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Psychiatric Risk Assessments

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734121/the-impact-of-chronic-psychiatric-disorders-on-cognitive-decline
#1
R Villeneuve, C Blanchard, L Rullier, N Raoux, V Bergua, J-F Dartigues, K Pérès, H Amieva
OBJECTIVES: Based on seemingly contradictory results in the existing literature, the objective of our study was to investigate whether older individuals suffering from chronic psychiatric disorders show a more rapid decline in cognitive performances than their non-psychiatric counterparts, or if the pattern of decline through older age is similar in both groups. METHOD: A total of 820 older adults were selected from the Ageing Multidisciplinary Investigation (AMI) cohort study, which studies health-related issues of people over 65 years old living in rural areas...
July 22, 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731985/accelerated-dna-methylation-age-associations-with-ptsd-and-mortality
#2
Erika J Wolf, Mark W Logue, Tawni B Stoop, Steven A Schichman, Annjanette Stone, Naomi Sadeh, Jasmeet P Hayes, Mark W Miller
OBJECTIVE: Recently-developed indices of cellular age based on DNA methylation (DNAm) data, referred to as DNAm age, are being used to study factors that influence the rate of aging and the health correlates of these metrics of the epigenetic clock. This study evaluated associations between trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and accelerated versus decelerated DNAm age among military veterans. We also examined if accelerated DNAm age predicted mortality over the course of a 6...
July 20, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731429/severity-of-depression-impacts-imminent-conversion-from-mild-cognitive-impairment-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Michaela Defrancesco, Josef Marksteiner, Georg Kemmler, Walter Wolfgang Fleischhacker, Imrich Blasko, Eberhard A Deisenhammer
BACKGROUND: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has been suggested to represent a prodromal stage of dementia and to confer a high risk for conversion to dementia Alzheimer's type (DAT). OBJECTIVES: In this study, we examined the predictive value of depressive symptoms and neuropsychological variables on conversion of MCI to DAT. METHODS: Neuropsychological and clinical follow-up data of 260 MCI patients seen at the Psychiatric Memory Clinic of the Medical University of Innsbruck between 2005 and 2015 were analyzed retrospectively...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730848/cpa-treatment-guidelines-for-individuals-at-clinical-high-risk-of-psychosis
#4
Jean Addington, Donald Addington, Sabina Abidi, Thomas Raedler, Gary Remington
OBJECTIVE: Young people who are at clinical high risk (CHR) of developing psychosis are often help seeking and have significant distress and dysfunction. There are limited guidelines for the assessment and treatment for this population. The aim of this guideline was to develop treatment recommendations for this at-risk group. METHOD: A systematic search was conducted for published guidelines for CHR. All current guidelines for schizophrenia were reviewed for treatment guidelines on individuals at CHR...
January 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729345/recent-advances-in-understanding-and-managing-body-dysmorphic-disorder
#5
REVIEW
Georgina Krebs, Lorena Fernández de la Cruz, David Mataix-Cols
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a relatively common and disabling psychiatric disorder characterised by excessive and persistent preoccupation with perceived defects or flaws in one's appearance, which are unnoticeable to others, and associated repetitive behaviours (eg, mirror checking). The disorder generally starts in adolescence, but often goes unnoticed and is severely underdiagnosed. Left untreated, BDD typically persists and causes marked functional impairment in multiple domains. This clinical review considers recent advances in the epidemiology and classification of BDD, including its reclassification in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders under the new 'Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders' chapter...
July 20, 2017: Evidence-based Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729221/sensitivity-to-cocaine-in-adult-mice-is-due-to-interplay-between-genetic-makeup-early-environment-and-later-experience
#6
Matteo Di Segni, Diego Andolina, Alessandra Coassin, Alessandra Accoto, Alessandra Luchetti, Tiziana Pascucci, Carla Luzi, Anna Rita Lizzi, Francesca R D'Amato, Rossella Ventura
Although early aversive postnatal events are known to increase the risk to develop psychiatric disorders later in life, rarely they determine alone the nature and outcome of the psychopathology, indicating that interaction with genetic factors is crucial for expression of psychopathologies in adulthood. Moreover, it has been suggested that early life experiences could have negative consequences or confer adaptive value in different individuals. Here we suggest that resilience or vulnerability to adult cocaine sensitivity depends on a "triple interaction" between genetic makeup x early environment x later experience...
July 17, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728096/early-life-stress-explains-reduced-positive-memory-biases-in-remitted-depression
#7
J A Gethin, K E Lythe, C I Workman, A Mayes, J Moll, R Zahn
BACKGROUND: There is contradictory evidence regarding negative memory biases in major depressive disorder (MDD) and whether these persist into remission, which would suggest their role as vulnerability traits rather than correlates of mood state. Early life stress (ELS), common in patients with psychiatric disorders, has independently been associated with memory biases, and confounds MDD versus control group comparisons. Furthermore, in most studies negative biases could have resulted from executive impairments rather than memory difficulties per se...
July 10, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726061/advances-in-psychotherapy-for-depressed-older-adults
#8
REVIEW
Patrick J Raue, Amanda R McGovern, Dimitris N Kiosses, Jo Anne Sirey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review recent advances in psychotherapies for depressed older adults, in particular those developed for special populations characterized by chronic medical illness, acute medical illness, cognitive impairment, and suicide risk factors. We review adaptations for psychotherapy to overcome barriers to its accessibility in non-specialty settings such as primary care, homebound or hard-to-reach older adults, and social service settings. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent evidence supports the effectiveness of psychotherapies that target late-life depression in the context of specific comorbid conditions including COPD, heart failure, Parkinson's disease, stroke and other acute conditions, cognitive impairment, and suicide risk...
September 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725956/non-suicidal-self-injury-in-pediatric-bipolar-disorder-clinical-correlates-and-impact-on-psychosocial-treatment-outcomes
#9
Heather A MacPherson, Sally M Weinstein, Amy E West
Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in childhood is not well documented, especially among youth with pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD). The current study evaluated prevalence and correlates of NSSI, and its impact on intervention response, in a randomized trial of Child- and Family-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CFF-CBT) versus Treatment As Usual (TAU), adjunctive to pharmacotherapy. This study included 72 children ages 7-13 (58% male) with PBD. NSSI and correlates were assessed at baseline; mood and psychiatric severity were measured longitudinally...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722537/attention-bias-to-threat-in-mothers-with-emotional-disorders-predicts-increased-offspring-anxiety-symptoms-a-joint-cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-analysis
#10
Allison M Waters, Elise M Candy, Steven G Candy
There is convincing evidence of the transmission of anxiety and depression from parents to children; however, mechanisms by which this vulnerability is passed on are unclear. Cognitive models and a small body of cross-sectional research suggest that parental attention biases (ABs) may be one mechanism involved in transmission. Longitudinal associations of maternal and offspring ABs with offspring symptoms have been scarcely studied. Forty-three mothers-child dyads were included. All children (7-12 years old) were diagnosis-free while 24 mothers had a lifetime emotional disorder (anxiety or depression) (high risk, HR) and 19 mothers had no psychiatric diagnoses (low risk, LR)...
July 19, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720129/predictors-of-return-to-work-among-patients-in-treatment-for-common-mental-disorders-a-pre-post-study
#11
Mattias Victor, Bjørn Lau, Torleif Ruud
BACKGROUND: Effects of return to work (RTW) interventions vary, and more knowledge is needed about the factors that contribute to RTW. This study investigated changes in work participation and mental health, and predictors of RTW among patients being treated for common mental disorders (CMDs). METHODS: The study was a prospective pre-post study of 164 patients treated at an RTW outpatient clinic for CMDs. Differences between before and after treatment were analysed using paired t tests for continuous variables and marginal homogeneity test for categorical variables...
July 18, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719298/cognitive-outcomes-and-psychiatric-symptoms-of-retinopathy-positive-cerebral-malaria-cohort-description-and-baseline-results
#12
Rachel Brim, Sebastian Mboma, Margaret Semrud-Clikeman, Sam Kampondeni, Jed Magen, Terrie Taylor, John Langfitt
Cerebral malaria (CM) is a common cause of death and disability among children in sub-Saharan Africa. Many prior studies of neuropsychiatric morbidity have been limited by a cross-sectional design or a short duration of follow-up. Most have included subjects who may have presented with coma due to a disease process other than CM. No studies have assessed the relationship between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and long-term outcomes. The Cognitive Outcomes and Psychiatric symptoms of retinopathy-positive CM (COPS) cohort is the first large (N = 221) prospectively recruited cohort of stringently defined cases of CM and hospital-based, age-matched, non-CM controls in whom cognitive and psychiatric outcomes are assessed with standardized measures semi-annually for up to 5 years...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719030/polygenic-risk-for-schizophrenia-and-neurocognitive-performance-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#13
Shi-Heng Wang, Po-Chang Hsiao, Ling-Ling Yeh, Chih-Min Liu, Chen-Chung Liu, Tzung-Jeng Hwang, Ming H Hsieh, Yi-Ling Chien, Yi-Ting Lin, Sharon D Chandler, Stephen V Faraone, Nan Laird, Benjamin Neale, Steve A McCarroll, Stephen J Glatt, Ming T Tsuang, Hai-Gwo Hwu, Wei J Chen
Both neurocognitive deficits and schizophrenia are highly heritable. Genetic overlap between neurocognitive deficits and schizophrenia has been observed in both the general population and in clinical samples. This study aimed to examine if the polygenic architecture of susceptibility to schizophrenia modified neurocognitive performance in schizophrenia patients. Schizophrenia polygenic risk scores (PRS) were first derived from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) on schizophrenia, and then the scores were calculated in our independent sample of 1130 schizophrenia trios, who had PsychChip data and were part of the Schizophrenia Families from Taiwan project...
July 18, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716530/genetic-association-analysis-of-serotonin-and-signal-transduction-pathways-in-suicide-attempters-from-an-italian-sample-of-psychiatric-patients
#14
Maurizio Pompili, Giovanna Gentile, Catia Scassellati, Cristian Bonvicini, Marco Innamorati, Denise Erbuto, Franco Montebovi, Giuseppe Ducci, Alberto Forte, Eleonora De Pisa, Stefano Ferracuti, Gianluca Serafini, Vincenzo De Luca, Mario Amore, Maurizio Simmaco, Paolo Girardi
Genetic factors have been reported to contribute to the liability of suicide. We aimed to investigate functional polymorphisms in eight genes (serotonin transporter, SLC6A4; receptors, 5HTR1A, 1B, 5HTR2A; Tryptophan Hydroxylase, TPH1, TPH2; Monoamine Oxidase, MAOA and G Protein Subunit Beta 3, GNB3) to investigate their predictive value for suicide. The possible confounding effects of gender and phenotypic patients dissection were also valued. A sample of 111 consecutive psychiatric inpatients was recruited and assessed using specific psychometric instruments...
July 14, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715946/sleep-and-psychiatric-symptoms-in-young-child-psychiatric-outpatients
#15
Hanna Huhdanpää, Liisa Klenberg, Hannu Westerinen, Tuija Fontell, Eeva T Aronen
BACKGROUND: Sleep may underlie psychiatric symptoms in young children. However, not many studies have reported on sleep and its associations with symptoms in young child psychiatric patients. OBJECTIVES: To assess the amount and quality of sleep and how sleep associates with psychiatric symptoms in young child psychiatric patients. Furthermore, we evaluated how sleep and daytime somnolence differed in patients and their age- and gender-matched controls. METHOD: The sample consisted of 139 3- to 7-year-old child psychiatric outpatients and 139 age- and gender-matched controls from community...
July 1, 2017: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714608/selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors-during-pregnancy-do-we-have-now-more-definite-answers-related-to-prenatal-exposure
#16
REVIEW
Asher Ornoy, Gideon Koren
Despite extensive studies, there still seems to be uncertainty as to the possible reproductive risk of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and selective serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) in pregnancy. We, therefore, assess the current data on the risk/benefit of SSRI use in pregnancy. As the neurodevelopmental effects of SSRIs are discussed in another paper in this issue, we will not address the possible neurodevelopmental effects. Special emphasis is given to the newer, large population-based studies...
July 17, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711816/unilateral-subthalamotomy-in-parkinson-s-disease-cognitive-psychiatric-and-neuroimaging-changes
#17
Ignacio Obeso, Enrique Casabona, Rafael Rodríguez-Rojas, Maria Luisa Bringas, Raúl Macías, Nancy Pavón, Jose A Obeso, Marjan Jahanshahi
Unilateral subthalamotomy is an effective treatment for the cardinal motor features of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, non-motor changes possibly associated with right or left subthalamotomy remain unknown. Our aim was to assess cognitive, psychiatric and neuroimaging changes after treatment with unilateral subthalamotomy. Fourteen medicated patients with PD were evaluated before and after (mean 6 months after operation) unilateral subthalamotomy (5 right, 9 left). In addition to motor assessments, cognitive (global cognition and executive functions), psychiatric (apathy, depression, anxiety, mania, hypo- and hyperdopaminergic behaviours, impulsivity), quality of life evaluations and volume of lesions were obtained...
June 27, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711797/symptom-severity-and-disability-in-psychiatric-disorders-the-u-s-collaborative-psychiatric-epidemiology-survey
#18
R García-Velázquez, M Jokela, T H Rosenström
BACKGROUND: While most psychiatric diagnoses are based on simple counts of symptoms, some symptoms may be sign of a more severe mental syndrome than others. This calls for validated estimates of the relative severity specific symptoms imply within a disorder. We focused on four diagnostic disorders: Manic Episode (ME), Major Depressive Episode (MDE), Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). Symptom-specific severity parameters were estimated, and validated by examining their association with levels of self-reported disability in daily activities over and above the number of symptoms...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705600/poor-medication-adherence-and-risk-of-relapse-associated-with-continued-cannabis-use-in-patients-with-first-episode-psychosis-a-prospective-analysis
#19
Tabea Schoeler, Natalia Petros, Marta Di Forti, Ewa Klamerus, Enrico Foglia, Robin Murray, Sagnik Bhattacharyya
BACKGROUND: Cannabis use following the onset of first-episode psychosis has been linked to both increased risk of relapse and non-adherence with antipsychotic medication. Whether poor outcome associated with cannabis use is mediated through an adverse effect of cannabis on medication adherence is unclear. METHODS: In a prospective analysis of data acquired from four different adult inpatient and outpatient units of the South London and Maudsley Mental Health National Health Service Foundation Trust in London, UK, 245 patients were followed up for 2 years from the onset of first-episode psychosis...
July 10, 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702917/occurrence-and-risk-assessment-of-antidepressants-in-huangpu-river-of-shanghai-china
#20
Minghong Wu, Jiajia Xiang, Fenfen Chen, Cao Fu, Gang Xu
Antidepressants are gaining public attention because of increasing reports of their occurrence in environment and their potential impact on ecosystems and human health. Continuous input of pharmaceuticals into rivers, through psychiatric hospital or wastewater treatment plant (WWTPs) effluent, may cause adverse effects on the aquatic ecosystems of the receiving water bodies. This work investigates the occurrence and sources of 8 antidepressants in main stream and tributaries of Huangpu River in Shanghai. The detected concentrations of the selected antidepressants ranged from low nanogram per liter to 42...
July 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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