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Tick-borne infections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213810/how-to-tackle-natural-focal-infections-from-risk-assessment-to-vaccination-strategies
#1
Luca Busani, Alexander E Platonov, Onder Ergonul, Giovanni Rezza
Natural focal diseases are caused by biological agents associated with specific landscapes. The natural focus of such diseases is defined as any natural ecosystem containing the pathogen's population as an essential component. In such context, the agent circulates independently on human presence, and humans may become accidentally infected through contact with vectors or reservoirs. Some viruses (i.e., tick-borne encephalitis and Congo-Crimean hemorrhagic fever virus) are paradigmatic examples of natural focal diseases...
February 18, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202075/tick-borne-pathogens-induce-differential-expression-of-genes-promoting-cell-survival-and-host-resistance-in-ixodes-ricinus-cells
#2
Karen L Mansfield, Charlotte Cook, Richard J Ellis, Lesley Bell-Sakyi, Nicholas Johnson, Pilar Alberdi, José de la Fuente, Anthony R Fooks
BACKGROUND: There has been an emergence and expansion of tick-borne diseases in Europe, Asia and North America in recent years, including Lyme disease, tick-borne encephalitis and human anaplasmosis. The primary vectors implicated are hard ticks of the genus Ixodes. Although much is known about the host response to these bacterial and viral pathogens, there is limited knowledge of the cellular responses to infection within the tick vector. The bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum is able to bypass apoptotic processes in ticks, enabling infection to proceed...
February 15, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196318/common-skin-conditions-in-children-skin-infections
#3
Brian Z Rayala, Dean S Morrell
Skin infections account for a significant subset of dermatologic conditions of childhood. Common cutaneous viral infections in children include warts, molluscum contagiosum, hand-foot-and-mouth disease, and herpes simplex. Although viral infections are self-limited and often only mildly symptomatic, they can cause anxiety, embarrassment, and health care use. Recognition of their common and atypical presentations is necessary to differentiate them from other skin conditions of similar morphology. Impetigo, cellulitis, and abscess comprise the majority of childhood bacterial skin infections and are treated with topical or systemic antibiotics that cover group A Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus...
February 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194148/animal-models-of-emerging-tick-borne-phleboviruses-determining-target-cells-in-a-lethal-model-of-sftsv-infection
#4
Keita Matsuno, Yasuko Orba, Kimberly Maede-White, Dana Scott, Friederike Feldmann, Mifang Liang, Hideki Ebihara
The pathogenesis of clinical manifestations caused by newly emerging tick-borne phleboviruses [i.e., Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) and Heartland virus (HRTV)], such as severe thrombocytopenia and lymphocytopenia, are not yet fully understood. In the present study, to establish an animal model mimicking the profile of fatal human cases, we examined the susceptibilities of adult mice from 12 strains, aged mice from two strains, and cynomolgus macaques to SFTSV and/or HRTV infections...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188085/species-of-ticks-and-carried-pathogens-in-owned-dogs-in-spain-results-of-a-one-year-national-survey
#5
Agustín Estrada-Peña, Xavier Roura, Angel Sainz, Guadalupe Miró, Laia Solano-Gallego
This study presents the results of a national survey in Spain on the distribution of ticks on owned dogs, their phenology and the associated pathogens over one year. In the study, 1628 adult ticks were collected on 660 dogs presented to 26 veterinary practices, of which 507 dogs (76.8%) carried at least one adult tick. The primary species of ticks were Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. (53%), Dermacentor reticulatus (9%), Ixodes ricinus (9%), and I. hexagonus (4%). Parasitism by two species of these ticks was rare...
February 3, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187808/diagnosis-and-management-of-acute-encephalitis
#6
J J Halperin
Encephalitis is typically viral (approximately half of diagnosed cases) or autoimmune (about a quarter) with the remainder remaining undiagnosable at this time. All require general supportive care but only a minority requires intensive care admission - in these intubation, to protect the airway or to treat status epilepticus with anesthetic drugs, may be needed. In some dysautonomia with wide blood pressure fluctuations is the principal concern. Remarkably, in addition to supportive care, specific treatment options are available for the majority - immune-modulating therapy for those with autoimmune disorders, antiviral therapy for herpes simplex 1 and 2, and varicella-zoster encephalitis...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179396/the-antigenic-structure-of-zika-virus-and-its-relation-to-other-flaviviruses-implications-for-infection-and-immunoprophylaxis
#7
REVIEW
Franz X Heinz, Karin Stiasny
Zika virus was discovered ∼70 years ago in Uganda and maintained a low profile as a human disease agent in Africa and Asia. Only recently has it caused explosive outbreaks in previously unaffected regions, first in Oceania and then in the Americas since 2015. Of special concern is the newly identified link between congenital malformations (especially microcephaly) and Zika virus infections during pregnancy. At present, it is unclear whether Zika virus changed its pathogenicity or whether the huge number of infections allowed the recognition of a previously cryptic pathogenic property...
March 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170029/a-cluster-of-fatal-tick-borne-encephalitis-virus-infection-in-organ-transplant-setting
#8
Dariusz Lipowski, Marta Szablowska, Karol Perlejewski, Shota Nakamura, Iwona Bukowska-Ośko, Ewa Rzadkiewicz, Tomasz Dzieciątkowski, Anna Milecka, Wojciech Wenski, Michał Ciszek, Alicja Dębska-Ślizień, Ewa Ignacak, Kamila Caraballo Cortes, Agnieszka Pawełczyk, Andrzej Horban, Marek Radkowski, Tomasz Laskus
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169172/molecular-characterisation-of-anaplasma-species-from-african-buffalo-syncerus-caffer-in-kruger-national-park-south-africa
#9
Danielle Sisson, Jasmin Hufschmid, Anna Jolles, Brianna Beechler, Abdul Jabbar
Bovine anaplasmosis is a tick-borne disease, mainly caused by Anaplasma marginale and A. centrale and is distributed in tropical and sub-tropical areas. This study aimed to characterise A. marginale and A. centrale from African buffaloes in Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa, using the DNA sequences of the genes coding for major surface protein (msp1β) and heat shock protein (groEL), respectively. A total of 747 blood samples were collected from February 2014 to August 2016 from African buffaloes kept in KNP, and DNAs were tested using a molecular-phylogenetic approach...
January 17, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167278/the-host-cell-response-to-tick-borne-encephalitis-virus
#10
Tea Carletti, Mohammad Khalid Zakaria, Alessandro Marcello
Tick-borne encephalitis virus is the most prevalent autochthonous arbovirus in Europe and an important travel-associated virus. Complications of the infection could lead to lethal encephalitis in susceptible individuals. However, despite its clinical relevance and expanding geographical distribution, most of our knowledge on its pathogenesis is inferred from studies on other flaviviruses. Molecular details of the host cell response to infection are scarce leading to a poor understanding of the antiviral pathways and viral countermeasures that are critical to determine the outcome of the infection...
February 4, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166814/closely-related-borrelia-burgdorferi-sensu-stricto-strains-exhibit-similar-fitness-in-single-infections-and-asymmetric-competition-in-multiple-infections
#11
Evelyn C Rynkiewicz, Julia Brown, Danielle M Tufts, Ching-I Huang, Helge Kampen, Stephen J Bent, Durland Fish, Maria A Diuk-Wasser
BACKGROUND: Wild hosts are commonly co-infected with complex, genetically diverse, pathogen communities. Competition is expected between genetically or ecologically similar pathogen strains which may influence patterns of coexistence. However, there is little data on how specific strains of these diverse pathogen species interact within the host and how this impacts pathogen persistence in nature. Ticks are the most common disease vector in temperate regions with Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, being the most common vector-borne pathogen in North America...
February 6, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153803/development-of-duplex-pcr-for-simultaneous-detection-of-theileria-spp-and-anaplasma-spp-in-sheep-and-goats
#12
Yanyan Cui, Yan Zhang, Fuchun Jian, Longxian Zhang, Rongjun Wang, Shuxuan Cao, Xiaoxing Wang, Yaqun Yan, Changshen Ning
Theileria spp. and Anaplasma spp., which are important tick-borne pathogens (TBPs), impact the health of humans and animals in tropical and subtropical areas. Theileria and Anaplasma co-infections are common in sheep and goats. Following alignment of the relevant DNA sequences, two primer sets were designed to specifically target the Theileria spp. 18S rRNA and Anaplasma spp. 16S rRNA gene sequences. Genomic DNA from the two genera was serially diluted tenfold for testing the sensitivities of detection of the primer sets...
January 30, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153343/tick-borne-encephalitis-in-china-a-review-of-epidemiology-and-vaccines
#13
REVIEW
Yi Xing, Heinz-Josef Schmitt, Adriano Arguedas, Junfeng Yang
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) has been shown to be endemic in northern and western China, including the three mountain areas in Heilongjiang, Jilin, Inner Mongolia, and Xinjiang. In addition, serology evidence shows that there is human infection in south-west provinces of China, including Xizang (Tibet) and Yunnan. TBE in China is caused by the Far Eastern TBE virus subtype and there is no biphasic course for disease presentation. The majority of TBE cases in China have occurred in people who were living or working in forests...
January 30, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153052/distribution-and-molecular-characteristics-of-rickettsiae-found-in-ticks-across-central-mongolia
#14
Bazartseren Boldbaatar, Rui-Ruo Jiang, Michael E von Fricken, Sukhbaatar Lkhagvatseren, Pagbajab Nymadawa, Bekhochir Baigalmaa, Ya-Wei Wang, Benjamin D Anderson, Jia-Fu Jiang, Gregory C Gray
BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding tick-borne diseases in Mongolia, despite having 26% of the population still living nomadic pastoral lifestyles. A total of 1497 adult unfed ticks: 261 Ixodes persulcatus, 795 Dermacentor nuttalli, and 441 Hyalomma asiaticum, were collected from three ecologically distinct regions in Central Mongolia. Tick pools (n = 299) containing ~5 ticks each, were tested for Rickettsia and Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) using nested polymerase chain reaction, reverse transcription-PCR, and quantitative real-time RT-PCR...
February 2, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151085/natural-infection-of-the-south-american-tapir-tapirus-terrestris-by-theileria-equi
#15
Alexandre Welzel Da Silveira, Gustavo Gomes De Oliveira, Leandro Menezes Santos, Lucas Bezerra da Silva Azuaga, Claudia Regina Macedo Coutinho, Jessica Teles Echeverria, Tamires Ramborger Antunes, Carlos Alberto do Nascimento Ramos, Alda Izabel de Souza
Theileria equi is a tick-borne piroplasm considered endemic in equines in Brazil. The cohabitation of domestic and wild animals in areas of extensive cattle breeding favors the close contact between different species and the sharing of vectors and, consequently, pathogens. We report the natural infection of a young South American tapir ( Tapirus terrestris ) by Theileria equi in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Although it was not possible to associate the clinical and hematologic status of the animal with the infection by the protozoan parasite, our report represents an alert on the sharing of pathogens between domestic and wild animals...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146594/lyme-carditis-a-case-involving-the-conduction-system-and-mitral-valve
#16
Lakir D Patel, Jay S Schachne
Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne infection in the Northern hemisphere. Cardiac manifestations of Lyme disease typically include variable atrioventricular nodal block and rarely structural heart pathology. The incidence of Lyme carditis may be underestimated based on current reporting practices of confirmed cases. This case of a 59-year-old man with Lyme carditis demonstrates the unique presentation of widespread conduction system disease, mitral regurgitation, and suspected ischemic disease. Through clinical data, electrocardiograms, and cardiac imaging, we show the progression, and resolution, of a variety of cardiac symptoms attributable to infection with Lyme...
February 1, 2017: Rhode Island Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143697/first-detection-of-tick-borne-pathogens-of-dogs-from-malta
#17
Elaine Licari, Nóra Takács, Norbert Solymosi, Róbert Farkas
The knowledge about the vector-borne infections in domestic dogs has been increasing worldwide. However no studies have been done on hard tick infestation and tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) of dogs present in Malta. Therefore, a total of 99 dogs was selected and inspected between March and July 2013 in 18 urban and 17 rural areas on the islands of Malta and Gozo. All ticks were removed from the dogs and identified. Blood samples were taken and tested for protozoa (Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp.) and bacteria (Anaplasma spp...
January 18, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141800/modeling-powassan-virus-infection-in-peromyscus-leucopus-a-natural-host
#18
Luwanika Mlera, Kimberly Meade-White, Greg Saturday, Dana Scott, Marshall E Bloom
The tick-borne flavivirus, Powassan virus (POWV) causes life-threatening encephalitis in humans in North America and Europe. POWV is transmitted by ixodid tick vectors that feed on small to medium-sized mammals, such as Peromyscus leucopus mice, which may serve as either reservoir, bridge or amplification hosts. Intraperitoneal and intracranial inoculation of 4-week old Peromyscus leucopus mice with 103 PFU of POWV did not result in overt clinical signs of disease. However, following intracranial inoculation, infected mice seroconverted to POWV and histopathological examinations revealed that the mice uniformly developed mild lymphocytic perivascular cuffing and microgliosis in the brain and spinal cord from 5 to 15 days post infection (dpi), suggesting an early inflammatory response...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131594/detection-of-borrelia-miyamotoi-and-other-tick-borne-pathogens-in-human-clinical-specimens-and-ixodes-scapularis-ticks-in-new-york-state-2012-2015
#19
Danielle Wroblewski, Linda Gebhardt, Melissa A Prusinski, Lisa J Meehan, Tanya A Halse, Kimberlee A Musser
Borrelia miyamotoi (Bm) is a recently emerging bacterial agent transmitted by several species of ixodid ticks. Diagnosis of Bm infection can be challenging, as the organism is not easily cultivable. We have developed and validated a multiplex real-time PCR to simultaneously identify Bm infection and the agents causing human granulocytic anaplasmosis and human monocytic ehrlichiosis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia chaffeensis, respectively. The assay is 100% specific; highly sensitive, detecting 11 gene copies of Bm DNA in both whole blood and cerebral spinal fluid; and provides rapid results in less than two hours...
January 16, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129781/experimental-evaluation-of-peromyscus-leucopus-as-a-reservoir-host-of-the-ehrlichia-muris-like-agent
#20
Geoffrey E Lynn, Jonathan D Oliver, Ingrid Cornax, M Gerard O'Sullivan, Ulrike G Munderloh
BACKGROUND: The Ehrlichia muris-like agent (EMLA) is a newly recognized human pathogen in the North Central United States. Although blacklegged ticks (Ixodes scapularis) have been identified as capable vectors, wild reservoirs have not yet been established for EMLA. As key hosts for I. scapularis, white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) are important reservoirs for various tick-borne pathogens, and potentially, for EMLA. The objective of this study was to evaluate reservoir competence in P...
January 28, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
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