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Psychiatric Risk Assessments

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817766/characteristics-and-risk-factors-for-negative-academic-events-a-27-year-serial-prevalence-study-of-9-7-million-japanese-college-students
#1
Chiyoko Uchida, Mai Uchida
Objective: To examine the prevalence of and the factors contributing to leaves of absence and school discontinuation in Japanese college students over a 27-year period. Trends in these academic events over time were assessed, and students at elevated risk and psychosocial difficulties in need of supportive intervention were identified. Methods: Surveys were collected from the majority of Japanese national universities between 1985 and 2012, yielding data on a total of 9...
August 10, 2017: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816913/influence-of-written-informed-consent-for-methylphenidate-on-medicine-persistence-rates-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#2
Kristian Naenen-Hernani, Antonio Palazón-Bru, Francisco Colomina-Climent, Vicente F Gil-Guillén
OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of written informed consent on nonpersistence with methylphenidate treatment in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: We undertook a cohort study including 141 children with ADHD who started treatment with methylphenidate, with a follow-up of 6 months. The main outcome variable was nonpersistence, defined as discontinuation of treatment by the patient. Two groups were analyzed with and without written informed consent...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816242/effect-of-the-mglur5-nam-basimglurant-on-behavior-in-adolescents-and-adults-with-fragile-x-syndrome-in-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial-fragxis-phase-2-results
#3
Eriene A Youssef, Elizabeth Berry-Kravis, Christian Czech, Randi J Hagerman, David Hessl, Chin Y Wong, Michael Rabbia, Dennis Deptula, Amy John, Russell Kinch, Philip Drewitt, Lothar Lindemann, Moritz Marcinowski, Rachel Langland, Carsten Horn, Paulo Fontoura, Luca Santarelli, Jorge A Quiroz
Preclinical data suggests that inhibition of the mGluR5 receptor might hold therapeutic benefits in Fragile X syndrome (FXS). Treatment of Fmr1 knockout mice with mGluR5-negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) has been reported to correct a broad range of phenotypes related to FXS. The early short-term clinical trials with mGluR5 NAMs, including basimglurant, assessing the effects in individuals with FXS, were supportive of further exploration in larger, well-controlled trials. We evaluated basimglurant, a potent and selective mGluR5 NAM, in a 12-week, double-blind, parallel-group study of 183 adults and adolescents (aged 14-50, mean 23...
August 17, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815619/sluggish-cognitive-tempo-in-children-and-adolescents-with-higher-functioning-autism-spectrum-disorders-social-impairments-and-internalizing-symptoms
#4
Outi Reinvall, Teija Kujala, Arja Voutilainen, Anu-Liisa Moisio, Pekka Lahti-Nuuttila, Marja Laasonen
Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) was introduced in 1980s in the field of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Studies indicate that symptoms of SCT are separate from symptoms of ADHD and independently associated with multiple domains of functioning in clinical groups and in typical development. We assessed whether similar pattern would apply to higher functioning autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Children with higher functioning ASD (N = 55; 5-15 years) were divided into the ASD+High SCT (n = 17), the ASD+Medium SCT (n = 18) and the ASD+Low SCT (n = 20) groups based on parent-rated daydreaming and slowness on the Five to Fifteen questionnaire (FTF)...
August 16, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811683/methylenetetrahydrofolate-reductase-c677t-polymorphism-and-risk-for-male-infertility-in-asian-population
#5
Vandana Rai, Pradeep Kumar
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a critical enzyme of folate pathway and required for DNA synthesis and methylation. MTHFE C677T polymorphisms is reported as risk factors for various diseases and disorders like birth defects, metabolic, neurological, psychiatric disorders, and cancers. Several studies have investigated association between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and male infertility. To assess the risk associated with MTHFR C677T polymorphism in Asian population, a meta-analysis was performed...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810956/the-reasons-for-living-scale-military-version-assessing-protective-factors-against-suicide-in-a-military-sample
#6
Anne-Marie Deutsch, R Gregory Lande
INTRODUCTION: Military suicide rates have been rising over the past decade and continue to challenge military treatment facilities. Assessing suicide risk and improving treatments are a large part of the mission for clinicians who work with uniformed service members. This study attempts to expand the toolkit of military suicide prevention by focusing on protective factors over risk factors. In 1983, Marsha Linehan published a checklist called the Reasons for Living Scale, which asked subjects to check the reasons they choose to continue living, rather than choosing suicide...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809398/precision-medicine-for-suicidality-from-universality-to-subtypes-and-personalization
#7
A B Niculescu, H Le-Niculescu, D F Levey, P L Phalen, H L Dainton, K Roseberry, E M Niculescu, J O Niezer, A Williams, D L Graham, T J Jones, V Venugopal, A Ballew, M Yard, T Gelbart, S M Kurian, A Shekhar, N J Schork, G E Sandusky, D R Salomon
Suicide remains a clear, present and increasing public health problem, despite being a potentially preventable tragedy. Its incidence is particularly high in people with overt or un(der)diagnosed psychiatric disorders. Objective and precise identification of individuals at risk, ways of monitoring response to treatments and novel preventive therapeutics need to be discovered, employed and widely deployed. We sought to investigate whether blood gene expression biomarkers for suicide (that is, a 'liquid biopsy' approach) can be identified that are more universal in nature, working across psychiatric diagnoses and genders, using larger cohorts than in previous studies...
August 15, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807508/incidence-and-risk-factors-of-venous-thromboembolism-peculiarities-in-psychiatric-institutions
#8
S Gaertner, A Piémont, A Faller, G Bertschy, N Hallouche, C Mirea, I Le Ray, E-M Cordeanu, D Stephan
INTRODUCTION: The objectives of this study were to assess the incidence and risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE) in a population of patients hospitalized in a psychiatric setting. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Episodes of VTE occurring in patients hospitalized at the Erstein Hospital (France), specialized in psychiatry, were retrospectively identified from a computerized database. The clinical, somatic, psychiatric and therapeutic characteristics of each patient were analyzed in comparison with a control population composed of patients of similar age and sex, hospitalized during the same period in a psychiatric setting but who did not suffer from VTE...
August 2, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807134/classification-of-suicide-attempters-in-schizophrenia-using-sociocultural-and-clinical-features-a-machine-learning-approach
#9
Nuwan C Hettige, Thai Binh Nguyen, Chen Yuan, Thanara Rajakulendran, Jermeen Baddour, Nikhil Bhagwat, Ali Bani-Fatemi, Aristotle N Voineskos, M Mallar Chakravarty, Vincenzo De Luca
OBJECTIVE: Suicide is a major concern for those afflicted by schizophrenia. Identifying patients at the highest risk for future suicide attempts remains a complex problem for psychiatric interventions. Machine learning models allow for the integration of many risk factors in order to build an algorithm that predicts which patients are likely to attempt suicide. Currently it is unclear how to integrate previously identified risk factors into a clinically relevant predictive tool to estimate the probability of a patient with schizophrenia for attempting suicide...
July 2017: General Hospital Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807009/adverse-mental-health-outcomes-in-breast-cancer-survivors-compared-to-women-who-did-not-have-cancer-systematic-review-protocol
#10
Helena Carreira, Rachael Williams, Martin Müller, Rhea Harewood, Krishnan Bhaskaran
BACKGROUND: Recent increasing trends in breast cancer incidence and survival have resulted in unprecedented numbers of cancer survivors in the general population. A cancer diagnosis may have a profound psychological impact, and breast cancer treatments often cause long-term physical sequelae, potentially affecting women's mental health. The aim of this systematic review is to identify and summarise all studies that have compared mental health outcomes in breast cancer survivors, versus women who did not have cancer...
August 14, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805152/comparing-the-prevalence-and-the-risk-profile-for-antenatal-depressive-symptoms-across-cultures
#11
Irene E Corbani, Paola Rucci, Elena Iapichino, Marta Quartieri Bollani, Gilla Cauli, Mara R Ceruti, Costanzo Gala, Mariano Bassi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although several studies have analyzed the risk factors of antenatal and post-partum depression, evidence on the prevalence and the risk profile for antenatal depressive symptoms (ADS) between native-born and different groups of non-native born women living in the same country is scant. The aim of this article is to compare the prevalence and the risk profile for ADS across geographical areas in women recruited from two large hospitals of North-western Italy. METHOD: The presence of ADS was defined as an Edinburgh Post-natal Depression Scale (EPDS) score ≥12 or a Beck Depression Inventory, Short Form (BDI-SF) score ≥9 or the presence of suicidal ideation/behavior...
August 1, 2017: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805124/migration-violence-and-the-role-of-psychiatry-in-italy
#12
Antonio Ventriglio, Antonello Bellomo, Giovanna Vitrani, Eleonora Stella, Alessandro Gentile, Dinesh Bhugra
Immigration to Italy has been increasing exponentially in the last decades due to the international political changes and conflicts in the Middle East. The relationship between immigration and crimes is a debated issue, and violent radicalization of second or third generations of migrants is under increased scrutiny. Consequently, many politicians and political parties use nationalist and xenophobic language. Inevitably, this will have an impact on reactions of the larger population, as well as that of migrants...
August 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800809/legal-and-ethical-challenges-in-emergency-psychiatry-part-2-management-of-inmates
#13
REVIEW
Andrew Foote, Britta Ostermeyer
Psychiatrists and clinicians encounter unique situations, challenges, and requirements in the treatment of jail and prison inmates in the emergency department. This article reviews the historical legal highlights pertaining to medical and psychiatric care of inpatients, as well as the professional, ethical, and legal aspects that allow clinicians to evaluate, treat, and properly disposition their inmate patients. In particular, this article discusses the specific suicide risk factors related to inmates and correctional facilities that should be ascertained and managed in a clinician's suicide risk assessment and intervention planning in this special high suicide risk patient population...
September 2017: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800706/parsing-the-hypomanic-personality-explicating-the-nature-of-specific-dimensions-defining-mania-risk
#14
Kasey Stanton, Daniel B McArtor, David Watson
Considerable research has used the Hypomanic Personality Scale (HPS) to assess traits conferring risk for hypomanic and manic episodes. Although the HPS has been shown to be defined by several distinct sets of content, most research has continued to rely exclusively on HPS total scores, due to (a) little research having examined its structure and (b) the discrepant structural results obtained in the few available studies. Therefore, we examined the structure and relations of the HPS in a large sample of community adults ( N = 737) receiving psychiatric treatment...
August 1, 2017: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800529/mental-health-stigma-and-barriers-to-mental-health-care-for-first-responders-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
REVIEW
Peter T Haugen, Aileen M McCrillis, Geert E Smid, Mirjam J Nijdam
OBJECTIVE: It is unclear how many first responders experience barriers to care and stigma regarding mental health care, and how this influences their help-seeking. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted on barriers to care and mental health stigma in first responders and their empirical relationship with psychosocial and psychiatric variables. METHODS: The databases Medline, Embase PsycINFO, CINAHL, PILOTS, LILACS, Sociological Abstracts, SocINDEX, and Social Citation Index were searched to identify relevant studies...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797954/attachment-style-and-suicide-behaviors-in-high-risk-psychiatric-inpatients-following-hospital-discharge-the-mediating-role-of-entrapment
#16
Shuang Li, Igor I Galynker, Jessica Briggs, Molly Duffy, Anna Frechette-Hagan, Hae-Joon Kim, Lisa J Cohen, Zimri S Yaseen
Insecure attachment is associated with suicidal behavior. This relationship and its possible mediators have not been examined in high-risk psychiatric inpatients with respect to the critical high-risk period following hospital discharge. Attachment styles and perception of entrapment were assessed in 200 high-risk adult psychiatric inpatients hospitalized following suicidal ideation or suicide attempt. Suicidal behaviors were evaluated with the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale at 1-2 months post-discharge...
August 2, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797526/psychotic-experiences-and-disability-findings-from-the-collaborative-psychiatric-epidemiology-surveys
#17
Hans Oh, Ai Koyanagi, Ian Kelleher, Jordan DeVylder
Psychotic experiences are associated with a number of poor clinical outcomes, including multimorbid psychopathology, suicidal behavior, and poor treatment response. We wished to investigate the relationship between psychotic experiences and disability, including the following domains: cognition, mobility, self-care, social interaction, role functioning, and days out of role. We used three nationally representative and racially/ethnically diverse samples of the general US adult population: the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R), the National Latino and Asian American Survey (NLAAS), and the National Survey of American Life (NSAL)...
August 7, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797498/interventions-to-enhance-testing-linkage-to-care-and-treatment-uptake-for-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-among-people-who-inject-drugs-a-systematic-review
#18
Sahar Bajis, Gregory J Dore, Behzad Hajarizadeh, Evan B Cunningham, Lisa Maher, Jason Grebely
BACKGROUND: The burden of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is escalating among people who inject drugs (PWID), yet testing and treatment remains suboptimal. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to enhance HCV testing, linkage to care, and treatment uptake among PWID. METHODS: A systematic literature search of Medline (Ovid 1946 - present), Embase, Global Health, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PsycINFO, Clinical Trials Registry, and Web of Science was conducted covering interventional studies published before 20 July 2016...
August 7, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790142/stress-resilience-and-cancer-risk-a-nationwide-cohort-study
#19
Beatrice Kennedy, Fang Fang, Unnur Valdimarsdóttir, Ruzan Udumyan, Scott Montgomery, Katja Fall
BACKGROUND: Stress resilience is recognised as a determinant of both psychiatric and somatic health, but the potential link between stress resilience and cancer development has not been explored. METHODS: In this nationwide cohort study, we examined the association between stress resilience in adolescence and subsequent cancer risk. We identified a cohort of 284 257 Swedish men, born 1952-1956, who underwent compulsory military enlistment examinations including measures of psychological stress resilience (median age 18 years)...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782091/infant-parasympathetic-and-sympathetic-activity-during-baseline-stress-and-recovery-interactions-with-prenatal-adversity-predict-physical-aggression-in-toddlerhood
#20
J Suurland, K B van der Heijden, S C J Huijbregts, S H M van Goozen, H Swaab
Exposure to prenatal adversity is associated with aggression later in life. Individual differences in autonomic nervous system (ANS) functioning, specifically nonreciprocal activation of the parasympathetic (PNS) and sympathetic (SNS) nervous systems, increase susceptibility to aggression, especially in the context of adversity. Previous work examining interactions between early adversity and ANS functioning in infancy is scarce and has not examined interaction between PNS and SNS. This study examined whether the PNS and SNS moderate the relation between cumulative prenatal risk and early physical aggression in 124 children (57% male)...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
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