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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229847/population-is-the-main-driver-of-war-group-size-and-conflict-casualties
#1
Rahul C Oka, Marc Kissel, Mark Golitko, Susan Guise Sheridan, Nam C Kim, Agustín Fuentes
The proportions of individuals involved in intergroup coalitional conflict, measured by war group size (W), conflict casualties (C), and overall group conflict deaths (G), have declined with respect to growing populations, implying that states are less violent than small-scale societies. We argue that these trends are better explained by scaling laws shared by both past and contemporary societies regardless of social organization, where group population (P) directly determines W and indirectly determines C and G...
December 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229538/association-of-prehospital-intubation-with-decreased-survival-among-pediatric-trauma-patients-in-iraq-and-afghanistan
#2
Steven G Schauer, Jason F Naylor, Guyon J Hill, Allyson A Arana, Jamie L Roper, Michael D April
INTRODUCTION: Airway compromise is the second leading cause of preventable death on the battlefield among US military casualties. Airway management is an important component of pediatric trauma care. Yet, intubation is a challenging skill with which many prehospital providers have limited pediatric experience. We compare mortality among pediatric trauma patients undergoing intubation in the prehospital setting versus a fixed-facility emergency department. METHODS: We queried the Department of Defense Trauma Registry (DODTR) for all pediatric encounters in Iraq and Afghanistan from January 2007 to January 2016...
December 1, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226443/lessons-from-analyzing-the-medical-costs-of-civilian-terror-victims-planning-resources-allocation-for-a-new-era-of-confrontations
#3
Eytan Ellenberg, Mark I Taragin, Jay R Hoffman, Osnat Cohen, Daniella Luft-Afik, Zvia Bar-On, Ishay Ostfeld
Policy Points: Across the globe, the threat from terrorist attacks is rising, which requires a careful assessment of long-term medical support. We found 3 major sources of costs: hospital expenditures, mental health services dedicated to acute stress reactions, and ambulatory follow-up. During the first year, most of the costs were related to hospitalization and support for stress relief. During the second year, ambulatory and rehabilitation costs continued to grow. Public health specialists should consider these major components of costs and their evolution over time to properly advise the medical and social authorities on allocating resources for the medical and nonmedical support of civilian casualties resulting from war or terror...
December 2017: Milbank Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226160/the-significance-of-changes-in-platelet-concentration-during-the-early-phase-after-severe-burn-injury-in-a-chinese-mass-casualty
#4
Beiming Shou, Junqiang Li, Chenqi Tang, Qian Tan, Dongfeng Zheng, Binwei Sun, Lanjun Nie, Hongwei Zhang, Yanan Jiang, Chunming Wang, Yanwen Wu
Background: Changes in platelet concentration are common in severe burn patients. Platelets play a key role in the course of disease. This study aims to explore the significance of platelet concentration during the course of the disease in victims of a mass burn casualty. Methods: A total of 180 patients were involved in the "8.2" Kunshan explosion accident in China. The examined data included age, gender, total burn area (% TBSA), third-degree burn area (% TBSA), and platelet concentration within the first 5 days after the burn injury...
2017: Burns and trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223027/burden-of-injury-of-serious-road-injuries-in-six-eu-countries
#5
Wendy Weijermars, Niels Bos, Ashleigh Filtness, Laurie Brown, Robert Bauer, Emmanuelle Dupont, Jean Louis Martin, Katherine Perez, Pete Thomas
BACKGROUND: Information about the burden of (non-fatal) road traffic injury is very useful to further improve road safety policy. Previous studies calculated the burden of injury in individual countries. This paper estimates and compares the burden of non-fatal serious road traffic injuries in six EU countries/regions: Austria, Belgium, England, The Netherlands, the Rhône region in France and Spain. METHODS: It is a cross-sectional study based on hospital discharge databases...
December 6, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214626/a-descriptive-analysis-of-data-from-the-department-of-defense-joint-trauma-system-prehospital-trauma-registry
#6
Stephen G Schauer, Michael D April, Jason F Naylor, Joshua J Oliver, Cord W Cunningham, Andrew D Fisher, Russ S Kotwal
The active battlefield is an environment of chaos and confusion. Depending on the scale of combat, the chaos and confusion often extend into the prehospital combat setting with multiple personnel and units involved in the chain of care of casualties. The chaos of the prehospital combat setting has led to limitations in the availability of data for performance improvement and research. The Department of Defense (DoD) Joint Trauma System (JTS) Prehospital Trauma Registry (PHTR) was developed in conjunction with the updated Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) card and a TCCC after action report (AAR), and currently serves as the prehospital repository and module of the DoD Trauma Registry (DoDTR)...
October 2017: U.S. Army Medical Department Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214385/sealing-effects-on-the-storage-stability-of-the-cyanide-antidotal-candidate-dimethyl-trisulfide
#7
Lóránd Kiss, Anna Duke, Kristof Kovacs, Tibor Barcza, Márton Kiss, Ilona Petrikovics, David E Thompson
BACKGROUND: Dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) is a highly lipid-soluble cyanide (CN) antidote candidate molecule. In prior studies with various US FDA-approved co-solvents, surfactants, and their combinations, aqueous solutions containing 15% polysorbate 80 (Poly80) were found to effectively solubilize DMTS in formulations for intramuscular administration. However, DMTS formulated in 15% aqueous Poly80 solutions showed gradual losses over time when stored in vials with septum-based seals. OBJECTIVE: The present study tested whether storing DMTS formulations in hermetically sealed glass ampules could mitigate storage losses...
December 6, 2017: Drugs in R&D
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207778/delayed-tension-pneumothorax-identification-and-treatment-in-traumatic-bronchial-injury-an-interesting-presentation
#8
Amit Gupta, Amulya Rattan, Sunil Kumar, Vinita Rathi
A 13-year-old girl, who did not receive any treatment for few hours following Road Traffic Injury (RTI), reported to the Casualty Department and found to have patent airway with clinically normal C spine, air-hunger (RR 42/minute), trachea deviated to left, distended neck veins and absent breath sounds on the right side. The chest X-ray she carried, done immediately after the injury, showed right sided tension pneumothorax. She was put on oxygen at 11 L/minute and an Intercostal chest tube drainage (ICD) was inserted on right side...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204022/impact-of-road-traffic-injury-to-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury-in-southern-thailand
#9
Thara Tunthanathip, Nakornchai Phuenpathom
Background: Motor vehicle is a major transportation in Southern Thailand as the result of road traffic injury and death. Consequently, severe disability and mortality in pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) were observed from traffic accident, particularly motorcycle accident. To identify the risk of intracranial injury in children, the association of treatment outcome with various factors including mechanisms of injury, clinical characteristics, and intracranial pathology can be assessed...
October 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202769/impact-of-systolic-blood-pressure-limits-on-the-diagnostic-value-of-triage-algorithms
#10
Tobias Neidel, Nicolas Salvador, Axel R Heller
BACKGROUND: Major incidents are characterized by a lack of resources compared to an overwhelming number of casualties, requiring a prioritization of medical treatment. Triage algorithms are an essential tool for prioritizing the urgency of treatment for patients, but the evidence to support one over another is very limited. We determined the influence of blood pressure limits on the diagnostic value of triage algorithms, considering if pulse should be palpated centrally or peripherally...
December 4, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202316/drug-law-reform-performativity-and-the-politics-of-childhood
#11
Simon Jonathan Flacks
Children are critical to debates about drug law reform. For both advocates of liberalisation and, especially, defenders of prohibition, the protection of children is an important rhetorical device in pressing for, or resisting, change. However, the privileged position of minors within such discussions, or talk about drugs in general, has rarely been explored in any depth in either drug and alcohol studies or legal research. Drawing on scholarship on performativity, and particularly John Law's work on 'collateral realities', this article will consider how constructs such as childhood and drugs are 'produced' and '(re)made' in such discourses...
December 1, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198239/medical-response-to-the-tianjin-explosions-lessons-learned
#12
Jin-Jun Zhang, Tian-Bing Wang, Da Fan, Jun Zhang, Bao-Guo Jiang
BACKGROUND: On August 12, 2015, a hazardous chemical explosion occurred in the Tianjin Port of China. The explosions resulted in 165 deaths, 8 missing people, injuries to thousands of people. We present the responses of emergency medical services and hospitals to the explosions and summarize the lessons that can be learned. METHODS: This study was a retrospective analysis of the responses of emergency medical services and hospitals to the Tianjin explosions. Data on injuries, outcomes, and patient flow were obtained from the government and the hospitals...
December 4, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197966/aetiological-profile-and-treatment-outcomes-of-epistaxis-at-a-major-teaching-hospital-a-review-of-721-cases
#13
Brian Carey, Patrick Sheahan
BACKGROUND: Epistaxis is the most prevalent ENT emergency and a significant burden on ENT services. Our objective was to study the incidence and outcomes of patients presenting with epistaxis at a major teaching hospital. METHODS: A retrospective descriptive study of 721 patients, who presented with epistaxis over a 1-year period, was carried out. Data collected was analysed using SPSS software version 20. RESULTS: Of the 721 patients, initial treatment consisted of nasal cautery (298), nasal packing (200), or no treatment (223)...
December 2, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197316/developing-a-mass-casualty-surge-capacity-protocol-for-emergency-medical-services-to-use-for-patient-distribution
#14
Samuel E Shartar, Brooks L Moore, Lori M Wood
OBJECTIVES: Metropolitan areas must be prepared to manage large numbers of casualties related to a major incident. Most US cities do not have adequate trauma center capacity to manage large-scale mass casualty incidents (MCIs). Creating surge capacity requires the distribution of casualties to hospitals that are not designated as trauma centers. Our objectives were to extrapolate MCI response research into operational objectives for MCI distribution plan development; formulate a patient distribution model based on research, hospital capacities, and resource availability; and design and disseminate a casualty distribution tool for use by emergency medical services (EMS) personnel to distribute patients to the appropriate level of care...
December 2017: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196674/artificial-controlled-model-of-blood-circulation-system-for-adhesive-evaluation
#15
Sang-Myung Jung, Goo Yong Chung, Hwa Sung Shin
Since there are several casualties due to uncontrolled bleeding resulting from simple injury to surgery, effective styptic or vessel adhesives are important; however, their development is limited by the lack of standardized systems to evaluate potential compounds. The current study outlines the development of an aorta styptic evaluation system, comprising of decellularized swine aorta tissue and a heart pump-mimicking system. Although the cells in the swine aorta were removed, the structural stability of the aorta was sustained due to the maintenance of the extracellular matrix...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189694/committee-opinion-no-726-hospital-disaster-preparedness-for-obstetricians-and-facilities-providing-maternity-care
#16
(no author information available yet)
Large-scale catastrophic events and infectious disease outbreaks highlight the need for disaster planning at all community levels. Features unique to the obstetric population (including antepartum, intrapartum, postpartum and neonatal care) warrant special consideration in the event of a disaster. Pregnancy increases the risks of untoward outcomes from various infectious diseases. Trauma during pregnancy presents anatomic and physiologic considerations that often can require increased use of resources such as higher rates of cesarean delivery...
December 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189692/committee-opinion-no-726-summary-hospital-disaster-preparedness-for-obstetricians-and-facilities-providing-maternity-care
#17
(no author information available yet)
Large-scale catastrophic events and infectious disease outbreaks highlight the need for disaster planning at all community levels. Features unique to the obstetric population (including antepartum, intrapartum, postpartum and neonatal care) warrant special consideration in the event of a disaster. Pregnancy increases the risks of untoward outcomes from various infectious diseases. Trauma during pregnancy presents anatomic and physiologic considerations that often can require increased use of resources such as higher rates of cesarean delivery...
December 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188917/-implementation-of-the-hartford-consensus-and-tactical-combat-casualty-care-recommendations-in-emergency-services-a-review-of-the-literature
#18
REVIEW
Carmen Usero-Pérez, Valentín González Alonso, Luis Orbañanos Peiro, José Manuel Gómez Crespo, Sheima Hossain López
Recent terrorist attacks involving active shooters or improvised explosive devices have shown that traditionally sequenced emergency management leads to delays in attending victims and suboptimal outcomes. Tactical medicine, a new concept in prehospital care, emerged from experience attending the wounded in combat zones, where the Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) recommendations are applied. TCCC targets 3 main causes of preventable death in combat: bleeding from extremities, tension pneumothorax, and airway obstruction...
2017: Emergencias: revista de la Sociedad Española de Medicina de Emergencias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186561/identification-of-5-fluoro-adb-in-human-whole-blood-in-four-death-cases
#19
Kiyotaka Usui, Yuji Fujita, Yoshito Kamijo, Tetsuo Kokaji, Masato Funayama
Four deaths that seemed to have been caused by a designer drug occurred within a 3-week period in Sendai, Japan. In each case, the decedent possessed the same sachet, labeled "Heart Shot BLACK", which contained a dried plant material with an aromatic scent. It was revealed in our analysis that the product contained a synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist, 5-fluoro ADB (methyl 2-[1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide]-3,3-dimethylbutanoate, also known as 5-fluoro MDMB-PINACA), which is now classified as a restricted designer drug in Japan after it caused several casualties...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173258/the-1917-halifax-explosion-the-first-coordinated-local-civilian-medical-response-to-disaster-in-canada
#20
Chryssa N McAlister, Allan E Marble, T Jock Murray
The 1917 Halifax Explosion was an unfortunate but predictable tragedy, given the sea traffic and munitions cargo, resulting in sudden large-scale damage and catastrophic injuries, with 1950 dead and 8000 injured. Although generous support was received from the United States, the bulk of the medical work was undertaken using local resources through an immediate, massive, centrally coordinated medical response. The incredible care provided 100 years ago by these Canadian physicians, nurses and students is often forgotten, but deserves attention...
December 2017: Canadian Journal of Surgery. Journal Canadien de Chirurgie
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