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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042033/serious-game-training-improves-performance-in-combat-life-saving-interventions
#1
Jerome Planchon, Anthony Vacher, Jeremy Comblet, Eric Rabatel, Françoise Darses, Alexandre Mignon, Pierre Pasquier
AIM: In modern warfare, almost 25% of combat-related deaths are considered preventable if life-saving interventions are performed. Therefore, Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) training for soldiers is a major challenge. In 2014, the French Military Medical Service supported the development of 3D-SC1(®), a serious game designed for the French TCCC program, entitled Sauvetage au Combat de niveau 1 (SC1). Our study aimed to evaluate the impact on performance of additional training with 3D-SC1(®)...
October 12, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041994/hospital-surge-capacity-a-web-based-simulation-tool-for-emergency-planners
#2
Matthew F Toerper, Gabor D Kelen, Lauren M Sauer, Jamil D Bayram, Christina Catlett, Scott Levin
The National Center for the Study of Preparedness and Catastrophic Event Response (PACER) has created a publicly available simulation tool called Surge (accessible at http://www.pacerapps.org) to estimate surge capacity for user-defined hospitals. Based on user input, a Monte Carlo simulation algorithm forecasts available hospital bed capacity over a 7-day period and iteratively assesses the ability to accommodate disaster patients. Currently, the tool can simulate bed capacity for acute mass casualty events (such as explosions) only and does not specifically simulate staff and supply inventory...
October 18, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040202/re-examination-of-a-battlefield-trauma-golden-hour-policy
#3
Jeffrey T Howard, Russ S Kotwal, Alexis R Santos, Matthew J Martin, Zsolt T Stockinger
BACKGROUND: Most combat casualties who die, do so in the prehospital setting. Efforts directed toward alleviating prehospital combat trauma death, known as killed in action (KIA) mortality, have the greatest opportunity for eliminating preventable death. METHODS: 4,542 military casualties injured in Afghanistan from September 11, 2001 to March 31, 2014 were included in this retrospective analysis to evaluate proposed explanations for observed KIA reduction following a mandate by Secretary of Defense Robert M...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039717/high-prevalence-of-multidrug-resistant-bacteria-in-libyan-war-casualties-admitted-to-a-tertiary-care-hospital-germany
#4
Benedikt Lohr, Yvonne Pfeifer, Ursel Heudorf, Christoph Rangger, Douglas E Norris, Klaus-Peter Hunfeld
The ongoing Libyan conflict constantly causes victims among the military and civilian population. Cross-border transfer of patients represents a high risk of introducing multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs), for example, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and carbapenem-resistant gram-negative organisms (CROs), into the country of destination. This study assessed the MDRO status in Libyan war casualties (n = 67) admitted to Northwest Medical Centre in Frankfurt/Main, Germany, from August 2016 till January 2017...
October 17, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036498/british-widows-of-the-south-african-war-and-the-origins-of-war-widows-pensions
#5
Eliza Riedi
The South African War of 1899-1902 cost the lives of 22,000 British and colonial soldiers and created almost 5,000 British war widows. It was in this context that the first state pensions for the widows of rank and file soldiers were introduced in 1901. Triggered by unexpectedly high casualty rates and widespread dissatisfaction with charitable provision, the introduction of state pensions also reflected changing public attitudes towards soldiers and their dependants in the context of an imperial war. Dismissed in the historiography as insignificant because of its low rates and restrictive eligibility clauses, the 1901 scheme in fact delivered pensions to the majority of war widows and made the Edwardian state their most important source of financial support...
September 23, 2017: 20 Century British History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026523/medical-support-during-an-ironman-70-3-triathlon-race
#6
Hae-Rang Yang, Jinwoo Jeong, Injoo Kim, Ji Eun Kim
BACKGROUND: The Ironman 70.3 race is also called a half Ironman, and consists of 1.9 km of swimming, 90.1 km of cycling, and 21.1 km of running. The authors provide practical insights that may be useful for medical support in future events by summarizing the process and results of on-scene medical care. METHODS: The medical post was established at the transition area between the cycling and running courses, which was close to the finish line, and staffed with the headquarters team comprised of an emergency physician, an EMT, two nurses, and an ambulance with a driver...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026474/using-growth-mixture-modeling-for-clustering-asian-and-north-african-countries-on-the-road-injury-death-trend-1990-2010
#7
Maryam Salari, Anoshirvan Kazemnejad, Farid Zayeri
OBJECTIVES: The physical injuries and financial implications as a result of road accidents have serious economic, cultural, and social effects. We conducted this study to determine any changes in the trend of road-accident-related deaths in Asian and North African countries from 1990 to 2010. METHODS: The current study was carried out using data from the Global Burden of Disease database. First, the process was assessed using the growth curve divided into six regions...
September 2017: Oman Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025445/blistering-rash-in-a-young-male-child
#8
Cathryn Sanders, Hannelie Potgieter
A 3-year-old child was brought to the casualty department at Leratong Hospital, Johannesburg, South Africa, with severe bullous eruptions on the distal portions of both the upper and lower limbs. He had visited three different general practitioners prior to presentation and had been given several drugs and ointments, including three different classes of antibiotics. During his admission, the diagnosis of linear IgA bullous dermatitis was made. Dapsone and prednisone were given and he recovered well.
June 30, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994363/mass-casualty-triage-in-the-case-of-carbon-monoxide-poisoning-lessons-learned
#9
Mathieu Pasquier, Fabrice Dami, Pierre-Nicolas Carron, Bertrand Yersin, Rodrigue Pignel, Olivier Hugli
Carbon monoxide (CO) can cause mass intoxication, but no standard triage algorithm specifically addresses CO poisoning. The roles of some recent diagnostic tools in triage as well as treatment with hyperbaric oxygen are controversial. We describe a mass casualty case of CO poisoning involving 77 patients, with a focus on the triage and treatment options decided on-site. The reasons for choosing these options are reviewed, and the pitfalls that occurred and the lessons learned from this major incident are described...
October 10, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994099/sociodemographic-factors-modulate-the-spatial-response-of-brown-bears-to-vacancies-created-by-hunting
#10
Shane C Frank, Martin Leclerc, Fanie Pelletier, Frank Rosell, Jon E Swenson, Richard Bischof, Jonas Kindberg, Hans Geir Eiken, Snorre B Hagen, Andreas Zedrosser
1.There is a growing recognition of the importance of indirect effects from hunting on wildlife populations, e.g., social and behavioral changes due to harvest, which occur after the initial offtake. Nonetheless, little is known about how the removal of members of a population influences the spatial configuration of the survivors. 2.We studied how surviving brown bears (Ursus arctos) used former home ranges that had belonged to casualties of the annual bear hunting season in southcentral Sweden (2007-2015)...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991524/comments-on-cellular-therapies-for-treatment-of-radiation-injury-after-a-mass-casualty-incident-radiat-res-2017-188-242-45
#11
Michel Drouet, Diane Riccobono, Sabine François
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990191/chemical-warfare-agent-simulants-for-human-volunteer-trials-of-emergency-decontamination-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Thomas James, Stacey Wyke, Tim Marczylo, Samuel Collins, Tom Gaulton, Kerry Foxall, Richard Amlôt, Raquel Duarte-Davidson
Incidents involving the release of chemical agents can pose significant risks to public health. In such an event, emergency decontamination of affected casualties may need to be undertaken to reduce injury and possible loss of life. To ensure these methods are effective, human volunteer trials (HVTs) of decontamination protocols, using simulant contaminants, have been conducted. Simulants must be used to mimic the physicochemical properties of more harmful chemicals, while remaining non-toxic at the dose applied...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988004/the-role-of-restraint-omission-in-alcohol-related-traffic-fatalities
#13
Ioannis Evangelidis
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Fatal traffic accidents affect thousands of people in the US alone every year. Alcohol consumption has been identified as a strong predictor of traffic fatalities. This result is hardly surprising as drivers who decide to consume alcohol and then drive are more likely to exhibit poor driving performance. In this paper, I argue that alcohol consumption can lead to traffic fatalities by increasing restraint omission. METHODS: I analyzed individual-level data about victims (n=488,829) of fatal traffic accidents that occurred in the US between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2015 from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System of the National Highway Traffic and Safety Administration...
September 29, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982201/finding-the-signal-in-the-noise-could-social-media-be-utilized-for-early-hospital-notification-of-multiple-casualty-events
#14
Rachael A Callcut, Sara Moore, Glenn Wakam, Alan E Hubbard, Mitchell J Cohen
INTRODUCTION: Delayed notification and lack of early information hinder timely hospital based activations in large scale multiple casualty events. We hypothesized that Twitter real-time data would produce a unique and reproducible signal within minutes of multiple casualty events and we investigated the timing of the signal compared with other hospital disaster notification mechanisms. METHODS: Using disaster specific search terms, all relevant tweets from the event to 7 days post-event were analyzed for 5 recent US based multiple casualty events (Boston Bombing [BB], SF Plane Crash [SF], Napa Earthquake [NE], Sandy Hook [SH], and Marysville Shooting [MV])...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969658/characterization-and-epitope-mapping-of-dengue-virus-type-1-specific-monoclonal-antibodies
#15
Wen-Hung Chen, Feng-Pai Chou, Yu-Kuo Wang, Sheng-Cih Huang, Chuan-Hung Cheng, Tung-Kung Wu
BACKGROUND: Dengue virus (DV) infection causes a spectrum of clinical diseases ranging from dengue fever to a life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever. Four distinct serotypes (DV1-4), which have similar genome sequences and envelope protein (E protein) antigenic properties, were divided. Among these 4 serotypes, DV1 usually causes predominant infections and fast diagnosis and effective treatments are urgently required to prevent further hospitalization and casualties. METHODS: To develop antibodies specifically targeting and neutralizing DV1, we immunized mice with UV-inactivated DV1 viral particles and recombinant DV1 E protein from residue 1 to 395 (E395), and then generated 12 anti-E monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) as the candidates for a series of characterized assays such as ELISA, dot blot, immunofluorescence assay, western blot, and foci forming analyses...
October 2, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968529/the-hidden-costs-of-terrorism-the-effects-on-health-at-birth
#16
Climent Quintana-Domeque, Pedro Ródenas-Serrano
We study the effects of in utero exposure to terrorism in Spain on birth outcomes, focusing on terrorism perpetrated by ETA during the period 1980-2003. We find that in utero exposure to terrorism early in pregnancy, as measured by the number of bomb casualties in the mother's province of residence in the first trimester of pregnancy, has detrimental effects on birth outcomes: in terms of average birth weight (lower), prevalence of low birth weight (higher) and fraction of "normal" babies (lower). While our findings are robust to a host of potential threats to validity, they seem to be driven by exposure to a relatively large number of bomb casualties...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967639/tissue-engineered-bone-for-treatment-of-combat-related-limb-injuries
#17
R G Vasyliev, V M Oksymets, A E Rodnichenko, A V Zlatska, O S Gubar, I M Gordiienko, D O Zubov
AIM: Based on our preliminary positive clinical results with use of cultured bone marrow-derived multipotent mesenchymal stem/stromal cells in traumatology, our aim was to develop living three-dimensional tissue-engineered bone equivalent transplantation technology for restoration of critical sized bone defects caused by combat related high energy trauma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To fabricate bone equivalent we used devitalized allogeneic bone scaffolds (blocks and chips) seeded with cultured autologous cells: bone marrow-derived multipotent mesenchymal stem/stromal cells in mix with periosteal progenitor cells and endothelial progenitor cells...
September 2017: Experimental Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959338/implementation-of-plasma-fractionation-in-biological-medicines-production
#18
REVIEW
Kamran Mousavi Hosseini, Mehran Ghasemzadeh
CONTEXT: The major motivation for the preparation of the plasma derived biological medicine was the treatment of casualties from the Second World War. Due to the high expenses for preparation of plasma derived products, achievement of self-sufficiency in human plasma biotechnological industry is an important goal for developing countries. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: The complexity of the blood plasma was first revealed by the Nobel Prize laureate, Arne Tiselius and Theodor Svedberg, which resulted in the identification of thousands of plasma proteins...
December 2016: Iranian journal of biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956759/cost-effectiveness-of-neighbourhood-slow-zones-in-new-york-city
#19
Boshen Jiao, Sooyoung Kim, Jonas Hagen, Peter Alexander Muennig
BACKGROUND: Neighbourhood slow zones (NSZs) are areas that attempt to slow traffic via speed limits coupled with other measures (eg, speed humps). They appear to reduce traffic crashes and encourage active transportation. We evaluate the cost-effectiveness of NSZs in New York City (NYC), which implemented them in 2011. METHODS: We examined the effectiveness of NSZs in NYC using data from the city's Department of Transportation in an interrupted time series analysis...
September 27, 2017: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954180/an-interprofessional-approach-to-continuing-education-with-mass-casualty-simulation-planning-and-execution
#20
Deborah A Saber, Kelley Strout, Lisa Swanson Caruso, Charlene Ingwell-Spolan, Aiden Koplovsky
Many natural and man-made disasters require the assistance from teams of health care professionals. Knowing that continuing education about disaster simulation training is essential to nursing students, nurses, and emergency first responders (e.g., emergency medical technicians, firefighters, police officers), a university in the northeastern United States planned and implemented an interprofessional mass casualty incident (MCI) disaster simulation using the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) management framework...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing
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