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Tick-borne infections

Peyvand Biglari, Hasan Bakhshi, Sadegh Chinikar, Hamid Belqeiszadeh, Masoud Ghaffari, Siavash Javaherizadeh, Faezeh Faghihi, Zakkyeh Telmadarraiy
Background: This study was carried out to determine the infestation of domestic ruminants to ticks in an important livestock-rearing region, located in central part of Iran. Methods: Ticks were collected from cattle, sheep, and goats and then were identified with appropriate identification keys to species level in two different ecological regions of plains and mountain in 4 seasons in 2015. Results: Totally 492 ticks from cattle, sheep, and goats in 34 herds were collected...
May 2018: Iranian Journal of Public Health
Melbourne Rio Talactac, Kentaro Yoshii, Emmanuel Pacia Hernandez, Kodai Kusakisako, Remil Linggatong Galay, Kozo Fujisaki, Masami Mochizuki, Tetsuya Tanaka
Thogoto virus (THOV), a tick-borne arbovirus not previously reported in East Asia, was recently isolated from Haemaphysalis longicornis in Kyoto, Japan. In this study, we investigated the vector competence of H. longicornis ticks for a Japanese isolate of the Thogoto virus using anal pore microinjection and experimental virus acquisition. Our results showed that anal pore microinjection can readily infect adult ticks, and THOV-infected ticks can successfully transmit the virus to mice. Blood feeding was also critical in the distribution of the virus in tick organs, most especially in the salivary glands...
June 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Eliza M Kellman, Danielle K Offerdahl, Wessam Melik, Marshall E Bloom
Tick-borne flaviviruses have a global distribution and cause significant human disease, including encephalitis and hemorrhagic fever, and often result in neurologic sequelae. There are two distinct properties that determine the neuropathogenesis of a virus. The ability to invade the central nervous system (CNS) is referred to as the neuroinvasiveness of the agent, while the ability to infect and damage cells within the CNS is referred to as its neurovirulence. Examination of laboratory variants, cDNA clones, natural isolates with varying pathogenicity, and virally encoded immune evasion strategies have contributed extensively to our understanding of these properties...
June 16, 2018: Viruses
Tricia Corrin, Judy Greig, Shannon Harding, Ian Young, Mariola Mascarenhas, Lisa A Waddell
BACKGROUND: Powassan virus (POWV), a flavivirus discovered in 1958, causes sporadic but severe cases of encephalitis in humans. Since 2007, the number of human Powassan cases diagnosed each year in the USA has steadily increased. This is in agreement with predictions that Powassan cases may increase in North America as a result of increased exposure to infected ticks. However, the increase may also reflect improved diagnostics and reporting among other factors. METHODS: A scoping review was prioritized to identify and characterize the global literature on POWV...
June 17, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Susan E Little, Anne W Barrett, Yoko Nagamori, Brian H Herrin, Dorothy Normile, Kathleen Heaney, Rob Armstrong
Ticks are an important but under recognized parasitic threat to cats in many areas of the United States. To characterize the species and stages of ticks most commonly recovered from cats and determine the prevalence of disease agents in the ticks, we conducted a survey of ticks removed from cats at veterinary practices in 18 states from April 2016-June 2017. A total of 796 ticks were submitted from 332 cats from 41 different veterinary practices. A single tick was submitted from the majority of cats, with a mean infestation intensity of 2...
June 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Chun-Hong Du, Hong-Bo Liu, Ran Wei, Frans Jongejan, Zi-Hou Gao, Zong-Ti Shao, Xing-De Duan, Bao-Gui Jiang, Yun-Xi Liu, Jia-Fu Jiang, Na Jia, Wu-Chun Cao
BACKGROUND: Rare investigation on tick-borne pathogens was carried out in Yunnan, China. In this study, we did a survey on Ehrlichia infection in small mammals and ticks. A total of 40 small mammals and 49 ticks were collected from Tengchong, Yunnan province. PCR targeting 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), citrate synthase, GroEL heat-shock protein operon, and major outer membrane protein genes was performed and positive amplicons were sequenced. RESULTS: The 40 small mammals were identified as 10 species, 2 (5...
June 13, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Murillo Adrados, Daniel Howard Wiznia, Marjorie Golden, Richard Pelker
Lyme arthritis, caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, is a common tick-borne illness in New England and the upper Midwest. Most often, the disease affects the knee and has typically been reported as a cause of native joint infection. There has been only 1 case of Lyme periprosthetic joint infection (associated with a total knee arthroplasty) reported in the literature, and to our knowledge, no other reported cases of Lyme periprosthetic joint infections exist. In this article, we report on 2 patients diagnosed with prosthetic joint infections who were subsequently found to have Lyme prosthetic joint infections, with B burgdorferi as the infectious organism...
June 2018: Arthroplasty Today
Kelsey D Wilson, Dirk M Elston
Ixodes ticks are important vectors in the transmission of human disease. In endemic areas, infection with multiple tick-borne diseases may occur. In part 3 of this review, identification and management of coinfection with multiple pathogens is discussed. Methods of tick-bite prevention and tick removal also are discussed.
May 2018: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
Lesley Bell-Sakyi, Alistair Darby, Matthew Baylis, Benjamin L Makepeace
Tick cell lines are increasingly used in many fields of tick and tick-borne disease research. The Tick Cell Biobank was established in 2009 to facilitate the development and uptake of these unique and valuable resources. As well as serving as a repository for existing and new ixodid and argasid tick cell lines, the Tick Cell Biobank supplies cell lines and training in their maintenance to scientists worldwide and generates novel cultures from tick species not already represented in the collection. Now part of the Institute of Infection and Global Health at the University of Liverpool, the Tick Cell Biobank has embarked on a new phase of activity particularly targeted at research on problems caused by ticks, other arthropods and the diseases they transmit in less-developed, lower- and middle-income countries...
May 31, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Taylor Z Mann, Lisa B Haddad, Tonya R Williams, Susan L Hills, Jennifer S Read, Deborah L Dee, Eric J Dziuban, Janice Pérez-Padilla, Denise J Jamieson, Margaret A Honein, Carrie K Shapiro-Mendoza
BACKGROUND: Since the Zika virus epidemic in the Americas began in 2015, Zika virus transmission has occurred throughout the Americas. However, limited information exists regarding possible risks of transmission of Zika virus and other flaviviruses through breast feeding and human milk. We conducted a systematic review of the evidence regarding flaviviruses detection in and transmission through milk, specifically regarding Zika virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, Powassan virus, West Nile virus, dengue virus, and yellow fever virus...
June 8, 2018: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Samuel Johnson, Nicholas Henschke, Nicola Maayan, Inga Mills, Brian S Buckley, Artemisia Kakourou, Rachel Marshall
BACKGROUND: Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne disease that occurs in parts of Asia, Europe and Africa. Since 2000 the infection has caused epidemics in Turkey, Iran, Russia, Uganda and Pakistan. Good-quality general supportive medical care helps reduce mortality. There is uncertainty and controversy about treating CCHF with the antiviral drug ribavirin. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of ribavirin for treating people with Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever...
June 5, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Kathryn Smith, Paul T Oesterle, Claire M Jardine, Antonia Dibernardo, Chris Huynh, Robbin Lindsay, David L Pearl, Angela M Bosco-Lauth, Nicole M Nemeth
Powassan virus (POWV) is a tick-borne zoonosis maintained in natural enzootic cycles between ixodid ticks and wild mammals. Reported human cases have increased in recent years; these infections can be fatal or lead to long-term neurologic sequelae. However, both the geographic distribution and the role of common, potential mammalian hosts in POWV transmission are poorly understood, creating challenges to public health surveillance. We looked for evidence of POWV infection among candidate wildlife host species and ticks collected from mammals and birds in southern Ontario...
June 4, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Syed Z Shah, Basit Jabbar, Nadeem Ahmed, Anum Rehman, Hira Nasir, Sarooj Nadeem, Iqra Jabbar, Zia Ur Rahman, Shafiq Azam
In South Asia, Haemaphysalis spinigera tick transmits Kyasanur Forest Disease Virus (KFDV), a flavivirus that causes severe hemorrhagic fever with neurological manifestations such as mental disturbances, severe headache, tremors, and vision deficits in infected human beings with a fatality rate of 3-10%. The disease was first reported in March 1957 from Kyasanur forest of Karnataka (India) from sick and dying monkeys. Since then, between 400 and 500 humans cases per year have been recorded; monkeys and small mammals are common hosts of this virus...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Hui Zhi, Jialei Xie, Jon T Skare
Activation of the classical complement pathway occurs to varying degrees within strains of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex, which contain a group of pathogenic spirochetes that cause tick-borne Lyme borreliosis, including the agent of Lyme disease in the United States, B. burgdorferi . Despite this information, details related to the control of B. burgdorferi by the classical pathway are not clear. To address this question, we infected C1qα-/- mice, which cannot assemble the C1 complex and thus fail to activate the classical pathway, with B...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Alexis Lacout, Yves Mone, Michel Franck, Pierre-Yves Marcy, Marie Mas, Francisco Veas, Christian Perronne
Lyme disease is the most frequently reported zoonotic tick-borne disease worldwide, and the number of infected humans is increasing. Lyme disease (or Lyme borreliosis) is an affection caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, sensu lato. Lyme disease is also reported as a variety of misleading clinical symptomatologies. Infected patient's blood serology is the most currently test used for its diagnosis. However, serology has a low sensitivity, which ranges from 34% to 70%. Thus, there are numerous subsequent false-negative diagnoses despite an active clinical infection profile...
July 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Boondarika Nambooppha, Amarin Rittipornlertrak, Muncharee Tattiyapong, Sahatchai Tangtrongsup, Saruda Tiwananthagorn, Yang-Tsung Chung, Nattawooti Sthitmatee
Ehrlichia canis is the causative agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME). While there is a high prevalence of CME in Thailand, genetic diversity of E. canis is still poorly defined. This study examined the molecular characteristics of E. canis using PCR and phylogenetic analysis of the dsb, gp19 and gp36 genes. DNA was extracted from 220 whole blood samples of naturally infected dogs, and all had clinical signs compatible with tick-borne diseases. Of these, 16.4% (36/220) provided positive E. canis DNA via the dsb and gp19 genes...
May 28, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Muhammad I Malik, Muhammad Qamar, Quratul Ain, Malik F Hussain, Mustapha Dahmani, Mazhar Ayaz, Asim K Mahmood, Bernard Davoust, Rehan S Shaikh, Furhan Iqbal
Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis is a tick-borne disease caused by an intracellular alpha-proteobacterium, Ehrlichia canis, which replicates within mononuclear cells in the host. This study was designed to use a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol for the molecular detection of E. canis by the amplification of a portion of its 16S rRNA gene, as well as the effects of this alpha-proteobacterium on the haematological parameters of the sampled dogs and the risk factors associated with E. canis infection. A total of 151 blood samples were collected from dogs of various breeds at three sampling sites (Lahore, Rawalpindi/Islamabad and Multan) in Punjab, Pakistan...
May 2018: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Kentaro Yoshii, Kozue Sato, Mariko Ishizuka, Shintaro Kobayashi, Hiroaki Kariwa, Hiroki Kawabata
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is widely prevalent on the Eurasian continent, including Japan, but four cases of TBE have been reported in Japan. To inspect unconfirmed TBE cases in Japan, we conducted a retrospective seroepidemiological study of a total of 158 samples from 81 meningoencephalitis patients suspected as Lyme disease. Two serum samples from one patient showed neutralizing antibodies against TBE virus. The patient with severe and progressive encephalitis had a history of tick bite in Hokkaido in 2012...
May 29, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Shibo Li, Yang Li, Qiujing Wang, Xuewen Yu, Miaomiao Liu, Haibo Xie, Liyong Qian, Ling Ye, Zhejuan Yang, Jianjing Zhang, Huimin Zhu, Wenhong Zhang
BACKGROUND: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease caused by SFTS bunyavirus (SFTSV), a tick borne bunyavirus. However, Immunohistochemistry of SFTS patients are not well studied. METHODS: We obtained multiple of tissues from a fatal case with SFTS, including blood, lungs, kidneys, heart, and spleen. The blood samples were used to isolate the causative agent for detection of viral RNA and further expression of recombinant viral protein as primary antibody...
May 30, 2018: Virology Journal
Igor da Cunha Lima Acosta, Hermes Ribeiro Luz, Álvaro Adolfo Faccini-Martínez, Sebastián Muñoz-Leal, Crispim Cerutti Junior, Marcelo Bahia Labruna
Espírito Santo state (southeastern Brazil) is considered an endemic area for spotted fever group rickettsioses. In February 2017, we received in our laboratory seven unfed Amblyomma ovale adult ticks collected by a farmer from his clothes and body (not attached) during a working day in the rural area of Ibiraçu municipality, Espírito Santo state. By polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses, targeting gltA and ompA rickettsial genes, the DNA of Rickettsia was detected in 6/7 (85.7%) A. ovale. In all cases, DNA sequencing of PCR products revealed that consensus sequences of both genes were 100% identical to gltA and ompA corresponding sequences of Rickettsia sp...
May 24, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
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