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Eye pathology

Jingge Gao, Jihong Zeng, Bo Guo, Weimin He, Jun Chen, Fang Lu, Danian Chen
To study the clinical presentation and treatment outcome among children in South Western China with retinoblastoma (RB) and to determine factors predictive of poor outcome.A retrospective review of children diagnosed with RB from 2006 to 2015 at West China Hospital was undertaken. Demographic and clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes were studied.A total of 253 patients (unilateral 80.2%, bilateral 19.8%) were studied. Twenty six patients (10.3%) were from minority ethnic groups of China. The median onset age was 21 months...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
George Taylor-Walker, Savannah A Lynn, Eloise Keeling, Rosie Munday, David A Johnston, Anton Page, Jennifer A Scott, Srini Goverdhan, Andrew J Lotery, J Arjuna Ratnayaka
Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is a common, irreversible blinding condition that leads to the loss of central vision. AMD has a complex aetiology with both genetic as well as environmental risks factors, and share many similarities with Alzheimer's disease. Recent findings have contributed significantly to unravelling its genetic architecture that is yet to be matched by molecular insights. Studies are made more challenging by observations that aged and AMD retinas accumulate the highly pathogenic Alzheimer's-related Amyloid beta (Aβ) group of peptides, for which there appears to be no clear genetic basis...
October 14, 2016: Experimental Eye Research
Rahul Dwivedi, Sambath Tiroumal
PURPOSE: Paclitaxel (Taxol) is a microtubule-stabilizing agent and belongs to the taxane group of chemotherapeutic drugs. It is used to treat numerous malignancies, such as breast and lung cancers. A rare side effect of this drug includes cystoid macular edema (CME), which is presumed to resolve after cessation of Paclitaxel. We present a case of topical Dorzolamide 2% (Trusopt) having a possible successful effect in the treatment of Paclitaxel-related nonresolving CME. By highlighting this rare ocular side effect of a common chemotherapeutic agent, which fails to resolve upon cessation of the drug alone, we suggest a possible treatment that may help other ophthalmologists in their management of similar cases...
October 4, 2016: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
Won Ki Lee, Jiwon Baek, Kunal K Dansingani, Jae Hyung Lee, K Bailey Freund
PURPOSE: To subsegment the choroid in patients with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy and to determine whether the ratio of choriocapillaris/Sattler layer thickness to total choroidal thickness is decreased at sites of polypoidal pathology. METHODS: Retrospective, observational, cross-sectional study. A total of 320 eyes of 305 patients with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy were studied with optical coherence tomography and dye angiography. The ratio of choriocapillaris/Sattler layer thickness to total choroidal thickness was calculated at polypoidal lesion sites in eyes with subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) ≤200 μm...
October 3, 2016: Retina
Negin Amirshekarizadeh, Hassan Hashemi, Ebrahim Jafarzadehpur, Ali Mirzajani, Abbasali Yekta, Mehdi Khabazkhoob
PURPOSE: To determine the effect of cyclopentolate, tropicamide, and artificial tear drops on higher-order aberrations (HOAs) in normal eyes with OPD-Scan III (Nidek Inc., Tokyo, Japan). METHODS: In this study, 189 eyes of individuals aged 20 to 35 years were selected as samples. Inclusion criteria were a corrected visual acuity of 20/20 or better, a minimum size of about 5 mm for the pupil in the dark, hyperopia and myopia less than 5 D, and astigmatism less than 2 D...
September 30, 2016: Eye & Contact Lens
Nicholas R Dunham, Scott Reed, Dale Rollins, Ronald J Kendall
Debilitating ocular diseases are often reported in avian species. By and large, helminth parasites have been overlooked in avian diseases and regarded as inconsequential. The decline of Northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) in the Rolling Plains ecoregion of Texas has prompted an investigation of the factors influencing their disappearance. Infection by the eyeworm (Oxyspirura petrowi) has been documented in many avian species; however, the effect it has on its host is not well understood. Heavy eyeworm infection has been documented in Northern bobwhites throughout this ecoregion, leading to eye pathology in this host species...
December 2016: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Shrestha Priyadarsini, Tina B McKay, Akhee Sarker-Nag, Jeremy Allegood, Charles Chalfant, Jian-Xing Ma, Dimitrios Karamichos
Prolonged hyperglycemia during diabetes mellitus can cause severe ophthalmic complications affecting both the anterior and posterior ocular segments leading to impaired vision or blindness. Diabetes-induced corneal pathologies are associated with decreased wound healing capacity, corneal edema, and altered epithelial basement membrane. The mechanism by which diabetes modulates structure and function within the corneal stroma are unknown. In our study, we characterized the effects of diabetes on extracellular matrix, lipid transport, and cellular metabolism by defining the entire metabolome and lipidome of Type 1 and Type 2 human diabetic corneal stroma...
October 11, 2016: Experimental Eye Research
V Kocaba, O Damour, C Auxenfans, C Burillon
Limbal stem cell deficiency is predominantly caused by severe eye burns resulting in a decreased or a complete ablation of the regenerative potential of these stem cells. The inability to reconstruct the corneal epithelium further leads conjunctivalization of the gimbal-epithelial barrier. These abnormalities collectively result in the progressive opacification of the cornea responsible for blindness that is driven by chronic corneal ulceration and neovascularization. The underlying pathology of the cornea affects the homeostasis of the neighboring conjunctiva, eyelids, and tear film...
October 11, 2016: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
Yi-Ju Ho, Hung-Chi Chen, Shirley H L Chang, Lung-Kung Yeh, David Hui-Kang Ma
BACKGROUND: Sclerocornea, a congenital corneal pathology characterized by bilateral scleralization of the cornea, which can be found in few cases with posterior fossa malformationshemangiomas-arterial anomalies-cardiac defects-eye abnormalities-sternal cleft and supraumbilical raphe (PHACES) syndrome. Presence of vascularization in peripheral cornea and smaller diameter of recipient cornea correlate to poor outcome of penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) in sclerocornea. Here we report a method to preserve limbus during PKP for small, irregular, and scleralized cornea...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Adam Wylęgała, Sławomir Teper, Dariusz Dobrowolski, Edward Wylęgała
BACKGROUND: Retinal vascular diseases are one of the most common causes of blindness in the developed world. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (OCT-A) is a new noninvasive method that uses several algorithms to detect blood movement. This enables the creation of high-resolution vascular images with contrast depicting motionless tissue. METHODS: This review presents the results of articles relevant to age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy (DR), and OCT-A...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Sayaka Myojin, Takeru Yoshimura, Shigeo Yoshida, Atsunobu Takeda, Yusuke Murakami, Yoichi Kawano, Yuji Oshima, Tatsuro Ishibashi, Koh-Hei Sonoda
PURPOSE: The analysis of gene expression in idiopathic epiretinal membranes (iERMs) may help elucidate ERM formation and its pathology. Here, we conducted a case-control study, in order to determine the expression levels of cytokines and other genes in eyes with macular hole (MH) or iERM. METHODS: Twenty eyes, obtained from seven male and 13 female patients, were included in the study. The average age of the study subjects was 69.1 ± 7.67 years, and 15 eyes had iERM, while five eyes had MH...
2016: PloS One
Zdeněk Fryšák, David Karásek, Milan Halenka
Endocrine orbitopathy (EO) must be understood mainly as a result of oxidative stress. The pathological process finally affects both the appearance and vision of the patient. In the case of inappropriate or late treatment or lack of patient cooperation, it significantly influences the quality of life of those affected. In spite of the sophisticated dia-gnostic algorithms, in some cases it is difficult to confirm the diagnosis of EO. The range of laboratory methods, the essential part of the diagnostic process, has only recently been extended by the possibility of quantification of specific, stimulating immunoglobulins (TSI)...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
Khalil Ghasemi Falavarjani, Abbas Habibi, Arash Pourhabibi, Seyed Bagher Hosseini, Mehdi Modarres, Mohammad Mehdi Parvaresh, Ali Shahriari-Ahmadi
PURPOSE: Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has potential ocular neuroprotective effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the retinal toxicity of intravitreal G-CSF in rabbit eye. METHODS: Eight New Zealand albino rabbits, weighing between 2 and 3 kg, were selected for this study. The initial concentration of G-CSF (300 µg/0.5 ml) was titrated to obtain different concentrations of 45 μg, 30 μg, 15 μg, and 7.5 μg in 0.1 ml. Each concentration was injected into two rabbit eyes...
October 12, 2016: Current Eye Research
Avner Belkin, Adi Abulafia, Adi Michaeli, Shay Ofir, Ehud I Assia
BACKGROUND: Temperature profiles at the corneal wound of coaxial mini-incision (2.4 mm) cataract surgery and sleeveless micro-incision (1.1 mm) cataract surgery were compared. DESIGN: Prospective, controlled, paired-eye clinical trial conducted in a tertiary care hospital PARTICIPANTS: Twenty patients with mild to moderate bilateral nuclear sclerotic cataract. METHODS: Twenty patients underwent bilateral cataract surgery within a one-month period...
October 12, 2016: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
Claudio Del Percio, Wilhelmus Drinkenburg, Susanna Lopez, Francesco Infarinato, Jesper Frank Bastlund, Bettina Laursen, Jan T Pedersen, Ditte Zerlang Christensen, Gianluigi Forloni, Angelisa Frasca, Francesco M Noè, Marina Bentivoglio, Paolo Francesco Fabene, Giuseppe Bertini, Valeria Colavito, Jonathan Kelley, Sophie Dix, Jill C Richardson, Claudio Babiloni
Resting state electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms reflect the fluctuation of cortical arousal and vigilance in a typical clinical setting, namely the EEG recording for few minutes with eyes closed (i.e., passive condition) and eyes open (i.e., active condition). Can this procedure be back-translated to C57 (wild type) mice for aging studies? On-going EEG rhythms were recorded from a frontoparietal bipolar channel in 85 (19 females) C57 mice. Male mice were subdivided into 3 groups: 25 young (4.5-6 months), 18 middle-aged (12-15 months), and 23 old (20-24 months) mice to test the effect of aging...
September 15, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
Mohamed Fetohi, Sanaa Errarhay, Aziz Bazine, Tarikq Namad
BACKGROUND: Krukenberg tumor is a well-known ovarian metastasis, usually of signet ring cell carcinoma in female patients. In the literature, there are a few documented cases of ocular metastasis in patients with Krukenberg tumor. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 35-year-old single Moroccan woman. She presented chronic pelvic pain, hematemesis and blurring of vision in the left eye. Clinical examination showed a pelvic mass and an exophthalmos with a divergent strabismus in the left eye...
May 2016: Case Reports in Oncology
Tapas Ranjan Padhi, Sujata Das, Savitri Sharma, Soveeta Rath, Suryasnata Rath, Devjyoti Tripathi, Krushna Gopal Panda, Soumyava Basu, Cagri G Besirli
Parasitic infections of the eyes are a major cause of ocular diseases across the globe. The causative agents range from simple organisms such as unicellular protozoans to complex metazoan helminths. The disease spectrum varies depending on the geographic location, prevailing hygiene, living and eating habits of the inhabitants, and the type of animals that surround them. They cause enormous ocular morbidity and mortality not because they are untreatable, but largely due to late or mis-diagnosis, often from unfamiliarity with the diseases produced...
October 6, 2016: Survey of Ophthalmology
Masashi Satoh, Ken-Ichi Namba, Nobuyoshi Kitaichi, Noriko Endo, Hirokuni Kitamei, Daiju Iwata, Shigeaki Ohno, Susumu Ishida, Kazunori Onoé, Hiroshi Watarai, Masaru Taniguchi, Tatsuro Ishibashi, Joan Stein-Streilein, Koh-Hei Sonoda, Luc Van Kaer, Kazuya Iwabuchi
Experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) represents an experimental model for human endogenous uveitis, which is caused by Th1/Th17 cell-mediated inflammation. Natural killer T (NKT) cells recognize lipid antigens and produce large amounts of cytokines upon activation. To examine the role of NKT cells in the development of uveitis, EAU was elicited by immunization with a peptide from the human interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (hIRBP1-20) in complete Freund's adjuvant and histopathology scores were evaluated in C57BL/6 (WT) and NKT cell-deficient mice...
October 5, 2016: Experimental Eye Research
Yan Gong, Zhuo Shao, Zhongjie Fu, Matthew L Edin, Ye Sun, Raffael G Liegl, Zhongxiao Wang, Chi-Hsiu Liu, Samuel B Burnim, Steven S Meng, Fred B Lih, John Paul SanGiovanni, Darryl C Zeldin, Ann Hellström, Lois E H Smith
Neovascular eye diseases including retinopathy of prematurity, diabetic retinopathy and age-related-macular-degeneration are major causes of blindness. Fenofibrate treatment in type 2 diabetes patients reduces progression of diabetic retinopathy independent of its peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)α agonist lipid lowering effect. The mechanism is unknown. Fenofibrate binds to and inhibits cytochrome P450 epoxygenase (CYP)2C with higher affinity than to PPARα. CYP2C metabolizes ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs)...
September 30, 2016: EBioMedicine
Inessa Bekerman, Tal Sigal, Itzhak Kimiagar, Anna Ben Ely, Michael Vaiman
BACKGROUND: The changes of the optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) have been used to assess changes of the intracranial pressure for 20 years. The aim of this research was to further quantify the technique of measuring the ONSD for this purpose. METHODS: Retrospective study of computed tomographic (CT) data of 1766 adult patients with intracranial hypotension (n=134) or hypertension (n=1632) were analyzed. The eyeball transverse diameter (ETD) and ONSD were obtained bilaterally, and the ONSD/ETD ratio was calculated...
August 26, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
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