue D'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223173/the-worried-well-characteristics-of-cognitively-normal-patients-presenting-to-a-rural-and-remote-memory-clinic
#19
Ryan Verity, Andrew Kirk, Megan E O'Connell, Chandima Karunanayake, Debra G Morgan
INTRODUCTION: In an effort to better understand why cognitively normal patients were referred to a memory clinic, we sought to identify features of "worried well" patients to better identify those more likely to be cognitively normal. METHODS: In total, 375 consecutive patients referred by primary care practitioners to a Rural and Remote Memory Clinic were categorized into two groups based on their neurologic diagnosis, "worried well" (cognitively normal, N=81) or "other" (patients with any neurologic diagnosis, N=294)...
December 10, 2017: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211192/tobacco-addiction-in-the-psychiatric-population-and-in-the-general-population
#20
Renata Marques de Oliveira, Jair Lício Ferreira Santos, Antonia Regina Ferreira Furegato
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the degree of tobacco addiction and identify independently associated factors by comparing the psychiatric population of secondary and tertiary care with the general population of the primary healthcare network. METHOD: This is a cross-sectional epidemiological study, conducted in a municipality of São Paulo, with 134 smokers of a Mental Health Outpatient Unit (MHOU), a Psychiatric Hospital (PH), and a Primary Healthcare Unit (PHU). Data were collected by means of individual interviews, recorded on a mobile device...
December 4, 2017: Revista Latino-americana de Enfermagem
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