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Raina D Pang, Mariel S Bello, Madalyn M Liautaud, Andrea H Weinberger, Adam M Leventhal
Introduction: Prior studies have found heightened negative affect following tobacco abstinence in women compared to men. However, experimental work addressing whether these findings generalize across racial groups is scarce. The current study investigated whether race (Non-Hispanic White vs. Non-Hispanic African American) moderated gender differences in abstinence-induced negative affect and smoking behavior. Methods: Data were collected from 2010 to 2017 from two separate laboratory studies investigating experimentally manipulated tobacco abstinence...
June 15, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Genevieve Kerkerian, Mary Kestler, Allison Carter, Lu Wang, Nadine Kronfli, Paul Sereda, Eric Roth, M-J Milloy, Neora Pick, Deborah Money, Kath Webster, Robert S Hogg, Alexandra de Pokomandy, Mona Loutfy, Angela Kaida
BACKGROUND: In North America, women have lower engagement across the HIV cascade of care compared with men. Among women living with HIV (WLWH) in Canada, we measured the prevalence and correlates of attrition across cascade stages overall, and by key sub-populations. METHODS: We analyzed baseline survey data regarding six nested stages of the HIV cascade among 1,424 WLWH enrolled in the Canadian HIV Sexual and Reproductive Health Cohort Study (CHIWOS), including: linked to care, retained in care, initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART), current ART use, ART adherence (≥90%), and viral suppression (<50 copies/mL)...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Martin Roche, Tsun Yee Law, Assem A Sultan, Erica Umpierrez, Anton Khlopas, Sam Rosas, Jennifer Kurowicki, Kevin Wang, Michael A Mont
INTRODUCTION: There is a relative paucity of studies that characterized racial disparities in revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Therefore, this study was specifically conducted to evaluate the following: (1) incidence; (2) annual burden; (3) causes; and (4) age group distribution of revision TKA among different racial groups in the US sample population. METHODS: The PearlDiver database was utilized to identify patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) who underwent primary then subsequent revision TKA from January 2007 to December 2014...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Valentina Cazzato, S Makris, J C Flavell, Carmelo Mario Vicario
Social group categorization has been mainly studied in relation to ownership manipulations involving highly-salient multisensory cues. Here, we propose a novel paradigm that can implicitly activate the embodiment process in the presence of group affiliation information, whilst participants complete a task irrelevant to social categorization. Ethnically White participants watched videos of White- and Black-skinned models writing a proverb. The writing was interrupted 7, 4 or 1 s before completion. Participants were tasked with estimating the residual duration following interruption...
June 18, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Christine A Vaughan, Deborah A Cohen, Bing Han
The current study examined racial/ethnic differences in use of parks and park facilities and features and self-reported park use and perceptions. We conducted observations in a nationally representative sample of 193 neighborhood parks in 27 US cities over a 1-week period between April and August of 2016 using the System of Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC). To determine the propensity of different racial/ethnic groups to use parks relative to expectation based on their representation in the surrounding neighborhood, we calculated the percentages of park users of each race/ethnicity and compared these to the percentages of racial/ethnic groups residing in the neighborhood within a 1-mile radius of the park based on 2010 U...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
Sehun Oh, Diana M DiNitto, Yeonwoo Kim
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Legalization of marijuana for medical and/or recreational use in some U.S. states has increased attention to substance use and related problems. However, little attention has been paid to these phenomena among adults in families receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) whose adverse life experiences may put them at elevated risk of substance use disorders (SUDs). METHODS: Data from the 2003-2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) were used to test trends in past-month binge drinking and past-year marijuana, other illicit drug, and any illicit drug use and to examine SUD prevalence and treatment correlates among adults in TANF families...
June 12, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Gert-Jan van der Heijden, Zhiyue J Wang, Zili D Chu, Morey Haymond, Pieter J J Sauer, Agneta L Sunehag
Hispanic adolescent girls with normal BMI frequently have high body fat %. Without knowledge of body fat content and distribution, their risk for metabolic complications is unknown. We measured metabolic risk indicators and abdominal fat distribution in post-pubertal Hispanic adolescent girls with Normal BMI (N-BMI: BMI < 85th percentile) and compared these indicators between girls with Normal BMI and High Fat content (N-BMI-HF: body fat &ge; 27%; n = 15) and Normal BMI and Normal Fat content (N-BMI-NF: body fat < 27%; n = 8)...
June 15, 2018: Children
Hannah S Bell, Funmi Odumosu, Anna C Martinez-Hume, Heather A Howard, Linda M Hunt
Racial/ethnic identity is contingent and arbitrary, yet it is commonly used to evaluate disease risk and treatment response. Drawing on open-ended interviews with patients and clinicians in two US clinics, we explore how racialized risk is conceptualized and how it impacts patient care and experience. We found that racial/ethnic risk was a common but poorly defined construct for both patients and clinicians, who intermingled concepts of genetics, biology, behavior, and culture, while disregarding historical or structural context...
June 18, 2018: Medical Anthropology
Joan A Vaccaro, Gustavo G Zarini, Fatma G Huffman
AIM: The purpose of the present study was to determine the association of unhealthy dietary food items with cardiometabolic risk factors with and without sociodemographic factors. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used data available to the public from the National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES) 2009-2010 where unhealthy food consumption was based on responses to the Dietary Screener Questionnaire (unique to this NHANES cycle), and cardiometabolic risk factors were based on laboratory results, anthropometric measures, interview and examination questions for 2045 adults aged 20-69 and belonging to four racial/ethnic groups: 473 Mexican Americans (MA); 267 Other Hispanics (OH); 389, non-Hispanic Blacks (NHB) and 916 non-Hispanic Whites (NHW) (characterised by NHANES)...
June 17, 2018: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
Arpit Rao, Charles Wiggins, Richard C Lauer
Background: Advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) results in over 14,000 deaths each year in the United States alone. The therapeutic landscape for advanced RCC changed dramatically with the approval of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) between 2006 and 2012. A large-scale analysis of survival trends has not been performed in the TKI era to determine their impact on outcomes for advanced RCC patients. Methods: The Surveillance, Epidemiology and End-Results (SEER) database was queried for adult patients with advanced RCC diagnosed between 2000 and 2013...
May 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
Rayan Alswilem, Anas Abouonq, Azhar Iqbal, Sarah Sulaiman Alajlan, Mohammad Khursheed Alam
Aims and Objectives: The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of additional canals in the first permanent molars of the participants of Saudi, Jordanian, and Egyptian population using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, CBCT scans of 139 patients were collected who were implant treated at College of Dentistry, Al Jouf University, Saudi Arabia, from October 2016 to March 2017. The images were analyzed using On-Demand 3D software...
May 2018: Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry
Brittany S Cassidy, Anne C Krendl, Kathleen A Stanko, Robert J Rydell, Steven G Young, Kurt Hugenberg
The dehumanization of Black Americans is an ongoing societal problem. Reducing configural face processing, a well-studied aspect of typical face encoding, decreases the activation of human-related concepts to White faces, suggesting that the extent that faces are configurally processed contributes to dehumanization. Because Black individuals are more dehumanized relative to White individuals, the current work examined how configural processing might contribute to their greater dehumanization. Study 1 showed that inverting faces (which reduces configural processing) reduced the activation of human-related concepts toward Black more than White faces...
November 2017: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
Ursula A White, Mark D Fitch, Robbie A Beyl, Marc K Hellerstein, Eric Ravussin
The storage of lipids as triglycerides (TG) and the de novo synthesis (lipogenesis) of fatty acids from non-lipid precursors (DNL) are important functions of adipose tissue (AT) that influence whole body metabolism. Yet, few studies have reported in vivo estimates of adipose lipid kinetics in humans. Fifty-two women with obesity (27 African-Americans; 25 Caucasians; 29.7 ± 5.5 years; BMI 32.2 ± 2.8 kg/m2 ; 44.3 ± 4.0% body fat) were enrolled in the study. In vivo synthesis (or replacement) of triglycerides (fTG ) and the synthesis of the fatty acid palmitate (measure of adipose de novo lipogenesis (fDNL )) were assessed using an 8-week incorporation of deuterium (2 H) into lipids (glycerol and palmitate moieties of TGs) in subcutaneous abdominal (scABD) and femoral (scFEM) AT...
June 17, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
May I Conley, Danielle V Dellarco, Estee Rubien-Thomas, Alexandra O Cohen, Alessandra Cervera, Nim Tottenham, B J Casey
Faces are often used in psychological and neuroimaging research to assess perceptual and emotional processes. Most available stimulus sets, however, represent minimal diversity in both race and ethnicity, which may confound understanding of these processes in diverse/racially heterogeneous samples. Having a diverse stimulus set of faces and emotional expressions could mitigate these biases and may also be useful in research that specifically examines the effects of race and ethnicity on perceptual, emotional and social processes...
May 19, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Elizabeth Vásquez, Cassandra M Germain, Fei Tang, Matthew C Lohman, Karen L Fortuna, John A Batsis
OBJECTIVE: To compare estimates of the prevalence of mobility and physical function limitations by race and ethnicity using data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). METHOD: The sample comprised of 28,854 adults aged ≥60 from the MEPS (2004-2013). Physical function (limitations in basic and instrumental activities of daily living [ADL/IADL]) and mobility limitations were assessed by self-report. RESULTS: Non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs) represented the majority of the sample followed by non-Hispanic Blacks (NHBs), Hispanic and non-Hispanic Other (Other)...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Gerontology: the Official Journal of the Southern Gerontological Society
Andrej Belak, Andrea Madarasova Geckova, Jitse P van Dijk, Sijmen A Reijneveld
OBJECTIVES: The health status of segregated Roma is poor. To understand why segregated Roma engage in health-endangering practices, we explored their nonadherence to clinical and public health recommendations. METHODS: We examined one segregated Roma settlement of 260 inhabitants in Slovakia. To obtain qualitative data on local-level mechanisms supporting Roma nonadherence, we combined ethnography and systematic interviewing over 10 years. We then performed a qualitative content analysis based on sociological and public health theories...
June 16, 2018: International Journal of Public Health
Donna Hubbard McCree, Tanja Walker, Elizabeth DiNenno, Brooke Hoots, Eduardo Valverde, M Cheryl Bañez Ocfemia, Janet Heitgerd, JoAna Stallworth, Benny Ferro, Alberto Santana, Emilio German, Norma Harris
From 2010 to 2015, young (13-24 years) Hispanic/Latino gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) experienced the largest increase (18%) in numbers of HIV diagnoses among all racial/ethnic groups. In 2016, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) assembled a team of scientists and public health analysts to develop a programmatic approach for addressing the increasing HIV diagnosis among Hispanic/Latino MSM. The team used a data driven review process, i.e., comprehensive review of surveillance, epidemiologic, and programmatic data, to explore key questions from the literature on factors associated with HIV diagnoses among Hispanic/Latino MSM and to inform the approach...
June 14, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Jane E Hamilton, Angela M Heads, Thomas D Meyer, Pratikkumar V Desai, Olaoluwa O Okusaga, Raymond Y Cho
U.S. Hispanics, now the single largest minority group in the country, face unique mental health disparities. The current study utilizes Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Service Use to examine ethnic disparities in receiving a schizophrenia or mood disorder diagnosis at psychiatric hospital admission. Our retrospective cohort study examined electronic health record data at an academic safety-net psychiatric hospital for adult patients (n = 5571) admitted between 2010 and 2013. Logistic regression with block-wise entry of predisposing, enabling and need variables was used to examine ethnic disparities in receiving a schizophrenia diagnosis at admission...
May 30, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Emmanuel Katsanis, Lauren N Sapp, Nicole Varner, Shannon Koza, Baldassarre Stea, Yi Zeng
More than half of patients undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation at our institution are ethnic or racial minorities, making the search for matched unrelated donors more challenging. Since the introduction of haploidentical bone marrow transplant (haplo-BMT) into our pediatric BMT program in 2015, 69.2% of the recipients have been minorities. Herein, we describe our experience with the first thirteen pediatric and young adult patients with hematologic malignancies who have undergone T-cell replete haplo-BMT following myeloablative conditioning (MAC) at our institution...
June 13, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Jungwon Min, Xiaozhong Wen, Hong Xue, Youfa Wang
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Study sex- and ethnic-specific childhood BMI growth trajectories of US children, and explore the potential causes of ethnic disparities in childhood BMI trajectories, including household socio-economic status (SES) and parenting practice using nationally representative longitudinal data. SUBJECTS/METHODS: BMI trajectory curves between 7 months to 16 years of age were fitted using mixed effect models with fractional polynomial functions using pooled 10-year (1998-2008) longitudinal data collected from 29,254 children from two US nationally representative cohorts-Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth (ECLS-B, 2001) and Kindergarten (ECLS-K, 1998-99)...
June 15, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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