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Cultural Psychiatry

Lars-Olov Lundqvist, Suryani, Nur Anna, Imas Rafiyah, Agneta Schröder
AIM: The aim of the present study was to adapt and evaluate the psychometric properties and factor structure of the Indonesian version of the Quality in Psychiatric Care - Inpatient (QPC-IP) instrument. METHODS: The QPC-IP is based on a definition of quality of care from the patient's perspective; it consists of 30 items covering six factors. A sample of 150 inpatients at general psychiatric wards in Indonesia completed the QPC-IP questionnaire. RESULTS: Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the factor structure of the Indonesian version was equivalent to that of the original Swedish QPC-IP, with the exception of the secluded environment factor...
March 8, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Joseph El-Khoury, Rassil Ghazzaoui, Amanda Ahmad
The recognition of mental health needs in developing countries is growing in parallel with increased public awareness of and reduced stigma toward mental illness. With resources still limited in these countries, creating economically viable health care models is essential. These models are often adapted from already established and tested systems in industrialized nations. The Psychosis Recovery Outreach Program (PROP) at the American University of Beirut is an initiative that exemplifies the global transfer of knowledge, experience, and skills...
March 15, 2018: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Karin Alejandra Rosemblatt, Leandro Daniel Benmergui
During World War II, the U.S. Indian Service conducted social science experiments regarding governance among Japanese Americans imprisoned at the Poston, Arizona, camp. Researchers used an array of techniques culled from anthropological culture and personality studies, psychiatry, psychology, medicine, and public opinion research to probe how the personality traits of the confined Japanese-Americans and camp leaders affected the social interactions within each group and between them. The research drew on prior studies of Indian personality in the US Southwest, Mexico's Native policies, and indirect colonial rule...
March 14, 2018: Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences
Ranjan Bhattacharyya
The communication between G. S Bose and Sigmund Freud is a well-documented fact, and philosophical blend of rich cultural experiences is unique to modification of traditional psychoanalysis in the context of development of psychiatry in West Bengal. The Calcutta lunatic asylum was established at Bhowanipore, and first general hospital psychiatric unit was formed at R. G. Kar Medical College, Calcutta. Prof. Ajita Chakraborty was a pioneer to describe her struggling days in the early career and shared her views with experiences in her autobiography...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Carryn Danzinger, Matthhäus Fellinger, Waltraud Fellinger-Vols, Georg Psota, Johannes Wancata, Alice Wimmer, Thomas Wochele-Thoma
This paper is general statement about the psychosocial care of refugees, developed by the of the Austrian Society for Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics as well as by the Austrian Society for Social Psychiatry. Reasons of recent wave of refugees and the usual mental disorders among refugees are described. The increasing number of refugees, asylum seekers and irregular migrants poses a challenge for mental health services in Europe. As a consequence, several expert recommendations were given. As a first step, basic needs of refugees such as regular housing facilities, sufficient nutrition and safety in everyday life should be met...
March 7, 2018: Neuropsychiatrie: Klinik, Diagnostik, Therapie und Rehabilitation
Mohammed A Rashed, Rachel Bingham, Norman A Poole, Abdi Sanati, Werdie van Staden
This paper presents a debate in which the authors participated at the World Psychiatric Association conference in Cape Town, South Africa in November 2016. Professor van Staden acted as chair and here, as at the debate, provides a rationale for debating a topic that many of those involved in mental health believe to be decided. The discussion that ensued demonstrated, however, that while the arguments have moved on they have not ceased. Who won? Well that depends how you look at it. A few in the audience shifted position towards the motion but the majority remained opposed...
March 7, 2018: BJPsych Bulletin
A S Malalagama, S Tennakoon, D R R Abeyasinghe
PURPOSE: Youth suicide rates are rising worldwide, including Sri Lanka, where 46.5/100,000 among 15-19yrs was reported in 1986. Identifying high risk adolescents is vital. Dearth of trained professionals, demands an instrument utilizable by non-psychiatrists. Such was not available in Sinhalese. Adolescent Suicide Assessment Protocol (ASAP-20) and its' manual was translated and validated to Sri Lankan adolescents. METHOD: A validation study. Forward/back translations followed by cultural adaptation...
February 24, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Alexander C Conley, Paul A Newhouse
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews recent advances in drug discovery and development for geriatric psychiatry. Drug discovery for disorders of the central nervous system is a long and challenging process, with a high attrition rate from the preclinical stages through to marketing a compound. Developing drugs for geriatric neuropsychiatric conditions presents additional challenges, due to the complexity of the symptoms, comorbid diagnoses, and the variability of the population. Despite there being limited success over the past two decades, a number of new approaches have identified potential targets for preclinical development and ultimately clinical testing...
March 5, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
Stefano Ferracuti, Massimo Biondi
The reform of the penitentiary system (law 103/2017) which is about to enter into force in Italy represents a Copernican revolution for the management of psychiatric patients who are also authors of a crime. The change would have consequences similar to what happened with the law 180 of 1978. The basic principles on which the new Law is based are: 1) the extension of the faculty to suspend the sentence also for inmates and prisoners affected by a serious mental illness; 2) the full integration of the National Health System (SSN) and DSM in the penitentiary institutions; 3) the establishment of "sections for prisoners with disabilities", special sections for exclusive management for individuals with mental disorders, to be implemented inside the prisons and jails; 4) the possibility probation and parole for prisoners with sentences up to 6 years if suffering from mental illness with a procedure similar to the one already enacted for persons with drug dependency...
January 2018: Rivista di Psichiatria
I Trofimova, T W Robbins, W H Sulis, J Uher
This Editorial highlights a unique focus of this theme issue on the biological perspectives in deriving psychological taxonomies coming from neurochemistry, neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, genetics, psychiatry, developmental and comparative psychology-as contrasted to more common discussions of socio-cultural concepts (personality) and methods (lexical approach). It points out the importance of the distinction between temperament and personality for studies in human and animal differential psychophysiology, psychiatry and psycho-pharmacology, sport and animal practices during the past century...
April 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Cathy R Schen, Alecia Greenlee
Addressing race and racial trauma within psychotherapy supervision is increasingly important in psychiatry training. A therapist's ability to discuss race and racial trauma in psychotherapy supervision increases the likelihood that these topics will be explored as they arise in the therapeutic setting. The authors discuss the contextual and sociocultural dynamics that contributed to their own avoidance of race and racial trauma within the supervisory relationship. The authors examine the features that eventually led to a robust discussion of race and culture within the supervisory setting and identify salient themes that occurred during three phases of the conversation about race: pre-dialogue, the conversation, and after the conversation...
2018: Psychodynamic Psychiatry
Anna T Maier, Rebecca C Brown, Joerg M Fegert
Background: Transfer of knowledge is an important issue throughout all scientific disciplines, especially in the medical and psycho-social field. The issue of worldwide knowledge transfer in child mental health is one of the aims and goals of the journal Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health (CAPMH). The demand for mental health training is high worldwide, and especially in low- to lower-middle income countries, where inadequate access to knowledge resources in the field of child and adolescent mental health (CAMH) is prevalent...
2018: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
Melissa Taitimu, John Read, Tracey McIntosh
This project explored how Māori understand experiences commonly labelled "schizophrenic" or "psychotic". Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 57 Māori participants who had either personal experiences labelled as "psychosis" or "schizophrenia", or who work with people with such experiences; including tangata whaiora (users of mental health services), tohunga (traditional healers), kaumatua/kuia (elders), Māori clinicians, cultural support workers and students...
January 1, 2018: Transcultural Psychiatry
Julian C Hughes
A paper in this month's British Journal of Psychiatry reports on research from Ghana where some participants were exposed to chaining, which raises ethical concerns. Strict boundaries need to exist between researchers and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment. Nevertheless, there may be things we can learn from other cultures about our own values. Declaration of interest None.
January 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Vikram Patel, Kamaldeep Bhui
Chaining of people with mental disorders, and their incarceration and abuse in prisons or mental hospitals, is an affront to psychiatry and humanity. Although mental healthcare always needs attention to cultural and social contexts, this must never be at the cost of allowing human rights violations to go unchallenged. A rights-based approach must enforce well-established international human rights conventions, and scale-up comprehensive community services around the needs and preferences of people affected by mental disorders...
January 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Vanni D'Alessio, Filip Čeč, Heike Karge
In the 19th century, fervid debates arose in the young psychiatric science about how to deal with and to scientifically categorize human behaviour which was perceived as dangerous to society, and as criminal. There were two concepts that stood out in these transnationally held discussions; namely moral insanity and later on, psychopathy. Following recent approaches in the cultural and social history of psychiatry, we understand moral insanity and psychopathy as social constructs, which are determined by the evolution in psychiatric knowledge, and also by laws, codes and social norms of particular historical timeframes...
December 2017: Acta Medico-historica Adriatica: AMHA
Bjørn Hofmann, Fredrik Svenaeus
In this article we explore how diagnostic and therapeutic technologies shape the lived experiences of illness for patients. By analysing a wide range of examples, we identify six ways that technology can (trans)form the experience of illness (and health). First, technology may create awareness of disease by revealing asymptomatic signs or markers (imaging techniques, blood tests). Second, the technology can reveal risk factors for developing diseases (e.g., high blood pressure or genetic tests that reveal risks of falling ill in the future)...
February 3, 2018: Life Sciences, Society and Policy
Denny Borsboom, Angélique Cramer, Annemarie Kalis
In the past decades, reductionism has dominated both research directions and funding policies in clinical psychology and psychiatry. However, the intense search for the biological basis of mental disorders has not resulted in conclusive reductionist explanations of psychopathology. Recently, network models have been proposed as an alternative framework for the analysis of mental disorders, in which mental disorders arise from the causal interplay between symptoms. In this paper, we show that this conceptualization can help understand why reductionist approaches in psychiatry and clinical psychology are on the wrong track...
January 24, 2018: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
Barinder Singh, Emma Banwell, Dianne Groll
Background: The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada specifies both respect for diversity as a requirement of professionalism and culturally sensitive provision of medical care. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the perception of preparedness and attitudes of medical residents to deliver cross-cultural care. Methods: The Cross Cultural Care Survey was sent via e-mail to all Faculty of Medicine residents (approx. 450) in an academic health sciences centre...
December 2017: Canadian Medical Education Journal
Joan Sargeant, Jocelyn M Lockyer, Karen Mann, Heather Armson, Andrew Warren, Marygrace Zetkulic, Sophie Soklaridis, Karen D Könings, Kathryn Ross, Ivan Silver, Eric Holmboe, Cindy Shearer, Michelle Boudreau
PURPOSE: The authors previously developed and tested a reflective model for facilitating performance feedback for practice improvement, the R2C2 model. It consists of four phases: relationship building, exploring reactions, exploring content, and coaching. This research studied the use and effectiveness of the model across different residency programs and the factors that influenced its effectiveness and use. METHOD: From July 2014-October 2016, case study methodology was used to study R2C2 model use and the influence of context on use within and across five cases...
January 16, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
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