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Inverse Planning

Erika Obikane, Tomohiro Shinozaki, Daisuke Takagi, Norito Kawakami
BACKGROUND: Childhood abuse is associated with adult suicidal behaviors, partially mediated by mental disorders. However, the direct effect of childhood abuse not mediated by mental disorders is uncertain because the same risk factors serve as mediators and confounders of mental disorders and suicidal behaviors. The aim of the study was to estimate the direct effect of childhood abuse not mediated by mental disorders on suicidal behaviors using marginal structural models. METHODS: We used cross-sectional data of Japanese adults in Tokyo and neighboring prefectures (The Japanese Study on Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood)...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Bethany L Hansberger, Shellie Acocello, Lindsay V Slater, Joseph M Hart, Jatin P Ambegaonkar
CONTEXT:   Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries often occur during jump landings and can have detrimental short-term and long-term functional effects on quality of life. Despite frequently performing jump landings, dancers have lower incidence rates of ACL injury than other jump-landing athletes. Planned versus unplanned activities and footwear may explain differing ACL-injury rates among dancers and nondancers. Still, few researchers have compared landing biomechanics between dancers and nondancers...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
Clemente Lauretti, Francesca Cordella, Anna Lisa Ciancio, Emilio Trigili, Jose Maria Catalan, Francisco Javier Badesa, Simona Crea, Silvio Marcello Pagliara, Silvia Sterzi, Nicola Vitiello, Nicolas Garcia Aracil, Loredana Zollo
The reference joint position of upper-limb exoskeletons is typically obtained by means of Cartesian motion planners and inverse kinematics algorithms with the inverse Jacobian; this approach allows exploiting the available Degrees of Freedom (i.e. DoFs) of the robot kinematic chain to achieve the desired end-effector pose; however, if used to operate non-redundant exoskeletons, it does not ensure that anthropomorphic criteria are satisfied in the whole human-robot workspace. This paper proposes a motion planning system, based on Learning by Demonstration, for upper-limb exoskeletons that allow successfully assisting patients during Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) in unstructured environment, while ensuring that anthropomorphic criteria are satisfied in the whole human-robot workspace...
2018: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
Tserenchimed Purevsuren, Kyungsoo Kim, Myagmarbayar Batbaatar, SuKyoung Lee, Yoon Hyuk Kim
Understanding the mechanism of injury involved in lateral ankle sprain is essential to prevent injury, to establish surgical repair and reconstruction, and to plan reliable rehabilitation protocols. Most studies for lateral ankle sprain posit that ankle inversion, internal rotation, and plantarflexion are involved in the mechanism of injury. However, recent studies indicated that ankle dorsiflexion also plays an important role in the lateral ankle sprain mechanism. In this study, the contributions of ankle plantarflexion and dorsiflexion on the ankle joint were evaluated under complex combinations of internal and inversion moments...
March 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
Armen K Goenjian, Vahe Khachadourian, Haroutune Armenian, Anahit Demirchyan, Alan M Steinberg
This population-based longitudinal study examined the rates and predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among 725 differentially exposed survivors of the 1988 Spitak earthquake in Armenia, 23 years after the event. Participants had been previously evaluated in 1991. Evaluations included assessment of current PTSD (based on DSM-5 criteria), and a variety of potential risk and protective factors. For the whole sample, the rate of PTSD attributed to the earthquake decreased from 48.7% in 1991 to 11...
February 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Eun-Sook Sung, Jung-Hyun Kim
This study examined whether there are differences between range of motion (ROM) and balance in lower extremities according to gender. A total of 31 male and 28 female students measured plantar flexion (PF), dorsiflexion, inversion (IV), eversion (EV), hip flexion (HF), hip internal rotation (HIR), and hip external rotation (HER) and tested on the Biodex Balance System. ROM of PF and HF were significantly high the female group and ROMs of IV, EV, HIR, and HER were significantly higher the male group than in the female group...
February 2018: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
Katrine Bredahl Buggeskov

During conventional cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) there is no active perfusion of the pulmonary circulation and the mechanical ventilation is ceased leaving the lungs exposed to warm ischemia.
Pulmonary dysfunction is seen in varying degrees after major surgery, but more severe in cardiac surgery patients probably due to the effects of CPB. The evidence for effect and safety are limited, but active pulmonary artery perfusion during CPB could be beneficial for the patients' postoperative oxygenation...
March 2018: Danish Medical Journal
Manish Bhatt, Emmanuel Montagnon, Francois Destrempes, Boris Chayer, Siavash Kazemirad, Guy Cloutier
Deep vein thrombosis is a common vascular disease that can lead to pulmonary embolism and death. The early diagnosis and clot age staging are important parameters for reliable therapy planning. This article presents an acoustic radiation force induced resonance elastography method for the viscoelastic characterization of clotting blood. The physical concept of this method relies on the mechanical resonance of the blood clot occurring at specific frequencies. Resonances are induced by focusing ultrasound beams inside the sample under investigation...
March 6, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Caroline Linninge, Bodil Roth, Charlotte Erlanson-Albertsson, Göran Molin, Ervin Toth, Bodil Ohlsson
AIM: To compare gut bacterial diversity and amount of Enterobacteriaceae in colonic mucosa between patients with and without diverticular disease (DD). METHODS: Patients in a stable clinical condition with planned elective colonoscopy were included. Blood samples and colon mucosa biopsies were collected at the colonoscopy. Study questionnaires including questions about gastrointestinal symptoms were completed by the patients and physicians. DNA from mucosa samples was isolated and the amount of Enterobacteriaceae was estimated using PCR assay...
February 15, 2018: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
Gianmarco Lombardi, Anna Rita Sorbo, Gianluigi Guida, Lara La Brocca, Riccardo Fenici, Donatella Brisinda
Ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) with left bundle-branch-block and inferior axis morphology (LBBB-IA), suggestive of outflow tract (OT) origin, are a challenge in sports medicine because they can be benign or expression of a silent cardiomyopathy. Non-invasive classification is essential to plan ablation strategy if required. We aimed to evaluating magnetocardiographic (MCG) discrimination of OT-VAs site of origin (SoO). MCG and ECG data of 26 sports activity practitioners, with OT-VAs were analyzed. OT-VAs-SoO was classified with discriminant analysis (DA) of 8 MCG parameters and with invasively-validated ECG algorithms...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Electrocardiology
Kitti Csordas, Raphael Wiedey, Peter Kleinebudde
Ribbons from microcrystalline cellulose, mannitol and their 50:50% mixture were produced using the roll compactors AlexanderWerk BT120, Hosokawa Alpine Pharmapaktor C250, L.B. Bohle BRC 25 and Gerteis Mini-Pactor in the frame of multilevel full factorial experimental plans. The specific compaction force/hydraulic pressure, gap width, roll speed and fraction of microcrystalline cellulose were analysed as quantitative factors, while the roll surface and sealing system were examined as qualitative factors. Ribbon relative density was investigated as response of the models...
February 27, 2018: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
Yushane C Shih, Brian P Beaubien, Qingshan Chen, Jonathan N Sembrano
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Fusion typically consists of joint preparation, grafting and rigid fixation. Fusion has been successfully used to treat symptomatic disruptions of the SIJ and degenerative sacroiliitis using purpose-specific, threaded implants. The biomechanical performance of these systems is important but has not been studied. PURPOSE: To compare two techniques for placing primary (12.5mm) and secondary (8.5mm) implants across the SIJ. STUDY DESIGN: A human cadaveric biomechanical study of sacroiliac joint (SIJ) fixation...
February 23, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
Muhammad Akram, Hafiz Muhibb Ullah Zulkafal, Saima Altaf, Khalid Iqbal, Saima Muhibb Altaf, Muhammad Afzal Khan, Saeed Ahmed Buzdar
Current practices in radiation therapy required high doses of radiation to be delivered with increased accuracy. Treatment planning task is exercised till an optimum dose distribution is achieved. The present reported work was performed to compare the various aspects of the cobalt-60 radiation beam therapy with fixed source-surface distance 70cm incident normally. This study was conducted in May 2012 at the Department of Radiation Physics of MD Anderson Cancer Centre, University of Texas, Houston, United States...
February 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Peiman Haddad, Zhaleh Karimi-Moghaddam, Mahbod Esfahani, Mahdieh Afkhami, Farshid Farhan, Farnaz Amouzegar-Hashemi
PURPOSE: Radiation received by the testes in the course of radiotherapy for rectal cancer may cause oligospermia and azospermia. We sought to determine the dose to the scrotum and testes with thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD), and compare it to the dose calculated by 3D planning software. METHODS: The TLDs were fixed to the scrotum in six points anteriorly and posteriorly in two fractions of radiotherapy. All patients received a 50-50.4 Gy total dose in prone position with 3D-planning...
January 2018: Physica Medica: PM
Josette Mancini, Jean-Christophe Dubus, Elisabeth Jouve, Jean-Christophe Roux, Patricia Franco, Emmanuelle Lagrue, Pierre Castelnau, Claude Cances, Yves Chaix, Christelle Rougeot-Jung, Catherine Cornu, Vincent Desportes, Louis Vallée, Nadia Bahi-Buisson, Romain Truillet, Laurence Attolini, Laurent Villard, Olivier Blin, Joëlle Micallef
Objective: Rett Syndrome (RTT) is a severe neurodevelopmental condition with breathing disorders, affecting around one in 10,000 female births. Desipramine, a noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, reduced the number of apneas in Mecp2-deficient mice, a model of RTT. We planned a phase 2 trial to test its efficacy and its safety on breathing patterns in 36 girls with RTT. Methods: The trial was a 6-month, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study registered with ClinicalTrials...
February 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Willi Maurer, Byron Jones, Ying Chen
In a 2×2 crossover trial for establishing average bioequivalence (ABE) of a generic agent and a currently marketed drug, the recommended approach to hypothesis testing is the two one-sided test (TOST) procedure, which depends, among other things, on the estimated within-subject variability. The power of this procedure, and therefore the sample size required to achieve a minimum power, depends on having a good estimate of this variability. When there is uncertainty, it is advisable to plan the design in two stages, with an interim sample size reestimation after the first stage, using an interim estimate of the within-subject variability...
February 20, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
Neha Bansal, Narender Dev Gupta, Afshan Bey, Vivek Kumar Sharma, Namita Gupta, Himanshu Trivedi
Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the utility of plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) as marker of periodontal disease by estimating TAC of periodontally healthy and chronic periodontitis patients and the impact of scaling and root planning on total antioxidant status of periodontitis patients. Materials and Methods: Blood plasma samples were collected from randomly selected eighty individuals (40 periodontally healthy controls and 40 chronic periodontitis patients), with an age range of 20-45 years and were analyzed for TAC by ferric reducing antioxidant power assay...
July 2017: Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
Seo Hee Choi, Jinsil Seong
With increasing clinical use, radiotherapy (RT) has been considered reliable and effective method for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment, depending on extent of disease and patient characteristics. RT for HCC can improve therapeutic outcomes through excellent local control, downstaging, conversion from unresectable to resectable status, and treatments of unresectable HCCs with vessel invasion or multiple intrahepatic metastases. In addition, further development of modern RT technologies, including image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT), intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), and stereotactic body radiotherapy, has expanded the indication of RT...
February 14, 2018: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
Christopher T Aquina, Adan Z Becerra, Carla F Justiniano, Zhaomin Xu, Francis P Boscoe, Maria J Schymura, Katia Noyes, John R T Monson, Larissa K Temple, Fergal J Fleming
OBJECTIVE: To identify sources of variation in the use of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) for colectomy. BACKGROUND: MIS is associated with decreased analgesic use, shorter length of stay, and faster postoperative recovery. This study identified factors explaining variation in MIS use for colectomy. METHODS: The Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System was queried for scheduled admissions in which a colectomy was performed for neoplastic, diverticular, or inflammatory bowel disease between 2008 and 2015...
February 9, 2018: Annals of Surgery
Jisook Yi, Young Han Lee, Sang Kyum Kim, Seung Hyun Kim, Ho-Taek Song, Kyoo-Ho Shin, Jin-Suck Suh
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to compare computed tomography (CT) features, including tumor size and textural and histogram measurements, of giant-cell tumors of bone (GCTBs) before and after denosumab treatment and determine their applicability in monitoring GCTB response to denosumab treatment. METHODS: This retrospective study included eight patients (male, 3; female, 5; mean age, 33.4 years) diagnosed with GCTB, who had received treatment by denosumab and had undergone pre- and post-treatment non-contrast CT between January 2010 and December 2016...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
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