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Katharina Frentzel, Harun Badakhshi
PURPOSE: To prevent a fatal transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease, it is recommended to irradiate transfusion blood and blood components with ionizing radiation. Using x-rays from a linear accelerator of the radiotherapy department is an accepted alternative to gamma irradiation devices of the blood bank and to the orthovoltage units that are replacing the gamma irradiators today. However, the use of high energy x-rays may carry a potential risk of induced radioactivity. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of two different energy levels, 6 and 18 MV, which are executed in routine clinical settings...
December 2016: Medical Physics
Jiajie Huang, Kejie Li, Michael Gribskov
While RNAs are well known to possess complex structures, functionally similar RNAs often have little sequence similarity. While the exact size and spacing of base-paired regions vary, functionally similar RNAs have pronounced similarity in the arrangement, or topology, of base-paired stems. Furthermore, predicted RNA structures often lack pseudoknots (a crucial aspect of biological activity), and are only partially correct, or incomplete. A topological approach addresses all of these difficulties. In this work we describe each RNA structure as a graph that can be converted to a topological spectrum (RNA fingerprint)...
2016: PloS One
Suresh Rana, ChihYao Cheng, Li Zhao, SungYong Park, Gary Larson, Carlos Vargas, Megan Dunn, Yuanshui Zheng
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dosimetric and radiobiological impact of intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) and RapidArc planning for high-risk prostate cancer with seminal vesicles. METHODS: Ten high-risk prostate cancer cases were included in this retrospective study. For each case, IMPT plans were generated using multiple field optimisation (MFO) technique (two fields) with XiO treatment planning system (TPS), whereas RapidArc plans were generated using double-arc technique (two full arcs) with Eclipse TPS...
May 11, 2016: Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences
Nicholas Hardcastle, Bradley M Oborn, Annette Haworth
Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) aims to deliver a highly conformal ablative dose to a small target. Dosimetric verification of SBRT for lung tumors presents a challenge due to heterogeneities, moving targets, and small fields. Recent software (M3D) designed for dosimetric verification of lung SBRT treatment plans using an advanced convolution-superposition algorithm was evaluated. Ten lung SBRT patients covering a range of tumor volumes were selected. 3D CRT plans were created using the XiO treatment planning system (TPS) with the superposition algorithm...
2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Eric Pante
Dendrobrachia was proposed by Xian-Guan et al. (2006) as the name of a new phylum of entoproct-like animals from the Lower Cambrian (Yunnan Province, China). This name was however preoccupied by the octocoral Dendrobrachia Brook 1889, which position within the subclass Octocorallia is currently uncertain (Opresko and Bayer 1991; Berntson et al. 1999, 2001). Based on the principles of homonymy and priority (Articles 52 and 23, respectively; ICZN 1999), a substitute name for the entoproct Dendrobrachia is necessary, and I propose Dendrobrachion (based on the Greek brachion, for arm)...
2016: Zootaxa
Ananda Giri Babu Alagar, Ganesh Kadirampatti Mani, Kaviarasu Karunakaran
Small fields smaller than 4 × 4 cm2 are used in stereotactic and conformal treatments where heterogeneity is normally present. Since dose calculation accuracy in both small fields and heterogeneity often involves more discrepancy, algorithms used by treatment planning systems (TPS) should be evaluated for achieving better treatment results. This report aims at evaluating accuracy of four model-based algorithms, X-ray Voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC) from Monaco, Superposition (SP) from CMS-Xio, AcurosXB (AXB) and analytical anisotropic algorithm (AAA) from Eclipse are tested against the measurement...
2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
El Hassane Bentefour, Stefan Both, Shikui Tang, Hsiao-Ming Lu
This study explores the potential of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) for monitoring relative beam range variations due to daily changes in patient anatomy for prostate treatment by anterior proton beams. CBCT was used to image an anthropomorphic pelvic phantom, in eight sessions on eight different days. In each session, the phantom was scanned twice, first at a standard position as determined by the room lasers, and then after it was shifted by 10 mm translation randomly along one of the X, Y, or Z directions...
November 8, 2015: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Suresh Rana, Yuanshui Zheng
The main purposes of this study are to: 1) evaluate the accuracy of XiO treatment planning system (TPS) for different dose calculation grid size based on head phan-tom measurements in uniform scanning proton therapy (USPT); and 2) compare the dosimetric results for various dose calculation grid sizes based on real computed tomography (CT) dataset of pediatric brain cancer treatment plans generated by USPT and intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) techniques. For phantom study, we have utilized the anthropomorphic head proton phantom provided by Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core (IROC)...
2015: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Woo-Young Jeon, Hyeun-Kyoo Shin, In-Sik Shin, Sang Kyum Kim, Mee-Young Lee
BACKGROUND: Soshiho-tang, known as Xio-hai-Hu-Tang in Chinese and Sho-Saiko-to in Japanese, has been widely used as a therapeutic agent. Its pharmacological effects include anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antihepatic fibrosis, antitumor and immunomodulating activities. However, little is known regarding its effects on allergic asthma. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether the Soshiho-tang water extract (SSTW) has antiasthmatic effects on airway inflammation in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced mouse model...
September 18, 2015: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Nan-zheng Zhang, Shuang Bai, Xiao-jun Cai, Li-bo Li
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the anti-tumor and immune efficacy of photodynamic immune-therapy (PIT), the combination of photodynamic therapy and dendritic cells (DC), on murine Heps hepatoma. METHODS: DCs were derived from syngeneic mouse bone marrow and then labeled with DAPI in vitro. The hepatoma model was established by subcutaneous inoculation with Heps cells in one hundred and twenty-eight mice. They were then divided into four groups at random: control group, PDT group, DC group and PIT group...
March 2016: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
T Underwood, D Giantsoudi, M Moteabbed, A Zietman, J Efstathiou, H Paganetti, H M Lu
PURPOSE: If a constant RBE of 1.1 is assumed, range-verified anterior oblique (AO) proton beams appear to offer the potential to reduce the mean dose delivered to the rectum, anterior rectal wall and penile bulb by a factor of ∼2 relative to standard bilateral (SB) proton beam arrangements. Additionally, AO proton beams targeted at the prostate avoid the femoral heads and so form a particularly appealing option for patients with hip prostheses. This study investigates LET enhancement at the distal edge of AO SOBPs, applying RBE models to consider the extent to which AO beams lead to hotspots in rectum biological dose...
June 2015: Medical Physics
J Xue, M Choi, J Park, T LaCouture, G Ibbott
PURPOSE: This work is to test the limitations of a photon dose algorithm during the commissioning of a treatment planning system. METHODS: Commissioning tests for a model-based dose calculation algorithm typically involve the verification of PDD, output and dose profiles, but often those tests are performed at one SSD, one depth and one nominal gantry position. Those tests are useful to validate the modeling of radiation beams, but they may not be sufficient to detect the limitations of an algorithm...
June 2015: Medical Physics
T Himukai, Y Tsunashima, M Kanazawa, M Mizota, Y Shioyama, M Endo
PURPOSE: To verify a patient specific QA for a prescribed dose per monitor unit (MU) and range check of carbon ion radiotherapy with a beam wobbling method at SAGA HIMAT. METHODS: The dose distribution in a water phantom was recalculated with a treatment plan made by XiO-N (Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Tokyo). The depth dose distributions at central axis were compared with measurements using pinpoint ionization chamber (PTW31014). Measured data were analyzed for dose and distance difference with criteria of 3% and 2mm...
June 2015: Medical Physics
S Rana, Y Zheng, C Cheng
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the dosimetric results between intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans for a high-risk prostate cancer. METHODS: Six high-risk prostate cancer cases were included in this retrospective study. For each case, IMPT plans were generated using multiple field optimization (MFO) technique (2 fields) with XiO treatment planning system (TPS), whereas VMAT plans were generated using RapidArc technique (2 full arcs) with Eclipse TPS...
June 2015: Medical Physics
H Singh, L Zhao, S Rana, M Chacko, Y Zheng
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference between calculated and measured relative linear stopping power (RLSP) for contrast medium in proton therapy. Furthermore, the visibility for different concentrations in prostate phantom on orthogonal X-ray system was evaluated METHODS AND MATERIALS: In prostate cancer patient, rectal balloon along with the contrast media was used to visualize the balloon position, thus facilitating the patient setup during each fraction of the uniform scanning proton treatment...
June 2015: Medical Physics
J Seco, D Giantsoudi, B R Eaton, J A Adams, H Paganetti, S MacDonald
PURPOSE: To investigate the trade-off between vertebral column sparing and thecal-sac target coverage in craniospinal irradiation (CSI) of pediatric patients treated with passive-scattering (PS) and intensity modulated (IMPT) proton therapy. METHODS: We selected 2 pediatric patients treated with PS CSI for medulloblastoma. Spinal irradiation was re-planned with IMPT. For all cases, we assumed prescription dose of 23.4 Gy(RBE), with the spinal canal receiving at least 95% of 23...
June 2015: Medical Physics
S Rana, Y Zheng
PURPOSE: The main purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of rotational (yaw, roll, and pitch) error on the planning target volume (PTV) coverage in lung cancer plans generated by intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT). METHODS: In this retrospective study, computed tomography (CT) dataset of previously treated lung case was used. IMPT plan were generated on the original CT dataset using left-lateral (LL) and posterior-anterior (PA) beams for a total dose of 74 Gy[RBE] with 2 Gy[RBE] per fraction...
June 2015: Medical Physics
X Ding, B Patel, X Song, J Syh, J Syh, J Zhang, D Freund, L Rosen, H Wu
PURPOSE: ProteusONE is the 1st commercial compact PBS proton system with an upstream scanning gantry and C230 cyclotron. We commissioned XiO and Raystation TPS simultaneously. This is a summary of beam data collection, modeling, and verification and comparison without range shiter for this unique system with both TPS. METHODS: Both Raystation and XiO requires the same measurements data: (i) integral depth dose(IDDs) of single central spot measured in water tank; (ii) absolute dose calibration measured at 2cm depth of water with mono-energetic 10×10 cm2 field with spot spacing 4mm, 1MU per spot; and (iii) beam spot characteristics in air at 0cm and ± 20cm away from ISO...
June 2015: Medical Physics
A Tajaldeen, P Ramachandran, M Geso
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate and quantify the variation in dose distributions in small field lung cancer radiotherapy using seven different dose calculation algorithms. METHODS: The study was performed in 21 lung cancer patients who underwent Stereotactic Ablative Body Radiotherapy (SABR). Two different methods (i) Same dose coverage to the target volume (named as same dose method) (ii) Same monitor units in all algorithms (named as same monitor units) were used for studying the performance of seven different dose calculation algorithms in XiO and Eclipse treatment planning systems...
June 2015: Medical Physics
R Takahashi, H Tachibana, T Kamima, M Itano, T Yamazaki, S Ishibashi, Y Higuchi, H Shimizu, T Yamamoto, M Yamashita, H Baba, Y Sugawara, A Sato, S Nishiyama, D Kawai, S Miyaoka
PURPOSE: To show the results of a multi-institutional study of the independent dose verification for conventional, Stereotactic radiosurgery and body radiotherapy (SRS and SBRT) plans based on the action level of AAPM TG-114. METHODS: This study was performed at 12 institutions in Japan. To eliminate the bias of independent dose verification program (Indp), all of the institutions used the same CT-based independent dose verification software (Simple MU Analysis, Triangle Products, JP) with the Clarkson-based algorithm...
June 2015: Medical Physics
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