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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936146/performance-of-clinical-screening-algorithms-for-tuberculosis-intensified-case-finding-among-people-living-with-hiv-in-western-kenya
#1
Surbhi Modi, Joseph S Cavanaugh, Ray W Shiraishi, Heather L Alexander, Kimberly D McCarthy, Barbara Burmen, Hellen Muttai, Chad M Heilig, Allyn K Nakashima, Kevin P Cain
OBJECTIVE: To assess the performance of symptom-based screening for tuberculosis (TB), alone and with chest radiography among people living with HIV (PLHIV), including pregnant women, in Western Kenya. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: PLHIV from 15 randomly-selected HIV clinics were screened with three clinical algorithms [World Health Organization (WHO), Ministry of Health (MOH), and "Improving Diagnosis of TB in HIV-infected persons" (ID-TB/HIV) study], underwent chest radiography (unless pregnant), and provided two or more sputum specimens for smear microscopy, liquid culture, and Xpert MTB/RIF...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936132/neighbourhood-poverty-work-commitment-and-unemployment-in-early-adulthood-a-longitudinal-study-into-the-moderating-effect-of-personality
#2
Jaap Nieuwenhuis, Rongqin Yu, Susan Branje, Wim Meeus, Pieter Hooimeijer
We studied how personality moderates the effect of neighbourhood disadvantage on work commitment and unemployment in early adulthood. Using a personality typology of resilients, overcontrollers, and undercontrollers, we hypothesised that the association between neighbourhood poverty and both work commitment and unemployment would be stronger for overcontrollers and undercontrollers than for resilients. We used longitudinal data (N = 249) to test whether the length of exposure to neighbourhood poverty between age 16 and 21 predicts work commitment and unemployment at age 25...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936083/effectiveness-and-cost-effectiveness-of-a-cluster-randomized-prenatal-lifestyle-counseling-trial-a-seven-year-follow-up
#3
Päivi Kolu, Jani Raitanen, Jatta Puhkala, Pipsa Tuominen, Pauliina Husu, Riitta Luoto
There is a link between the pregnancy and its long-term influence on health and susceptibility to future chronic disease both in mother and offspring. The objective was to determine whether individual counseling on physical activity and diet and weight gain at five antenatal visits can prevent type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and overweight or improve glycemic parameters, among all at-risk-mothers and their children. Another objective was to evaluate whether gestational lifestyle intervention was cost-effective as measured with mother's sickness absence and quality-adjusted life years (QALY)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935793/co-occurring-risk-factors-in-multiple-sclerosis
#4
Julia M Balto, Ipek Ensari, Elizabeth A Hubbard, Naiman Khan, Jennifer L Barnes, Robert W Motl
OBJECTIVE: We examined individual and co-occurring risk factors as correlates of health outcomes in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: Sixty-nine participants with MS completed measures of nutrition, physical activity levels, comorbidity and neuroperformance. The data were analyzed using t-test analyses in SPSS Statistics 22.0. RESULTS: Total number of comorbidities (z = 2.36, p = .02), cardiovascular disease symptoms (z = 2.63, p = ...
January 2017: American Journal of Health Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935732/active-perspective-taking-induces-flexible-use-of-self-knowledge-during-social-inference
#5
Andrew R Todd, Austin J Simpson, Diana I Tamir
Social life hinges on the ability to infer others' mental states. By default, people often recruit self-knowledge during social inference, particularly for others who are similar to oneself. How do people's active perspective-taking efforts-deliberately imagining another's perspective-affect self-knowledge use? In 2 experiments, we test the flexible self-application hypothesis: that the application of self-knowledge to a perspective-taking target differs based on that person's similarity to oneself. We found consistent evidence that, when making inferences about dissimilar others, perspective taking increased the projection of one's own traits and preferences to those targets, relative to a control condition...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935135/micro-rna-550a-interferes-with-vitamin-d-metabolism-in-peripheral-b-cells-of-patients-with-diabetes
#6
Jinggui He, Xiyun Guo, Zhi-Qiang Liu, Ping-Chang Yang, Shaobo Yang
The pathogenesis of diabetes is to be further investigated. Vitamin D3 (VitD3) can improve diabetes. Micro RNAs (miR) are involved in regulating cell activities. This study tests a hypothesis that miR-550a interferes with the metabolism of VitD3 in peripheral B cells. In this study, blood samples were collected from patients with diabetes and healthy persons. The B cells were isolated from the blood samples to be treated with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. The B cells were then collected and analyzed for the expression of miR-550a and cyp27b1...
December 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935076/electrophysiologically-identified-piriformis-syndrome-is-successfully-treated-with-incobotulinum-toxin-a-and-physical-therapy
#7
Loren M Fishman, Allen N Wilkins, Bernard Rosner
INTRODUCTION: Piriformis syndrome is entrapment of the sciatic nerve by the piriformis muscle. METHODS: 56-person randomized, double-blinded, controlled study involving physical therapy and incobotulinum toxin A or placebo. INCLUSION CRITERIA: 3 standard deviation delay of posterior tibial (PT) or fibular FN) H-reflexes in flexion, adduction and internal rotation (FAIR-test), and normal paraspinal EMG. OUTCOME MEASURES: adverse side-effects, visual analogue scale (VAS), H-reflex delay in FAIR-test...
December 9, 2016: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934678/incidence-of-hepatitis-b-virus-reactivation-in-patients-with-resolved-infection-on-immunosuppressive-therapy-for-rheumatic-disease-a-multicentre-prospective-observational-study-in-japan
#8
Wataru Fukuda, Tadamasa Hanyu, Masaki Katayama, Shinichi Mizuki, Akitomo Okada, Masayuki Miyata, Yuichi Handa, Masatoshi Hayashi, Yoshinobu Koyama, Kaoru Arii, Toshiyuki Kitaori, Hiroyuki Hagiyama, Yoshinori Urushidani, Takahito Yamasaki, Yoshihiko Ikeno, Tsuyoshi Suzuki, Atsushi Omoto, Toshifumi Sugitani, Satoshi Morita, Shigeko Inokuma
BACKGROUND: Although the reactivation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is recognised as a serious complication in patients with rheumatic disease (RD) receiving immunosuppressive drugs (ISDs), the incidence and risk factors for reactivation remain controversial. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the incidence and risk factors for HBV reactivation in patients with RD. METHODS: We performed a multicentre, observational, prospective study over 2 years in patients with resolved HBV infection...
December 1, 2016: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934567/tolerance-professional-judgment-and-the-discretionary-space-of-the-physician
#9
Daniel P Sulmasy
Arguments against physicians' claims of a right to refuse to provide tests or treatments to patients based on conscientious objection often depend on two premises that are rarely made explicit. The first is that the protection of religious liberty (broadly construed) should be limited to freedom of worship, assembly, and belief. The second is that because professions are licensed by the state, any citizen who practices a licensed profession is required to provide all the goods and services determined by the profession to fall within the scope of practice of that professional specialty and permitted by the state, regardless of any personal religious, philosophical, or moral objection...
January 2017: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933189/insulin-resistance-of-protein-anabolism-accompanies-that-of-glucose-metabolism-in-lean-glucose-tolerant-offspring-of-persons-with-type-2-diabetes
#10
Sergio A Burgos, Vikram Chandurkar, Michael A Tsoukas, Stéphanie Chevalier, José A Morais, Marie Lamarche, Errol B Marliss
OBJECTIVE: To test whether protein anabolic resistance is an early defect in type 2 diabetes (T2D). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Seven lean, normoglycemic T2D offspring (T2D-O) and eight matched participants without family history (controls; C) underwent a 3-hour hyperinsulinemic (40 mU/m(2)/min), euglycemic (5.5 mmol/L) and isoaminoacidemic clamp. Whole-body glucose and protein kinetics were measured with d-[3-(3)H]glucose and l-[l-(13)C]leucine, respectively...
2016: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933022/emotional-empathy-and-facial-mimicry-for-static-and-dynamic-facial-expressions-of-fear-and-disgust
#11
Krystyna Rymarczyk, Łukasz Żurawski, Kamila Jankowiak-Siuda, Iwona Szatkowska
Facial mimicry is the tendency to imitate the emotional facial expressions of others. Increasing evidence suggests that the perception of dynamic displays leads to enhanced facial mimicry, especially for happiness and anger. However, little is known about the impact of dynamic stimuli on facial mimicry for fear and disgust. To investigate this issue, facial EMG responses were recorded in the corrugator supercilii, levator labii, and lateral frontalis muscles, while participants viewed static (photos) and dynamic (videos) facial emotional expressions...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933020/feasibility-of-group-schema-therapy-for-outpatients-with-severe-borderline-personality-disorder-in-germany-a-pilot-study-with-three-year-follow-up
#12
Eva Fassbinder, Maren Schuetze, Annika Kranich, Valerija Sipos, Fritz Hohagen, Ida Shaw, Joan Farrell, Arnoud Arntz, Ulrich Schweiger
Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a severe, challenging to treat mental disorder. Schema therapy (ST) as an individual therapy has been proven to be an effective psychological treatment for BPD. A group format of ST (GST) has been developed and evaluated in a randomized controlled trial in the United States and piloted in The Netherlands. These results suggest that GST speeds up and amplifies treatment effects of ST and might reduce delivery costs. However, feasibility in the German health care system and with BPD patients with high BPD severity and comorbidity, and frequent hospitalization, has not been tested to date...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932687/diabetes-distress-among-persons-with-type-1-diabetes-associations-with-disordered-eating-depression-and-other-psychological-health-concerns
#13
Margaret A Powers, Sara A Richter, Diann M Ackard, Cheryl Craft
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate associations between diabetes distress and a range of psychological health behaviors and concerns among persons with type 1 diabetes for the benefit of enhancing early identification and intervention of at-risk individuals. METHODS: Persons with type 1 diabetes (n = 268; 57.1% female, 91.0% white, 76.8% <18 years of age, average A1C 8.4%) completed the 2-item Diabetes Distress Screening Scale (DDS2) and a battery of psychometrically sound instruments measuring satisfaction with life, self-esteem, self-efficacy, depression, perfectionism, body image satisfaction, dietary restraint and eating, and shape and weight concerns...
December 7, 2016: Diabetes Educator
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932628/potential-effectiveness-of-pictorial-warning-labels-that-feature-the-images-and-personal-details-of-real-people
#14
Emily Brennan, Erin Maloney, Yotam Ophir, Joseph N Cappella
INTRODUCTION: Pictorial warning labels (PWL) that use photographs and the personal details of real people whose health has been affected by smoking (testimonial PWL) provide factual information about the consequences of tobacco use. METHODS: 924 adult current smokers participated in an online experiment that tested responses to four types of warning labels: 1) non-testimonial text warning labels (TWL) (currently on packs in the United States); 2) non-testimonial PWL (previously proposed by the United States Food and Drug Administration); 3) image only testimonial PWL (created for this study); 4) image + personal details testimonial PWL (created for study)...
December 8, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932553/normalization-matters-tracking-the-best-strategy-for-sperm-mirna-quantification
#15
Celia Corral-Vazquez, Joan Blanco, Albert Salas-Huetos, Francesca Vidal, Ester Anton
STUDY QUESTION: What is the most reliable normalization strategy for sperm microRNA (miRNA) quantitative Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reactions (qRT-PCR) using singleplex assays? SUMMARY ANSWER: The use of the average expression of hsa-miR-100-5p and hsa-miR-30a-5p as sperm miRNA qRT-PCR data normalizer is suggested as an optimal strategy. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Mean-centering methods are the most reliable normalization strategies for miRNA high-throughput expression analyses...
December 8, 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931925/investigating-interactions-between-uk-horse-owners-and-prescribers-of-anthelmintics
#16
Stephanie Easton, Gina L Pinchbeck, Thomas Tzelos, David J Bartley, Emily Hotchkiss, Jane E Hodgkinson, Jacqueline B Matthews
Helminths are common pathogens of equids and anthelmintic resistance is a major issue in cyathostomin species and Parascaris equorum. At the heart of mitigating the impact of increasing anthelmintic resistance levels, is the responsible dissemination and use of these medicines following best practice principles. There is a paucity of information on interactions between horse owners and anthelmintic prescribers and how this shapes control. Here, a study was undertaken to determine opinions and experiences of horse owners as they relate to anthelmintics purchase and implementation of best practice control...
December 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931838/routine-use-of-gene-panel-testing-in-hereditary-breast-cancer-should-be-performed-with-caution
#17
REVIEW
Cedric van Marcke, Anne De Leener, Martine Berlière, Miikka Vikkula, Francois P Duhoux
Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer occurring in women. Ten percent of these cancers are considered hereditary. Among them, 30% are attributed to germline mutations in the tumor suppressor genes BRCA1 and BRCA2. Other genes of lower penetrance are also known, explaining together up to 40% of the hereditary risk of breast cancer. New techniques, such as next-generation sequencing, allow the simultaneous analysis of multiple genes in a cost-effective way. As a logical consequence, gene panel testing is entering clinical practice with the promise of personalized care...
December 2016: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931563/brazilian-healthcare-professionals-a-study-of-attitudes-toward-organ-donation
#18
C Araujo, M Siqueira
BACKGROUND: Healthcare professionals have a crucial role in organ donation and transplantation processes. Their attitude toward organ donation can affect public opinion and the donation decision made by deceased donors' relatives. The objectives of the study were to analyze the attitude of medical and nursing personnel toward deceased organ donation in two hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and the factors that can affect this attitude. METHODS: A random sample (n = 162) was selected from the population of nurses and physicians in the hospitals analyzed...
December 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930942/trocar-guided-trans-vaginal-mesh-surgery-for-pelvic-organ-prolapse-effects-on-urinary-continence-and-anatomical-and-functional-outcomes-a-prospective-observational-study
#19
F Natale, E Costantini, C La Penna, E Illiano, R Balsamo, A Carbone, M Cervigni
OBJECTIVE: Primary objective of this study was to assess the effects of trocar-guided transvaginal mesh surgery (TVM) on cure and prevention rates for incontinence, without concomitant surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence (SUI). Our secondary objectives were anatomical outcomes, relief of symptoms and effect on quality of life (QoL). STUDY DESIGN: This prospective observational study evaluated women who underwent TVM for symptomatic stage >2 Pelvic Organ Prolapse (POP)...
November 9, 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930890/within-session-responses-to-high-intensity-interval-training-in-spinal-cord-injury
#20
Todd Anthony Astorino, Jacob S Thum
AIM: Completion of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) increases maximal oxygen uptake and health status, yet its feasibility in persons with spinal cord injury is unknown. PURPOSE: To compare changes in cardiorespiratory and metabolic variables between two interval training regimes and moderate intensity exercise. METHOD: Nine adults with spinal cord injury (duration = 6.8 ± 6.2 year) initially underwent determination of peak oxygen uptake...
December 8, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
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