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Inverse Planning

Michael L Pearl, Michael Batech, Fabian van de Bunt
BACKGROUND: The most common sequela of neonatal brachial plexus palsy is an internal rotation contracture of the shoulder that impairs function and leads to skeletal deformation of the glenohumeral joint. Treatment options include release, transfers, and humeral osteotomy, all ultimately striving for better function through increased external rotation. Prior studies have shown that neonatal brachial plexus palsy alters humeral retroversion but with conflicting findings. We studied retroversion in children with internal rotation contractures from neonatal brachial plexus palsy to clarify its effect on version and surgical planning...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Jouni Kallio, Salla Turpeinen, Harto Hakonen, Tuija Tammelin
BACKGROUND: Active commuting to school (ACS) can be a significant source of physical activity and provide many health benefits. OBJECTIVE: This study identified the potential to increase physical activity levels by promoting ACS in Finnish schools and evaluated the effects of season, distance and age on ACS. DESIGN: Data were collected with a questionnaire from 5,107 students, aged 10-16, in 45 comprehensive schools in Finland. The distance and the mode of transport to school in different seasons were self-reported...
2016: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
Ana Presedo, Anne-Laure Simon, Cindy Mallet, Brice Ilharreborde, Keyvan Mazda, Georges-François Pennecot
In diplegic patients, the orientation of foot progression depends on multiple factors. We investigated the relationship between foot progression alignment, hip and pelvic rotations during gait, femoral anteversion, and tibial torsion. Kinematic and clinical parameters were evaluated for 114 children who walked independently and had not undergone previous surgery. Causes of intoeing presented combined in 72% of cases. Internal foot progression correlated with internal hip rotation and showed an inverse correlation with tibial torsion...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics. Part B
Brooke Harrow, Ahmad R Sedaghat, Amanda Caldwell-Tarr, Robert Dufour
BACKGROUND: Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a common condition that can be treated with a number of different therapies. Treatments such as intranasal antihistamines (INAs) and intranasal steroids (INSs) are widely used by AR patients. For some allergy sufferers, a combination of therapies, specifically an INA and an INS, is required to address their symptoms. A new treatment, the formulation of azelastine hydrochloride and fluticasone pro-pionate used as a single spray (MP-AzeFlu), has become available for AR patients who need both types of treatment...
December 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Leticia Medeiros-Ferreira, José Blas Navarro-Pastor, Antonio Zúñiga-Lagares, Rosanna Romaní, Elisenda Muray, Jordi E Obiols
BACKGROUND: The complexity of schizophrenia lies in the combination of psychiatric, somatic and social needs requiring care. The aim of the study was to compare perceived needs between groups with absence/presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and to analyze the relationship between needs, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and MetS in people with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. METHODS: A "real-world" cross-sectional study was set up with a comprehensive framework including the following, needs for care (Camberwell Assessment of Need Interview [CAN]), HRQoL (Euro Qol-5D Questionnaire), sociodemographic data, lifestyle habits, psychopathology (Positive And Negative Syndrome Scale [PANSS]), global functioning (Global Assessment of Functioning Scale [GAF]), anthropometric measurements and blood test results were assessed for an outpatient sample (n = 60)...
November 21, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
Giorgio De Donno, Ettore Cardarelli
In this paper, we present a new code for the modelling and inversion of resistivity and chargeability data using a priori information to improve the accuracy of the reconstructed model for landfill. When a priori information is available in the study area, we can insert them by means of inequality constraints on the whole model or on a single layer or assigning weighting factors for enhancing anomalies elongated in the horizontal or vertical directions. However, when we have to face a multilayered scenario with numerous resistive to conductive transitions (the case of controlled landfills), the effective thickness of the layers can be biased...
November 17, 2016: Waste Management
Wonmo Sung, Jung-In Kim, Hyun Suk Kim, Hak Jae Kim, Yang Hoon Lee, Sung-Joon Ye
PURPOSE: A retrospective planning study was undertaken to evaluate the dosimetric advantages of the irregular surface compensator (ISC) technique, a forward planning technique with electronic compensation algorithm available on Varian Eclipse treatment planning system. This was extensively compared to the conventional four-field box (4FB) and intensity modulated radiation therapy using 5 fields (IMRT5F) on gynecologic cancer patients. METHODS: Twenty-two patients were enrolled...
November 17, 2016: Physica Medica: PM
Andrew E Papale, Mark C Zielinski, Loren M Frank, Shantanu P Jadhav, A David Redish
Current theories posit that memories encoded during experiences are subsequently consolidated into longer-term storage. Hippocampal sharp-wave-ripple (SWR) events have been linked to this consolidation process during sleep, but SWRs also occur during awake immobility, where their role remains unclear. We report that awake SWR rates at the reward site are inversely related to the prevalence of vicarious trial and error (VTE) behaviors, thought to be involved in deliberation processes. SWR rates were diminished immediately after VTE behaviors and an increase in the rate of SWR events at the reward site predicted a decrease in subsequent VTE behaviors at the choice point...
November 5, 2016: Neuron
Raymond A Harvey, Jennifer D Hayden, Pravin S Kamble, Jonathan R Bouchard, Joanna C Huang
PURPOSE: We compared methods to control bias and confounding in observational studies including inverse probability weighting (IPW) and stabilized IPW (sIPW). These methods often require iteration and post-calibration to achieve covariate balance. In comparison, entropy balance (EB) optimizes covariate balance a priori by calibrating weights using the target's moments as constraints. METHODS: We measured covariate balance empirically and by simulation by using absolute standardized mean difference (ASMD), absolute bias (AB), and root mean square error (RMSE), investigating two scenarios: the size of the observed (exposed) cohort exceeds the target (unexposed) cohort and vice versa...
November 13, 2016: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
P Phillips, E Poku, M Essat, H B Woods, E A Goka, E C Kaltenthaler, S Walters, P Shackley, J Michaels
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between the volume of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) procedures undertaken and the primary outcome of mortality in Europe. Previous systematic reviews of this relationship are outdated and are overwhelmingly based on US data. DATA SOURCES: Comprehensive searching within MEDLINE and other bibliographic databases supplemented by citation searching and hand-searching of journals was undertaken to identify studies that reported the effect of hospital or clinician volume on any reported outcomes in adult, European populations, undergoing AAA repair and published in the last 10 years...
November 14, 2016: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
Yasushi Motoyama, Yasuo Hironaka, Fumihiko Nishimura, Pritam Gurung, Ryota Sasaki, Yasuhiro Takeshima, Ryosuke Matsuda, Kentaro Tamura, Ichiro Nakagawa, Young-Su Park, Hiroyuki Nakase
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to identify the correlation between the location of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and the need for an orbitozygomatic approach (OZA) when approaching a basilar apex (BX) aneurysm. MATERIALS AND METHODS: By imaging the virtual trajectory to access the basilar artery (BA) through the ICA, the correlations among the height of the BX, the height and lateral breadth of the bifurcation of the ICA, and the need for removal of the orbital rim or zygomatic arch were investigated using three-dimensional computed tomography angiography (3DCTA) data of approximately 80 random samples not limited to BX aneurysms...
November 15, 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
J Hess, I Kurth, A Henkel, L Panic, H Rübben, R Rossi Neto, Y Hess-Busch
BACKGROUND: Gender reassignment surgery (GRS) can lead to discrimination. This transition makes great demands on the individual and also affects the social environment. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the social support of male-to-female (MtF) transgender people. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Group A comprised 254 consecutive MtF transsexuals, who received a penile inversion vaginoplasty between 2004 and 2010. These women were surveyed retrospectively...
November 9, 2016: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
Caroline Dos Santos Costa, Bruna Celestino Schneider, Juraci Almeida Cesar
This is a cross-sectional population-based study aimed to measure the prevalence and to identify associated factors with the occurrence of general and abdominal obesity among the elderly living in the urban area of Pelotas, State of Rio Grande do Sul. The process of cluster sampling was conducted in two stages. Overall obesity was defined by Body Mass Index (BMI) from measurements of weight and height estimated by knee height. Obesity was considered when BMI was ≥ 30 kg/m2. Abdominal obesity was evaluated by waist circumference, being considered obese when it was > 102 cm for men and > 88 cm for women...
November 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Askal Ayalew Ali, Hong Xiao, Rima Tawk, Ellen Campbell, Anastasia Semykina, Alberto J Montero, Vakaramoko Diaby
BACKGROUND: The selection of the most appropriate treatment combinations requires the balancing of benefits and harms of these treatment options as well as the patients' preferences for the resulting outcomes. OBJECTIVE: This research aimed at estimating and comparing the utility weights between elderly women with early-stage hormone receptor positive (HR+) breast cancer, receiving a combination of radiotherapy and hormonal therapy after BCS, and those receiving a combination of BCS and hormonal therapy...
November 5, 2016: Current Medical Research and Opinion
Toshihiko Inoue, Norihisa Masai, Hiroya Shiomi, Ryoong-Jin Oh, Kenji Uemoto, Noriyasu Hashida
We aimed to describe the feasibility and efficacy of a novel non-invasive fixation and monitoring (F-M) device for the eyeballs (which uses a right-angle prism mirror as the optic axis guide) in three consecutive patients with choroidal melanoma who were treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). The device consists of an immobilization shell, a right-angle prism mirror, a high magnification optical zoom video camera, a guide lamp, a digital voice recorder, a personal computer, and a National Television System Committee standard analog video cable...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Radiation Research
Angelo Peli, Marco Pietra, Federica Giacometti, Antonella Mazzi, Gianluca Scacco, Andrea Serraino, Lorenzo Scagliarini
The final results of a survey on welfare of dairy cows in 7 Italian Regions are presented. The study has been performed on 943 farms in southern and central Italy to highlight critical and strong points concerning animal welfare in dairy systems, by using direct and indirect criteria. To assess animal welfare, a checklist based on 303 parameters has been used; indirect criteria have been organised in 5 general areas concerning Farm management, Farming and housing systems, Environment, Feeding, Health and hygiene; other resource-based criteria were considered in 5 specific areas for the different productive categories (lactating cows, dry cows, pregnant heifers, cows comeback, calves up to 8 weeks and calves between 8 weeks and 6 months); finally, an Indicators section focused on animal based criteria...
January 18, 2016: Italian Journal of Food Safety
C H Feldman, J Liu, S Feldman, D H Solomon, S C Kim
OBJECTIVE: Prior studies suggest an increased risk of cervical cancer among women with systemic lupus erythematosus. However, the relationship with immunosuppressive drugs is not well studied in US nationwide cohorts. We compared the risk of high-grade cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer among women with systemic lupus erythematosus who started immunosuppressive drugs versus hydroxychloroquine. METHODS: We identified systemic lupus erythematosus patients initiating immunosuppressive drugs or hydroxychloroquine using claims data from two US commercial health plans and Medicaid (2000-2012)...
October 31, 2016: Lupus
Anna Merle Reinhart, Martin F Fast, Peter Ziegenhein, Simeon Nill, Uwe Oelfke
OBJECTIVES: Mimicking state-of-the-art patient radiotherapy with high precision irradiators for small animals is expected to advance the understanding of dose-effect relationships and radiobiology in general. We work on the implementation of intensity modulated radiotherapy-like irradiation schemes for small animals. As a first step we present a fast analytical dose calculation algorithm for keV photon beams. METHODS: We follow a superposition-convolution approach adapted to kV x-rays, based on previous work for microbeam therapy...
October 27, 2016: British Journal of Radiology
Humberto Rocha, Joana Dias, Tiago Ventura, Brígida Ferreira, Maria do Carmo Lopes
PURPOSE: The inverse planning of an intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment requires decisions regarding the angles used for radiation incidence, even when arcs are used. The possibility of improving the quality of treatment plans by an optimized selection of the beam angle incidences-beam angle optimization (BAO)-is seldom done in clinical practice. The inclusion of noncoplanar beam incidences in an automated optimization routine is even more unusual. However, for some tumor sites, the advantage of considering noncoplanar beam incidences is well known...
October 2016: Medical Physics
Sean D McGarry, Sarah L Hurrell, Amy L Kaczmarowski, Elizabeth J Cochran, Jennifer Connelly, Scott D Rand, Kathleen M Schmainda, Peter S LaViolette
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used to diagnose and monitor brain tumors. Extracting additional information from medical imaging and relating it to a clinical variable of interest is broadly defined as radiomics. Here, multiparametric MRI radiomic profiles (RPs) of de novo glioblastoma (GBM) brain tumors is related with patient prognosis. Clinical imaging from 81 patients with GBM before surgery was analyzed. Four MRI contrasts were aligned, masked by margins defined by gadolinium contrast enhancement and T2/fluid attenuated inversion recovery hyperintensity, and contoured based on image intensity...
September 2016: Tomography: a Journal for Imaging Research
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