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Microbiome metabolites

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211847/syntrophic-linkage-between-predatory-carpediemonas-and-specific-prokaryotic-populations
#1
Emmo Hamann, Halina E Tegetmeyer, Dietmar Riedel, Sten Littmann, Soeren Ahmerkamp, Jianwei Chen, Philipp F Hach, Marc Strous
Most anoxic environments are populated by small (<10 μm) heterotrophic eukaryotes that prey on different microbial community members. How predatory eukaryotes engage in beneficial interactions with other microbes has rarely been investigated so far. Here, we studied an example of such an interaction by cultivating the anerobic marine flagellate, Carpediemonas frisia sp. nov. (supergroup Excavata), with parts of its naturally associated microbiome. This microbiome consisted of so far uncultivated members of the Deltaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia and Nanoarchaeota...
February 17, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211537/ambient-ultrafine-particle-ingestion-alters-gut-microbiota-in-association-with-increased-atherogenic-lipid-metabolites
#2
Rongsong Li, Jieping Yang, Arian Saffari, Jonathan Jacobs, Kyung In Baek, Greg Hough, Muriel H Larauche, Jianguo Ma, Nelson Jen, Nabila Moussaoui, Bill Zhou, Hanul Kang, Srinivasa Reddy, Susanne M Henning, Matthew J Campen, Joseph Pisegna, Zhaoping Li, Alan M Fogelman, Constantinos Sioutas, Mohamad Navab, Tzung K Hsiai
Ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure is associated with atherosclerosis and inflammatory bowel disease. Ultrafine particles (UFP, dp < 0.1-0.2 μm) are redox active components of PM. We hypothesized that orally ingested UFP promoted atherogenic lipid metabolites in both the intestine and plasma via altered gut microbiota composition. Low density lipoprotein receptor-null (Ldlr(-/-)) mice on a high-fat diet were orally administered with vehicle control or UFP (40 μg/mouse/day) for 3 days a week...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210076/potential-role-of-the-gut-microbiota-in-synthetic-torpor-and-therapeutic-hypothermia
#3
REVIEW
Claudia Sisa, Silvia Turroni, Roberto Amici, Patrizia Brigidi, Marco Candela, Matteo Cerri
Therapeutic hypothermia is today used in several clinical settings, among them the gut related diseases that are influenced by ischemia/reperfusion injury. This perspective paved the way to the study of hibernation physiology, in natural hibernators, highlighting an unexpected importance of the gut microbial ecosystem in hibernation and torpor. In natural hibernators, intestinal microbes adaptively reorganize their structural configuration during torpor, and maintain a mutualistic configuration regardless of long periods of fasting and cold temperatures...
January 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194750/differential-responses-of-human-dendritic-cells-to-metabolites-from-the-oral-airway-microbiome
#4
Katrine Whiteson, Sudhanshu Agrawal, Anshu Agrawal
Small molecule metabolites that are produced or altered by host-associated microbial communities are emerging as significant immune response modifiers. However, there is a key gap in our knowledge of how oral microbial metabolites affect the immune response. Here, we examined the effects of metabolites from five bacterial strains commonly found in the oral/airway microbial communities of humans. The five strains, each isolated from cystic fibrosis patient sputum, were Pseudomonas aeruginosa FLR01 non-mucoid (P1) and FLR02 mucoid (P2) forms, Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp), Streptococcus salivarius (Ss), and Rothia mucilaginosa (Rm)...
February 14, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194448/divergent-relationships-between-fecal-microbiota-and-metabolome-following-distinct-antibiotic-induced-disruptions
#5
Jocelyn M Choo, Tokuwa Kanno, Nur Masirah Mohd Zain, Lex E X Leong, Guy C J Abell, Julie E Keeble, Kenneth D Bruce, A James Mason, Geraint B Rogers
The intestinal microbiome plays an essential role in regulating many aspects of host physiology, and its disruption through antibiotic exposure has been implicated in the development of a range of serious pathologies. The complex metabolic relationships that exist between members of the intestinal microbiota and the potential redundancy in functional pathways mean that an integrative analysis of changes in both structure and function are needed to understand the impact of antibiotic exposure. We used a combination of next-generation sequencing and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics to characterize the effects of two clinically important antibiotic treatments, ciprofloxacin and vancomycin-imipenem, on the intestinal microbiomes of female C57BL/6 mice...
January 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186768/the-impact-of-gut-microbiota-mediated-bile-acid-metabolism-on-the-solubilization-capacity-of-bile-salt-micelles-and-drug-solubility
#6
Elaine F Enright, Susan A Joyce, Cormac G M Gahan, Brendan T Griffin
In recent years, the gut microbiome has gained increasing appreciation as a determinant of the health status of the human host. Bile salts that are secreted into the intestine may be biotransformed by enzymes produced by the gut bacteria. To date, bile acid research at the host-microbe interface has primarily been directed toward effects on host metabolism. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of changes in gut microbial bile acid metabolism on the solubilization capacity of bile salt micelles and consequently intraluminal drug solubility...
February 10, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178425/synthetic-cystic-fibrosis-sputum-medium-diminishes-i-burkholderia-cenocepacia-i-antifungal-activity-against-i-aspergillus-fumigatus-i-independently-of-phenylacetic-acid-production
#7
Tasia Joy Lightly, Ryan R Phung, John L Sorensen, Silvia T Cardona
Phenylacetic acid (PAA), an intermediate of phenylalanine degradation, is emerging as a signal molecule in microbial interactions with the host. In this work, we explore the presence of phenylalanine and PAA catabolism in three microbial pathogens of the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung microbiome: <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i>, <i>Burkholderia cenocepacia</i> and <i>Aspergillus fumigatus</i>. While <i>in silico</i> analysis of <i>B. cenocepacia</i> J2315 and <i>A...
February 8, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176881/functional-coupling-of-human-microphysiology-systems-intestine-liver-kidney-proximal-tubule-blood-brain-barrier-and-skeletal-muscle
#8
Lawrence Vernetti, Albert Gough, Nicholas Baetz, Sarah Blutt, James R Broughman, Jacquelyn A Brown, Jennifer Foulke-Abel, Nesrin Hasan, Julie In, Edward Kelly, Olga Kovbasnjuk, Jonathan Repper, Nina Senutovitch, Janet Stabb, Catherine Yeung, Nick C Zachos, Mark Donowitz, Mary Estes, Jonathan Himmelfarb, George Truskey, John P Wikswo, D Lansing Taylor
Organ interactions resulting from drug, metabolite or xenobiotic transport between organs are key components of human metabolism that impact therapeutic action and toxic side effects. Preclinical animal testing often fails to predict adverse outcomes arising from sequential, multi-organ metabolism of drugs and xenobiotics. Human microphysiological systems (MPS) can model these interactions and are predicted to dramatically improve the efficiency of the drug development process. In this study, five human MPS models were evaluated for functional coupling, defined as the determination of organ interactions via an in vivo-like sequential, organ-to-organ transfer of media...
February 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166818/resistant-starch-can-improve-insulin-sensitivity-independently-of-the-gut-microbiota
#9
Laure B Bindels, Rafael R Segura Munoz, João Carlos Gomes-Neto, Valentin Mutemberezi, Inés Martínez, Nuria Salazar, Elizabeth A Cody, Maria I Quintero-Villegas, Hatem Kittana, Clara G de Los Reyes-Gavilán, Robert J Schmaltz, Giulio G Muccioli, Jens Walter, Amanda E Ramer-Tait
BACKGROUND: Obesity-related diseases, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, have reached epidemic proportions in industrialized nations, and dietary interventions for their prevention are therefore important. Resistant starches (RS) improve insulin sensitivity in clinical trials, but the mechanisms underlying this health benefit remain poorly understood. Because RS fermentation by the gut microbiota results in the formation of physiologically active metabolites, we chose to specifically determine the role of the gut microbiota in mediating the metabolic benefits of RS...
February 7, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164850/biology-of-the-microbiome-1-interactions-with-the-host-immune-response
#10
REVIEW
Sylwia Smolinska, David Groeger, Liam O'Mahony
The intestinal immune system is intimately connected with the vast diversity of microbes present within the gut and the diversity of food components that are consumed daily. The discovery of novel molecular mechanisms, which mediate host-microbe-nutrient communication, have highlighted the important roles played by microbes and dietary factors in influencing mucosal immune responses. Dendritic cells, epithelial cells, innate lymphoid cells, T regulatory cells, effector lymphocytes, natural killer T cells, and B cells can all be influenced by the microbiome...
March 2017: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161178/invited-review-large-scale-indirect-measurements-for-enteric-methane-emissions-in-dairy-cattle-a-review-of-proxies-and-their-potential-for-use-in-management-and-breeding-decisions
#11
E Negussie, Y de Haas, F Dehareng, R J Dewhurst, J Dijkstra, N Gengler, D P Morgavi, H Soyeurt, S van Gastelen, T Yan, F Biscarini
Efforts to reduce the carbon footprint of milk production through selection and management of low-emitting cows require accurate and large-scale measurements of methane (CH4) emissions from individual cows. Several techniques have been developed to measure CH4 in a research setting but most are not suitable for large-scale recording on farm. Several groups have explored proxies (i.e., indicators or indirect traits) for CH4; ideally these should be accurate, inexpensive, and amenable to being recorded individually on a large scale...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148918/mixing-omics-combining-genetics-and-metabolomics-to-study-rheumatic-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Cristina Menni, Jonas Zierer, Ana M Valdes, Tim D Spector
Metabolomics is an exciting field in systems biology that provides a direct readout of the biochemical activities taking place within an individual at a particular point in time. Metabolite levels are influenced by many factors, including disease status, environment, medications, diet and, importantly, genetics. Thanks to their dynamic nature, metabolites are useful for diagnosis and prognosis, as well as for predicting and monitoring the efficacy of treatments. At the same time, the strong links between an individual's metabolic and genetic profiles enable the investigation of pathways that underlie changes in metabolite levels...
February 2, 2017: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143587/gut-microbiota-dysbiosis-contributes-to-the-development-of-hypertension
#13
Jing Li, Fangqing Zhao, Yidan Wang, Junru Chen, Jie Tao, Gang Tian, Shouling Wu, Wenbin Liu, Qinghua Cui, Bin Geng, Weili Zhang, Ryan Weldon, Kelda Auguste, Lei Yang, Xiaoyan Liu, Li Chen, Xinchun Yang, Baoli Zhu, Jun Cai
BACKGROUND: Recently, the potential role of gut microbiome in metabolic diseases has been revealed, especially in cardiovascular diseases. Hypertension is one of the most prevalent cardiovascular diseases worldwide, yet whether gut microbiota dysbiosis participates in the development of hypertension remains largely unknown. To investigate this issue, we carried out comprehensive metagenomic and metabolomic analyses in a cohort of 41 healthy controls, 56 subjects with pre-hypertension, 99 individuals with primary hypertension, and performed fecal microbiota transplantation from patients to germ-free mice...
February 1, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138003/the-effects-of-liraglutide-in-mice-with-diet-induced-obesity-studied-by-metabolomics
#14
Martina Buganova, Helena Pelantova, Martina Holubova, Blanka Sediva, Lenka Maletinska, Blanka Zelezna, Jaroslav Kunes, Petr Kacer, Marek Kuzma, Martin Haluzik
Liraglutide is the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist widely used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Recently, it has been demonstrated to decrease cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk. While the major modes of liraglutide action are well-known, its detailed action at the metabolic level has not been studied. To this end, we explored the effect of 2-week liraglutide treatment in C57BL/6 male mice with obesity and diabetes induced by 13 weeks of high-fat diet using NMR spectroscopy to capture the changes in urine metabolic profile induced by the therapy...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125558/o-010-microbial-metabolites-establish-a-gradient-of-protons-which-mediate-interkingdom-host-microbiome-cross-talk-and-maintain-intestinal-homeostasis-via-two-proton-sensing-gprs
#15
Ashfaqul Alam, Huixia Wu, Jason Matthews, Bejan Saeedi, Rheinallt Jones, Andrew Neish
BACKGROUND: The mammalian intestine houses a complex microbial community, which fundamentally influences the development and activation of the immune system, and is integral to the repair of damaged intestinal mucosa. Intestinal damage is observed in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), enteric infections, as well as following surgical trauma, and environmental insults. Tissue restitution is a complex but coordinated cellular process to repair gut mucosa, which involves both cellular proliferation and migration...
February 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122648/microbiota-transfer-therapy-alters-gut-ecosystem-and-improves-gastrointestinal-and-autism-symptoms-an-open-label-study
#16
Dae-Wook Kang, James B Adams, Ann C Gregory, Thomas Borody, Lauren Chittick, Alessio Fasano, Alexander Khoruts, Elizabeth Geis, Juan Maldonado, Sharon McDonough-Means, Elena L Pollard, Simon Roux, Michael J Sadowsky, Karen Schwarzberg Lipson, Matthew B Sullivan, J Gregory Caporaso, Rosa Krajmalnik-Brown
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are complex neurobiological disorders that impair social interactions and communication and lead to restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities. The causes of these disorders remain poorly understood, but gut microbiota, the 10(13) bacteria in the human intestines, have been implicated because children with ASD often suffer gastrointestinal (GI) problems that correlate with ASD severity. Several previous studies have reported abnormal gut bacteria in children with ASD...
January 23, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121990/colonic-absorption-of-low-molecular-weight-metabolites-influenced-by-the-intestinal-microbiome-a-pilot-study
#17
Mitsuharu Matsumoto, Takushi Ooga, Ryoko Kibe, Yuji Aiba, Yasuhiro Koga, Yoshimi Benno
Low-molecular-weight metabolites produced by the intestinal microbiome play a direct role in health and disease. However, little is known about the ability of the colon to absorb these metabolites. It is also unclear whether these metabolites are bioavailable. Here, metabolomics techniques (capillary electrophoresis with time-of-flight mass spectrometry, CE-TOFMS), germ-free (GF) mice, and colonized (Ex-GF) mice were used to identify the colonic luminal metabolites transported to colonic tissue and/or blood...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115399/competitive-interactions-between-sponge-associated-bacteria
#18
Ana I S Esteves, Alescia Cullen, Torsten Thomas
The diversity of the microbial communities associated to marine sponges has been extensively studied, but their functioning and interactions within the sponge holobiont are only recently being appreciated. Sponge-associated microorganisms are known for the production of a range of inhibitory metabolites with biotechnological application, but the ecological role that these compounds might have remains elusive. In this work, we explore the competitive interactions between cultivated sponge-associated bacteria to inspect whether bacteria that produce antimicrobial activities are able to inhibit potentially pathogenic bacteria...
January 22, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111598/the-mpeg-pcl-copolymer-for-selective-fermentation-of-staphylococcus-lugdunensis-against-candida-parapsilosis-in-the-human-microbiome
#19
Ming-Shan Kao, Yanhan Wang, Shinta Marito, Stephen Huang, Wan-Zhen Lin, Jon A Gangoiti, Bruce A Barshop, Choi Hyun, Woan-Ruah Lee, James A Sanford, Richard L Gallo, Yuping Ran, Wan-Tzu Chen, Chun-Jen Huang, Ming-Fa Hsieh, Chun-Ming Huang
Many human skin diseases, such as seborrheic dermatitis, potentially occur due to the over-growth of fungi. It remains a challenge to develop fungicides with a lower risk of generating resistant fungi and non-specifically killing commensal microbes. Our probiotic approaches using a selective fermentation initiator of skin commensal bacteria, fermentation metabolites or their derivatives provide novel therapeutics to rein in the over-growth of fungi. Staphylococcus lugdunensis (S. lugdunensis) bacteria and Candida parapsilosis (C...
August 2016: Journal of microbial & biochemical technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111075/discovery-of-reactive-microbiota-derived-metabolites-that-inhibit-host-proteases
#20
Chun-Jun Guo, Fang-Yuan Chang, Thomas P Wyche, Keriann M Backus, Timothy M Acker, Masanori Funabashi, Mao Taketani, Mohamed S Donia, Stephen Nayfach, Katherine S Pollard, Charles S Craik, Benjamin F Cravatt, Jon Clardy, Christopher A Voigt, Michael A Fischbach
The gut microbiota modulate host biology in numerous ways, but little is known about the molecular mediators of these interactions. Previously, we found a widely distributed family of nonribosomal peptide synthetase gene clusters in gut bacteria. Here, by expressing a subset of these clusters in Escherichia coli or Bacillus subtilis, we show that they encode pyrazinones and dihydropyrazinones. At least one of the 47 clusters is present in 88% of the National Institutes of Health Human Microbiome Project (NIH HMP) stool samples, and they are transcribed under conditions of host colonization...
January 26, 2017: Cell
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