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Antihypertensive drugs

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096206/racial-and-ethnic-differences-in-antihypertensive-medication-use-and-blood-pressure-control-among-us-adults-with-hypertension-the-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-2003-to-2012
#1
Anna Gu, Yu Yue, Raj P Desai, Edgar Argulian
BACKGROUND: A key to reduce and eradicate racial disparities in hypertension outcomes is to understand their causes. We aimed at evaluating racial differences in antihypertensive drug utilization patterns and blood pressure control by insurance status, age, sex, and presence of comorbidities. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 8796 hypertensive individuals ≥18 years of age were identified from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003-2012) in a repeated cross-sectional study...
January 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095040/consensus-statement-by-the-american-association-of-clinical-endocrinologists-and-american-college-of-endocrinology-on-the-comprehensive-type-2-diabetes-management-algorithm-2017-executive-summary
#2
Alan J Garber, Martin J Abrahamson, Joshua I Barzilay, Lawrence Blonde, Zachary T Bloomgarden, Michael A Bush, Samuel Dagogo-Jack, Ralph A DeFronzo, Daniel Einhorn, Vivian A Fonseca, Jeffrey R Garber, W Timothy Garvey, George Grunberger, Yehuda Handelsman, Irl B Hirsch, Paul S Jellinger, Janet B McGill, Jeffrey I Mechanick, Paul D Rosenblit, Guillermo E Umpierrez
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This algorithm for the comprehensive management of persons with type 2 diabetes (T2D) was developed to provide clinicians with a practical guide that considers the whole patient, their spectrum of risks and complications, and evidence-based approaches to treatment. It is now clear that the progressive pancreatic beta-cell defect that drives the deterioration of metabolic control over time begins early and may be present before the diagnosis of diabetes (1). In addition to advocating glycemic control to reduce microvascular complications, this document highlights obesity and prediabetes as underlying risk factors for the development of T2D and associated macrovascular complications...
January 17, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093700/postdiagnostic-use-of-%C3%AE-blockers-and-other-antihypertensive-drugs-and-the-risk-of-recurrence-and-mortality-in-head-and-neck-cancer-patients-an-observational-study-of-10-414-person-years-of-follow-up
#3
S-A Kim, H Moon, J-L Roh, S-B Kim, S-H Choi, S Y Nam, S Y Kim
INTRODUCTION: Growing evidence indicates that norepinephrine promotes cancer growth and metastasis whereas β-blockers decrease these risks. This study aimed to examine the clinical impact of β-blockers and other hypertensive drugs on disease recurrence and survival in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study analyzed a cohort of 1274 consecutive patients who received definitive treatments for previously untreated HNSCC at our tertiary referral center between January 2001 and December 2012...
January 16, 2017: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089343/assessment-of-microvascular-endothelial-function-in-type-1-diabetes-using-laser-speckle-contrast-imaging
#4
Alessandra S de M Matheus, Eliete Leão Silva Clemente, Maria de Lourdes Guimarães Rodrigues, Débora Cristina Torres Valença, Marília B Gomes
OBJECTIVE: To test whether laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) coupled with physiological post-occlusive reactive hyperemia (PORH) and pharmacological iontophoresis of acetylcholine (ACh) as local vasodilator stimuli could distinguish between cutaneous microvascular responses of Type 1 Diabetes (T1DM)'s patients with endothelial dysfunction and that of healthy controls. METHODS: Patients with T1DM aged ≥12years completed a clinical-epidemiological questionnaire...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088883/candesartan-cilexetil-loaded-nanodelivery-systems-for-improved-oral-bioavailability
#5
Narendar Dudhipala, Kishan Veerabrahma
Candesartan cilexetil (CC), an antihypertensive drug, has low oral bioavailability due to poor solubility and hepatic first-pass metabolism. These are major limitations in oral delivery of CC. Several approaches are known to reduce the problems of solubility and improve the bioavailability of CC. Among various approaches, nanotechnology-based delivery of CC has potential to overcome the challenges associated with the oral administration. This review focuses on various nano-based delivery systems available and tried for improving the aqueous solubility, dissolution and consequently bioavailability of CC upon oral administration...
February 2017: Therapeutic Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079826/waist-to-height-ratio-is-the-best-anthropometric-predictor-of-hypertension-a-population-based-study-with-women-from-a-state-of-northeast-of-brazil
#6
Tainá C S Caminha, Haroldo S Ferreira, Narithania S Costa, Ricardo P Nakano, Renata Elyonara S Carvalho, Antônio F S Xavier, Monica L Assunção
The WHO recommends the use of some anthropometric parameters as a screening resource for individuals under cardiometabolic risk. However, in the validation of these indicators, Brazilian women were not included. These women have different anthropometric profile compared to women who integrated the samples of the validation studies. We aimed to verify the accuracy of anthropometric indicators as a resource for the screening of women with hypertension. A cross-sectional study, with a probability sample of 3143 women (20-49 years) from the state of Alagoas (northeast of Brazil), was carried out...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079254/pharmacological-treatment-of-vascular-risk-factors-for-reducing-mortality-and-cardiovascular-events-in-patients-with-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm
#7
REVIEW
Lindsay Robertson, Edmond Atallah, Gerard Stansby
BACKGROUND: Pharmacological prophylaxis has been proven to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in individuals with atherosclerotic occlusive arterial disease. However, the role of prophylaxis in individuals with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) remains unclear. Several studies have shown that despite successful repair, those people with AAA have a poorer rate of survival than healthy controls. People with AAA have an increased prevalence of coronary heart disease and risk of cardiovascular events...
January 12, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077858/left-ventricular-hypertrophy-by-electrocardiogram-as-a-predictor-of-success-in-home-blood-pressure-control-homed-bp-study
#8
Ayumi Tanabe, Kei Asayama, Tomohiro Hanazawa, Daisuke Watabe, Kyoko Nomura, Tomonori Okamura, Takayoshi Ohkubo, Yutaka Imai
Few studies have focused on the effect of organ damage on achievement of long-term home blood pressure (BP) control. Based on the nationwide home BP-based trial data, we aimed to investigate the factors associated with home BP control, in particular, left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) using the electrocardiogram in patients who started antihypertensive drug treatment. According to the trial protocol, we defined BP as controlled when systolic home BP reached specified targets (125-134 mm Hg in usual control (UC), n=1261; <125 mm Hg in tight control (TC), n=1288)...
January 12, 2017: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077465/cost-effectiveness-of-the-polypill-versus-risk-assessment-for-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease
#9
Bart S Ferket, M G Myriam Hunink, Mohammed Khanji, Isha Agarwal, Kirsten E Fleischmann, Steffen E Petersen
OBJECTIVE: There is an international trend towards recommending medication to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD) in individuals at increasingly lower cardiovascular risk. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of a population approach with a polypill including a statin (simvastatin 20 mg) and three antihypertensive agents (amlodipine 2.5 mg, losartan 25 mg and hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg) and periodic risk assessment with different risk thresholds. METHODS: We developed a microsimulation model for lifetime predictions of CVD events, diabetes, and death in 259 146 asymptomatic UK Biobank participants aged 40-69 years...
January 11, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077386/hypertension-severity-is-associated-with-impaired-cognitive-performance
#10
Henrique C S Muela, Valeria A Costa-Hong, Mônica S Yassuda, Natália C Moraes, Claudia M Memória, Michel F Machado, Thiago A Macedo, Edson B S Shu, Ayrton R Massaro, Ricardo Nitrini, Alfredo J Mansur, Luiz A Bortolotto
BACKGROUND: Most evidence of target-organ damage in hypertension (HTN) is related to the kidneys and heart. Cerebrovascular and cognitive impairment are less well studied. Therefore, this study analyzed changes in cognitive function in patients with different stages of hypertension compared to nonhypertensive controls. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a cross-sectional study, 221 (71 normotensive and 150 hypertensive) patients were compared. Patients with hypertension were divided into 2 stages according to blood pressure (BP) levels or medication use (HTN-1: BP, 140-159/90-99 or use of 1 or 2 antihypertensive drugs; HTN-2: BP, ≥160/100 or use of ≥3 drugs)...
January 11, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071959/tenfold-risk-increase-of-major-cardiovascular-events-after-high-limb-amputation-with-non-compliance-for-secondary-prevention-measures
#11
Evgeniya V Shalaeva, Hugo Saner, Bakhtiyor B Janabaev, Aleksandra V Shalaeva
Background The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of compliance with lifestyle recommendations and medication on 1-year prevention of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) after trans-femoral amputation (TFA). Methods In this prospective single-center interventional cohort study, 179 consecutive T2D patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD) underwent 1-year follow-up examination after TFA in 2013. Lower limb and coronary artery CT angiography were provided before surgery; physical examination and laboratory tests were performed at baseline and every month after TFA for 1 year...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069253/which-antihypertensive-drug-should-be-used-in-patients-with-cerebrovascular-disease-to-prevent-a-new-stroke
#12
Luis Castilla-Guerra, María Del Carmen Fernandez-Moreno, Juan Manuel de la Vega-Sánchez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 6, 2017: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064090/molecular-insight-into-atypical-instability-behavior-of-fixed-dose-combination-containing-amlodipine-besylate-and-losartan-potassium
#13
Tarun Handa, Shalu Jhajra, Shweta Bhagat, P V Bharatam, Asit K Chakraborti, Saranjit Singh
Combination therapy with the use of fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) is evincing increasing interest of prescribers, manufacturers and even regulators, evidently due to the primary benefit of improved patient compliance. However, owing to potential of drug-drug interaction, FDCs require closer scrutiny with respect to their physical and chemical stability. Accordingly, the purpose of the present study was to explore stability behavior of a popular antihypertensive combination of amlodipine besylate (AML) and losartan potassium (LST)...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059156/genetic-screening-in-arterial-hypertension
#14
REVIEW
Gian Paolo Rossi, Giulio Ceolotto, Brasilina Caroccia, Livia Lenzini
Studies involving adoptive families and twins have demonstrated the genetic basis of hypertension and shown that genetic factors account for about 40% of the variance in blood pressure among individuals. Arterial hypertension is genetically complex: multiple genes influence the blood pressure phenotype through allelic effects from single genes and gene-gene interactions. Moreover, environmental factors also modify the blood pressure phenotype. This complexity explains why the identification of the underlying genes has not been as successful in hypertension as in other diseases (such as type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus)...
January 6, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058623/replacement-of-amlodipine-and-lercanidipine-by-barnidipine-tolerability-and-effectiveness-in-a-real-life-study
#15
Robert Lins, Yves Haerden, Caroline de Vries
INTRODUCTION: Hypertension is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease worldwide. Calcium channel blockers are an effective antihypertensive treatment, but frequently hypertension remains uncontrolled for many patients, partly due to tolerability issues. AIM: To assess the tolerability and effectiveness of barnidipine in mild to moderate hypertension patients switching treatment from other calcium channel blockers in daily practice. METHODS: BASIC-HT, a prospective real life study, enrolled 20,479 hypertensive patients initiating barnidipine treatment...
January 6, 2017: High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention: the Official Journal of the Italian Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057444/redefining-beta-blocker-use-in-hypertension-selecting-the-right-beta-blocker-and-the-right-patient
#16
REVIEW
Samuel J Mann
Randomized controlled trials have concluded that the cardiovascular outcome of first-step treatment of hypertension with traditional vasoconstricting beta-blockers is inferior to treatment with other antihypertensive drug classes. Beta-blocker use is also associated with undesirable side effects. Consequently, some recent guidelines consider beta-blockers an inferior option for first-step treatment of hypertension. Despite this, beta-blockers are still widely prescribed, and likely overused, in the management of hypertension...
December 5, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055260/blood-pressure-control-status-and-relationship-between-salt-intake-and-lifestyle-including-diet-in-hypertensive-outpatients-treated-at-a-general-hospital
#17
Yuko Ohta, Yorio Kimura, Chie Kitaoka, Tomoko Sakata, Isao Abe, Yuhei Kawano
The purpose of the present study was to investigate blood pressure (BP) control and salt intake in hypertensive outpatients treated at a general hospital and to examine the relationship between their lifestyles and amount of salt intake. Subjects comprised 429 hypertensive patients (206 males, 223 females, and average age of 71 ± 11 years). We estimated 24-hour salt excretion using spot urine samples and assessed lifestyle using a self-description questionnaire. Average clinic BP and the number of antihypertensive drugs were 132 ± 11/73 ± 8 mmHg and 1...
January 5, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054570/socioeconomic-differences-in-prevalence-awareness-control-and-self-management-of-hypertension-among-four-minority-ethnic-groups-na-xi-li-shu-dai-and-jing-po-in-rural-southwest-china
#18
L Cai, J Dong, W L Cui, D Y You, A R Golden
This study investigates socioeconomic differences in prevalence, awareness, control and self-management of hypertension in rural China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among four ethnic minority groups in Yunnan Province: Na Xi, Li Shu, Dai and Jing Po. Approximately 5532 consenting individuals aged ⩾35 years (48.4% of whom were male) were selected to participate in the study using a stratified, multistage sampling technique. Information about participants' demographic characteristics and hypertension awareness, treatment, control and self-management practices was obtained using a standard questionnaire...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Human Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054285/drug-interactions-in-neurocritical-care
#19
Brian Spoelhof, Salia Farrokh, Lucia Rivera-Lara
Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are common and avoidable complications that are associated with poor patient outcomes. Neurocritical care patients may be at particular risk for DDIs due to alterations in pharmacokinetic profiles and exposure to medications with a high DDI risk. This review describes the principles of DDI pharmacology, common and severe DDIs in Neurocritical care, and recommendations to minimize adverse outcomes. A review of published literature was performed using PubMed by searching for 'Drug Interaction' and several high DDI risk and common neurocritical care medications...
January 4, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053783/novel-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitory-peptides-from-caseins-and-whey-proteins-of-goat-milk
#20
Hisham R Ibrahim, Ahmed S Ahmed, Takeshi Miyata
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) plays a central role in blood pressure regulation by producing the vasoconstrictor angiotensin II. The inhibition of ACE with natural inhibitors, as alternatives to avoid the side effect of synthetic drugs, is a major target in the prevention of hypertension. In this study, we examined the separated caseins and whey proteins of goat milk for the presence of ACE inhibitory peptides. Digestion of isolated whey proteins and caseins of goat milk by gastric pepsin generated soluble hydrolysates exhibiting significant inhibition of ACE compared to weak inhibition by undigested proteins...
January 2017: Journal of Advanced Research
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