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Microbiome metabolites

Bartosz Baran, Michał Krzyżowski, Mikołaj Cup, Jakub Janiec, Mateusz Grabowski, Jacek Francikowski
Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are a group of common metabolites and semiochemicals mediating information transfer between higher organisms and bacteria, either from microbiome or external environment. VFAs commonly occur among various insect orders. There are numerous studies exploring their influence on the behavior of different insect species. In relation to the papers published by J. E. McFarlane in 1985, we assessed the effects of formic, acetic, propionic, butyric and valeric acids on the spatial preference of the lesser mealworm ( Alphitobius diaperinus ), a common pest of stored food grain products and the poultry industry...
March 16, 2018: Insects
Nadia Lombardi, Stefania Vitale, David Turrà, Massimo Reverberi, Corrado Fanelli, Francesco Vinale, Roberta Marra, Michelina Ruocco, Alberto Pascale, Giada d'Errico, Sheridan Lois Woo, Matteo Lorito
Plant roots release complex mixtures of bioactive molecules including compounds that affect the activity and modify the composition of the rhizosphere microbiome. In this work, we investigated the initial phase of the interaction between tomato and an effective biocontrol strain of Trichoderma harzianum (T22). We found that root exudates (RE), obtained from plants grown in a split root system and exposed to a choice of biotic and abiotic stress factors (wounding, salt, pathogen attack), stimulate the growth and act as chemoattractants of the biocontrol fungus...
March 16, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Shiho Fujisaka, Julian Avila-Pacheco, Marion Soto, Aleksandar Kostic, Jonathan M Dreyfuss, Hui Pan, Siegfried Ussar, Emrah Altindis, Ning Li, Lynn Bry, Clary B Clish, C Ronald Kahn
Diet, genetics, and the gut microbiome are determinants of metabolic status, in part through production of metabolites by the gut microbiota. To understand the mechanisms linking these factors, we performed LC-MS-based metabolomic analysis of cecal contents and plasma from C57BL/6J, 129S1/SvImJ, and 129S6/SvEvTac mice on chow or a high-fat diet (HFD) and HFD-treated with vancomycin or metronidazole. Prediction of the functional metagenome of gut bacteria by PICRUSt analysis of 16S sequences revealed dramatic differences in microbial metabolism...
March 13, 2018: Cell Reports
Phoebe Lin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The intestinal commensal microbiota are important in shaping immune cell repertoire and are influenced by host genetics. Because of this intricate interaction, an intestinal dysbiosis has been associated with multiple immune-mediated polygenic diseases. This review summarizes the literature on how alterations in the intestinal microbiota contribute to immune-mediated ocular disease, and how to potentially target the gut microbiome for therapeutic benefit. RECENT FINDINGS: Several groups have demonstrated the importance of the intestinal microbiome in uveitis pathogenesis...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
Helen M Golder, Jennifer M Thomson, Stuart E Denman, Chris S McSweeney, Ian J Lean
Dairy heifers were subjected to a non-life-threatening challenge designed to induce ruminal acidosis by feeding grain and sugar. Large among animal variation in clinical signs of acidosis, rumen metabolite concentrations, and the rumen microbiome occurred. This exploratory study investigates sources of the variation by examining associations between the genome, metabolome, and microbiome, albeit with a limited population. The broader objective is to provide a rationale for a larger field study to identify markers for susceptibility to ruminal acidosis...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Yi Lyu, Lei Wu, Fang Wang, Xinchun Shen, Dingbo Lin
Dysbiosis, a broad spectrum of imbalance of the gut microbiota, may progress to microbiota dysfunction. Dysbiosis is linked to some human diseases, such as inflammation-related disorders and metabolic syndromes. However, the underlying mechanisms of the pathogenesis of dysbiosis remain elusive. Recent findings suggest that the microbiome and gut immune responses, like immunoglobulin A production, play critical roles in the gut homeostasis and function, and the progression of dysbiosis. In the past two decades, much progress has been made in better understanding of production of immunoglobulin A and its association with commensal microbiota...
January 1, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Daniel R Garza, Marcel C van Verk, Martijn A Huynen, Bas E Dutilh
The environmental metabolome and metabolic potential of microorganisms are dominant and essential factors shaping microbial community composition. Recent advances in genome annotation and systems biology now allow us to semiautomatically reconstruct genome-scale metabolic models (GSMMs) of microorganisms based on their genome sequence1 . Next, growth of these models in a defined metabolic environment can be predicted in silico, mechanistically linking the metabolic fluxes of individual microbial populations to the community dynamics...
March 12, 2018: Nature Microbiology
Wendy Fonseca, Nicholas W Lukacs, Catherine Ptaschinski
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common pathogen that infects virtually all children by 2 years of age and is the leading cause of hospitalization of infants worldwide. While most children experience mild symptoms, some children progress to severe lower respiratory tract infection. Those children with severe disease have a much higher risk of developing childhood wheezing later in life. Many risk factors are known to result in exacerbated disease, including premature birth and early age of RSV infection, when the immune system is relatively immature...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Edward T Morgan, Joseph L Dempsey, Sylvie M Mimche, Tracey J Lamb, Supriya Kulkarni, Julia Yue Cui, Hyunyoung Jeong, Angela L Slitt
This article is a report on a symposium entitled "Physiological Regulation of Drug Metabolism and Transport" sponsored by the American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics and held at the Experimental Biology 2017 meeting in Chicago, IL. The contributions of physiological and pathophysiological regulation of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters to interindividual variability in drug metabolism are increasingly recognized, but are in many cases not well understood. The presentations herein discuss the phenomenology, consequences and mechanism of such regulation...
March 7, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
Mette Schmedes, Asker Daniel Brejnrod, Eli Kristin Aadland, Pia Kiilerich, Karsten Kristiansen, Hélène Jacques, Charles Lavigne, Ingvild Eide Graff, Øyvin Eng, Asle Holthe, Gunnar Mellgren, Jette Feveile Young, Ulrik Kraemer Sundekilde, Bjørn Liaset, Hanne Christine Bertram
SCOPE: The impact of dietary protein types on the gut microbiome is scarcely studied. The aim of the present study was therefore to examine the effects of lean-seafood and non-seafood proteins on the gut microbiome composition and activity and elucidate potential associations to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. METHODS: A cross-over intervention study in which 20 healthy subjects consumed two diets that varied in protein source was conducted.1 H NMR spectroscopy and 16S rDNA sequencing analyses were applied to characterize fecal metabolites and gut microbiota composition, respectively...
March 6, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Ruey Leng Loo, Xin Zou, Lawrence J Appel, Jeremy K Nicholson, Elaine Holmes
Background: Interindividual variation in the response to diet is common, but the underlying mechanism for such variation is unclear. Objective: The objective of this study was to use a metabolic profiling approach to identify a panel of urinary metabolites representing individuals demonstrating typical (homogeneous) metabolic responses to healthy diets, and subsequently to define the association of these metabolites with improvement of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs)...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Ling Xiao, Belinda Van't Land, Phillip A Engen, Ankur Naqib, Stefan J Green, Angie Nato, Thea Leusink-Muis, Johan Garssen, Ali Keshavarzian, Bernd Stahl, Gert Folkerts
Development of Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is influenced by non-genetic factors, such as optimal microbiome development during early life that "programs" the immune system. Exclusive and prolonged breastfeeding is an independent protective factor against the development of T1D, likely via bioactive components. Human Milk Oligosaccharides (HMOS) are microbiota modulators, known to regulate immune responses directly. Here we show that early life provision (only for a period of six weeks) of 1% authentic HMOS (consisting of both long-chain, as well as short-chain structures), delayed and suppressed T1D development in non-obese diabetic mice and reduced development of severe pancreatic insulitis in later life...
March 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jin Ah Cho, Daniel J F Chinnapen
Mucosal surfaces that line our gastrointestinal tract are continuously exposed to trillions of bacteria that form a symbiotic relationship and impact host health and disease. It is only beginning to be understood that the cross-talk between the host and microbiome involve dynamic changes in commensal bacterial population, secretion, and absorption of metabolites between the host and microbiome. As emerging evidence implicates dysbiosis of gut microbiota in the pathology and progression of various diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, and allergy, conventional treatments that either overlook the microbiome in the mechanism of action, or eliminate vast populations of microbes via wide-spectrum antibiotics need to be reconsidered...
March 2018: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
Woojun Park
The host genetic background, complex surrounding environments, and gut microbiome are very closely linked to human and animal health and disease. Although significant correlations between gut microbiota and human and animal health have been revealed, the specific roles of each gut bacterium in shaping human and animal health and disease remain unclear. However, recent omics-based studies using experimental animals and surveys of gut microbiota from unhealthy humans have provided insights into the relationships among microbial community, their metabolites, and human and animal health...
March 2018: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
Kai G Kahl, Tillmann Krüger, Gabriel Eckermann, Heiner Wedemeyer
Depression and liver disease are closely associated. Every third patient with liver cirrhosis or hepatitis shows depressive symptoms. On the other hand, every third patient with depressive disorder develops an alcohol disorder at some point during his / her life. A crucial link between depression and hepatic disease seems to be inflammatory processes in which the microbiome and increased intestinal permeability of the intestine play a pivotal role. Depression as well as liver disease, alcohol consumption, stress, and aging processes disturb the delicate balance of intestinal microbiota resulting in increased intestinal permeability...
February 28, 2018: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
Surya N Mulukutla, Jean W Hsu, Ruchi Gaba, Kurt M Bohren, Anu Guthikonda, Dinakar Iyer, Nadim J Ajami, Joseph F Petrosino, Christiane S Hampe, Nalini Ram, Farook Jahoor, Ashok Balasubramanyam
Background: A-β + ketosis-prone diabetes (KPD) is a subset of type 2 diabetes in which patients have severe but reversible β cell dysfunction of unknown etiology. Plasma metabolomic analysis indicates that abnormal arginine metabolism may be involved. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the relation between gut microbiome and arginine metabolism and the relation between arginine availability and β cell function in KPD patients compared with control participants...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Monica A Newman, Renée M Petri, Dietmar Grüll, Qendrim Zebeli, Barbara U Metzler-Zebeli
Dietary inclusion of resistant starches can promote host health through modulation of the gastrointestinal microbiota, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) profiles, and lipid metabolism. This study investigated the impact of a transglycosylated cornstarch (TGS) on gastric, ileal, cecal, proximal-colonic, and mid-colonic bacterial community profiles and fermentation metabolites using a growing pig model. It additionally evaluated the effect of TGS on the expression of host genes related to glucose and SCFA absorption, incretins, and satiety in the gut as well as host genes related to lipid metabolism in hepatic and adipose tissue...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Shaomin Zou, Lekun Fang, Mong-Hong Lee
Gastrointestinal microbiome, containing at least 100 trillion bacteria, resides in the mucosal surface of human intestine. Recent studies show that perturbations in the microbiota may influence physiology and link to a number of diseases, including colon tumorigenesis. Colorectal cancer (CRC), the third most common cancer, is the disease resulting from multi-genes and multi-factors, but the mechanistic details between gut microenvironment and CRC remain poorly characterized. Thanks to new technologies such as metagenome sequencing, progress in large-scale analysis of the genetic and metabolic profile of gut microbial has been possible, which has facilitated studies about microbiota composition, taxonomic alterations and host interactions...
February 2018: Gastroenterology Report
Meredith Dinges, Christian Lytle, Cynthia K Larive
The large intestine (cecum and colon) is a complex biochemical factory of vital importance to human health. It plays a major role in digestion and absorption by salvaging nutrients from polysaccharides via fermentation initiated by the bacteria that comprise the gut microbiome. We hypothesize that the intestinal epithelium absorbs a limited number of luminal metabolites with bioactive potential while actively excluding those with toxic effects. To explore this concept, we combined1 H NMR detection with Ussing chamber measurements of absorptive transport by rat cecum...
February 23, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Jing Gao, Kang Xu, Hongnan Liu, Gang Liu, Miaomiao Bai, Can Peng, Tiejun Li, Yulong Yin
The gut microbiota influences the health of the host, especially with regard to gut immune homeostasis and the intestinal immune response. In addition to serving as a nutrient enhancer, L-tryptophan (Trp) plays crucial roles in the balance between intestinal immune tolerance and gut microbiota maintenance. Recent discoveries have underscored that changes in the microbiota modulate the host immune system by modulating Trp metabolism. Moreover, Trp, endogenous Trp metabolites (kynurenines, serotonin, and melatonin), and bacterial Trp metabolites (indole, indolic acid, skatole, and tryptamine) have profound effects on gut microbial composition, microbial metabolism, the host's immune system, the host-microbiome interface, and host immune system-intestinal microbiota interactions...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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