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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096237/the-human-microbiome-and-cancer
#1
Seesandra V Rajagopala, Sanjay Vashee, Lauren M Oldfield, Yo Suzuki, J Craig Venter, Amalio Telenti, Karen E Nelson
Recent scientific advances have significantly contributed to our understanding of the complex connection between the microbiome and cancer. Our bodies are continuously exposed to microbial cells, both resident and transient, as well as their by-products including toxic metabolites. Circulation of toxic metabolites may contribute to cancer onset or progression at locations distant from where a particular microbe resides. Moreover, microbes may migrate to other locations in the human body and become associated with tumor development...
January 17, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095889/evolution-of-gut-microbiota-composition-from-birth-to-24-weeks-in-the-infantmet-cohort
#2
Cian J Hill, Denise B Lynch, Kiera Murphy, Marynka Ulaszewska, Ian B Jeffery, Carol Anne O'Shea, Claire Watkins, Eugene Dempsey, Fulvio Mattivi, Kieran Touhy, R Paul Ross, C Anthony Ryan, Paul W O' Toole, Catherine Stanton
BACKGROUND: The gut is the most extensively studied niche of the human microbiome. The aim of this study was to characterise the initial gut microbiota development of a cohort of breastfed infants (n = 192) from 1 to 24 weeks of age. METHODS: V4-V5 region 16S rRNA amplicon Illumina sequencing and, in parallel, bacteriological culture. The metabolomic profile of infant urine at 4 weeks of age was also examined by LC-MS. RESULTS: Full-term (FT), spontaneous vaginally delivered (SVD) infants' microbiota remained stable at both phylum and genus levels during the 24-week period examined...
January 17, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090466/microbiome-linked-crosstalk-in-the-gastrointestinal-exposome-towards-host-health-and-disease
#3
REVIEW
Yuseok Moon
The gastrointestinal exposome represents the integration of all xenobiotic components and host-derived endogenous components affecting the host health, disease progression and ultimately clinical outcomes during the lifespan. The human gut microbiome as a dynamic exposome of commensalism continuously interacts with other exogenous exposome as well as host sentineling components including the immune and neuroendocrine circuit. The composition and diversity of the microbiome are established on the basis of the luminal environment (physical, chemical and biological exposome) and host surveillance at each part of the gastrointestinal lining...
December 2016: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077143/pregnant-women-carrying-microcephaly-foetuses-and-zika-virus-contain-potentially-pathogenic-microbes-and-parasites-in-their-amniotic-fluid
#4
Diogo Antonio Tschoeke, Louisi Souza de Oliveira, Luciana Leomil, Amilcar Tanuri, Fabiano Lopes Thompson
BACKGROUND: Microcephaly has become a major public health problem in Brazil. The total number of newborns with microcephaly was reported to be >4000 in June 2016. Studies suggest that Zika Virus is a major cause of new microcephaly cases in Brazil. Inside the uterus, the foetus is surrounded by the Amniotic Fluid, a proximal fluid that contains foetal and maternal cells as well as microorganisms and where Zika Virus was already found. CASE PRESENTATION: A previous study reported the presence of the Zika Virus in the amniotic fluid (collected in the 28th gestational week) of two pregnant women carrying microcephaly foetuses in Brazil...
January 11, 2017: BMC Medical Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069754/the-influence-of-the-microbiome-on-type-1-diabetes
#5
REVIEW
Alexandra Paun, Christopher Yau, Jayne S Danska
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is characterized by the autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β cells. The rapid rise in T1D incidence during the past 50 y suggests environmental factors contribute to the disease. The trillion symbiotic microorganisms inhabiting the mammalian gastrointestinal tract (i.e., the microbiota) influence numerous aspects of host physiology. In this study we review the evidence linking perturbations of the gut microbiome to pancreatic autoimmunity. We discuss data from rodent models demonstrating the essential role of the gut microbiota on the development and function of the host's mucosal and systemic immune systems...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069752/microbiome-modulated-metabolites-at-the-interface-of-host-immunity
#6
REVIEW
Eran Blacher, Maayan Levy, Evgeny Tatirovsky, Eran Elinav
The mammalian gastrointestinal tract and associated mucosal immune system harbor a large repertoire of metabolites of prokaryotic and eukaryotic origin that play important roles in eukaryotic development and physiology. These often bioactive small molecules originate from nutrition- and environmental-related sources, or are endogenously produced and modulated by the host and its microbiota. A complex network of interactions exists between the intestinal mucosal immune system and the microbiota. This intimate cross-talk may be driven by metabolite secretion and signaling, and features profound influences on host immunity and physiology, including the endocrine, metabolic, and nervous system function in health and disease...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068220/metabolite-exchange-between-microbiome-members-produces-compounds-that-influence-drosophila-behavior
#7
Caleb Fischer, Eric P Trautman, Jason M Crawford, Eric V Stabb, Jo Handelsman, Nichole A Broderick
Animals host multi-species microbial communities (microbiomes) whose properties may result from inter-species interactions; however, current understanding of host-microbiome interactions derives mostly from studies in which elucidation of microbe-microbe interactions is difficult. In exploring how Drosophila melanogaster acquires its microbiome, we found that a microbial community influences Drosophila olfactory and egg-laying behaviors differently than individual members. Drosophila prefers a Saccharomyces-Acetobacter co-culture to the same microorganisms grown individually and then mixed, a response mainly due to the conserved olfactory receptor, Or42b...
January 9, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067835/an-integrated-view-of-the-effects-of-wine-polyphenols-and-their-relevant-metabolites-on-gut-and-host-health
#8
REVIEW
Carolina Cueva, Irene Gil-Sánchez, Begoña Ayuda-Durán, Susana González-Manzano, Ana María González-Paramás, Celestino Santos-Buelga, Begoña Bartolomé, M Victoria Moreno-Arribas
Over the last few decades, polyphenols, and flavonoids in particular, have attracted the interest of researchers, as they have been associated with the health-promoting effects derived from diets rich in vegetables and fruits, including moderate wine consumption. Recent scientific evidence suggests that wine polyphenols exert their effects through interactions with the gut microbiota, as they seem to modulate microbiota and, at the same time, are metabolized by intestinal bacteria into specific bioavailable metabolites...
January 6, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034304/temporal-bacterial-and-metabolic-development-of-the-preterm-gut-reveals-specific-signatures-in-health-and-disease
#9
Christopher J Stewart, Nicholas D Embleton, Emma C L Marrs, Daniel P Smith, Andrew Nelson, Bashir Abdulkadir, Tom Skeath, Joseph F Petrosino, John D Perry, Janet E Berrington, Stephen P Cummings
BACKGROUND: The preterm microbiome is crucial to gut health and may contribute to necrotising enterocolitis (NEC), which represents the most significant pathology affecting preterm infants. From a cohort of 318 infants, <32 weeks gestation, we selected 7 infants who developed NEC (defined rigorously) and 28 matched controls. We performed detailed temporal bacterial (n = 641) and metabolomic (n = 75) profiling of the gut microbiome throughout the disease. RESULTS: A core community of Klebsiella, Escherichia, Staphyloccocus, and Enterococcus was present in all samples...
December 29, 2016: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008834/-impact-of-newly-developed-metagenomic-tools-on-our-knowledge-of-the-gut-microbiota-and-its-role-in-human-health-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-issues
#10
Hervé M Blottière, Joël Doré
Over the last years, our vision of the intestinal microbiota and its contribution to human physiology has been fully revisited, thanks to metagenomics. Next generation sequencing allowed a full characterization of the microbiome. Quantitative metagenomic permitted a deep understanding of the intestinal ecosystem, its structure, and potential dysbiosis in several human pathologies. The microbiome may be used as biomarker of disease or of risk to progress toward a disease. A good understanding of the mechanisms of interaction between gut microbiota and its host is needed; functional metagenomic is a useful tool to identify genes and metabolites able to interact with host's cells...
November 2016: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003647/metabolic-phenotyping-for-discovery-of-urinary-biomarkers-of-diet-xenobiotics-and-blood-pressure-in-the-intermap-study-an-overview
#11
REVIEW
Queenie Chan, Ruey Leng Loo, Timothy M D Ebbels, Linda Van Horn, Martha L Daviglus, Jeremiah Stamler, Jeremy K Nicholson, Elaine Holmes, Paul Elliott
The etiopathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) is multifactorial. Adverse blood pressure (BP) is a major independent risk factor for epidemic CVD affecting ~40% of the adult population worldwide and resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Metabolic phenotyping of biological fluids has proven its application in characterizing low-molecular-weight metabolites providing novel insights into gene-environmental-gut microbiome interaction in relation to a disease state. In this review, we synthesize key results from the INTERnational study of MAcro/micronutrients and blood Pressure (INTERMAP) Study, a cross-sectional epidemiologic study of 4680 men and women aged 40-59 years from Japan, the People's Republic of China, the United Kingdom and the United States...
December 22, 2016: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003256/recycler-an-algorithm-for-detecting-plasmids-from-de-novo-assembly-graphs
#12
Roye Rozov, Aya Brown Kav, David Bogumil, Naama Shterzer, Eran Halperin, Itzhak Mizrahi, Ron Shamir
MOTIVATION: Plasmids and other mobile elements are central contributors to microbial evolution and genome innovation. Recently, they have been found to have important roles in antibiotic resistance and in affecting production of metabolites used in industrial and agricultural applications. However, their characterization through deep sequencing remains challenging, in spite of rapid drops in cost and throughput increases for sequencing. Here, we attempt to ameliorate this situation by introducing a new circular element assembly algorithm, leveraging assembly graphs provided by a conventional de novo assembler and alignments of paired-end reads to assemble cyclic sequences likely to be plasmids, phages and other circular elements...
December 21, 2016: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997971/microbiome-host-immune-system-interactions
#13
Sylwia Smolinska, Liam O'Mahony
The intestinal immune system recognizes and responds to the vast diversity of microbes present within the gut. Highly sophisticated cellular and molecular networks are continuously coordinated to tolerate the presence of a large number and diversity of bacteria on mucosal surfaces. Different types of bacteria induce different immune responses, and bacterial metabolism of dietary factors generates metabolites that have significant effects on host immune responses. Dendritic cells, epithelial cells, innate lymphoid cells, T-regulatory cells, effector lymphocytes, natural killer T cells, and B-cell responses can all be influenced by the microbiome...
September 2016: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993177/diets-high-in-resistant-starch-increase-plasma-levels-of-trimethylamine-n-oxide-a-gut-microbiome-metabolite-associated-with-cvd-risk
#14
Nathalie Bergeron, Paul T Williams, Regina Lamendella, Nastaran Faghihnia, Alyssa Grube, Xinmin Li, Zeneng Wang, Rob Knight, Janet K Jansson, Stanley L Hazen, Ronald M Krauss
Production of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a biomarker of CVD risk, is dependent on intestinal microbiota, but little is known of dietary conditions promoting changes in gut microbial communities. Resistant starches (RS) alter the human microbiota. We sought to determine whether diets varying in RS and carbohydrate (CHO) content affect plasma TMAO levels. We also assessed postprandial glucose and insulin responses and plasma lipid changes to diets high and low in RS. In a cross-over trial, fifty-two men and women consumed a 2-week baseline diet (41 percentage of energy (%E) CHO, 40 % fat, 19 % protein), followed by 2-week high- and low-RS diets separated by 2-week washouts...
December 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966551/the-respiratory-tract-microbiome-and-lung-inflammation-a-two-way-street
#15
REVIEW
G B Huffnagle, R P Dickson, N W Lukacs
The lungs are not sterile or free from bacteria; rather, they harbor a distinct microbiome whose composition is driven by different ecological rules than for the gastrointestinal tract. During disease, there is often a shift in community composition towards Gammaproteobacteria, the bacterial class that contains many common lung-associated gram-negative "pathogens." Numerous byproducts of host inflammation are growth factors for these bacteria. The extracellular nutrient supply for bacteria in the lungs, which is severely limited during health, markedly increases due to the presence of mucus and vascular permeability...
December 14, 2016: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966366/the-metabolic-phenotype-of-obesity-in-a-saudi-population
#16
Muhammad Saeed Ahmad, Munirah Alsaleh, Torben Kimhofer, Sultan Ahmad, Wisam Jamal, Siraj Omar Wali, Jeremy Kirk Nicholson, Zoheir Abdullah Damanhouri, Elaine Holmes
Metabolic phenotyping of obese populations can shed light on understanding environmental interactions underpinning obesogenesis. Obesity and its comorbidities are a major health and socioeconomic concern globally and are highly prevalent in the Middle East. We employed nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) to characterise the metabolic signature of urine and blood plasma for a cohort of (n=50) obese compared to non-obese Saudi participants (n=48). The urinary metabolic phenotype of obesity was characterised by higher concentrations of N-acetyl glycoprotein fragment, bile acids, lysine and methylamines and lower concentrations of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, glycine and gut microbial metabolites...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960648/linking-dietary-patterns-with-gut-microbial-composition-and-function
#17
Amy M Sheflin, Christopher L Melby, Franck Carbonero, Tiffany L Weir
 Emerging insights have implicated the gut microbiota as an important factor in the maintenance of human health. Although nutrition research has focused on how direct interactions between dietary components and host systems influence human health, it is becoming increasingly important to consider nutrient effects on the gut microbiome for a more complete picture. Understanding nutrient-host-microbiome interactions promises to reveal novel mechanisms of disease etiology and progression, offers new disease prevention strategies and therapeutic possibilities, and may mandate alternative criteria to evaluate the safety of food ingredients...
December 14, 2016: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959345/new-roles-in-hemicellulosic-sugar-fermentation-for-the-uncultivated-bacteroidetes-family-bs11
#18
Lindsey M Solden, David W Hoyt, William B Collins, Johanna E Plank, Rebecca A Daly, Erik Hildebrand, Timothy J Beavers, Richard Wolfe, Carrie D Nicora, Sam O Purvine, Michelle Carstensen, Mary S Lipton, Donald E Spalinger, Jeffrey L Firkins, Barbara A Wolfe, Kelly C Wrighton
Ruminants have co-evolved with their gastrointestinal microbial communities that digest plant materials to provide energy for the host. Some arctic and boreal ruminants have already shown to be vulnerable to dietary shifts caused by changing climate, yet we know little about the metabolic capacity of the ruminant microbiome in these animals. Here, we use meta-omics approaches to sample rumen fluid microbial communities from Alaskan moose foraging along a seasonal lignocellulose gradient. Winter diets with increased hemicellulose and lignin strongly enriched for BS11, a Bacteroidetes family lacking cultivated or genomically sampled representatives...
December 13, 2016: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936497/pro-inflammatory-cytokine-ifn%C3%AE-and-microbiome-derived-metabolites-dictate-epigenetic-switch-between-foxp3-isoforms-in-celiac-disease-regulation-of-foxp3-isoforms-in-celiac-disease
#19
Gloria Serena, Shu Yan, Stephanie Camhi, Shilpi Patel, Rosiane S Lima, Anna Sapone, Maureen M Leonard, Rupa Mukherjee, Barbara J Nath, Karen M Lammers, Alessio Fasano
Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune enteropathy triggered by gluten and characterized by a strong Th1/Th17 immune response in the small intestine. Treg cells are CD4(+) CD25(++) FOXP3(+) cells that regulate the immune response. Conversely to its counterpart, FOXP3 full length (FL), the alternatively spliced isoform FOXP3 Δ2 cannot properly down-regulate Th17 driven immune response. Since the active state of CD has been associated with impairments in Treg cell function, we aimed at determining whether imbalances between FOXP3 isoforms may be associated with the disease...
December 9, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934651/a-perspective-on-the-safety-of-supplemental-tryptophan-based-on-its-metabolic-fates
#20
REVIEW
John D Fernstrom
Over the past 50 y, tryptophan has been ingested in amounts well in excess of its dietary requirement. This use is based on extensive findings that ingesting tryptophan increases brain tryptophan concentrations, which stimulates the synthesis and release of the neurotransmitter serotonin, from which it is derived. Such increases in serotonin function may improve mood and sleep. However, tryptophan ingestion has other effects, such as increasing serotonin production in the gut, increasing serotonin concentrations in blood, stimulating the production of the hormone melatonin (a tryptophan metabolite), stimulating tryptophan metabolism via the kynurenine pathway, and possibly stimulating the production of tryptophan metabolites in the gut microbiome...
December 2016: Journal of Nutrition
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