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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30222227/a-social-emergency-medicine-approach-to-the-implementation-of-sexual-and-reproductive-health-interventions-in-the-emergency-department
#1
Andreia B Alexander, Mary A Ott
As emergency physicians, we have all experienced the moment when we look at the patient board and the chief complaint "pregnancy test" pops up. The first thing we think to ourselves is, "Would have been cheaper to pick one up at the store." Upon chart review we see that this 19-year-old female, Jenny, has been in our ED 3 times in the past 2 years with the same request. Twice she was diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection (STI), and this time her pregnancy test is positive. You personally saw her during one of the visits and referred her to OB/GYN (she was not able to make the visit)...
September 17, 2018: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30220069/bionic-3d-spheroids-biosensor-chips-for-high-throughput-and-dynamic-drug-screening
#2
Qian Wu, Xinwei Wei, Yuxiang Pan, Yingchang Zou, Ning Hu, Ping Wang
To perform the drug screening, planar cultured cell models are commonly applied to test efficacy and toxicity of drugs. However, planar cultured cells are different from the human 3D organs or tissues in vivo. To simulate the human 3D organs or tissues, 3D spheroids are developed by culturing a small aggregate of cells which reside around the extracellular matrix and interact with other cells in liquid media. Here we apply lung carcinoma cell lines to engineer the 3D lung cancer spheroid-based biosensor using the interdigitated electrodes for drug efficacy evaluation...
September 15, 2018: Biomedical Microdevices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30220055/effectiveness-and-tolerability-of-neoadjuvant-pertuzumab-containing-regimens-for-her2-positive-localized-breast-cancer
#3
Laura Spring, Andrzej Niemierko, Stephanie Haddad, Megan Yuen, Amy Comander, Kerry Reynolds, Jennifer Shin, Atul Bahn, Elena Brachtel, Michelle Specht, Barbara L Smith, Alphonse Taghian, Rachel Jimenez, Jeffrey Peppercorn, Steven J Isakoff, Beverly Moy, Aditya Bardia
PURPOSE: Based on improvement in pathologic complete response (pCR) in the NeoSphere and TRYPHAENA studies, the FDA approved neoadjuvant pertuzumab for HER2+ localized breast cancer. These studies demonstrated high pCR rates with THP (docetaxel + HP), FEC (5-fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide)-THP, and TCHP (docetaxel, carboplatin + HP). However, in the United States, doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide (AC) is favored over FEC despite no data comparing neoadjuvant AC-THP with AC-TH or TCHP...
September 15, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30219937/quality-of-life-of-persons-living-with-hiv-and-congruence-with-surrogate-decision-makers
#4
Katherine B Curtin, Yao I Cheng, Jichuan Wang, Rachel K Scott, Leah Squires, Debra A Benator, Maureen E Lyon
PURPOSE: Physicians and caregivers rate patient quality of life (QOL) lower than patients rate their own QOL. This study investigated discrepancies between self-assessments of patient QOL by adults with HIV and their surrogate decision-makers. METHODS: We collected baseline data from 223 adult dyads in the FAmily-CEntered (FACE) Advance Care Planning (ACP) clinical trial, consisting of HIV positive patients and their chosen surrogates. Participants independently completed the Medical Outcome Study-HIV Survey (MOS-HIV) and the Palliative care Outcome Scale (POS)...
September 15, 2018: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30219906/rasch-analysis-and-construct-validity-of-the-disease-burden-morbidity-assessment-in-older-adults
#5
Irene G M Wijers, Alba Ayala, Carmen Rodriguez-Blazquez, Angel Rodriguez-Laso, Vicente Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Maria João Forjaz
Purpose of the Study: The Disease Burden Morbidity Assessment (DBMA) is a self-report questionnaire in which participants rate the disease burden caused by a number of medical conditions. This paper studies the measurement properties of the DBMA, using Rasch analysis. Design and Methods: We used data of 1,400 community-dwelling adults aged 50 years and older participating in the Ageing in Spain Longitudinal Study, Pilot Survey (ELES-PS). Test of fit to the Rasch model, reliability, unidimensionality, response dependency, category structure, scale targeting, and differential item functioning (DIF) were studied in an iterative way...
September 14, 2018: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30219891/the-presenteeism-scale-as-a-measure-of-productivity-loss
#6
K J Vänni, S Neupane, A E Siukola, H M Karinen, H K Pursio, J Uitti, C-H Nygård
Background: Work Ability Score (WAS) is a common instrument for assessing work ability but its validity in assessing presenteeism and productivity loss is unknown. Aims: To validate a WAS-based measure, the Presenteeism Scale (PS), and to evaluate its accuracy as a presenteeism instrument among forestry employees. Methods: This validation study was based on questions of perceived WAS assessed using the Work Ability-Personal Radar (WA-PR) instrument and on questions of perceived productivity loss and presenteeism assessed using a cross-sectional questionnaire survey...
September 14, 2018: Occupational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30219866/post-retirement-life-satisfaction-and-financial-vulnerability-the-moderating-role-of-control
#7
Dawn C Carr, Phyllis Moen, Maureen Perry Jenkins, Michael Smyer
Objectives: This paper examines changes in life satisfaction around retirement exits for those with varying pre-retirement incomes, testing whether constraints on control and control over finances moderate the relationship between retiring and pre-retirement income. Method: This longitudinal study draws data from the 2004-2014 waves of the HRS to examine changes in life satisfaction pre- versus post-retirement for three groups (the poor/near poor, financially vulnerable, and financially stable) of full-time workers ages 51 to 87 (N=970), and a subset (N=334) who fully retire over a four- year period...
September 14, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30219644/creation-and-validation-of-a-scale-of-sexuality-for-adolescents-scale-of-myths-about-sexuality
#8
Cristina Guerra, Francisco Javier Del Río, Francisco Cabello, Isabel María Morales
INTRODUCTION: In recent decades western countries have become more open about sexuality and sexual relations, and adolescents get information about these issues mainly through the internet, TV and social networks. Often such information is incomplete, wrong or even contradicts itself. What favors them to develop myths, false beliefs and/or negative attitudes about sexuality, love, equality in relationships, or Sexually Transmitted Infections. At the same time, the presence of myths favors double standards, sexism, and a negative attitude toward toward personal, partner and/or social sexuality...
September 12, 2018: Revista Internacional de Andrología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30219482/child-s-play-harnessing-play-and-curiosity-motives-to-improve-child-handwashing-in-a-humanitarian-setting
#9
Julie Watson, Robert Dreibelbis, Robert Aunger, Claudio Deola, Katrice King, Susan Long, Rachel P Chase, Oliver Cumming
In humanitarian emergency settings there is need for low cost and rapidly deployable interventions to protect vulnerable children, in- and out-of-school, from diarrhoeal diseases. Handwashing with soap can greatly reduce diarrhoea but interventions specifically targeting children's handwashing behaviour in humanitarian settings have not been tested. Traditional children's handwashing promotion interventions have been school-focused, resource-intensive and reliant on health-based messaging. However, recent research from non-humanitarian settings and targeting adults suggests that theory-based behaviour change interventions targeting specific motives may be more effective than traditional handwashing interventions...
September 13, 2018: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30219154/braf-v600e-gene-mutation-is-associated-with-bilateral-malignancy-of-papillary-thyroid-cancer
#10
Zhuoran Liu, Tian Lv, Cong Xie, Zhongmin Di
BACKGROUND: Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is the most prevalent type of thyroid cancer, which is the most common type of endocrine malignancy. Stratification and personalized surgical management of PTC patients are the major challenges for thyroid surgeons. Though BRAF V600E gene mutation presents in 50-70% of PTCs, it is unclear whether BRAF V600E testing could contribute to clinical practice. Therefore, this study investigated the association between BRAF V600E mutation and clinicopathologic features of PTC to evaluate the benefit of BRAF V600E testing to clinical management of PTC...
August 2018: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30219074/organoid-technology-and-applications-in-cancer-research
#11
REVIEW
Hanxiao Xu, Xiaodong Lyu, Ming Yi, Weiheng Zhao, Yongping Song, Kongming Wu
During the past decade, the three-dimensional organoid technology has sprung up and become more and more popular among researchers. Organoids are the miniatures of in vivo tissues and organs, and faithfully recapitulate the architectures and distinctive functions of a specific organ.These amazing three-dimensional constructs represent a promising, near-physiological model for human cancers, and tremendously support diverse potential applications in cancer research. Up to now, highly efficient establishment of organoids can be achieved from both normal and malignant tissues of patients...
September 15, 2018: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30219034/interventions-to-address-social-connectedness-and-loneliness-for-older-adults-a-scoping-review
#12
Hannah M O'Rourke, Laura Collins, Souraya Sidani
BACKGROUND: Older adults are at risk for loneliness, and interventions to promote social connectedness are needed to directly address this problem. The nature of interventions aimed to affect the distinct, subjective concepts of loneliness/social connectedness has not been clearly described. The purpose of this review was to map the literature on interventions and strategies to affect loneliness/social connectedness for older adults. METHODS: A comprehensive scoping review was conducted...
September 15, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30219032/promoting-safe-walking-among-older-people-the-effects-of-a-physical-and-cognitive-training-intervention-vs-physical-training-alone-on-mobility-and-falls-among-older-community-dwelling-men-and-women-the-password-study-design-and-methods-of-a-randomized-controlled
#13
Sarianna Sipilä, Anna Tirkkonen, Tuomo Hänninen, Pia Laukkanen, Markku Alen, Roger A Fielding, Miia Kivipelto, Katja Kokko, Jenni Kulmala, Taina Rantanen, Sanna E Sihvonen, Elina Sillanpää, Anna Stigsdotter-Neely, Timo Törmäkangas
BACKGROUND: Safe and stable walking is a complex process involving the interaction of neuromuscular, sensory and cognitive functions. As physical and cognitive functions deteriorate with ageing, training of both functions may have more beneficial effects on walking and falls prevention than either alone. This article describes the study design, recruitment strategies and interventions of the PASSWORD study investigating whether a combination of physical and cognitive training (PTCT) has greater effects on walking speed, dual-task cost in walking speed, fall incidence and executive functions compared to physical training (PT) alone among 70-85-year-old community-dwelling sedentary or at most moderately physically active men and women...
September 15, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30218960/latent-class-analysis-of-the-association-between-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon-exposures-and-body-mass-index
#14
Michael Hendryx, Juhua Luo
BACKGROUND: People experience multiple co-occurring exposures to environmental pollutants, but analyses of multiple exposures have rarely been reported. OBJECTIVES: We used latent class analysis to estimate co-exposures to multiple polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and tested the associations of latent classes to body mass index. METHODS: We analyzed National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2013-2014 data. The sample included 2354 people aged 6-80 years...
September 12, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30218453/nomological-consistency-a-comprehensive-test-of-the-equivalence-of-different-trait-indicators-for-the-same-constructs
#15
Isabel Thielmann, Benjamin E Hilbig
OBJECTIVE: Across all subfields of psychology, it is common practice to use different indicators of allegedly the same personality constructs, resting upon the (often implicit) assumption that the indicators measure equivalent constructs. However, there is a lack of approaches allowing for a strict and comprehensive test of the equivalence assumption. We propose investigating nomological consistency to test the equivalence assumption across inventories allegedly measuring the same set of constructs...
September 15, 2018: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30218427/pnpla3-gene-polymorphisms-in-hcv-hiv-coinfected-individuals
#16
Kenneth E Sherman, Susan D Rouster, Minhee Kang, Triin Umbleja, Richard Sterling, Adeel A Butt
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3) gene has been associated with the development of alcoholic and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Using a newly developed and validated assay for PNPLA3, we explored the prevalence of gene polymorphisms in a cohort of HCV/HIV-coinfected individuals to determine whether there was an association with insulin resistance or hepatic fibrosis. METHODS: A high-resolution melting point (HRM) assay was developed and validated...
September 14, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30218298/risk-factors-for-kidney-disease-among-hiv-1-positive-persons-in-the-methadone-program
#17
Bartłomiej Matłosz, Ewa Pietraszkiewicz, Ewa Firląg-Burkacka, Ewa Grycner, Andrzej Horban, Justyna D Kowalska
BACKGROUND: Kidney injury is a serious comorbidity among HIV-infected patients. Intravenous drug use is listed as one of the risk factors for impaired renal function; however, this group is rarely assessed for specific renal-related risks. METHODS: Patients attending methadone program from 1994 to 2015 were included in the study. Data collected included demographic data, laboratory tests, antiretroviral treatment history, methadone dosing and drug abstinence. Patients' drug abstinence was checked monthly on personnel demand...
September 14, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30217808/a-quality-improvement-initiative-reducing-blood-culture-contamination-in-a-children-s-hospital
#18
Rana E El Feghaly, Jahnavi Chatterjee, Kristin Dowdy, Lisa M Stempak, Stephanie Morgan, William Needham, Kesha Prystupa, Marie Kennedy
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Blood culture contamination is a safety and quality concern in children's hospitals; it leads to increased unnecessary testing, admissions, antibiotic exposure, and cost. The standard benchmark for blood culture contamination is 3%. Our aim with the quality improvement project was to reduce the contamination rate at our children's hospital from a mean of 2.85% to <1.5% in 2 years. METHODS: After initial unit-specific efforts, we formed a multidisciplinary team, created a process map and a cause-and-effect analysis, sent out surveys to nurses, and created observation sheets used to identify problem areas and record the most common deviations during the collection process...
September 14, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30217734/impact-of-alcohol-based-hand-sanitizers-antibiotic-consumption-and-other-measures-on-detection-rates-of-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria-in-rural-japanese-hospitals
#19
Satoru Mitsuboshi, Masami Tsugita
There are limited data available on the relationship between multidrug-resistant bacteria and infection control activities in small to medium-sized hospitals. Therefore, we collected data on the use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers (ABHSs), personal protective equipment, antibiotics, and the levels of detectable bacteria between April 2014 and March 2015 in 11 Japanese hospitals. Average total antibiotic consumption was 100 defined daily doses per 1000 patient-days (PD), and average use of ABHSs, masks, plastic aprons, and gloves was 5 L per 1000 PD, and 1, 2, and 26 pieces per 1 PD, respectively...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30217701/claims-variability-in-charges-and-payments-for-common-open-and-endovascular-procedures
#20
Jeniann A Yi, Michael Bronsert, Natalia O Glebova
BACKGROUND: Cost effectiveness in health care is being increasingly scrutinized. Data regarding claims variability for vascular operations are lacking. Herein we aim to describe variability in charges and payments for aortoiliac (AI) and infrainguinal (II) revascularizations. METHODS: We analyzed 2012-2014 claims data from a statewide claims database for procedures grouped by CPT codes into II-open (II-O), II-endovascular (II-E), AI-open (AI-O), and AI-endovascular interventions (AI-E)...
September 11, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
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