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Personality testing

Benjamin Gollasch, Oskar Wischnewski, Birgit Rudolph, Yoland-Marie Anistan, Friedrich C Luft, Maik Gollasch
We present a 42-year-old man with a BMI of 32, who was referred because of proteinuria and decreased renal function. We were impressed by his markedly muscular physique. A renal biopsy was performed, which showed focal segmental glomerular sclerosis (FSGS). Is this patient merely an obese person with FSGS or is something else going on here? We performed extensive clinical and laboratory examinations, genetic testing, and anthropometric data monitoring over time. We transferred our methodology for routine FSGS mutation screening (Sanger sequencing) to the Ion Torrent PGM platform with a new custom-targeted NGS gene panel (Ion Ampliseq FSGS panel) and tested the performance of the system in two cohorts of patients with FSGS...
May 2018: Case Reports in Nephrology and Dialysis
Mia Atoui, Fatima El Jamil, Joseph El Khoury, Mark Doumit, Nathalie Syriani, Munir Khani, Ziad Nahas
Background: Schizophrenia is often associated with poor clinical insight (unawareness of mental illness and its symptoms) and deficits in empathy, which are important for social functioning. Cognitive empathy has been linked to clinical insight while affective empathy and its role in insight and pathology have received mixed evidence. Methods: Instruments assessing symptomatology (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale; PANSS), clinical insight (Scales to assess awareness of mental disorders; SUMD), and cognitive and affective empathy were administered to 22 participants with first episode and chronic schizophrenia and 21 healthy controls...
June 2018: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
Aino Tietäväinen, Maria Kuvaldina, Edward Hæggström
Sleep deprivation may cause accidents, and it has deteriorating effects on health. A measurement of postural steadiness by a portable and affordable Nintendo Wii Fit balance board can be used to quantify a person's alertness. At work, people are under the influence of their environment-often other people-that may affect their alertness. This work investigates whether sleep deprivation among people is "contagious," as quantified by sway measures. We measured 21 volunteers' postural steadiness while alert and sleep deprived...
June 2018: Safety and Health At Work
Pierre Gérain, Emmanuelle Zech
Introduction: Parenting a child with special needs (CSN) may be an important challenge. Previous research has highlighted an increased risk of parental burnout among parents caring for their CSN. Yet, these studies only focused on children with specific issues and did not consider the wide variety of CSN. There is thus a need to take a more global approach to assessing the impact of caring for a CSN on parental burnout. In addition, the impact on parental burnout of personality and parenting (dis)agreement needs to be measured to have a better understanding of parent-caregivers' (PCgs) burnout...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Galileu Barbosa Costa, Amy Gilbert, Benjamin Monroe, Jesse Blanton, Sali Ngam Ngam, Sergio Recuenco, Ryan Wallace
BACKGROUND: Rabies is a fatal encephalitis caused by lyssaviruses, with most human cases worldwide resulting from rabid dog bites. Although effective animal and human vaccines have been available for over 100 years, control efforts have not been adequately implemented on the global scale and rabies remains one of the greatest global zoonotic threats to human health. We conducted a knowledge, attitudes and practices survey in Northern Cameroon to describe dog ownership characteristics, rates of dog bites, and post-bite healthcare seeking behaviors...
2018: PloS One
Marc A Pitasi, Kevin P Delaney, Emeka Oraka, Heather Bradley, Elizabeth A DiNenno, John T Brooks, Joseph Prejean
Since 2006, CDC has recommended routine screening of all persons aged 13-64 years for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and at least annual rescreening of persons at higher risk (1). However, national surveillance data indicate that many persons at higher risk for HIV infection are not screened annually, and delays in diagnosis persist (2). CDC analyzed 2006-2016 data from the General Social Survey (GSS)* and estimated that only 39.6% of noninstitutionalized U.S. adults had ever tested for HIV. Among persons ever tested, the estimated median interval since last test was 1,080 days or almost 3 years...
June 22, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Nicholas Ekow Thomford, Kevin Dzobo, Emile Chimusa, Kerstin Andrae-Marobela, Shadreck Chirikure, Ambroise Wonkam, Collet Dandara
While drugs remain the cornerstone of medicine, herbal medicine is an important comedication worldwide. Thus, precision medicine ought to face this clinical reality and develop "companion diagnostics" for drugs as well as herbal medicines. Yet, many are in denial with respect to the extent of use of traditional/herbal medicines, overlooking that a considerable number of contemporary therapeutic drugs trace their discovery from herbal medicines. This expert review underscores that absent such appropriate attention on both classical drug therapy and herbal medicines, precision medicine biomarkers will likely not stand the full test of clinical practice while patients continue to use both drugs and herbal medicines and, yet the biomarker research and applications focus only (or mostly) on drug therapy...
June 2018: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Alexander D Rebchuk, Halina M Deptuck, Zoe R O'Neill, Delrae S Fawcett, Noah D Silverberg, Thalia S Field
BACKGROUND: Cognition is an important outcome in many clinical trials. The NIH Toolbox-Cognition Battery (NIHTB-CB) is a computerized cognitive assessment designed for clinical research that is administered in-person. Here, we evaluated the equivalency of a novel videoconference protocol for administering the NIHTB-CB. Since our protocol required repeated assessments, we further explored the NIHTB-CB's practice effect. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five healthy participants completed the NIHTB-CB under two separate conditions 4 weeks apart...
June 21, 2018: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
David H Smith, Maureen O'Keeffe Rosetti, David M Mosen, A Gabriela Rosales, Erin Keast, Nancy Perrin, Adrianne C Feldstein, Theodore R Levin, Elizabeth G Liles
Colorectal cancer (CRC) causes more than 50,000 deaths each year in the United States but early detection through screening yields survival gains; those diagnosed with early stage disease have a 5-year survival greater than 90%, compared to 12% for those diagnosed with late stage disease. Using data from a large integrated health system, this study evaluates the cost-effectiveness of fecal immunochemical testing (FIT), a common CRC screening tool. A probabilistic decision-analytic model was used to examine the costs and outcomes of positive test results from a 1-FIT regimen compared with a 2-FIT regimen...
June 21, 2018: Population Health Management
P D Harms, Dina V Krasikova, Fred Luthans
We propose the recently introduced implicit measure of psychological capital (PsyCap), the Implicit Psychological Capital Questionnaire (I-PCQ; Harms & Luthans, 2012), can provide a needed valid alternative to the self-report Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ). We explain the development of the I-PCQ items, assess the structural validity of the instrument, test its vulnerability to response distortion, and assess its capacity to predicting work attitudes and behaviors vis-à-vis the PCQ and Big Five personality facets...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Personality Assessment
Igor Radun, Hanna Watling, Jenni Radun, Jyrki Kaistinen, Jake Olivier
OBJECTIVE: It is well established that young men are the riskiest group of all drivers, while men in general more often drive under the influence of alcohol. However, potentially oversimplified representations such as a "young male problem" and "drunk driving as a male problem" can influence action and reinforce existing attitudes by selectively directing attention to stereotypically consistent behavior. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis of possible bias towards young male drivers in the context of drunk driving...
June 21, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Takakuni Suzuki, Kaylin E Hill, Belel Ait Oumeziane, Dan Foti, Douglas B Samuel
Advances in technology have provided opportunities to assess physiological correlates and further our understanding of a number of constructs, including personality traits. Event-related potentials (ERPs), scalp-recorded measures of brain activity with millisecond temporal resolution, show properties that make them potential candidates for integrating neurophysiological methods into personality research. Several commonly used ERPs have trait-like properties including test-retest stability approaching .8 over two weeks...
June 21, 2018: Psychological Assessment
Heather A Davis, Gregory T Smith
Binge eating and purging behaviors are associated with significant harm and distress among adolescents. The process by which these behaviors develop (often in the high school years) is not fully understood. We tested the Acquired Preparedness (AP) model of risk involving transactions among biological, personality, and psychosocial factors to predict binge eating and purging behavior in a sample of 1,906 children assessed in the spring of 5th grade (the last year of elementary school), the fall of 6th grade (the first year of middle school), spring of 6th grade, and spring of 10th grade (second year of high school)...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Emily C Soriano, Christine Perndorfer, Amy K Otto, Scott D Siegel, Jean-Philippe Laurenceau
OBJECTIVE: The core of fear of cancer recurrence (FCR)-a top concern of couples after successful breast cancer (BC) treatment-is fear of death. Daily relationship processes may be instrumental in regulating FCR as triggers of existential distress are encountered. We tested the hypothesis that daily capitalization, the process of sharing good news (capitalization attempts) to a partner perceived as responsive (responsiveness), buffers patient and spouse FCR as they confront the first mammogram post-diagnosis...
June 21, 2018: Psycho-oncology
Andrea A Kim, Thomas Rehle
BACKGROUND: A recent infection testing algorithm (RITA) that includes a test for recent HIV infection and a viral load (VL) test is the recommended strategy to estimate population-level HIV incidence, reducing false-recent misclassification to <1%. The inclusion of information on exposure to antiretroviral therapy (ART), as a supplement to VL testing, could improve RITA performance by further lowering false-recent misclassification of true long-term infection. METHODS: In 2012, Kenya and South Africa conducted national population-based surveys that collected information on HIV recency (i...
June 21, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Lachlan A Jolly, Ying Sun, Renée Carroll, Claire C Homan, Jozef Gecz
Lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) have been by far the most prevalent cell type used to study the genetics underlying normal and disease-relevant human phenotypic variation, across personal to epidemiological scales. In contrast, only few studies have explored the use of LCLs in functional genomics and mechanistic studies. Two major reasons are technical, as (1) interrogating the sub-cellular spatial information of LCLs is challenged by their non-adherent nature, and (2) LCLs are refractory to gene transfection...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Human Genetics
Janneke C M Heijne, Ingrid V F van den Broek, Sylvia M Bruisten, Jan E A van Bergen, Hanneke de Graaf, Birgit H B van Benthem
OBJECTIVES: National prevalence estimates of Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonorrhoea) are important for providing insights in the occurrence and control of these STIs. The aim was to obtain national prevalence estimates for chlamydia and gonorrhoea and to investigate risk factors associated with infection. METHODS: Between November 2016 and January 2017, we performed a national population-based cross-sectional probability sample survey among men and women aged 18-34 years in the Netherlands...
June 20, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Infections
Jingsong Zhao, Nageen Mir, Nicole Ackermann, Kimberly A Kaphingst, Mary C Politi
BACKGROUND: The rate of uninsured people has decreased dramatically since the Affordable Care Act was passed. To make an informed decision, consumers need assistance to understand the advantages and disadvantages of health insurance plans. The Show Me Health Plans Web-based decision support tool was developed to improve the quality of health insurance selection. In response to the promising effectiveness of Show Me Health Plans in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) and the growing need for Web-based health insurance decision support, the study team used expert recommendations for dissemination and implementation, engaged external stakeholders, and made the Show Me Health Plans tool available to the public...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Sandra M Meier, Barbara Pavlova, Søren Dalsgaard, Merete Nordentoft, Ole Mors, Preben B Mortensen, Rudolf Uher
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety disorders have been proposed as precursors of bipolar disorder, but their joint and relative roles in the development of bipolar disorder are unknown.AimsTo test the prospective relationship of ADHD and anxiety with onset of bipolar disorder. METHOD: We examined the relationship between ADHD, anxiety disorders and bipolar disorder in a birth cohort of 2 409 236 individuals born in Denmark between 1955 and 1991...
June 21, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Stephen Bell, Johanna Wapling, Sophie Ase, Ruthy Boli-Neo, Andrew J Vallely, John M Kaldor, Claire E Nightingale, Angela Kelly-Hanku
BACKGROUND: Papua New Guinea (PNG) has some of the highest prevalence of urogenital sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Pacific Asia, but to date, anorectal STI prevalence data do not exist, and diagnosis of anorectal STIs does not occur. The purpose of this study was to document the acceptability of anorectal STI testing and self-collection of anorectal swabs for testing among populations at risk of anorectal STIs, in advance of a large bio-behavioural survey during which this approach to specimen collection was planned among key populations in PNG...
June 20, 2018: BMC Public Health
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