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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045352/impact-of-race-and-ethnicity-on-outcomes-for-children-waitlisted-for-pediatric-liver-transplantation
#1
Douglas B Mogul, Xun Luo, Eric K Chow, Allan B Massie, Tanjala S Purnell, Kathleen B Schwarz, Andrew M Cameron, John F P Bridges, Dorry L Segev
OBJECTIVE: African Americans and other minorities are known to face barriers to health care influencing their access to organ transplantation but it is not known whether these barriers exist among pediatric liver transplant waitlist candidates. We sought to determine whether outcomes on the waitlist (i.e., mortality, deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT), and living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT)) varied by race/ethnicity. METHODS: National registry data were studied to estimate the race/ethnicity-specific risk of waitlist mortality, DDLT and LDLT in children (<18 years) waitlisted between March, 2002 and March, 2015...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045312/validation-of-the-nonlaboratory-based-framingham-cardiovascular-disease-risk-assessment-algorithm-in-the-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-dataset
#2
Jacob K Kariuki, Eileen M Stuart-Shor, Suzanne G Leveille, Philimon Gona, Jerry Cromwell, Laura L Hayman
BACKGROUND: Nonlaboratory-based (non-LB) algorithms have been developed to facilitate absolute cardiovascular risk assessment in resource-constrained settings. The non-LB Framingham algorithm, which substitute BMI for lipids in laboratory-based Framingham, exhibits best performance among non-LB algorithms. However, its external validity has not been evaluated. AIM: To examine the validity of non-LB Framingham algorithm in Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities dataset, and contrast performance with the laboratory-based Framingham algorithm...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045274/recruiting-american-indian-alaska-native-students-to-medical-school-a-multi-institutional-alliance-in-the-u-s-southwest
#3
Marlene P Ballejos, Polly Olsen, Tanisha Price-Johnson, Cindy Garcia, Tassy Parker, Robert E Sapién, Valerie Romero-Leggott
PROBLEM: Despite national efforts to diversify the physician workforce, American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) individuals have the least representation of all major racial and ethnic groups. Limited resources at state medical schools present institution-level recruitment challenges. Unified efforts to engage AI/AN students in premedical education activities are needed. APPROACH: The medical schools at the Universities of Arizona (Phoenix and Tucson), Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah identified a collective need to increase student diversity, particularly with regard to AI/AN students...
October 17, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043846/-gay-equals-white-racial-ethnic-and-sexual-identities-and-attitudes-toward-lgbt-individuals-among-college-students-at-a-bible-belt-university
#4
Meredith G F Worthen
While past research has certainly explored a variety of correlates of attitudes toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals, the current study is among the first in an emerging line of inquiry that examines attitudes toward each of these groups separately utilizing an intersectional framework with special attention to racial, ethnic, and sexual identities. Using a college sample of students from the Bible Belt of the United States (N = 1,940), I investigated the roles of racial and ethnic identities (Caucasian/White, African American/Black, Asian/Pacific Islander, Native American/Alaskan Native, other race, and Hispanic/Latinx), religiosity, patriarchal gender norms, parental perspectives, and the intersections among these identities and experiences as they relate to attitudes toward LGBT individuals among heterosexual (n = 1,551) and LGB respondents (n = 389)...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Sex Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043830/red-blood-cell-phenotype-prevalence-in-blood-donors-who-self-identify-as-hispanic
#5
Chelsea A Sheppard, Nicole L Bolen, Beth Eades, Gorka Ochoa-Garay, Mark H Yazer
Molecular genotyping platforms provide a quick, high-throughput method for identifying red blood cell units for patients on extended phenotype-matching protocols, such as those with sickle cell disease or thalassemia. Most of the antigen prevalence data reported are for non-Hispanic populations. Therefore, this study sought to determine the phenotype prevalence in a single blood center's Hispanic population and to compare those results with previously reported rates in non-Hispanic donor populations. We performed a retrospective review of all serologic and molecular typing from donors who self-reported as Hispanic...
September 2017: Immunohematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040130/volume-outcome-relationship-in-surgical-interventions-for-spinal-metastases
#6
Andrew J Schoenfeld, Marco L Ferrone, Daniel J Sturgeon, Mitchel B Harris
BACKGROUND: Surgery for spinal metastases is challenging and carries a high risk of perioperative morbidity and mortality. Procedures with such characteristics often exhibit a volume-outcome relationship. This has not been previously characterized for spinal metastasis surgery to our knowledge. METHODS: The Florida State Inpatient Database (2011 through 2014) was queried to identify patients who had undergone surgery for spinal metastases. Surgeon and hospital surgical volumes were compared with 90-day complication and readmission rates to develop procedural cut-points used to define high and low-volume providers...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040110/racial-differences-in-palliative-care-use-after-stroke-in-majority-white-minority-serving-and-racially-integrated-u-s-hospitals
#7
Roland Faigle, Wendy C Ziai, Victor C Urrutia, Lisa A Cooper, Rebecca F Gottesman
OBJECTIVES: Racial/ethnic differences in palliative care resource use after stroke have been recognized, but it is unclear whether patient or hospital characteristics drive this disparity. We sought to determine whether palliative care use after intracerebral hemorrhage and ischemic stroke differs between hospitals serving varying proportions of minority patients. DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional study. SETTING: Inpatient hospital admissions from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample between 2007 and 2011...
October 14, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039132/violent-injury-and-neighborhood-racial-ethnic-diversity-in-oakland-california
#8
Joshua Berezin, Sara Gale, Amani Nuru-Jeter, Maureen Lahiff, Colette Auerswald, Harrison Alter
Racial and ethnic segregation has been linked to a number of deleterious health outcomes, including violence. Previous studies of segregation and violence have focused on segregation between African Americans and Whites, used homicide as a measure of violence, and employed segregation measures that fail to take into account neighborhood level processes. We examined the relationship between neighborhood diversity and violent injury in Oakland, California. Violent injuries from the Alameda County Medical Center Trauma Registry that occurred between 1998 and 2002 were geocoded...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037275/intergenerational-transmission-of-family-meal-patterns-from-adolescence-to-parenthood-longitudinal-associations-with-parents-dietary-intake-weight-related-behaviours-and-psychosocial-well-being
#9
Jerica M Berge, Jonathan Miller, Allison Watts, Nicole Larson, Katie A Loth, Dianne Neumark-Sztainer
OBJECTIVE: The present study examined longitudinal associations between four family meal patterns (i.e. never had regular family meals, started having regular family meals, stopped having regular family meals, maintained having regular family meals) and young adult parents' dietary intake, weight-related behaviours and psychosocial well-being. In addition, family meal patterns of parents were compared with those of non-parents. DESIGN: Analysis of data from the longitudinal Project EAT (Eating and Activity in Adolescents and Young Adults) study...
October 17, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036550/perceived-interpersonal-discrimination-and-older-women-s-mental-health-accumulation-across-domains-attributions-and-time
#10
Laia Bécares, Nan Zhang
Experiencing discrimination is associated with poor mental health, but how cumulative experiences of perceived interpersonal discrimination across attributions, domains, and time are associated with mental disorders is still unknown. Using data from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (1996-2008) we apply latent class analysis and generalized linear models to estimate the association between cumulative exposure to perceived interpersonal discrimination and older women's mental health. We find four classes of perceived interpersonal discrimination, ranging from cumulative exposure to discrimination over attributions, domains, and time, to none or minimal reports of discrimination...
October 4, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036268/breast-cancer-estrogen-receptor-by-biological-generation-us-black-white-women-born-1915-1979
#11
Nancy Krieger, Jaquelyn L Jahn, Pamela D Waterman, Jarvis T Chen
Evidence suggests contemporary population distributions of breast cancer estrogen receptor (ER) status may be shaped by earlier major societal events, such as the 1965 abolition of Jim Crow (legal racial discrimination in the US) and the Great Famine in China (1959-1961). We accordingly analyzed changes in ER status in relation to Jim Crow birth place among the 46,417 black and 339,830 white US-born non-Hispanic women in the 13 SEER Registry Group who were born between 1915 and 1979 and diagnosed (age 25-84, inclusive) between 1992-2012...
September 20, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036012/a-fresh-perspective-on-a-familiar-problem-examining-disparities-in-knee-osteoarthritis-using-a-markov-model
#12
Taruja D Karmarkar, Anne Maurer, Michael L Parks, Thomas Mason, Ana Bejinez-Eastman, Melvyn Harrington, Randall Morgan, Mary I O'Connor, James E Wood, Darrell J Gaskin
BACKGROUND: Disparities in the presentation of knee osteoarthritis (OA) and in the utilization of treatment across sex, racial, and ethnic groups in the United States are well documented. OBJECTIVES: We used a Markov model to calculate lifetime costs of knee OA treatment. We then used the model results to compute costs of disparities in treatment by race, ethnicity, sex, and socioeconomic status. RESEARCH DESIGN: We used the literature to construct a Markov Model of knee OA and publicly available data to create the model parameters and patient populations of interest...
October 13, 2017: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035645/factors-that-contributed-to-black-white-disparities-in-survival-among-nonelderly-women-with-breast-cancer-between-2004-and-2013
#13
Ahmedin Jemal, Anthony S Robbins, Chun Chieh Lin, W Dana Flanders, Carol E DeSantis, Elizabeth M Ward, Rachel A Freedman
Purpose To estimate the contribution of differences in demographics, comorbidity, insurance, tumor characteristics, and treatment to the overall mortality disparity between nonelderly black and white women diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer. Patients and Methods Excess relative risk of all-cause death in black versus white women diagnosed with stage I to III breast cancer, expressed as a percentage and stratified by hormone receptor status for each variable (demographics, comorbidity, insurance, tumor characteristics, and treatment) in sequentially, propensity-scored, optimally matched patients by using multivariable hazard ratios (HRs)...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035642/racial-and-ethnic-disparities-in-cancer-survival-the-contribution-of-tumor-sociodemographic-institutional-and-neighborhood-characteristics
#14
Libby Ellis, Alison J Canchola, David Spiegel, Uri Ladabaum, Robert Haile, Scarlett Lin Gomez
Purpose Racial/ethnic disparities in cancer survival in the United States are well documented, but the underlying causes are not well understood. We quantified the contribution of tumor, treatment, hospital, sociodemographic, and neighborhood factors to racial/ethnic survival disparities in California. Materials and Methods California Cancer Registry data were used to estimate population-based cancer-specific survival for patients diagnosed with breast, prostate, colorectal, or lung cancer between 2000 and 2013 for each racial/ethnic group (non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, Asian American and Pacific Islander, and separately each for Chinese, Japanese, and Filipino) compared with non-Hispanic whites...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035105/racial-ethnic-differences-in-early-life-mortality-in-the-united-states
#15
Richard G Rogers, Elizabeth M Lawrence, Robert A Hummer, Andrea M Tilstra
U.S. early-life (ages 1-24) deaths are tragic, far too common, and largely preventable. Yet demographers have focused scant attention on U.S. early-life mortality patterns, particularly as they vary across racial and ethnic groups. We employed the restricted-use 1999-2011 National Health Interview Survey-Linked Mortality Files and hazard models to examine racial/ethnic differences in early-life mortality. Our results reveal that these disparities are large, strongly related to differences in parental socioeconomic status, and expressed through different causes of death...
2017: Biodemography and Social Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035103/racial-disparities-in-the-association-between-alcohol-use-disorders-and-health-in-black-and-white-women
#16
Yusuf Ransome, Denise C Carty, Courtney D Cogburn, David R Williams
Adverse health attributed to alcohol use disorders (AUD) is more pronounced among black than white women. We investigated whether socioeconomic status (education and income), health care factors (insurance, alcoholism treatment), or psychosocial stressors (stressful life events, racial discrimination, alcoholism stigma) could account for black-white differences in the association between AUD and physical and functional health among current women drinkers 25 years and older (N = 8,877) in the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions...
2017: Biodemography and Social Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035089/intent-to-quit-quit-attempts-and-perceived-health-risk-reduction-among-african-american-latino-and-white-nondaily-and-daily-smokers-in-the-united-states
#17
Taneisha S Scheuermann, Nicole L Nollen, Xianghua Luo, Lisa Sanderson Cox, Jasjit S Ahluwalia
OBJECTIVE: Ethnic and racial differences in smoking patterns and behaviors have been well documented and most African American and Latino smokers are nondaily or light smokers. However, differences within smoking levels are understudied. Our primary aim was to determine whether there are racial and ethnic differences among African American, Latino, and White nondaily, light daily, and moderate to heavy daily smokers on (1) perceived health risk reduction, (2) intentions to quit, and (3) past year quit attempts...
October 16, 2017: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034963/does-the-effect-of-justice-system-attitudes-on-adolescent-crime-vary-based-on-psychosocial-maturity
#18
Adam Fine, Kevin T Wolff, Michael T Baglivio, Alex R Piquero, Paul J Frick, Laurence Steinberg, Elizabeth Cauffman
Adolescents who view the justice system negatively are prone to commit crime. Simultaneously, youth who have difficulty regulating their behavior are likely to commit crime. Using a longitudinal sample of 1,216 male adolescents (ages 13-17) who had been arrested for the first time, were racially/ethnically diverse, and were drawn from three U.S. states, this study incorporated a developmental perspective into the procedural justice framework to examine whether psychosocial immaturity moderated the effect of justice system attitudes on youth crime...
October 16, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034732/pregnancy-and-childbearing-among-young-adults-who-experienced-foster-care
#19
Katie Massey Combs, Stephanie Begun, Deborah J Rinehart, Heather Taussig
This study explores rates of early pregnancy and parenthood among a sample of young adults ( N = 215), ages 18-22, with a history of foster care. The study also compares the educational attainment, financial resources, and homelessness experiences of young adults who became parents to those who did not. By age 21, 49% of the young women became pregnant, and 33% of young men reported getting someone pregnant. Over a quarter of participants experienced parenthood, which was associated with lower educational attainment, less employment, not having a checking or savings account, and a history of homelessness...
January 1, 2017: Child Maltreatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034365/ethnicity-sex-and-age-are-determinants-of-red-blood-cell-storage-and-stress-hemolysis-results-of-the-reds-iii-rbc-omics-study
#20
Tamir Kanias, Marion C Lanteri, Grier P Page, Yuelong Guo, Stacy M Endres, Mars Stone, Sheila Keating, Alan E Mast, Ritchard G Cable, Darrell J Triulzi, Joseph E Kiss, Edward L Murphy, Steve Kleinman, Michael P Busch, Mark T Gladwin
Genetic polymorphisms in blood donors may contribute to donor-specific differences in the survival of red blood cells (RBCs) during cold storage and after transfusion. Genetic variability is anticipated to be high in donors with racial admixture from malaria endemic regions such as Africa and Asia. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that donor genetic background, reflected by sex and self-reported ethnicity, significantly modulates RBC phenotypes in storage. High throughput hemolysis assays were developed and used to evaluate stored RBC samples from 11 115 African American, Asian, white, and Hispanic blood donors from 4 geographically diverse regions in the United States...
June 27, 2017: Blood Advances
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