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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053401/are-we-prepared-for-emerging-flaviviruses-in-europe-challenges-for-vaccination
#1
Patricia Kaaijk, Willem Luytjes
Tick-borne encephalitis and West Nile fever are endemic flavivirus diseases in Europe. Climate change, virus evolution, and social factors may increase the risk of these flavivirus infections and may lead to the emergence of other flaviviruses in Europe that are endemic in (sub)tropical regions of the world. Control of the spread of flaviviruses is very difficult considering the cycling of flaviviruses between arthropod vectors and animal reservoir hosts. The increasing threat of flavivirus infections emphasizes the necessity of a sustainable vector surveillance system, an active animal health surveillance system and an adequate human surveillance system for early detection of flavivirus infections...
October 20, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050834/influence-of-microhabitat-use-and-behavior-of-amblyomma-sculptum-and-amblyomma-dubitatum-nymphs-acari-ixodidae-on-human-risk-for-tick-exposure-with-notes-on-rickettsia-infection
#2
Adalberto Albuquerque Pajuaba Neto, Vanessa do Nascimento Ramos, Maria Marlene Martins, Carolina Fonseca Osava, Jamile de Oliveira Pascoal, Adriane Suzin, Jonny Yokosawa, Matias Pablo Juan Szabó
Brazilian spotted fever (BSF) is a potentially lethal human disease caused by Rickettsia rickettsii transmitted by ticks, including Amblyomma sculptum. However, in Southeast Brazil, where most BSF cases occur, capybaras are key hosts for both A. sculptum and Amblyomma dubitatum. We therefore compared the risk of human exposure to these ticks at a non-endemic anthropogenic site in Southeast Brazil where both tick species are maintained by capybaras and occur at high abundance. Cloth dragging, human baits and CO2 traps were used to assess tick abundance and risk for human exposure...
October 16, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050793/anaplasmosis-in-pediatric-patients-case-report-and-review
#3
Vaka K Sigurjonsdottir, Henry M Feder, Gary P Wormser
Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) is a tick-borne infection, characterized as an acute and sometimes severe febrile illness which may be associated with leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. Most case reports of HGA have been in adults, with only 8 case reports of HGA in children. We add a ninth case of HGA, which occurred in a 5-year-old. The paucity of pediatric HGA case reports maybe because publication bias, or HGA in children is a mild illness and children with HGA are less likely than adults to seek medical care, or the diagnosis of HGA requires a blood draw and adults (versus children) are more likely to get diagnostic testing...
November 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047399/pathogen-communities-of-songbird-derived-ticks-in-europe-s-low-countries
#4
Dieter Heylen, Manoj Fonville, Arieke Docters van Leeuwen, Arjan Stroo, Martin Duisterwinkel, Sip van Wieren, Maria Diuk-Wasser, Arnout de Bruin, Hein Sprong
BACKGROUND: Birds play a major role in the maintenance of enzootic cycles of pathogens transmitted by ticks. Due to their mobility, they affect the spatial distribution and abundance of both ticks and pathogens. In the present study, we aim to identify members of a pathogen community [Borrelia burgdorferi (s.l.), B. miyamotoi, 'Ca. Neoehrlichia mikurensis', Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia helvetica] in songbird-derived ticks from 11 locations in the Netherlands and Belgium (2012-2014)...
October 18, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047217/spotted-fever-group-rickettsiae-associated-with-ixodid-ticks-in-wild-environment-in-southern-italy
#5
Donato Antonio Raele, Domenico Galante, Nicola Pugliese, Giovanna La Salandra, Maria Assunta Cafiero
Ixodidae ticks are vectors and reservoirs of several species of rickettsiae, and tick-borne rickettsioses are reported worldwide. This study was aimed to verify the distribution of spotted fever group rickettsiae associated with ticks in a wild environment, the National Park of Gargano, where there is proximity between wild and domestic animals, and which is within an endemic area for rickettsiosis. Ticks were collected from animals or vegetation, morphologically identified and tested by a PCR targeting the 17kDa gene, and by a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) targeting ompB gene...
October 18, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046456/viperin-targets-flavivirus-virulence-by-inducing-assembly-of-non-infectious-capsid-particles
#6
Kirstin Vonderstein, Emma Nilsson, Philipp Hubel, Lars Nygård Skalman, Arunkumar Upadhyay, Jenny Pasto, Andreas Pichlmair, Richard Lundmark, Anna K Överby
Efficient antiviral immunity requires interference with virus replication at multiple layers targeting diverse steps in the viral life cycle. Here we describe a novel flavivirus inhibition mechanism that results in interferon-mediated obstruction of tick-borne encephalitis virus particle assembly, and involves release of malfunctional membrane associated capsid (C) particles. This mechanism is controlled by the activity of the interferon-induced protein viperin, a broad spectrum antiviral interferon stimulated gene...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037826/occurrence-of-four-anaplasma-species-with-veterinary-and-public-health-significance-in-sheep-northwestern-china
#7
Jifei Yang, Rong Han, Qingli Niu, Zhijie Liu, Guiquan Guan, Guangyuan Liu, Jianxun Luo, Hong Yin
The members of the genus Anaplasma are important tick-borne rickettsial bacteria of veterinary and public health significance. Domestic ruminants are important reservoir hosts for several Anaplasma species. In this study, the occurrence of Anaplasma spp. was investigated by PCR in domestic small ruminants from Gansu, northwestern China. The results showed a high prevalence of Anaplasma spp. (46.2%, 201/435) in sheep. The average infection rates were 5.7%, 24.4%, 28.0% and 18.2% for A. ovis, A. bovis, A. phagocytophilum and A...
October 12, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037227/molecular-detection-of-bartonella-spp-in-deer-ked-lipoptena-cervi-in-poland
#8
Tomasz Szewczyk, Joanna Werszko, Żaneta Steiner-Bogdaszewska, Witold Jeżewski, Zdzisław Laskowski, Grzegorz Karbowiak
BACKGROUND: The bacteria of the genus Bartonella are obligate parasites of vertebrates. Their distribution range covers almost the entire world from America, Europe, Asia to Africa and Australia. Some species of Bartonella are pathogenic for humans. Their main vectors are blood-sucking arthropods such as fleas, ticks and blood-feeding flies. One such dipteran able to transfer vector-borne pathogens is the deer ked (Lipoptena cervi) of the family Hippoboscidae. This species acts as a transmitter of Bartonella spp...
October 16, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035855/transovarial-persistence-of-babesia-ovata-dna-in-a-hard-tick-haemaphysalis-longicornis-in-a-semi-artificial-mouse-skin-membrane-feeding-system
#9
Rika Umemiya-Shirafuji, Takeshi Hatta, Kazuhiro Okubo, Moeko Sato, Hiroki Maeda, Aiko Kume, Naoaki Yokoyama, Ikuo Igarashi, Naotoshi Tsuji, Kozo Fujisaki, Noboru Inoue, Hiroshi Suzuki
Bovine piroplasmosis, a tick-borne protozoan disease, is a major concern for the cattle industry worldwide due to its negative effects on livestock productivity. Toward the development of novel therapeutic and vaccine approaches, tick-parasite experimental models have been established to clarify the development of parasites in the ticks and the transmission of the parasites by ticks. A novel tick-Babesia experimental infection model recently revealed the time course of Babesia ovata migration in its vector Haemaphysalis longicornis, which is a dominant tick species in Japan...
December 20, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035848/animal-level-risk-factors-associated-with-babesia-and-theileria-infections-in-cattle-in-egypt
#10
Mohamed Abdo Rizk, Akram Salama, Shimaa Abd-El-Salam El-Sayed, Ahmed Elsify, Maged El-Ashkar, Hussam Ibrahim, Mohamed Youssef, Sabry El-Khodery
In present study, blood samples were collected randomly from 439 cows at three main regions of Egypt (northern, central and southern). Molecular diagnosis of Babesia and Theileria infections by PCR amplification of DNA (gene) fragments, then cloning and sequencing of the positive samples were conducted. A questionnaire was created to imply the assumed risk factors and logistic regression statistical analysis was carried out to appraise the potential factors on the animal level. The results revealed that 49 (11...
December 20, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032549/detection-of-bioluminescent-borrelia-burgdorferi-from-in-vitro-cultivation-and-during-murine-infection
#11
Jenny A Hyde, Jon T Skare
Borrelia burgdorferi, etiologic agent of Lyme disease, is the leading tick-borne disease in the United States with approximately 300,000 cases diagnosed annually. Disease occurs in stages beginning localized infection at the site of a tick bite and progresses to disseminated infection when antibiotic treatment is not administered in a timely manner. A multi-systemic infection develops following dissemination to numerous immunoprotective tissues, such as the heart, bladder, and joints, resulting in late Lyme disease...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032540/artificial-infection-of-ticks-with-borrelia-burgdorferi-using-a-microinjection-method-and-their-detection-in-vivo-using-quantitative-pcr-targeting-flab-rna
#12
Alexis A Smith, Xiuli Yang, Erol Fikrig, Utpal Pal
Borrelia burgdorferi is maintained in nature by a tick-rodent infection cycle where it traverses and colonizes a variety of host and vector tissues. A tick-borne murine model has been developed to study Lyme disease in the laboratory, which has a substantial impact in advancing our knowledge of spirochete infectivity and pathogenesis. Here, we detail a microinjection-based method for rapid and efficient infection of ticks with B. burgdorferi. While laboratory generation of B. burgdorferi-infected nymphs via natural larval engorgement on infected hosts and subsequent molting could take several weeks to months, the microinjection-based infection procedure requires only a few hours to generate infected ticks and allows introduction of defined quantities of spirochetes, including mutant isolates that are attenuated for infection in mice and thus cannot be naturally acquired by ticks...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030314/distribution-of-ixodes-ricinus-ticks-and-prevalence-of-tick-borne-encephalitis-virus-among-questing-ticks-in-the-arctic-circle-region-of-northern-norway
#13
A Soleng, K S Edgar, K M Paulsen, B N Pedersen, Y B Okbaldet, I E B Skjetne, D Gurung, R Vikse, Å K Andreassen
This study investigated the geographical distribution of Ixodes ricinus and prevalence of the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in northern Norway. Flagging for questing I. ricinus ticks was performed in areas ranging from Vikna in Nord-Trøndelag County, located 190km south of the Arctic Circle (66.3°N), to Steigen in Nordland County, located 155km north of the Arctic Circle. We found that ticks were abundant in both Vikna (64.5°N) and Brønnøy (65.1°N). Only a few ticks were found at locations ∼66°N, and no ticks were found at several locations up to 67...
October 8, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029144/broad-range-survey-of-vector-borne-pathogens-and-tick-host-identification-of-ixodes-ricinus-from-southern-czech-republic
#14
Vaclav Honig, Heather E Carolan, Zuzana Vavruskova, Christian Massire, Michael R Mosel, Christopher D Crowder, Megan A Rounds, David J Ecker, Daniel Ruzek, Libor Grubhoffer, Benjamin J Luft, Mark W Eshoo
Ixodes ricinus ticks are vectors of numerous human and animal pathogens. They are host generalists able to feed on more than 300 vertebrate species. The prevalence of tick-borne pathogens is influenced by host-vector-pathogen interactions that results in spatial distribution of infection risk. Broad-range PCR and electrospray ionization mass-spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS) was used to analyze 435 I. ricinus nymphs from four localities in the south of the Czech Republic for the species identification of tick-borne pathogens...
October 3, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024765/identification-of-2-deoxy-2-fluorocytidine-as-a-potent-inhibitor-of-crimean-congo-hemorrhagic-fever-virus-replication-using-a-recombinant-fluorescent-reporter-virus
#15
Stephen R Welch, Florine E M Scholte, Mike Flint, Payel Chatterjee, Stuart T Nichol, Éric Bergeron, Christina F Spiropoulou
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a tick-borne orthonairovirus, causes a severe hemorrhagic disease in humans (Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, CCHF). Currently, no vaccines are approved to prevent CCHF; treatment is limited to supportive care and the use of ribavirin, the therapeutic benefits of which remain unclear. CCHF is part of WHO's priority list of infectious diseases warranting further research and development. To aid in the identification of new antiviral compounds, we generated a recombinant CCHFV expressing a reporter protein, allowing us to quantify virus inhibition by measuring the reduction in fluorescence in infected cells treated with candidate compounds...
October 9, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022768/molecular-survey-on-rickettsia-spp-anaplasma-phagocytophilum-borrelia-burgdorferi-sensu-lato-and-babesia-spp-in-ixodes-ricinus-ticks-infesting-dogs-in-central-italy
#16
Giulia Morganti, Stefano Gavaudan, Cristina Canonico, Silvia Ravagnan, Emanuela Olivieri, Manuela Diaferia, Maria Luisa Marenzoni, Maria Teresa Antognoni, Gioia Capelli, Cornelia Silaghi, Fabrizia Veronesi
Dogs are a common feeding hosts for Ixodes ricinus and may act as reservoir hosts for zoonotic tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) and as carriers of infected ticks into human settings. The aim of this work was to evaluate the presence of several selected TBPs of significant public health concern by molecular methods in I. ricinus recovered from dogs living in urban and suburban settings in central Italy. A total of 212 I. ricinus specimens were collected from the coat of domestic dogs. DNA was extracted from each specimen individually and tested for Rickettsia spp...
October 12, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021088/the-impact-of-strain-specific-immunity-on-lyme-disease-incidence-is-spatially-heterogeneous
#17
Camilo E Khatchikian, Robert B Nadelman, John Nowakowski, Ira Schwartz, Gary P Wormser, Dustin Brisson
Lyme disease, caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, is the most common tick-borne infection in the US. Recent studies have demonstrated that the incidence of human Lyme disease would have been even greater were it not for the presence of strain-specific immunity, which protects previously infected patients against subsequent infections by the same B. burgdorferi strain. Here, spatial heterogeneity is incorporated into epidemiological models to accurately estimate the impact of strain-specific immunity on human Lyme disease incidence...
August 25, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993284/babesia-microti-infection-and-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-in-an-immunocompetent-patient
#18
Shanette A Go, Vania H Phuoc, Sarah E Eichenberg, Zelalem Temesgen, Thomas J Beckman
Babesiosis is a rare and potentially severe tick-borne illness endemic to the Northeastern and upper Midwestern regions of the United States. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is an uncommon condition resulting from over-activation of the immune system. We report the first known case of babesiosis and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in an immunocompetent patient.
October 6, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991904/epidemiological-consequences-of-immune-sensitisation-by-pre-exposure-to-vector-saliva
#19
Tsukushi Kamiya, Megan A Greischar, Nicole Mideo
Blood-feeding arthropods-like mosquitoes, sand flies, and ticks-transmit many diseases that impose serious public health and economic burdens. When a blood-feeding arthropod bites a mammal, it injects saliva containing immunogenic compounds that facilitate feeding. Evidence from Leishmania, Plasmodium and arboviral infections suggests that the immune responses elicited by pre-exposure to arthropod saliva can alter disease progression if the host later becomes infected. Such pre-sensitisation of host immunity has been reported to both exacerbate and limit infection symptoms, depending on the system in question, with potential implications for recovery...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988602/a-new-hot-spot-for-tick-borne-encephalitis-tbe-a-marked-increase-of-tbe-cases-in-france-in-2016
#20
Aurélie Velay, Morgane Solis, Wallys Kack-Kack, Pierre Gantner, Marianne Maquart, Martin Martinot, Olivier Augereau, Dominique De Briel, Pierre Kieffer, Caroline Lohmann, Jean Dominique Poveda, Emmanuelle Cart-Tanneur, Xavier Argemi, Isabelle Leparc-Goffart, Sylvie de Martino, Benoit Jaulhac, Sophie Raguet, Marie-Josée Wendling, Yves Hansmann, Samira Fafi-Kremer
OBJECTIVES: Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a zoonotic agent causing severe encephalitis. In 2016, in Northeastern France, we faced a TBEV infection increase, leading to a warning from the Regional Health Agency. Here, we report the confirmed TBE cases diagnosed between January 2013 and December 2016, with particular emphasis on the year 2016. METHODS: A total of 1643 blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from everywhere in France, corresponding to 1460 patients, were prospectively tested for anti-TBEV-specific IgM and IgG antibodies by ELISA...
September 28, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
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