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B cell t cell activation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109957/adoptive-transfer-of-mrna-transfected-t-cells-redirected-against-diabetogenic-cd8%C3%A2-t-cells-can-prevent-diabetes
#1
Sigal Fishman, Mark D Lewis, L Khai Siew, Evy De Leenheer, Dimitri Kakabadse, Joanne Davies, Doron Ziv, Alon Margalit, Nathan Karin, Gideon Gross, F Susan Wong
Chimeric major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules supplemented with T cell receptor (TCR) signaling motifs function as activation receptors and can redirect gene-modified T cells against pathogenic CD8 T cells. We have shown that β2 microglobulin (β2m) operates as a universal signaling component of MHC-I molecules when fused with the CD3-ζ chain. Linking the H-2K(d)-binding insulin B chain peptide insulin B chain, amino acids 15-23 (InsB15-23) to the N terminus of β2m/CD3-ζ, redirected polyclonal CD8 T cells against pathogenic CD8 T cells in a peptide-specific manner in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109145/-short-term-use-of-rapamycin-combined-with-tregs-prolongs-mouse-cardiac-graft-survival-but-attenuates-recipient-s-anti-tumor-immunity
#2
Ting Yan, Chen Luo, Xianmo Yang, Lei Ji, Shiqiao Luo
Objective To study the effect of short-term use of rapamycin(Rap) combined with regulatory T cells (Tregs) on the long-time survival of allogeneic mouse cardiac transplant, and its impact on the anti-tumor immunity of recipient. MethodsMouse Tregs were purified from recipients' spleen by magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS), and expanded by CD3/CD28 monoclonal antibody immunomagnetic beads and 2000 U/mL recombinant mouse IL-2 (rmIL-2) ex vivo. The purity was tested by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)...
February 2017: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109042/expression-and-characterization-of-a-codon-optimized-blood-coagulation-factor-viii
#3
S A Shestopal, J-J Hao, E Karnaukhova, Y Liang, M V Ovanesov, M Lin, J H Kurasawa, T K Lee, J H McVey, A G Sarafanov
BACKGROUND: Production of recombinant factor VIII (FVIII) is challenging due to its low expression. It was previously shown that codon-optimization of a B domain-deleted FVIII (BDD-FVIII) cDNA resulted in increased protein expression. However, it is well-recognized that synonymous mutations may affect the protein structure and function. OBJECTIVES: To compare biochemical properties of a BDD-FVIII expressed from codon-optimized (CO) and the wild-type (WT) cDNAs. METHODS: Each variant of the BDD-FVIII was expressed in several independent CHO cell lines, generated using a lentiviral platform...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109025/immune-regulation-by-t-regulatory-cells-in-hbv-related-inflammation-and-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Nirupama Trehanpati, Ashish Kumar Vyas
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the leading cause of cancer death and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the commonest causes in Asians countries. India has the second largest pool after China for hepatitis B infected subjects. HBV clearance is T cell dependent and one of the reason for T cells hypo responsiveness is due to mass production of Tregs through activation of Notch signaling, which suppressCD4/CD8 T cells. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are important to maintain cellular homeostasis; however during viral infection increase of Tregs is inversely proportional to HBV DNA titers...
January 21, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108989/tigit-signaling-pathway-negatively-regulates-cd4-t-cell-responses-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#5
Lie Mao, Hongyan Hou, Shiji Wu, Yu Zhou, Juan Wang, Jing Yu, Xiaohui Wu, Yanfang Lu, Liyan Mao, Munyemana Jean Bosco, Feng Wang, Ziyong Sun
B lymphocyte hyperactivity in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is T cell-dependent, and CD4(+) T cell activation is essential to SLE pathogenesis. However, the mechanism of the deregulation of CD4(+) T cells in SLE is largely unknown. T-cell immunoglobulin and ITIM domain (TIGIT) is a new inhibitory receptor preferentially expressed on activated CD4(+) T cells. Here, we addressed the role of TIGIT in the pathogenesis of SLE. Our results showed that TIGIT expression on CD4(+) T cells was significantly elevated in patients with SLE and highly correlated with the activity of the disease...
January 20, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108610/circulating-cxcr5-pd-1-icos-follicular-t-helper-cells-are-increased-close-to-the-diagnosis-of-type-1-diabetes-in-children-with-multiple-autoantibodies
#6
Tyyne Viisanen, Emmi-Leena Ihantola, Kirsti Näntö-Salonen, Heikki Hyöty, Noora Nurminen, Jenni Selvenius, Auni Juutilainen, Leena Moilanen, Jussi Pihlajamäki, Riitta Veijola, Jorma Toppari, Mikael Knip, Jorma Ilonen, Tuure Kinnunen
Although type 1 diabetes (T1D) is primarily perceived as a T cell-driven autoimmune disease, islet autoantibodies are the best currently available biomarker for autoimmunity and disease risk. These antibodies are produced by autoreactive B cells, the activation of which is largely dependent on the function of CD4(+)CXCR5(+) follicular T helper cells (Tfh). In this study, we have comprehensively characterized the Tfh- as well as B-cell compartments in a large cohort of children with newly diagnosed T1D or at different stages of preclinical T1D...
February 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108557/low-level-mhc-class-ii-expression-leads-to-suboptimal-th-cell-response-increased-autoaggression-and-heightened-cytokine-inducibility
#7
Yi-Ting Chen, Yu-Chia Su, Mei-Ling Chang, Pi-Fang Tsai, John T Kung
The development and activation of MHC class II (MHC-II)-restricted CD4(+) T cells are distinct immunological processes that are strictly MHC-II-dependent. To address their relative dependence on MHC-II, we established a novel ENU-induced mutant mouse on the C57BL/6 background, named I-A(12%), with ∼8-fold reduced I-A expression on the surface of B cells, dendritic cells, cortical thymic epithelial cells, and medullary thymic epithelial cells. I-A(100%) and I-A(12%) mice are highly similar with respect to the numbers of double-positive thymocytes, CD4(+)CD8(-) T cells, regulatory T cells, CD4(+) T cell marker expression, lifespan, and Th/regulatory T cell function...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108486/regulation-of-the-immune-response-by-tgf-%C3%AE-from-conception-to-autoimmunity-and-infection
#8
Shomyseh Sanjabi, Soyoung A Oh, Ming O Li
Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) is a pleiotropic cytokine involved in both suppressive and inflammatory immune responses. After 30 years of intense study, we have only begun to elucidate how TGF-β alters immunity under various conditions. Under steady-state conditions, TGF-β regulates thymic T-cell selection and maintains homeostasis of the naïve T-cell pool. TGF-β inhibits cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL), Th1-, and Th2-cell differentiation while promoting peripheral (p)Treg-, Th17-, Th9-, and Tfh-cell generation, and T-cell tissue residence in response to immune challenges...
January 20, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108419/regulation-of-protein-kinase-c-related-kinase-prk-signalling-by-the-tp%C3%AE-and-tp%C3%AE-isoforms-of-the-human-thromboxane-a2-receptor-implications-for-thromboxane-and-androgen-dependent-neoplastic-and-epigenetic-responses-in-prostate-cancer
#9
Aine G O'Sullivan, Eamon P Mulvaney, B Therese Kinsella
The prostanoid thromboxane (TX) A2 and its T Prostanoid receptor (the TP) are increasingly implicated in prostate cancer (PCa). Mechanistically, we recently discovered that both TPα and TPβ form functional signalling complexes with members of the protein kinase C-related kinase (PRK) family, AGC- kinases essential for the epigenetic regulation of androgen receptor (AR)-dependent transcription and promising therapeutic targets for treatment of castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Critically, similar to androgens, activation of the PRKs through the TXA2/TP signalling axis induces phosphorylation of histone H3 at Thr11 (H3Thr11), a marker of androgen-induced chromatin remodelling and transcriptional activation, raising the possibility that TXA2-TP signalling can mimic and/or enhance AR-induced cellular changes even in the absence of circulating androgens such as in CRPC...
January 17, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108005/in-vitro-allogeneic-immune-cell-response-to-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-derived-from-human-adipose-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#10
P Usha Shalini, J V S Vidyasagar, Lakshmi Kumari Kona, Meenakshi Ponnana, Lakshmi Kiran Chelluri
We investigated the regulatory activity of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) (n=10) towards immune cells in a cohort of 84 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, 36 apparently healthy controls. We co-cultured MSCs with lymphocyte subsets of T, B, and T regulatory cells (Tregs). Levels of the pro- and anti-inflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and interleukin-10 (IL-10)) were estimated in serum and co-culture supernatants. The study revealed a two-fold increase in the proportion of Tregs and an increased level of CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3...
January 12, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107608/the-increased-expression-of-tcf3-is-correlated-with-poor-prognosis-in-chinese-patients-with-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#11
Xiaohe Shen, Jizhao Yuan, Mengjie Zhang, Wenhua Li, Bing Ni, Yuzhang Wu, Li Jiang, Weiping Fan, Zhiqiang Tian
OBJECTIVES: Regulatory factors controlling stem cell identity and self-renewal are often active in aggressive cancers and are thought to promote cancer growth and progression. B-cell-specific transcription factor 3 (TCF3/E2A) is a member of the T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor (TCF/LEF) transcription factor family that is central to regulating epidermal and embryonic stem cell identity. It has been reported that TCF3 was connected with the development and progression of a number of human cancers...
January 20, 2017: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107375/narcolepsy-type-1-is-associated-with-a-systemic-increase-and-activation-of-regulatory-t-cells-and-with-a-systemic-activation-of-global-t-cells
#12
Michel Lecendreux, Guillaume Churlaud, Fabien Pitoiset, Armelle Regnault, Tu Anh Tran, Roland Liblau, David Klatzmann, Michelle Rosenzwajg
Narcolepsy is a rare neurologic disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy and disturbed nocturnal sleep patterns. Narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) has been shown to result from a selective loss of hypothalamic hypocretin-secreting neurons with patients typically showing low CSF-hypocretin levels (<110 pg/ml). This specific loss of hypocretin and the strong association with the HLA-DQB1*06:02 allele led to the hypothesis that NT1 could be an immune-mediated pathology. Moreover, susceptibility to NT1 has recently been associated with several pathogens, particularly with influenza A H1N1 virus either through infection or vaccination...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106808/anti-fatigue-effects-of-the-unique-polysaccharide-marker-of-dendrobium-officinale-on-balb-c-mice
#13
Wei Wei, Zhi-Peng Li, Tong Zhu, Hau-Yee Fung, Tin-Long Wong, Xin Wen, Dik-Lung Ma, Chung-Hang Leung, Quan-Bin Han
Dendrobium officinale extract shows potent anti-fatigue effects; however, the active substance responsible for these effects remains undetermined. A glucomannan with a huge molecular size of 730 kDa, called DOP, was identified as the unique authentication marker of this expensive herb. DOP exhibited immunomodulating effects on macrophages and lymphocytes in our previous study. Clinical reports also showed that people with fatigue syndrome have a disturbed immune system. Because DOP is the unique and dominant component of D...
January 18, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106117/norovirus-p-particle-based-active-a%C3%AE-immunotherapy-elicits-sufficient-immunogenicity-and-improves-cognitive-capacity-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Lu Fu, Yingnan Li, Yue Hu, Yayuan Zheng, Bin Yu, Haihong Zhang, Jiaxin Wu, Hui Wu, Xianghui Yu, Wei Kong
Disease-modifying immunotherapies focusing on reducing amyloid-beta (Aβ) deposition are the main treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, none of the Aβ immunotherapies has produced clinically meaningful results to date. The main reason for this lack of efficacy is that the vaccine induces insufficiently high antibody titers, as it contains small B-cell epitope of Aβ to avoid Aβ42-specific T-cell activation. With the aim of generating a potent AD vaccine, we designed the protein PP-3copy-Aβ1-6-loop123, comprising three copies of Aβ1-6 inserted into three loops of a novel vaccine platform, the norovirus P particle, which could present Aβ at its surface and remarkably enhance the immunogenicity of the vaccine...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105201/comparison-of-microrna-expression-profiles-in-k562-cells-derived-microvesicles-and-parental-cells-and-analysis-of-their-roles-in-leukemia
#15
Xiaomei Chen, Wei Xiong, Huiyu Li
Microvesicles (MVs) are 30-1,000-nm extracellular vesicles that are released from a multitude of cell types and perform diverse cellular functions, including intercellular communication, antigen presentation, and transfer of proteins, messenger RNA and microRNA (also known as miR). MicroRNAs have been demonstrated to be aberrantly expressed in leukemia, and the overall microRNA expression profile may differentiate normal blood cells vs. leukemia cells. MVs containing microRNAs may enable intercellular cross-talk in vivo...
December 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105157/prognostic-impact-of-the-tumor-infiltrating-regulatory-t-cell-foxp3-activated-cytotoxic-t-lymphocyte-granzyme-b-ratio-on-resected-left-sided-pancreatic-cancer
#16
Ho Kyoung Hwang, Hyoung-Il Kim, Se Hoon Kim, Junjeong Choi, Chang Moo Kang, Kyung Sik Kim, Woo Jung Lee
Among the subsets of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), activated cytotoxic T lymphocytes (granzyme B(+)) have an antitumor effect, while regulatory T lymphocytes [forkhead box P3 (Foxp3)(+)] suppress the antitumor immune response. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible associations between TIL subsets and survival outcomes in patients with left-sided pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). From January 2000 to December 2008, 30 patients who underwent curative distal pancreatectomy without neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy due to left-sided PDAC were enrolled in the present study...
December 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104392/scutellarein-antagonizes-the-tumorigenesis-by-modulating-cytokine-vegf-mediated-neoangiogenesis-and-dff-40-actuated-nucleosomal-degradation
#17
Prabhu Thirusangu, V Vigneshwaran, B R Vijay Avin, H Rakesh, H M Vikas, B T Prabhakar
Neoplastic cells often reside in distinctive tumor hypoxia armed with a series of adaptive responses including oxidative stress, defective apoptotic machinery and neoangiogenesis, through that further confer cell survival improvement. Plants still acts as reservoir of natural chemicals to provide newer active pharmacophores. Scutellarein is flavones which has wide range of pharmacophoral effects. In our current research, scutellarein employed for targeting oxidative stress mediated tumor angiogenesis and apoptotic nuclear fragmentation...
January 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104354/profound-loss-of-esophageal-tissue-differentiation-in-eosinophilic-esophagitis
#18
M Rochman, J Travers, C E Miracle, M C Bedard, T Wen, N P Azouz, J M Caldwell, K Kc, J D Sherrill, B P Davis, J K Rymer, K M Kaufman, M E Rothenberg
BACKGROUND: A key question in the allergy field is to understand how tissue specific disease is manifested. Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an emerging tissue specific allergic disease whose pathogenesis remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: Herein, we tested the hypothesis that a defect in tissue specific esophageal genes is an integral part of EoE pathogenesis. METHODS: We interrogated the pattern of expression of esophagus-specific signature genes derived from the Human Protein Atlas in the EoE transcriptome and in EPC2 esophageal epithelial cells...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104028/-effect-of-hif-2%C3%AE-on-regulating-cdcp1-to-promote-hepatocellular-carcinoma-metastasis
#19
M Q Cao, J R Gao, J F Huang, A B You, Z G Guo, H Y Zhou, F Fang, W Zhang, X L Zhu, T Zhang
Objective: To investigate the effect of hypoxia inducible factor 2α (HIF-2α) on regulating CUB domain-containing protein 1 (CDCP1) and its role in hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis. Methods: HIF-2α-knocked down and HIF-2α-stably overexpressing cells (MHCC97H) were prepared by small interfering RNA (siRNA) and lentivirus transfection, respectively. The expression of CDCP1 protein and mRNA in the above cells was detected by western blot and real-time PCR. The effect of HIF-2α on cell invasion ability was determined by Transwell assay...
January 23, 2017: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103916/tim-1-defines-a-human-regulatory-b-cell-population-that-is-altered-in-frequency-and-function-in-systemic-sclerosis-patients
#20
Octavio Aravena, Ashley Ferrier, Madhvi Menon, Claudia Mauri, Juan Carlos Aguillón, Lilian Soto, Diego Catalán
BACKGROUND: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by excessive production of extracellular matrix by fibroblasts on skin and internal organs. Although Th2 cells have been involved in fibroblast stimulation, hyperactivated B cells may also play an important role. Regulatory B cells (Bregs) are cells capable of inhibiting inflammatory responses and controlling autoimmune diseases. Although many Breg populations have in common the ability to produce high amounts of IL-10, a unique surface marker defining most human Bregs is lacking...
January 19, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
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