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Microbiome metabolites

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143816/quantitative-microbiome-profiling-links-gut-community-variation-to-microbial-load
#1
Doris Vandeputte, Gunter Kathagen, Kevin D'hoe, Sara Vieira-Silva, Mireia Valles-Colomer, João Sabino, Jun Wang, Raul Y Tito, Lindsey De Commer, Youssef Darzi, Séverine Vermeire, Gwen Falony, Jeroen Raes
Current sequencing-based analyses of faecal microbiota quantify microbial taxa and metabolic pathways as fractions of the sample sequence library generated by each analysis. Although these relative approaches permit detection of disease-associated microbiome variation, they are limited in their ability to reveal the interplay between microbiota and host health. Comparative analyses of relative microbiome data cannot provide information about the extent or directionality of changes in taxa abundance or metabolic potential...
November 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141969/cardiovascular-and-antiobesity-effects-of-resveratrol-mediated-through-the-gut-microbiota
#2
REVIEW
Julia K Bird, Daniel Raederstorff, Peter Weber, Robert E Steinert
Encouraging scientific research into the health effects of dietary bioactive resveratrol has been confounded by its rapid first-pass metabolism, which leads to low in vivo bioavailability. Preliminary studies have shown that resveratrol can modulate gut microbiota composition, undergo biotransformation to active metabolites via the intestinal microbiota, or affect gut barrier function. In rodents, resveratrol can modify the relative Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio and reverse the gut microbial dysbiosis caused by a high-fat diet...
November 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140397/progress-in-the-understanding-of-the-pathology-of-allergic-asthma-and-the-potential-of-fruit-proanthocyanidins-as-modulators-of-airway-inflammation
#3
REVIEW
Sara L Coleman, Odette M Shaw
Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory lung disease characterized by sensitization of the airways, and the development of immunoglobulin E antibodies, to benign antigens. The established pathophysiology of asthma includes recurrent lung epithelial inflammation, excessive mucus production, bronchial smooth muscle hyperreactivity, and chronic lung tissue remodeling, resulting in reversible airflow restriction. Immune cells, including eosinophils and the recently characterized type 2 innate lymphoid cells, infiltrate into the lung tissue as part of the inflammatory response in allergic asthma...
November 15, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117778/serotonin-a-mediator-of-the-gut-brain-axis-in-multiple-sclerosis
#4
Tsveta S Malinova, Christine D Dijkstra, Helga E de Vries
BACKGROUND: The significance of the gut microbiome for the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) has been established, although the underlying signaling mechanisms of this interaction have not been sufficiently explored. OBJECTIVES: We address this point and use serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT))-a microbial-modulated neurotransmitter (NT) as a showcase to demonstrate that NTs regulated by the gut microbiome are potent candidates for mediators of the gut-brain axis in demyelinating disorders...
November 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116183/time-resolved-analysis-of-a-denitrifying-bacterial-community-revealed-a-core-microbiome-responsible-for-the-anaerobic-degradation-of-quinoline
#5
Yun Wang, Hao Tian, Fei Huang, Wenmin Long, Qianpeng Zhang, Jing Wang, Ying Zhu, Xiaogang Wu, Guanzhou Chen, Liping Zhao, Lars R Bakken, Åsa Frostegård, Xiaojun Zhang
Quinoline is biodegradable under anaerobic conditions, but information about the degradation kinetics and the involved microorganisms is scarce. Here, the dynamics of a quinoline-degrading bacterial consortium were studied in anoxic batch cultures containing nitrate. The cultures removed 83.5% of the quinoline during the first 80 hours, which were dominated by denitrification, and then switched to methanogenesis when the nitrogen oxyanions were depleted. Time-resolved community analysis using pyrosequencing revealed that denitrifiying bacteria belonging to the genus Thauera were enriched during the denitrification stage from 12...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106611/mvoc-2-0-a-database-of-microbial-volatiles
#6
Marie C Lemfack, Bjoern-Oliver Gohlke, Serge M T Toguem, Saskia Preissner, Birgit Piechulla, Robert Preissner
Metabolic capabilities of microorganisms include the production of secondary metabolites (e.g. antibiotics). The analysis of microbial volatile organic compounds (mVOCs) is an emerging research field with huge impact on medical, agricultural and biotechnical applied and basic science. The mVOC database (v1) has grown with microbiome research and integrated species information with data on emitted volatiles. Here, we present the mVOC 2.0 database with about 2000 compounds from almost 1000 species and new features to work with the database...
November 2, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104759/human-microbiome-signatures-of-differential-colorectal-cancer-drug-metabolism
#7
Leah Guthrie, Sanchit Gupta, Johanna Daily, Libusha Kelly
It is well appreciated that microbial metabolism of drugs can influence treatment efficacy. Microbial β-glucuronidases in the gut can reactivate the excreted, inactive metabolite of irinotecan, a first-line chemotherapeutic for metastatic colorectal cancer. Reactivation causes adverse drug responses, including severe diarrhea. However, a direct connection between irinotecan metabolism and the composition of an individual's gut microbiota has not previously been made. Here, we report quantitative evidence of inter-individual variability in microbiome metabolism of the inactive metabolite of irinotecan to its active form...
2017: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094115/lactobacillus-plantarum-hnu082-derived-improvements-in-the-intestinal-microbiome-prevent-the-development-of-hyperlipidaemia
#8
Yuyu Shao, Dongxue Huo, Qiannan Peng, Yuyang Pan, Shuaiming Jiang, Bin Liu, Jiachao Zhang
Restricted by research techniques, the probiotic-derived changes in the microbiome and microbial metabolites correlated with the potential prevention of hyperlipidaemia have remained undiscovered. In the present research, a metagenomic approach was applied to describe Lactobacillus plantarum HNU082 consumption-derived changes in the intestinal microbiome and their correlation with the occurrence and development of hyperlipidaemia. Principal coordinate analysis based on UniFrac distances indicated that the intestinal microbiota was profoundly altered in the hyperlipidaemia group, and probiotic consumption regulated the bias in the intestinal microbial structure in hyperlipidaemia...
November 2, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083037/review-article-the-gut-microbiome-as-a-therapeutic-target-in-the-pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-chronic-liver-disease
#9
REVIEW
C A Woodhouse, V C Patel, A Singanayagam, D L Shawcross
BACKGROUND: Mortality from chronic liver disease is rising exponentially. The liver is intimately linked to the gut via the portal vein, and exposure to gut microbiota and their metabolites translocating across the gut lumen may impact upon both the healthy and diseased liver. Modulation of gut microbiota could prove to be a potential therapeutic target. AIM: To characterise the changes in the gut microbiome that occur in chronic liver disease and to assess the impact of manipulation of the microbiome on the liver...
October 30, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080339/the-role-of-the-gut-microbiota-in-bile-acid-metabolism
#10
Oscar Ramírez-Pérez, Vania Cruz-Ramón, Paulina Chinchilla-López, Nahum Méndez-Sánchez
The gut microbiota has been considered a cornerstone of maintaining the health status of its human host because it not only facilitates harvesting of nutrients and energy from ingested food, but also produces numerous metabolites that can regulate host metabolism. One such class of metabolites, the bile acids, are synthesized from cholesterol in the liver and further metabolized by the gut microbiota into secondary bile acids. These bioconversions modulate the signaling properties of bile acids through the nuclear farnesoid X receptor and the G protein-coupled membrane receptor 5, which regulate diverse metabolic pathways in the host...
October 28, 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078342/bacterial-natural-product-biosynthetic-domain-composition-in-soil-correlates-with-changes-in-latitude-on-a-continent-wide-scale
#11
Christophe Lemetre, Jeffrey Maniko, Zachary Charlop-Powers, Ben Sparrow, Andrew J Lowe, Sean F Brady
Although bacterial bioactive metabolites have been one of the most prolific sources of lead structures for the development of small-molecule therapeutics, very little is known about the environmental factors associated with changes in secondary metabolism across natural environments. Large-scale sequencing of environmental microbiomes has the potential to shed light on the richness of bacterial biosynthetic diversity hidden in the environment, how it varies from one environment to the next, and what environmental factors correlate with changes in biosynthetic diversity...
October 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077920/metronidazole-an-update-on-metabolism-structure-cytotoxicity-and-resistance-mechanisms
#12
Simon A Dingsdag, Neil Hunter
Metronidazole, a nitroimidazole, remains a front-line choice for treatment of infections related to inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract including colitis linked to Clostridium difficile. Despite >60 years of research, the metabolism of metronidazole and associated cytotoxicity is not definitively characterized. Nitroimidazoles are prodrugs that are reductively activated (the nitro group is reduced) under low oxygen tension, leading to imidazole fragmentation and cytotoxicity. It remains unclear if nitroimidazole reduction (activation) contributes to the cytotoxicity profile, or whether subsequent fragmentation of the imidazole ring and formed metabolites alone mediate cytotoxicity...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068318/advances-in-chemical-sensing-technologies-for-vocs-in-breath-for-security-threat-assessment-illicit-drug-detection-and-human-trafficking-activity
#13
Stamatios Giannoukos, Agapios Agapiou, S Taylor
On-site chemical sensing of compounds associated with security and terrorist attacks is of worldwide interest. Other related bio-monitoring topics include identification of individuals posing a threat from illicit drugs, explosive manufacturing, as well as searching for victims of human trafficking and collapsed buildings. The current status of field analytical technologies is directed towards the detection and identification of vapours and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Some VOCs are associated with exhaled breath; where research is moving from individual breath testing (volatilome) to cell breath (microbiome) and most recently to crowd breath metabolites (exposome)...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068034/characterization-of-fecal-fat-composition-and-gut-derived-fecal-microbiota-in-high-fat-diet-fed-rats-following-intervention-with-chito-oligosaccharide-and-resistant-starch-complexes
#14
Wenting Shang, Xu Si, Zhongkai Zhou, Ying Li, Padraig Strappe, Chris Blanchard
The current study analyzed the different effects of intervention in high-fat diet fed rats using chito-oligosaccharides (CO group), resistant starch (RS group) and their complexes (CO-RS group), respectively. Properties such as fecal fat composition, gut derived fecal microbiota and fecal metabolites were investigated. The results show that supplementation with CO-RS in the high-fat diet led to the highest level of fecal fat excretion, followed by the CO and RS groups, and its fatty acid composition was characterized by a lower ∑UFA and higher ∑SFA levels...
October 25, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067994/microbiome-driven-allergic-lung-inflammation-is-ameliorated-by-short-chain-fatty-acids
#15
A Cait, M R Hughes, F Antignano, J Cait, P A Dimitriu, K R Maas, L A Reynolds, L Hacker, J Mohr, B B Finlay, C Zaph, K M McNagny, W W Mohn
The mammalian gastrointestinal tract harbors a microbial community with metabolic activity critical for host health, including metabolites that can modulate effector functions of immune cells. Mice treated with vancomycin have an altered microbiome and metabolite profile, exhibit exacerbated T helper type 2 cell (Th2) responses, and are more susceptible to allergic lung inflammation. Here we show that dietary supplementation with short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) ameliorates this enhanced asthma susceptibility by modulating the activity of T cells and dendritic cells (DCs)...
October 25, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063093/nmr-window-of-molecular-complexity-showing-homeostasis-in-superorganisms
#16
REVIEW
Jun Kikuchi, Shunji Yamada
NMR offers tremendous advantages in the analyses of molecular complexity, such as crude bio-fluids, bio-extracts, and intact cells and tissues. Here we introduce recent applications of NMR approaches, as well as next generation sequencing (NGS), for the evaluation of human and environmental health (i.e., maintenance of a homeostatic state) based on metabolic and microbial profiling and data science. We describe useful databases and web tools that are used to support these studies by facilitating the characterization of metabolites from complex NMR spectra...
October 24, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061990/tmao-is-associated-with-mortality-impact-of-modestly-impaired-renal-function
#17
Eke G Gruppen, Erwin Garcia, Margery A Connelly, Elias J Jeyarajah, James D Otvos, Stephan J L Bakker, Robin P F Dullaart
Trimethylamine-N-Oxide (TMAO) is a microbiome-related metabolite that is cleared by the kidney and linked to renal function. We explored the relationship between TMAO and all-cause mortality, and determined whether this association was modified by renal function. A prospective study was performed among PREVEND participants to examine associations of plasma TMAO with all-cause mortality. After median follow-up of 8.3 years in 5,469 participants, 322 subjects died. TMAO was positively associated with age, body mass index, type 2 diabetes mellitus and inversely with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFRcreatcysC)(all P < 0...
October 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057986/hippurate-as-a-metabolomic-marker-of-gut-microbiome-diversity-modulation-by-diet-and-relationship-to-metabolic-syndrome
#18
Tess Pallister, Matthew A Jackson, Tiphaine C Martin, Jonas Zierer, Amy Jennings, Robert P Mohney, Alexander MacGregor, Claire J Steves, Aedin Cassidy, Tim D Spector, Cristina Menni
Reduced gut microbiome diversity is associated with multiple disorders including metabolic syndrome (MetS) features, though metabolomic markers have not been investigated. Our objective was to identify blood metabolite markers of gut microbiome diversity, and explore their relationship with dietary intake and MetS. We examined associations between Shannon diversity and 292 metabolites profiled by the untargeted metabolomics provider Metabolon Inc. in 1529 females from TwinsUK using linear regressions adjusting for confounders and multiple testing (Bonferroni: P < 1...
October 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056429/three-dimensional-microbiome-and-metabolome-cartography-of-a-diseased-human-lung
#19
Neha Garg, Mingxun Wang, Embriette Hyde, Ricardo R da Silva, Alexey V Melnik, Ivan Protsyuk, Amina Bouslimani, Yan Wei Lim, Richard Wong, Greg Humphrey, Gail Ackermann, Timothy Spivey, Sharon S Brouha, Nuno Bandeira, Grace Y Lin, Forest Rohwer, Douglas J Conrad, Theodore Alexandrov, Rob Knight, Pieter C Dorrestein
Our understanding of the spatial variation in the chemical and microbial makeup of an entire human organ remains limited, in part due to the size and heterogeneity of human organs and the complexity of the associated metabolome and microbiome. To address this challenge, we developed a workflow to enable the cartography of metabolomic and microbiome data onto a three-dimensional (3D) organ reconstruction built off radiological images. This enabled the direct visualization of the microbial and chemical makeup of a human lung from a cystic fibrosis patient...
November 8, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052232/different-functional-genes-of-upper-airway-microbiome-associated-with-natural-course-of-childhood-asthma
#20
Bong-Soo Kim, Eun Lee, Min-Jung Lee, Mi-Jin Kang, Jisun Yoon, Hyun-Ju Cho, Jaehyun Park, Sungho Won, So Yeon Lee, Soo-Jong Hong
BACKGROUND: Microbial colonization of the airway plays a role in the pathogenesis of asthma; however, the effect of the upper airway microbiome on childhood asthma is not fully understood. We analyzed the metagenome of airway microbiome to understand the associated role of upper airway microbiome with the natural course of childhood asthma. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from children with asthma, those in asthma remission, and control groups. High-throughput sequencing was used to examine the structure and functional dynamics of the airway microbiome with respect to asthma phenotypes...
October 20, 2017: Allergy
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