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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471378/communicative-function-use-of-preschoolers-and-mothers-from-differing-racial-and-socioeconomic-groups
#1
Danai Kasambira Fannin, Oscar A Barbarin, Elizabeth R Crais
Purpose: This study explores whether communicative function (CF: reasons for communicating) use differs by socioeconomic status (SES), race/ethnicity, or gender among preschoolers and their mothers. Method: Mother-preschooler dyads (N = 95) from the National Center for Early Development and Learning's (2005) study of family and social environments were observed during 1 structured learning and free-play interaction. CFs were coded by trained independent raters. Results: Children used all CFs at similar rates, but those from low SES homes produced fewer utterances and less reasoning, whereas boys used less self-maintaining and more predicting...
February 22, 2018: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471326/urinary-cytomegalovirus-shedding-in-the-united-states-the-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-surveys-1999-2004
#2
Minal M Amin, Stephanie R Bialek, Sheila C Dollard, Chengbin Wang
Background: There are no data on the prevalence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) shedding from a representative sample of the US population. This information is critical for understanding and preventing CMV. Methods: We tested urine specimens from CMV IgG-positive participants aged 6-49 years in three racial/ethnic groups from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 1999-2004 for the presence of CMV DNA with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay...
February 17, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471289/single-nucleotide-polymorphism-facilitated-down-regulation-of-the-cohesin-stromal-antigen-1-implications-for-colorectal-cancer-racial-disparities
#3
Somenath Datta, Richard M Sherva, Mart De La Cruz, Michelle T Long, Priya Roy, Vadim Backman, Sanjib Chowdhury, Hemant K Roy
The biological underpinnings for racial disparities in colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence remain to be elucidated. We have previously reported that the cohesin SA-1 down-regulation is an early event in colon carcinogenesis which is dramatically accentuated in African-Americans. In order to investigate the mechanism, we evaluated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for association with SA-1-related outcomes followed by gene editing of candidate SNP. We observed that rs34149860 SNP was significantly associated with a lower colonic mucosal SA-1 expression and evaluation of public databases showed striking racial discordance...
February 19, 2018: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471181/clinic-access-and-teenage-birth-rates-racial-ethnic-and-spatial-disparities-in-houston-tx
#4
Megan M Wisniewski, Heather A O'Connell
Teenage motherhood is a pressing issue in the United States, and one that is disproportionately affecting racial/ethnic minorities. In this research, we examine the relationship between the distance to the nearest reproductive health clinic and teenage birth rates across all zip codes in Houston, Texas. Our primary data come from the Texas Department of State Health Services. We use spatial regression analysis techniques to examine the link between clinic proximity and local teenage birth rates for all females aged 15 to 19, and separately by maternal race/ethnicity...
February 14, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470596/mental-health-burden-in-a-national-sample-of-american-indian-and-alaska-native-adults-differences-between-multiple-race-and-single-race-subgroups
#5
Nancy L Asdigian, Ursula Running Bear, Janette Beals, Spero M Manson, Carol E Kaufman
PURPOSE: Research on American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) mental health disparities is based largely on either tribal populations or national samples of adults that do not account for multiracial AIANs, even though over 40% of AIANs identify with multiple racial groups. The present investigation extends this research by assessing mental health status in a national sample of multiracial AIAN adults relative to adults who identify exclusively as either AIAN or White. METHODS: 2012 BRFSS data were used to conduct multinomial logistic regression analyses comparing mental health outcomes among respondents who identified as either AIAN and one or more other races (AIAN-MR), AIAN-Single Race (AIAN-SR), or White-SR...
February 22, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470167/role-of-race-ethnicity-language-and-insurance-in-use-of-cervical-cancer-prevention-services-among-low-income-hispanic-women-2009-2013
#6
John Heintzman, Brigit Hatch, Gloria Coronado, David Ezekiel, Stuart Cowburn, Octavio Escamilla-Sanchez, Miguel Marino
INTRODUCTION: Hispanic women in the United States have an elevated risk of cervical cancer, but the existing literature does not reveal why this disparity persists. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of 17,828 low-income women aged 21 to 64 years seeking care at Oregon community health centers served by a hosted, linked electronic health record during 2009 through 2013. We assessed the odds of having had Papanicolaou (Pap) tests and receiving human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, by race/ethnicity, insurance status, and language...
February 22, 2018: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470121/disparities-in-distribution-of-particulate-matter-emission-sources-by-race-and-poverty-status
#7
Ihab Mikati, Adam F Benson, Thomas J Luben, Jason D Sacks, Jennifer Richmond-Bryant
OBJECTIVES: To quantify nationwide disparities in the location of particulate matter (PM)-emitting facilities by the characteristics of the surrounding residential population and to illustrate various spatial scales at which to consider such disparities. METHODS: We assigned facilities emitting PM in the 2011 National Emissions Inventory to nearby block groups across the 2009 to 2013 American Community Survey population. We calculated the burden from these emissions for racial/ethnic groups and by poverty status...
February 22, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470120/racial-ethnic-variation-in-the-impact-of-the-affordable-care-act-on-insurance-coverage-and-access-among-young-adults
#8
Aurora VanGarde, Jangho Yoon, Jeff Luck, Carolyn A Mendez-Luck
OBJECTIVES: To examine the impact of the Affordable Care Act's (ACA's) 2010 parental insurance coverage extension to young adults aged 19 to 25 years on health insurance coverage and access to care, including racial/ethnic disparities. METHODS: We pooled data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for the periods 2007 to 2009 and 2011 to 2013 (n = 402 777). We constructed quasiexperimental difference-in-differences models in which adults aged 26 to 35 years served as a control group...
February 22, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470116/mechanisms-by-which-anti-immigrant-stigma-exacerbates-racial-ethnic-health-disparities
#9
Brittany N Morey
Anti-immigrant rhetoric and political actions gained prominence and public support before, during, and after the 2016 presidential election. This anti-immigrant political environment threatens to increase health disparities among undocumented persons, immigrant groups, and people of color. I discuss the mechanisms by which anti-immigrant stigma exacerbates racial/ethnic health disparities through increasing multilevel discrimination and stress, deportation and detention, and policies that limit health resources...
February 22, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470113/local-level-adult-influenza-and-pneumococcal-vaccination-disparities-chicago-illinois-2015-2016
#10
Michelle M Hughes, Nazia S Saiyed, Tiffany S Chen
OBJECTIVES: To investigate local-level adult influenza and pneumococcal vaccination disparities to inform targeted interventions. METHODS: Questions on influenza and pneumococcal vaccination uptake were included in a door-to-door community-based representative survey conducted in 10 Chicago, Illinois, neighborhoods in 2015 and 2016. A total of 1543 adults completed the survey, including 172 adults aged 65 years or older. We calculated adult influenza (≥ 18 years) and pneumococcal (≥ 65 years) vaccination coverage by community area and respondent characteristics...
February 22, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469047/racial-ethnic-and-age-disparities-in-incidence-and-survival-of-intrahepatic-cholangiocarcinoma-in-the-united-states-1995-2014
#11
Samuel O Antwi, Omar Y Mousa, Tushar Patel
INTRODUCTION: Despite reports of increased incidence of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) in the United States, the impact of age or influences of race and ethnicity are not clear. Disparities in iCCA outcomes across various population subgroups also are not readily recognized due to the rarity of this cancer. We examined ethnic, race, age, and gender variations in iCCA incidence and survival using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (1995-2014). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We assessed age-adjusted incidence rates, average annual percentage change in incidence, and hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for all-cause and iCCA-specific mortality...
March 1, 2018: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469022/obesity-candidate-genes-gestational-weight-gain-and-body-weight-changes-in-pregnant-women
#12
Susan W Groth, Amy LaLonde, Tongtong Wu, I Diana Fernandez
OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations of two obesity-associated genes, FTO (rs9939609) and GNB3 (rs5443) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), with early pregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain, and postpartum weight retention. METHODS: Secondary data analysis of self-identified white (n = 580) and black (n = 194) women who participated in a randomized controlled trial (2009-2014) and provided a saliva sample of DNA. Bivariate relationships were assessed using analysis of variance...
December 2, 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468669/racial-ethnic-differential-effects-of-medicaid-expansion-on-health-care-access
#13
Dahai Yue, Petra W Rasmussen, Ninez A Ponce
OBJECTIVE: To assess racial/ethnic differential impacts of the ACA's Medicaid expansion on low-income, nonelderly adults' access to primary care. DATA SOURCES: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, State Physicians Workforce Data Book, and Bureau of Labor Statistics, in 2013 and 2015. STUDY DESIGN: Quasi-experimental design with difference-in-differences analyses. Outcomes included health insurance coverage, having personal doctor(s), being unable to see doctors because of cost, and receiving a flu shot...
February 22, 2018: Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468494/census-tract-poverty-and-racial-disparities-in-hiv-rates-in-milwaukee-county-wisconsin-2009-2014
#14
Crystal Gibson, Katarina Grande, Casey Schumann, Mari Gasiorowicz
Previous work has documented associations between poverty and HIV. Understanding of these relationships at local levels could help target prevention efforts; however, HIV surveillance systems do not capture individual-level poverty measures. We utilized the Public Health Disparities Geocoding Project methods to examine HIV rates by census tract poverty. HIV rates and rate ratios were computed by census tract poverty (< 5.0, 5.0-9.9, 10.0-19.9, > 20.0% of individual below the federal poverty level) for all races and stratified by Black and White race using Poisson regression...
February 22, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468269/race-differences-in-gastrostomy-tube-placement-after-stroke-in-majority-white-minority-serving-and-racially-integrated-us-hospitals
#15
Roland Faigle, Lisa A Cooper, Rebecca F Gottesman
We sought to determine individual and system contributions to race disparities in percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube placement after stroke. Ischemic stroke admissions were identified from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample between 2007 and 2011. Hospitals were categorized based on the percentage of ethnic/racial minority stroke patients (< 25% ethnic/racial minorities ["majority-white hospitals"], 25-50% ethnic/racial minorities ["racially integrated hospitals"], or > 50% ethnic/racial minorities ["minority-serving hospitals"])...
February 21, 2018: Dysphagia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467568/commentary-addressing-racial-disparities-in-stroke-the-wide-spectrum-investigation-of-stroke-outcome-disparities-on-multiple-levels-wissdom
#16
EDITORIAL
Robert J Adams, Charles Ellis, Gayenell Magwood, Mark S Kindy, Leonardo Bonilha, Daniel T Lackland
Racial-ethnic disparities in stroke recovery are well-established in the United States but the underlying causes are not well-understood. The typical assumption that racial-ethnic disparities in stroke recovery are explained by health care access inequities may be simplistic as access to stroke-related rehabilitation, for example, does not adequately explain the observed disparities. To approach the problem in a more comprehensive fashion, the Wide Spectrum Investigation of Stroke Outcome Disparities on Multiple Levels (WISSDOM) was developed to bring together scientists from Regenerative Medicine, Neurology, Rehabilitation, and Nursing to examine disparities in stroke "recovery...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467565/racial-differences-in-weight-loss-mediated-by-engagement-and-behavior-change
#17
Loneke T Blackman Carr, Carmen Samuel-Hodge, Dianne Stanton Ward, Kelly R Evenson, Shrikant I Bangdiwala, Deborah F Tate
Objective: We set out to determine if a primarily Internet-delivered behavioral weight loss intervention produced differential weight loss in African American and non-Hispanic White women, and to identify possible mediators. Design: Data for this analysis were from a randomized controlled trial, collected at baseline and 4-months. Setting: The intervention included monthly face-to-face group sessions and an Internet component that participants were recommended to use at least once weekly...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467564/determinants-of-obesity-in-two-urban-communities-perceptions-and-community-driven-solutions
#18
Gabriela R Oates, Janice M Phillips, Lori B Bateman, Monica L Baskin, Mona N Fouad, Isabel C Scarinci
Objective: In the search of solutions to the rising rates of obesity, community perspectives are important because they highlight areas of need and help determine the level of community support for potential interventions. This study aimed to identify community perceptions of factors associated with obesity in two urban municipalities - one racially mixed and one predominantly African American - and to explore community-driven solutions to the problem of obesity. Methods: The study used Photovoice methodology to understand what community members perceived as obesity-promoting factors in their residential environments...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467563/sociocultural-influences-on-african-americans-representations-of-type-2-diabetes-a-qualitative-study
#19
Olayinka O Shiyanbola, Earlise Ward, Carolyn Brown
Objective: Illness representations, known as patients' beliefs and expectations about an illness, may be influenced by cultural beliefs and personal experiences. This study explored African Americans' perceptions of the sociocultural factors that influence their representations of diabetes. Design: Six semi-structured focus groups. Setting: Private space at a convenient site. Participants: Forty African Americans, aged 45-60 years with type 2 diabetes for at least one year prior...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466533/effectiveness-of-the-decide-interventions-on-shared-decision-making-and-perceived-quality-of-care-in-behavioral-health-with-multicultural-patients-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#20
Margarita Alegria, Ora Nakash, Kirsten Johnson, Andrea Ault-Brutus, Nicholas Carson, Mirko Fillbrunn, Ye Wang, Alice Cheng, Treniece Harris, Antonio Polo, Alisa Lincoln, Elmer Freeman, Benjamin Bostdorf, Marcos Rosenbaum, Claudia Epelbaum, Martin LaRoche, Ebele Okpokwasili-Johnson, MaJose Carrasco, Patrick E Shrout
Importance: Few randomized clinical trials have been conducted with ethnic/racial minorities to improve shared decision making (SDM) and quality of care. Objective: To test the effectiveness of patient and clinician interventions to improve SDM and quality of care among an ethnically/racially diverse sample. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-level 2 × 2 randomized clinical trial included clinicians at level 2 and patients (nested within clinicians) at level 1 from 13 Massachusetts behavioral health clinics...
February 21, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
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