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Tick-borne infections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448923/data-driven-predictions-and-novel-hypotheses-about-zoonotic-tick-vectors-from-the-genus-ixodes
#1
Laura Hyesung Yang, Barbara A Han
BACKGROUND: With the resurgence of tick-borne diseases such as Lyme disease and the emergence of new tick-borne pathogens such as Powassan virus, understanding what distinguishes vectors from non-vectors, and predicting undiscovered tick vectors is a crucial step towards mitigating disease risk in humans. We aimed to identify intrinsic traits that predict which Ixodes tick species are confirmed or strongly suspected to be vectors of zoonotic pathogens. METHODS: We focused on the well-studied tick genus Ixodes from which many species are known to transmit zoonotic diseases to humans...
February 15, 2018: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443061/detecting-the-lyme-disease-spirochete-borrelia-burgdorferi-in-ticks-using-nested-pcr
#2
Melanie K B Wills, Andrea M Kirby, Vett K Lloyd
Lyme disease is a serious vector-borne infection that is caused by the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato family of spirochetes, which are transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Ixodes ticks. The primary etiological agent in North America is Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. As geographic risk regions expand, it is prudent to support robust surveillance programs that can measure tick infection rates, and communicate findings to clinicians, veterinarians, and the general public. The molecular technique of nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) has long been used for this purpose, and it remains a central, inexpensive, and robust approach in the detection of Borrelia in both ticks and wildlife...
February 4, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437548/a-serosurvey-of-flavivirus-infection-in-horses-and-birds-in-slovakia
#3
Tomáš Csank, Petra Drzewnioková, Ľuboš Korytár, Peter Major, Miklós Gyuranecz, Juraj Pistl, Tamás Bakonyi
In central Europe, at least three flaviviruses circulate among vectors and vertebrate hosts. West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV) are mosquito-borne viruses maintained in the nature by enzootic cycle between mosquitoes and birds. Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a flavivirus causing annual human cases in Slovakia. The aim of this study is the prevalence assessment of flavivirus infections in horses (n = 145) and birds (n = 109) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and confirmation by neutralization test (VNT)...
February 13, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435494/tick-borne-encephalitis-virus-vaccine-induced-human-antibodies-mediate-negligible-enhancement-of-zika-virus-infection-in-vitro-and-in-a-mouse-model
#4
James Duehr, Silviana Lee, Gursewak Singh, Gregory A Foster, David Krysztof, Susan L Stramer, Maria C Bermúdez González, Eva Menichetti, Robert Geretschläger, Christian Gabriel, Viviana Simon, Jean K Lim, Florian Krammer
Recent reports in the scientific literature have suggested that anti-dengue virus (DENV) and anti-West Nile virus (WNV) immunity exacerbates Zika virus (ZIKV) pathogenesis in vitro and in vivo in mouse models. Large populations of immune individuals exist for a related flavivirus (tick-borne encephalitis virus [TBEV]), due to large-scale vaccination campaigns and endemic circulation throughout most of northern Europe and the southern Russian Federation. As a result, the question of whether anti-TBEV immunity can affect Zika virus pathogenesis is a pertinent one...
January 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430231/babesiosis-presenting-as-acute-liver-failure
#5
Yousef Nassar, Seth Richter
Babesiosis is a zoonotic, tick-borne infection caused by the protozoan Babesia . It is transmitted by the Ixodes ticks which transmit the infection to humans. Babesia microti , Babesia duncani , Babesia divergens , and Babesia venatorum are species that have been identified as being infectious to humans worldwide. The most common species causing infection to humans is B. microti which is endemic to the Northeast and Midwestern United States with most infections occurring between the months of May and October...
September 2017: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428565/steroid-pulse-therapy-in-patients-with-encephalopathy-associated-with-severe-fever-with-thrombocytopenia-syndrome
#6
Shingen Nakamura, Momoyo Azuma, Tomoko Maruhashi, Kimiko Sogabe, Ryohei Sumitani, Munenori Uemura, Masami Iwasa, Shiro Fujii, Hirokazu Miki, Kumiko Kagawa, Takashi Hiraga, Noriyasu Kondo, Hiromi Fujita, Fumihiko Mahara, Masahiro Abe
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is a tick-borne infectious disease caused by the SFTS virus (SFTSV). Clinical symptoms of SFTS often involve encephalopathy and other central neurological symptoms, particularly in seriously ill patients; however, pathogenesis of encephalopathy by SFTSV is largely unknown. Herein, we present case reports of three patients with SFTS, complicated by encephalopathy, admitted to Tokushima University hospital: one patient was a 63-year-old man, while the other two were 83- and 86-year-old women...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426590/detection-and-molecular-characterization-of-tick-borne-pathogens-infecting-sheep-and-goats-in-blue-nile-and-west-kordofan-states-in-sudan
#7
Seung-Hun Lee, Ehab Mossaad, Abdalla Mohamed Ibrahim, Ahmed Ali Ismail, Paul Franck Adjou Moumouni, Mingming Liu, Aaron Edmond Ringo, Yang Gao, Huanping Guo, Jixu Li, Artemis Efstratiou, Peter Musinguzi, Tamador E E Angara, Keisuke Suganuma, Noboru Inoue, Xuenan Xuan
Tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) are common in livestock of sub-Saharan Africa. However, information regarding TBPs in sheep and goats in Sudan is limited. In this study, 178 blood samples of sheep and goats in Blue Nile and West Kordofan states were investigated for TBPs using PCR. Overall, 110 (61.8%) samples were found to be infected with at least one of the following pathogens: Anaplasma ovis, Theileria ovis, and Ehrlichia ruminantium. Babesia ovis and T. lestoquardi were not identified. A. ovis was the most prevalent pathogen (n = 107, 60...
February 1, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426479/arthropod-borne-pathogens-of-dogs-and-cats-from-pathways-and-times-of-transmission-to-disease-control
#8
REVIEW
Domenico Otranto
Vector-borne pathogens have developed a close relationship with blood feeding arthropod ectoparasites (e.g., mosquitoes, ticks, phlebotomine sand flies, black flies, fleas, kissing bugs, lice) and exploited a huge variety of vector transmission routes. Therefore, the life cycles of these pathogens result in a long evolved balance with the respective arthropod biology, ecology and blood feeding habits, instrumentally to the infection of several animal species, including humans. Amongst the many parasite transmission modes, such as ingestion of the arthropod, with its faeces or secretions, blood feeding represents the main focus for this article, as it is a central event to the life of almost all arthropod vectors...
February 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426469/implications-of-zoonotic-and-vector-borne-parasites-to-free-roaming-cats-in-central-spain
#9
A Montoya, M García, R Gálvez, R Checa, V Marino, J Sarquis, J P Barrera, C Rupérez, L Caballero, C Chicharro, I Cruz, G Miró
Cats are definitive hosts and reservoirs for several parasites, some of which are responsible for serious zoonotic diseases. We conducted a case-control study of data from a trap-neuter-return (TNR) programme (years 2014-2017) designed to examine the prevalence of zoonotic parasites in free-roaming cats living in urban areas of central Spain. In the animal population tested (n = 263), we detected a 29.2% prevalence of endoparasites, including high rates of cestodes (12.9%) and Toxocara cati (11.7%). While faecal samples showed no Toxoplasma gondii oocysts, the seroprevalence of T...
February 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420542/host-preferences-support-the-prominent-role-of-hyalomma-ticks-in-the-ecology-of-crimean-congo-hemorrhagic-fever
#10
Jessica R Spengler, Agustin Estrada-Peña
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a tick-borne zoonotic agent that is maintained in nature in an enzootic vertebrate-tick-vertebrate cycle. Hyalomma genus ticks have been implicated as the main CCHFV vector and are key in maintaining silent endemic foci. However, what contributes to their central role in CCHFV ecology is unclear. To assess the significance of host preferences of ticks in CCHFV ecology, we performed comparative analyses of hosts exploited by 133 species of ticks; these species represent 5 genera with reported geographical distribution over the range of CCHFV...
February 8, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417274/molecular-evidence-of-chlamydiales-in-ticks-from-wild-and-domestic-hosts-in-sardinia-italy
#11
Valentina Chisu, Cipriano Foxi, Antonio Tanda, Giovanna Masala
Ticks are well known to be important vectors for a wide range of bacteria, viruses and protozoa affecting human and animal health. Ixodid ticks are widely distributed in Sardinia, and an increasing number of tick-borne bacteria have been documented in the island. A growing number of evidence are supporting the hypothesis of alternative transmission routes for chlamydial bacteria such as the involvement of vectors. This study was conducted to provide possible molecular detection of members belonging to the Chlamydiales order in Sardinian ticks and to update information concerning the presence of new ectoparasite-borne bacteria in ticks collected from domestic and wild hosts in a typical Mediterranean environment...
February 7, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409517/isolation-and-purification-of-glycosylphosphatidylinositols-gpis-in-the-schizont-stage-of-theileria-annulata-and-determination-of-antibody-response-to-gpi-anchors-in-vaccinated-and-infected-animals
#12
Toktam Abbasnia, Ahmad Asoodeh, Gholamreza Habibi, Alireza Haghparast
BACKGROUND: Tropical theileriosis is widely distributed from North Africa to East Asia. It is a tick-borne disease caused by Theileria annulata, an obligate two-host intracellular protozoan parasite of cattle. Theileria annulata use leukocytes and red blood cells for completion of the life-cycle in mammalian hosts. The stage of Theileria annulata in monocytes and B lymphocytes of cattle is an important step in pathogenicity and diagnosis of the disease. Glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPIs) are a distinct class of glycolipid structures found in eukaryotic cells and are implicated in several biological functions...
February 6, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408661/a-one-step-multiplex-real-time-rt-pcr-for-the-universal-detection-of-all-currently-known-cchfv-genotypes
#13
Miriam A Sas, Ariel Vina-Rodriguez, Marc Mertens, Martin Eiden, Petra Emmerich, Serafeim C Chaintoutis, Ali Mirazimi, Martin H Groschup
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a fatal disease in humans, which is endemic in many countries of Africa, Southern Asia and Southeastern Europe. It is caused by the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), which is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) transmitted by ixodid ticks, mainly of the genus Hyalomma. Animals like hares, hedgehogs, cattle, camels and small ruminants can become infected without developing clinical signs. Seroconversion occurs after a short viremia of up to two weeks, and thus seroprevalence studies in ruminants can be used to reveal risk areas for the human population...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402399/tick-borne-illness-lyme-disease
#14
REVIEW
Larry M Bush, Maria T Vazquez-Pertejo
Lyme disease is the most commonly reported tick-borneillness in the United States. Thecausative spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi is transmitted by 4 species of Ixodes tick species. Over 90% of US cases occur in northeasternstates from Maine to Virginia, and in Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Michigan. Infection also takes place in northern California and Oregon. Lyme borreliosis is also diagnosed in parts of Europe, China, and Japan. The white-footed mouse is the primary animal reservoir for B. burgdorferi in the U...
February 2, 2018: Disease-a-month: DM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399579/epidemiology-of-severe-fever-and-thrombocytopenia-syndrome-virus-infection-and-the-need-for-therapeutics-for-the-prevention
#15
REVIEW
Norbert John C Robles, Hae Jung Han, Su-Jin Park, Young Ki Choi
Over the past ten years there has been a marked increase in cases of severe fever and thrombocytopenia syndrome in East Asia. This tick-borne hemorrhagic fever presents along with clinical signs including high fever and leukopenia. In addition to humans, the virus has also been detected with shared genetic homology in farm animals including goats, cattle, horses, and pigs. Furthermore, several genotypes of severe fever and thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) are currently co-circulating between humans and animals...
January 2018: Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398603/pathogen-transmission-in-relation-to-duration-of-attachment-by-ixodes-scapularis-ticks
#16
REVIEW
Lars Eisen
The blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis, is the primary vector to humans in the eastern United States of the deer tick virus lineage of Powassan virus (Powassan virus disease); the protozoan parasite Babesia microti (babesiosis); and multiple bacterial disease agents including Anaplasma phagocytophilum (anaplasmosis), Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia mayonii (Lyme disease), Borrelia miyamotoi (relapsing fever-like illness, named Borrelia miyamotoi disease), and Ehrlichia muris eauclairensis (a minor causative agent of ehrlichiosis)...
January 31, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394381/case-report-of-the-patient-source-of-the-babesia-microti-r1-reference-strain-and-implications-for-travelers
#17
Philipp Stahl, Yves Poinsignon, Pascal Pouedras, Vasilica Ciubotaru, Laurence Berry, Brinda Emu, Peter J Krause, Choukri Ben Mamoun, Emmanuel Cornillot
Background: In 2002, a previously healthy 69-year-old man travelled to France from the United States and presented to our hospital with a febrile illness that subsequently was determined to be babesiosis. The blood isolated from this patient served as a source for propagation of the Babesia microti R1 strain with subsequent sequencing and annotation of the parasite genome. Methods: Upon admission, we obtained a medical history, performed a physical examination, and examined his blood for the presence of a blood borne pathogen by microscopy, PCR and indirect immunofluorescence antibody testing...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390021/development-of-a-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-lamp-assay-for-rapid-screening-of-ticks-and-fleas-for-spotted-fever-group-rickettsia
#18
Bruce H Noden, Jaclyn Martin, Yisel Carrillo, Justin L Talley, Francisco M Ochoa-Corona
BACKGROUND: The importance of tick and flea-borne rickettsia infections is increasingly recognized worldwide. While increased focus has shifted in recent years to the development of point-of-care diagnostics for various vector-borne diseases in humans and animals, little research effort has been devoted to their integration into vector surveillance and control programs, particularly in resource-challenged countries. One technology which may be helpful for large scale vector surveillance initiatives is loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387135/vaccines-for-the-elderly-current-use-and-future-challenges
#19
REVIEW
Birgit Weinberger
Age-related changes of the immune system contribute to increased incidence and severity of infections in the elderly. Vaccination is the most effective measure to prevent infections and vaccination recommendations in most countries include specific guidelines for the elderly. Vaccination against influenza and Streptococcus pneumoniae is usually recommended for persons with underlying diseases and for the elderly with heterogeneous age limits between ≥ 50 years and ≥ 65 years. Some countries also recommend vaccination against herpes zoster...
2018: Immunity & Ageing: I & A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386094/distinction-between-serological-responses-following-tick-borne-encephalitis-virus-tbev-infection-vs-vaccination-sweden-2017
#20
Bo Albinsson, Sirkka Vene, Lars Rombo, Jonas Blomberg, Åke Lundkvist, Bengt Rönnberg
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is an important European vaccine-preventable pathogen. Discrimination of vaccine-induced antibodies from those elicited by infection is important. We studied anti-TBEV IgM/IgG responses, including avidity and neutralisation, by multiplex serology in 50 TBEV patients and 50 TBEV vaccinees. Infection induced antibodies reactive to both whole virus (WV) and non-structural protein 1 (NS1) in 48 clinical cases, whereas 47 TBEV vaccinees had WV, but not NS1 antibodies, enabling efficient discrimination of infection/vaccination...
January 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
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