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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656260/racial-ethnic-differences-in-the-treatment-of-adolescent-major-depressive-disorders-mdd-across-healthcare-providers-participating-in-the-medicaid-program
#1
Aylin Yucel, Ekere J Essien, Swarnava Sanyal, Osaro Mgbere, Rajender R Aparasu, Vinod S Bhatara, Joy P Alonzo, Hua Chen
BACKGROUND: To examine whether racial/ethnic differences in receipt of MDD treatment could be explained by the specialty of provider diagnosing the adolescent. METHOD: Adolescents (10-20 years-old) with ≥2 MDD diagnoses were identified using 2005-2007 Medicaid data from Texas. Patients were categorized based on the types of provider who gave the initial MDD diagnosis (psychiatrist (PSY-I), social worker/psychologist (SWP-I), and primary care physician (PCP-I))...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655881/racial-differences-in-quality-of-care-and-outcomes-after-acute-coronary-syndrome
#2
Celina M Yong, Leo Ungar, Freddy Abnousi, Steven M Asch, Paul A Heidenreich
Guideline adherence and variation in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) outcomes by race in the modern era of drug-eluting stents (DES) are not well understood. Previous studies also fail to capture rapidly growing minority populations, such as Asians. A retrospective analysis of 689,238 hospitalizations for ACS across all insurance types from 2008 to 2011 from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project database was performed to determine whether quality of ACS care and mortality differ by race (white, black, Asian, Hispanic, or Native American), with adjustment for patient clinical and demographic characteristics and clustering by hospital...
March 13, 2018: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655859/rescuing-cognitive-and-emotional-regulatory-skills-to-aid-smoking-prevention-in-at-risk-youth-a-randomized-trial
#3
Michael W Otto, Eugenia I Gorlin, David Rosenfield, Elijah A Patten, Warren K Bickel, Michael J Zvolensky, Stacey N Doan
Adolescence is a vulnerable period for smoking initiation, with disadvantaged teens particularly at risk. In addition, emotional and cognitive dysregulation is associated with an increased risk of smoking and makes it particularly challenging to benefit from standard substance use prevention interventions. The goal of the current study is to investigate the extent to which interventions designed to improve cognitive (working memory) and emotional (distress tolerance) regulatory processes enhance the effectiveness of a standard smoking prevention informational intervention...
April 12, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653301/the-moderating-role-of-resilience-on-the-relationship-between-perceived-stress-and-binge-eating-symptoms-among-young-adult-women
#4
Idia B Thurston, Robin Hardin, Rebecca C Kamody, Sylvia Herbozo, Caroline Kaufman
OBJECTIVE: Adolescence and young adulthood are developmental periods during the life course that are sometimes associated with heightened stress and engagement in binge eating. Binge eating has been linked to psychiatric comorbidity, poorer physical health, and lower quality of life. However, less is known about protective factors that could buffer against binge eating behaviors. The current study examined the moderating role of resilience on the relationship between perceived stress and binge eating symptoms among emerging adult female college students...
April 2, 2018: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653209/diversity-in-dermatology-roadmap-for-improvement
#5
Ellen N Pritchett, Amit G Pandya, Nkanyezi N Ferguson, Shasa Hu, Alex G Ortega-Loayza, Henry W Lim
The American Academy of Dermatology (AAD) has taken an active stance in addressing the lack of racial and ethnic diversity in the specialty. At the AAD President's Conference on Diversity in Dermatology held August 5, 2017, key action items were identified in three main areas in order to increase the number of practicing, board-certified dermatologists who are underrepresented in medicine (UIM). These include: increasing the pipeline of UIM students applying to medical school; increasing the exposure and level of interest of UIM medical students in dermatology; and increasing the number of UIM students recruited into dermatology residency programs...
April 10, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651678/performance-of-the-2015-us-preventive-services-task-force-screening-criteria-for-prediabetes-and-undiagnosed-diabetes
#6
Matthew J O'Brien, Kai McKeever Bullard, Yan Zhang, Edward W Gregg, Mercedes R Carnethon, Namratha R Kandula, Ronald T Ackermann
BACKGROUND: In 2015, The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommended screening for prediabetes and undiagnosed diabetes (collectively called dysglycemia) among adults aged 40-70 years with overweight or obesity. The recommendation suggests that clinicians consider screening earlier in people who have other diabetes risk factors. OBJECTIVE: To compare the performance of limited and expanded screening criteria recommended by the USPSTF for detecting dysglycemia among US adults...
April 12, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651414/how-segregation-makes-us-fat-food-behaviors-and-food-environment-as-mediators-of-the-relationship-between-residential-segregation-and-individual-body-mass-index
#7
Melody Goodman, Sarah Lyons, Lorraine T Dean, Cassandra Arroyo, James Aaron Hipp
Objectives: Racial residential segregation affects food landscapes that dictate residents' food environments and is associated with obesity risk factors, including individual dietary patterns and behaviors. We examine if food behaviors and environments mediate the association between segregation and body mass index (BMI). Methods: Non-Hispanic Whites and Blacks living in the St. Louis and Kansas City metro regions from 2012 to 2013 were surveyed on dietary behaviors, food environment, and BMI ( n  = 1,412)...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651270/disparities-in-functional-outcome-after-intracerebral-hemorrhage-among-asians-and-pacific-islanders
#8
Kazuma Nakagawa, Sage L King, Todd B Seto, Marjorie K L M Mau
Background: Disparities in outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) among Asians, Native Hawaiians, and other Pacific Islanders (NHOPI) have been inadequately studied. We sought to assess differences in functional outcome between Asians and NHOPI after ICH. Methods: A multiracial prospective cohort study of ICH patients was conducted from 2011 to 2016 at a tertiary center in Honolulu, HI, USA to assess racial disparities in outcome after ICH. Favorable outcome was defined as 3-month modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score ≤2...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651224/racial-differences-in-transitions-to-marriage-for-unmarried-mothers
#9
Gerald Eric Daniels, Venoo Kakar, Anoshua Chaudhuri
Unlike prior studies that have explained racial differences in the transitions to marriage among unmarried women, our study used the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to examine racial differences in the transitions to marriage among unmarried women following a non-marital birth. We found that Black mothers were 60-65% more likely to delay marriage after a non-marital birth compared to White mothers and these racial gaps were only partially explained by economic, demographic and attitudinal factors...
September 2017: Journal of Family and Economic Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650714/awareness-of-racial-disparities-in-kidney-transplantation-among-health-care-providers-in-dialysis-facilities
#10
Joyce J Kim, Mohua Basu, Laura Plantinga, Stephen O Pastan, Sumit Mohan, Kayla Smith, Taylor Melanson, Cam Escoffery, Rachel E Patzer
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Despite the important role that health care providers at dialysis facilities have in reducing racial disparities in access to kidney transplantation in the United States, little is known about provider awareness of these disparities. We aimed to evaluate health care providers' awareness of racial disparities in kidney transplant waitlisting and identify factors associated with awareness. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of a survey of providers from low-waitlisting dialysis facilities ( n =655) across all 18 ESRD networks administered in 2016 in the United States merged with 2014 US Renal Data System and 2014 US Census data...
April 12, 2018: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650073/the-clinical-examination-and-socially-at-risk-populations-the-examination-matters-for-health-disparities
#11
REVIEW
Karly A Murphy, Alejandra Ellison-Barnes, Erica N Johnson, Lisa A Cooper
Data from the United States show that persons from low socioeconomic backgrounds, those who are socially isolated, belong to racial or ethnic minority groups, or identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender experience health disparities at a higher rate. Clinicians must transition from a biomedical to a biopsychosocial framework within the clinical examination to better address social determinants of health that contribute to health disparities. We review the characteristics of successful patient-clinician interactions...
May 2018: Medical Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649898/the-minne-loppet-motivation-study-an-intervention-to-increase-motivation-for-outdoor-winter-physical-activity-in-ethnically-and-racially-diverse-elementary-schools
#12
Jonathan M Miller, Julian Wolfson, Melissa N Laska, Toben F Nelson, Mark A Pereira
PURPOSE: To test the effectiveness of an intervention to increase motivation for physical activity in racially diverse third- through fifth-grade students. DESIGN: Natural experiment. SETTING: Elementary schools in Minneapolis, Minnesota. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred ninety-one students in 18 Minne-Loppet Ski Program classes and 210 students in 12 control classrooms from the same schools. INTERVENTION: The Minne-Loppet Ski Program, an 8-week curriculum in elementary schools that teaches healthy physical activity behaviors through cross-country skiing...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649390/trends-and-racial-ethnic-disparities-in-pneumococcal-polysaccharide-vaccination
#13
Shamly Austin, Zo Ramamonjiarivelo, DeLawnia Comer-HaGans, Maria Pisu
Even though pneumococcal vaccination recommendations have been in existence since 1983, vaccination rates are low in the United States. This study analyzed 5-year trends in pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination uptake across racial/ethnic groups of individuals aged ≥65 years and high-risk individuals aged 19-64 years. Further, it examined factors that may explain the association between race/ethnicity and vaccination uptake. The 2011-2015 annual Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data were used to determine trends...
March 12, 2018: Population Health Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648957/asthma-among-household-youth-on-racial-minority-operated-farms-united-states-2008
#14
Girija Syamlal, Kitty Hendricks, Jacek M Mazurek
OBJECTIVES: Youth on farms are at risk for injuries and illnesses, including asthma, which continues to disproportionately affect minority groups. METHODS: For this study, the 2008 Minority Farm Operator Childhood Agricultural Injury Survey (M-CAIS) data were used to estimate the prevalence of asthma among youth aged 0-19 years living on racial minority-operated farms. Youth were considered to have a lifetime diagnosis of asthma based on an affirmative response to the question "Has he/she ever been diagnosed as having asthma by a health professional?" RESULTS: In 2008, of the estimated 37,400 youth (0-19 years) who lived on racial minority operated farms, 11% had asthma...
2018: Journal of Agromedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644879/the-executioner-s-shadow-coerced-sterilization-and-the-creation-of-latin-eugenics-in-chile
#15
Sarah Walsh
Scholars such as Nancy Leys Stepan, Alexandra Minna Stern, Marius Turda and Aaron Gillette have all argued that the rejection of coerced sterilization was a defining feature of "Latin" eugenic theory and practice. These studies highlight the influence of neo-Lamarckism in this development not only in Latin America but also in parts of Europe in the first half of the twentieth century. This article builds upon this historiographical framework to examine an often-neglected site of Latin American eugenic knowledge production: Chile...
April 1, 2018: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644535/a-secondary-spatial-analysis-of-gun-violence-near-boston-schools-a-public-health-approach
#16
Gia Barboza
School neighborhood violence continues to be a major public health problem among urban students. A large body of research addresses violence at school; however, fewer studies have explored concentrations of violence in areas proximal to schools. This study aimed to quantify the concentration of shootings near schools to elucidate the place-based dynamics that may be focal points for violence prevention. Geocoded databases of shooting and school locations were used to examine locational patterns of firearm shootings and elementary, middle, and high schools in Boston, Massachusetts...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643942/congregational-composition-and-explanations-for-racial-inequality-among-black-religious-affiliates
#17
Ryon J Cobb, Dilara K Üsküp, Steven Jefferson
Objective: Prior research suggests that congregational characteristics are associated with the racial attitudes of Black churchgoers. This study examines the relationship between congregational diversity and beliefs about the Black/White socioeconomic gap among Black religious adherents. Method: Drawing upon pooled data from the General Social Survey and the National Congregations Study, we fit binary logistic regression models to estimate the association between congregational size and the explanations of Black/White economic inequality among Black religious adherents...
June 2017: Race and Social Problems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643064/racial-heterogeneity-in-treatment-effects-in-peripheral-artery-disease-insights-from-the-clever-trial-claudication-exercise-versus-endoluminal-revascularization
#18
Yashashwi Pokharel, Philip G Jones, Garth Graham, Tracie Collins, Judith G Regensteiner, Timothy P Murphy, David Cohen, John A Spertus, Kim Smolderen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29630148/representation-and-treatment-allocation-of-racial-groups-in-dermatologic-therapy-trials-a-2-year-review-of-the-literature
#19
Christina K Park, Raed Alhusayen
Although most investigators would agree that including minority races in clinical trials is important, recruitment and retention may differ among these populations. The objective of this review was to perform an audit of phase III dermatologic therapy trials to determine representation for minority groups and to explore the possibility of racial allocation bias. In this review of 11 dermatology or general medicine journals in 2015-16, we did not find evidence of systemic racial allocation bias. We did however note variation in the proportion of minority races included in studies; whereas some trials had high success in recruiting minorities, many did not...
February 15, 2018: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629922/medicaid-managed-care-in-florida-and-racial-and-ethnic-disparities-in-preventable-emergency-department-visits
#20
Tianyan Hu, Karoline Mortensen, Jie Chen
BACKGROUND: In an effort to address health care spending growth, coordinate care, and improve access to primary care in the Medicaid program, Florida implemented the Statewide Mandatory Managed Care (SMMC) program in May of 2014. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of implementation of mandatory managed care in Medicaid on the preventable emergency department (ED) utilizations, with a focus on racial/ethnic minorities. RESEARCH DESIGN: The primary data source is the universe of Florida ED visit and inpatient discharge data from 2010 to 2015, maintained by the Florida Agency for Health Care Administration...
April 7, 2018: Medical Care
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