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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219091/potential-impact-of-climate-change-on-emerging-vector-borne-and-other-infections-in-the-uk
#1
Matthew Baylis
Climate is one of several causes of disease emergence. Although half or more of infectious diseases are affected by climate it appears to be a relatively infrequent cause of human disease emergence. Climate mostly affects diseases caused by pathogens that spend part of their lifecycle outside of the host, exposed to the environment. The most important routes of transmission of climate sensitive diseases are by arthropod (insect and tick) vectors, in water and in food. Given the sensitivity of many diseases to climate, it is very likely that at least some will respond to future climate change...
December 5, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210509/arboviruses-and-their-related-infections-in-china-a-comprehensive-field-and-laboratory-investigation-over-the-last-3-decades
#2
REVIEW
Guodong Liang, Xiaolong Li, Xiaoyan Gao, Shihong Fu, Huanyu Wang, Minghua Li, Zhi Lu, Wuyang Zhu, Xinjun Lu, Lihua Wang, Yuxi Cao, Ying He, Wenwen Lei
Since the 1980s, a comprehensive field and laboratory investigation has been conducted throughout China, and a total of 29 virus species belonging to 7 families and 13 genera were identified through virological, morphological, and immunological methods, as well as whole-genome sequencing and molecular genetic analyses. Most of the virus isolates belong to 9 genera in the families Flaviviridae, Bunyaviridae, Togaviridae, and Reoviridae. Among them, 4 genera (Orthobunyavirus, Bunyavirus, Phlebovirus, and Nairovirus) belong to the family Bunyaviridae and 3 genera (Seadonavirus, Orbivirus, and Cypovirus) belong to the family Reoviridae...
December 6, 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205927/areolar-lymphocytoma-in-a-child-a-rare-cutaneous-presentation-of-borreliosis
#3
Chikara Ogimi, Claudia Crowell, Markus D Boos
Lyme disease is a common tick-borne infection caused by Borrelia burgdorferi in the United States, where infection is most prevalent in the northeastern and mid-Atlantic states. Although classically associated with erythema migrans, Lyme disease caused by Borrelia species found in Europe may also present with other cutaneous findings. Here we report the case of a girl who was clinically diagnosed with Lyme disease based on her history of recent travel and the appearance of an areolar lymphocytoma; this was confirmed by testing...
December 4, 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202704/prevention-of-tick-bites-an-evaluation-of-a-smartphone-app
#4
L Antonise-Kamp, D J M A Beaujean, R Crutzen, J E van Steenbergen, D Ruwaard
BACKGROUND: Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most common reported tick-borne infection in Europe, and involves transmission of Borrelia by ticks. As long as a vaccine is not available and effective measures for controlling tick populations are insufficient, LB control is focused on preventive measures to avoid tick bites. To inform citizens about the risk of ticks, motivate them to check for tick bites, and encourage them to remove any attached tick as quickly as possible, a mobile app called 'Tekenbeet' (Dutch for 'tick bite') was developed and released...
December 4, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202672/sensitivity-and-specificity-levels-of-two-rapid-assays-for-antibodies-to-anaplasma-spp-in-dogs
#5
Jiayou Liu, Matthew Eberts, Hannah Bewsey, Thomas P O'Connor, Ramaswamy Chandrashekar, Edward B Breitschwerdt
Canine anaplasmosis is a tick-borne disease of dogs that results following infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum or Anaplasma platys. The SNAP 4Dx Plus test (IDEXX Laboratories) and the VetScan Canine Anaplasma Rapid test (Abaxis) are commercial in-house rapid tests for the detection of antibody to these 2 antigenically related Anaplasma species. We evaluated 2 tests using serum and whole blood samples obtained from reference laboratories and veterinary hospitals. Samples were obtained from regions of the country known to be habitats of the primary tick vectors...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202206/ehrlichia-and-anaplasma-infections-serological-evidence-and-tick-surveillance-in-peninsular-malaysia
#6
Fui Xian Koh, Kai Ling Kho, Masoumeh Ghane Kisomi, Li Ping Wong, Awang Bulgiba, Poai Ean Tan, Yvonne Ai Lian Lim, Quaza Nizamuddin Hassan Nizam, Chandrawathani Panchadcharam, Sun Tee Tay
Little information is available on human anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis in Southeast Asia despite increasing reports of the detection of Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. in the ticks. We report herein the serological findings against the tick-borne pathogens in a group of animal farm workers (n = 87) and indigenous people (n = 102) in Peninsular Malaysia. IgG antibodies against Ehrlichia chaffeensis were detected from 29.9% and 34.3% of farm workers and indigenous people, respectively, using commercial indirect immunofluorescence assays...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197549/isolation-and-characterization-of-kabuto-mountain-virus-a-new-tick-borne-phlebovirus-from-haemaphysalis-flava-ticks-in-japan
#7
Hiroko Ejiri, Chang-Kweng Lim, Haruhiko Isawa, Yukie Yamaguchi, Ryosuke Fujita, Mutsuyo Takayama-Ito, Ryusei Kuwata, Daisuke Kobayashi, Madoka Horiya, Guillermo Posadas-Herrera, Itoe Iizuka-Shiota, Satsuki Kakiuchi, Yukie Katayama, Toshihiko Hayashi, Toshinori Sasaki, Mutsuo Kobayashi, Shigeru Morikawa, Ken Maeda, Tetsuya Mizutani, Koki Kaku, Masayuki Saijo, Kyoko Sawabe
In Japan, indigenous tick-borne phleboviruses (TBPVs) and their associated diseases first became evident in 2013 by reported human cases of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS). In this study, we report a novel member of the genus Phlebovirus designated as Kabuto Mountain virus (KAMV), which was isolated from the ixodid tick Haemaphysalis flava in Hyogo, Japan. A complete viral genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses showed that KAMV is a novel member of TBPVs, which is closely related to the Uukuniemi and Kaisodi group viruses...
November 29, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196626/identification-of-borrelia-protein-candidates-in-mouse-skin-for-potential-diagnosis-of-disseminated-lyme-borreliosis
#8
Antoine Grillon, Benoît Westermann, Paola Cantero, Benoît Jaulhac, Maarten J Voordouw, Delphine Kapps, Elody Collin, Cathy Barthel, Laurence Ehret-Sabatier, Nathalie Boulanger
In vector-borne diseases, the skin plays an essential role in the transmission of vector-borne pathogens between the vertebrate host and blood-feeding arthropods and in pathogen persistence. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is a tick-borne bacterium that causes Lyme borreliosis (LB) in humans. This pathogen may establish a long-lasting infection in its natural vertebrate host where it can persist in the skin and some other organs. Using a mouse model, we demonstrate that Borrelia targets the skin regardless of the route of inoculation, and can persist there at low densities that are difficult to detect via qPCR, but that were infective for blood-feeding ticks...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195857/evaluating-acarological-risk-for-exposure-to-ixodes-scapularis-and-ixodes-scapularis-borne-pathogens-in-recreational-and-residential-settings-in-washington-county-minnesota
#9
Micah B Hahn, Jenna K H Bjork, David F Neitzel, Frances M Dorr, Tessa Whitemarsh, Karen A Boegler, Christine B Graham, Tammi L Johnson, Sarah E Maes, Rebecca J Eisen
The distribution of I. scapularis, the tick vector of the bacteria that cause Lyme disease, has been expanding over the last two decades in the north-central United States in parallel with increasing incidence of human cases of Lyme disease in that region. However, assessments of residential risk for exposure to ticks are lacking from this region. Here, we measured the density of host-seeking I. scapularis nymphs in two suburban and two rural public recreational sites located in Washington County, Minnesota as well as in nearby residential properties...
November 22, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194776/endosymbiosis-and-its-significance-in-dermatology
#10
REVIEW
Katarzyna Kubiak, Hanna Sielawa, Wenchieh Chen, Ewa Dzika
Proposed at the beginning of the 20th to explain the origin of eukaryotic organelles from prokaryotes, endosymbiosis is now medically defined by various interaction patterns between microorganisms and their residing hosts, best exemplified by the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia identified in arthropods and filarial nematodes, which can influence normal development, reproduction, survival, and transmission of the hosts. Based on the transmission modes, vertical or horizontal, and the function of the endosymbionts, the host-symbiont dependence can be divided into primary or secondary...
December 1, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186493/a-molecular-survey-of-rickettsias-in-shelter-dogs-and-distribution-of-rhipicephalus-sanguineus-acari-ixodidae-sensu-lato-in-southeast-turkey
#11
Sezayi Ozubek, Duygu Neval Sayin Ipek, Munir Aktas
Canine tick-borne pathogens are the source of emerging diseases and have important zoonotic relevance. Dogs play a major role in the transmission of several zoonotic tick-borne pathogens, as reservoirs and/or sentinels. To simultaneously detect Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species, a reverse line blot assay was conducted on 219 blood samples collected from autochthonous asymptomatic shelter dogs. One hundred and three (47.0%, CI 40.3-53.9) dogs were positive for one or both rickettsial pathogens. Seventy-one (32...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183642/tick-borne-diseases-and-autoimmunity-a-comprehensive-review
#12
REVIEW
Yhojan Rodríguez, Manuel Rojas, M Eric Gershwin, Juan-Manuel Anaya
Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) are emerging and reemerging diseases transmitted by ticks, which portray wide heterogeneity and global distribution. TBDs may present acute clinical pictures that resemble those of autoimmune diseases (i.e., musculoskeletal symptoms, cutaneous involvement, neurologic impairment, renal failure, etc.), and in some cases infection is considered a triggering factor for autoimmunity (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune thyroid disease, vasculitides). The clinician should consider TBDs among the differential diagnoses when approaching autoimmune-like signs in areas of tick infestation...
November 25, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178531/vertical-vs-horizontal-transmission-of-the-microbiome-in-a-key-disease-vector-ixodes-pacificus
#13
Jessica Y Kwan, Reid Griggs, Betsabel Chicana, Caitlin Miller, Andrea Swei
Vector-borne pathogens are increasingly found to interact with the vector's microbiome, influencing disease transmission dynamics. However, the processes that regulate the formation and development of the microbiome are largely unexplored for most tick species, an emerging group of disease vectors. It is not known how much of the tick microbiome is acquired through vertical transmission vs. horizontally from the environment or interactions with bloodmeal sources. Using 16S rRNA sequencing, we examined the microbiome of Ixodes pacificus, the vector of Lyme disease in the western USA, across life stages and infection status...
November 27, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165231/sequence-optimized-real-time-reverse-transcription-polymerase-chain-reaction-assay-for-detection-of-crimean-congo-hemorrhagic-fever-virus
#14
Jeffrey W Koehler, Korey L Delp, Adrienne T Hall, Scott P Olschner, Brian J Kearney, Aura R Garrison, Louis A Altamura, Cynthia A Rossi, Timothy D Minogue
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a tick-borne virus of the genus Nairovirus within the family Bunyaviridae. Infection can result in general myalgia, fever, and headache with some patients developing hemorrhagic fever with mortality rates ranging from 5% to 30%. CCHFV has a wide geographic range that includes Africa, Asia, the Middle East, and Europe with nucleotide sequence variation approaching 20% across the three negative-sense RNA genome segments. While phylogenetic clustering generally aligns with geographic origin of individual strains, distribution can be wide due to tick/CCHFV dispersion via migrating birds...
November 20, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164067/tick-borne-transmission-of-murine-gammaherpesvirus-68
#15
Valeria Hajnická, Marcela Kúdelová, Iveta Štibrániová, Mirko Slovák, Pavlína Bartíková, Zuzana Halásová, Peter Pančík, Petra Belvončíková, Michaela Vrbová, Viera Holíková, Rosemary S Hails, Patricia A Nuttall
Herpesviruses are a large group of DNA viruses infecting mainly vertebrates. Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) is often used as a model in studies of the pathogenesis of clinically important human gammaherpesviruses such as Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. This rodent virus appears to be geographically widespread; however, its natural transmission cycle is unknown. Following detection of MHV68 in field-collected ticks, including isolation of the virus from tick salivary glands and ovaries, we investigated whether MHV68 is a tick-borne virus...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161862/modeling-co-infection-of-ixodes-tick-borne-pathogens
#16
Yijun Lou, Li Liu, Daozhou Gao
Ticks, including the Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes scapularis hard tick species, are regarded as the most common arthropod vectors of both human and animal diseases in Europe and the United States capable of transmitting a large number of bacteria, viruses and parasites. Since ticks in larval and nymphal stages share the same host community which can harbor multiple pathogens, they may be co-infected with two or more pathogens, with a subsequent high likelihood of co-transmission to humans or animals. This paper is devoted to the modeling of co-infection of tick-borne pathogens, with special focus on the co-infection of Borrelia burgdorferi (agent of Lyme disease) and Babesia microti (agent of human babesiosis)...
October 2017: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159319/co-circulation-of-crimean-congo-hemorrhagic-fever-virus-strains-asia-1-and-2-between-the-border-of-iran-and-pakistan
#17
Nariman Shahhosseini, Ahmad Jafarbekloo, Zakkyeh Telmadarraiy, Sadegh Chinikar, Ali Haeri, Norbert Nowotny, Martin H Groschup, Anthony R Fooks, Faezeh Faghihi
Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne viral disease that is transmitted by numerous species of ticks, which serve both as a reservoir and vector of CCHF virus (CCHFV). Molecular and serological tests were undertaken on hard ticks (Ixodidae spp.) and samples from livestock were collected in 2015 from Chabahar County in Southeast Iran. Using RT-PCR, the ticks were tested for the presence of CCHFV. In addition, seven livestock were serologically tested for the presence of IgG antibodies using an ELISA test...
November 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157278/ticks-and-the-city-are-there-any-differences-between-city-parks-and-natural-forests-in-terms-of-tick-abundance-and-prevalence-of-spirochaetes
#18
Maciej Kowalec, Tomasz Szewczyk, Renata Welc-Falęciak, Edward Siński, Grzegorz Karbowiak, Anna Bajer
BACKGROUND: Ixodes ricinus ticks are commonly encountered in either natural or urban areas, contributing to Lyme disease agents Borreliella [(Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato)] spp. and Borrelia miyamotoi enzootic cycles in cities. It is an actual problem whether urbanization affects pathogen circulation and therefore risk of infection. The aim of the study was to evaluate main tick-borne disease risk factors in natural, endemic areas of north-east (NE) Poland (Białowieża) and urban areas of central Poland (Warsaw), measuring tick abundance/density, prevalence of infection with spirochaetes and diversity of these pathogens in spring-early summer and late summer-autumn periods between 2012 and 2015...
November 21, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156399/saliva-of-ixodes-ricinus-enhances-tbe-virus-replication-in-dendritic-cells-by-modulation-of-pro-survival-akt-pathway
#19
Jaroslava Lieskovská, Jana Páleníková, Helena Langhansová, Jindřich Chmelař, Jan Kopecký
It has been suggested that tick saliva facilitates transmission of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) to vertebrates. The mechanism of this facilitation has not been elucidated yet. Since dendritic cells (DCs) are among first cells attacked by the virus, we examined the amount of virus and changes induced by saliva in TBEV-infected DCs. We found that virus replication was significantly increased by saliva of Ixodes ricinus tick. Next, saliva-induced enhancement of Akt pathway activation was observed in TBEV-infected DCs...
November 17, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155863/molecular-detection-of-tick-borne-pathogens-in-cattle-from-southwestern-ethiopia
#20
Zerihun Hailemariam, Jürgen Krücken, Maximilian Baumann, Jabbar S Ahmed, Peter-Henning Clausen, Ard M Nijhof
Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) cause significant losses among livestock and impact the livelihoods of resource-poor farming communities worldwide. In Ethiopia, detailed studies on the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) in cattle using sensitive molecular detection methods are scarce. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and species composition of bovine TBPs of veterinary significance in local cattle populations. A comprehensive cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in cattle populations of Illubabor zone in Southwestern Ethiopia from June to August 2013...
2017: PloS One
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