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Psychiatric Risk Assessments

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036721/blood-based-protein-changes-in-childhood-are-associated-with-increased-risk-for-later-psychotic-disorder-evidence-from-a-nested-case-control-study-of-the-alspac-longitudinal-birth-cohort
#1
Jane A English, Lorna M Lopez, Aoife O'Gorman, Melanie Föcking, Magdalena Hryniewiecka, Caitriona Scaife, Sophie Sabherwal, Kieran Wynne, Patrick Dicker, Bart P F Rutten, Glynn Lewis, Stanley Zammit, Mary Cannon, Gerard Cagney, David R Cotter
The identification of early biological changes associated with the psychotic disorder (PD) is important as it may provide clues to the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. We undertook the first proteomic profiling of blood plasma samples of children who later develop a PD. Participants were recruited from the UK Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort who also participated in psychiatric assessment interviews at age 18. Protein expression levels at age 11 were compared between individuals who developed PD at age 18 (n = 37) with population-based age-matched controls (n = 38)...
July 27, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036523/stress-dependent-association-between-polygenic-risk-for-schizophrenia-and-schizotypal-traits-in-young-army-recruits
#2
Alex Hatzimanolis, Dimitrios Avramopoulos, Dan E Arking, Anna Moes, Pallav Bhatnagar, Todd Lencz, Anil K Malhotra, Stella G Giakoumaki, Panos Roussos, Nikolaos Smyrnis, Panos Bitsios, Nicholas C Stefanis
Schizotypal personality traits may increase proneness to psychosis and likely index familial vulnerability to schizophrenia (SZ), implying shared genetic determinants with SZ. Here, we sought to investigate the contribution of common genetic risk variation for SZ on self-reported schizotypy in 2 ethnically homogeneous cohorts of healthy young males during compulsory military service, enrolled in the Athens Study of Proneness and Incidence of Schizophrenia (ASPIS, N = 875) and the Learning on Genetics of Schizophrenia Spectrum study (LOGOS, N = 690)...
June 13, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033017/neurocognitive-and-psychological-outcomes-in-adults-with-dextro-transposition-of-the-great-arteries-corrected-by-the-arterial-switch-operation
#3
Leïla Kasmi, Johanna Calderon, Michèle Montreuil, Nikoletta Geronikola, Virginie Lambert, Emrè Belli, Damien Bonnet, David Kalfa
BACKGROUND: Neurodevelopmental impairments have frequently been described in children and adolescents with dextro-transposition of the great arteries (d-TGA). The arterial switch operation (ASO) to correct d-TGA has been used for more than 30 years, and more than 90% of these patients now reach adulthood. However, very little is known about their long-term functional outcomes. The present study investigated neurocognitive outcomes and the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in adults with d-TGA corrected by ASO...
October 12, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031785/prior-mental-disorders-and-subsequent-onset-of-chronic-back-or-neck-pain-findings-from-19-countries
#4
Maria Carmen Viana, Carmen C W Lim, Flavia Garcia Pereira, Sergio Aguilar-Gaxiola, Jordi Alonso, Ronny Bruffaerts, Peter de Jonge, Jose Miguel Caldas-de-Almeida, Siobhan O'Neill, Dan J Stein, Ali Al-Hamzawi, Corina Benjet, Graça Cardoso, Silvia Florescu, Giovanni de Girolamo, Josep Maria Haro, Chiyi Hu, Viviane Kovess-Masfety, Daphna Levinson, Marina Piazza, José Posada-Villa, Daniel Rabczenko, Ronald C Kessler, Kate M Scott
Associations between depression/anxiety and pain are well established, but its directionality is not clear. We examined the associations between temporally prior mental disorders and subsequent self-reported chronic back/neck pain onset, and investigated the variation in the strength of associations by timing of events during the life course, and by gender. Data were from population-based household surveys conducted in 19 countries (n=52,095). Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset of 16 DSM-IV mental disorders, and the occurrence and age-of-onset of back/neck pain were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031186/family-functioning-as-perceived-by-parents-and-young-offspring-at-high-and-low-risk-for-depression
#5
Shimrit Daches, Vera Vine, Kathryn M Layendecker, Charles J George, Maria Kovacs
BACKGROUND: Family dysfunction has been proposed as one of the environmental mechanisms whereby risk of depression is transmitted from mothers to their children. Using our sample of offspring at high and low familial risk for depression, we hypothesized that: a) high-risk offspring (n = 79) and their mothers will report more extensive family dysfunction than low-risk offspring (n = 82) and their mothers, b) family dysfunction will predict the extent of offspring's depressive symptoms, and c) family dysfunction will mediate the impact of mother's depression on offspring's depressive symptoms...
September 24, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030525/neurodevelopment-at-age-10-years-of-children-born-28-weeks-with-fetal-growth-restriction
#6
Steven J Korzeniewski, Elizabeth N Allred, Robert M Joseph, Tim Heeren, Karl C K Kuban, T Michael O'Shea, Alan Leviton
OBJECTIVES: We sought to evaluate the relationships between fetal growth restriction (FGR) (both severe and less severe) and assessments of cognitive, academic, and adaptive behavior brain function at age 10 years. METHODS: At age 10 years, the Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborns Cohort Study assessed the cognitive function, academic achievement, social-communicative function, psychiatric symptoms, and overall quality of life of 889 children born before 28 weeks' gestation...
October 13, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027619/-even-heroes-get-depressed-sponsorship-and-self-stigma-in-canada-s-mental-illness-awareness-week
#7
Loren Gaudet
In 1992, the Canadian Psychiatric Association launched Canada's first national campaign against mental illness, Mental Illness Awareness Week (MIAW). I stress that pharmaceutical sponsorship of the first five years of MIAW (1992-1997) was integral to shaping the trajectory of the campaign and marks a shift in the way stigma is conceived and resisted in Canada: what was an interpersonal process based on social norms becomes refigured as "self-stigma," or an individualized process in which lack of information, education, and self-assessment contribute to an inability to consider oneself as at-risk for a disease, condition, or disorder...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023285/predictors-of-electroconvulsive-therapy-use-in-a-large-inpatient-psychiatry-population
#8
Julia Knight, Micaela Jantzi, John Hirdes, Terry Rabinowitz
OBJECTIVE: There is limited research on reliable and clinically useful predictors of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) use. We aimed to examine factors that predict ECT use in an inpatient psychiatric population. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of provincial database for inpatient psychiatry. METHODS: This study is a retrospective analysis of a provincial database for inpatient psychiatry. The study includes all psychiatric inpatients 18 years or older in Ontario, Canada, assessed with the Resident Assessment Instrument for Mental Health (RAI-MH) within the first 3 days of admission between 2009 and 2014 (n = 153,023)...
October 12, 2017: Journal of ECT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022751/prospective-psychometric-characterization-of-hip-and-knee-arthroplasty-patients
#9
Silas Hinsch Gylvin, Anders Fink-Jensen, Henrik Kehlet, Christoffer Calov Jørgensen, Mogens Berg Laursen, Kirill Gromov, Henrik Morville Schroder, Susanne Jung Høvsgaard, Heidi Raahauge Wede, Phillip Raphael Kyle, Per Bech
BACKGROUND: Psychiatric conditions and psychopharmacological treatments have been demonstrated to be important risk-factors for prolonged hospital length of stay, readmission and morbidity, following fast-track total hip (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA). AIMS: The aim of the study was to provide a detailed description of the preoperative psychiatric characteristics of a well-defined patient population undergoing THA and TKA, using the 90-item Symptom Checklist (SCL-90-R)...
October 12, 2017: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022735/the-culture-and-protective-suicide-scale-for-incarcerated-persons-capssip-a-measure-for-evaluating-suicide-risk-and-protection-within-correctional-populations
#10
Robert Horon, Stephanie N Williams, Todd McManus, John Roberts
Suicide risk and protective factors function for prisoners within the context of incarceration. The Culture and Protective Suicide Scale for Incarcerated Persons (CAPSSIP) is a tool designed to assess protective factors and cultural barriers to suicide for inmates. We present initial findings on the reliability, validity, factor structure, and utility of the CAPSSIP based on a trial conducted with inmates sent to an inpatient psychiatric program. Implications for suicide risk assessment processes in correctional settings are discussed...
October 12, 2017: Psychological Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022654/epidemiology-prevention-and-assessment-of-tardive-dyskinesia-and-advances-in-treatment
#11
Christoph U Correll, John M Kane, Leslie L Citrome
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a disorder characterized by involuntary movements, typically of the orofacial muscles and also of the extremities and other muscle groups. The condition is associated with exposure to dopamine receptor blocking agents, including antipsychotics. Because the indications and off-label uses for these agents have expanded over the last 2 decades, a larger number of patients are receiving antipsychotic medications than in the past. While evidence suggests that patients being treated with second-generation antipsychotics have less risk for developing TD than those treated with first-generation antipsychotics, the decreased risk is not as great as was originally expected...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020650/decision-making-under-risk-and-under-ambiguity-in-depressed-suicide-attempters-depressed-non-attempters-and-healthy-controls
#12
Eberhard A Deisenhammer, Steffen K Schmid, Georg Kemmler, Bernadette Moser, Margarete Delazer
BACKGROUND: A number of neuropsychological alterations have been found in patients who have attempted suicide. Most studies investigating decision making (DM) abilities in suicide attempters so far have used one single DM task and included patients with a lifetime history of suicide attempts. These studies have yielded conflicting results. METHOD: In this study, currently depressed in-patients who had a recent suicide attempt (within the last six months) (n = 21), depressed in-patients without a lifetime history of suicide attempts (n = 31) and a healthy control group (n = 26) were assessed with two tasks for the assessment of DM...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016669/major-depressive-disorder-and-suicide-risk-among-adult-outpatients-at-several-general-hospitals-in-a-chinese-han-population
#13
Haiyan Li, Xinni Luo, Xiaoyin Ke, Qing Dai, Wei Zheng, Chanjuan Zhang, Ryan M Cassidy, Jair C Soares, XiangYang Zhang, Yuping Ning
BACKGROUND: Somatic complaints are often the presenting symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD) in the outpatient context, because this may go unrecognized. It is well understood that MDD carries an increased risk of suicide. This study aimed to identify the risk factors and association with both MDD and suicidality among Han Chinese outpatients. METHODS: A multicenter study was carried out in 5189 outpatient adults (≥18 years old) in four general hospitals in Guangzhou, China...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993875/suicidality-is-a-common-and-serious-feature-of-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis
#14
Le Zhang, Josemir W Sander, Lan Zhang, Xin-Yue Jiang, Wei Wang, Kun Shuang, Ammar Taha Abdullah Abdulaziz, Meng-Qian Wu, Xiao-Sa Chi, Jin-Mei Li, Dong Zhou
We aimed to assess suicidality risk amongst people who had had anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis. All people with a definitive diagnosis of anti-NMDAR encephalitis in West China Hospital between June 2012 and February 2017 were identified and their notes were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic and clinical characteristics and risk predictors for suicidality were summarized; those with suicidality were compared to those without. 17 of 133 people (13%) presented with suicidality symptoms: 7 (5%) with suicidal ideation; 8 (6%) who attempted suicide; and 2 (1...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993004/cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy-related-cognitive-impairment-the-search-for-a-specific-neuropsychological-pattern
#15
REVIEW
M Planton, N Raposo, J-F Albucher, J Pariente
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is diagnosed in stroke units after lobar intracerebral hemorrhage. CAA can also be diagnosed in memory clinics when patients are referred for cognitive impairment assessment, and may be a reason for admission to emergency or neurology departments because of rapidly progressive cognitive or neurological decline, or a transient focal neurological episode. CAA may even be observed in older community-dwelling individuals. Neuropsychological impairment in CAA has been described over the past 20 years...
October 6, 2017: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992862/palliative-care-for-cancer-survivors
#16
REVIEW
Sydney M Dy, Sarina R Isenberg, Nebras Abu Al Hamayel
The palliative care approach for survivors begins with comprehensive assessment of communication and advance care planning needs and the physical, psychological and psychiatric, social, spiritual and religious, and cultural domains. Communication and decision-making about difficult issues should include responding to emotions, planning for future communication needs, and considering reasons for miscommunication. Key palliative approaches to symptom management include addressing physical and psychosocial concerns, and using nonpharmacologic approaches first or together with medications...
November 2017: Medical Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990527/epilepsy-comorbidities-and-treatments
#17
Alla Guekht
BACKGROUND: An increasing amount of evidence suggests an association between epilepsy and multiple somatic and psychiatric conditions, which is more significant than in the general population. Furthermore, a bidirectional association has been established between epilepsy and several conditions, notably depression and suicide, cerebrovascular disease, stroke, dementia and migraine, which is best explained by the presence of common underlying mechanisms and risk factors. Gaining knowledge about these common mechanisms can provide insight into new therapeutic targets, screening and preventive measures...
October 9, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990359/ancestry-specific-and-sex-specific-risk-alleles-identified-in-a-genome-wide-gene-by-alcohol-dependence-interaction-study-of-risky-sexual-behaviors
#18
Renato Polimanti, Hongyu Zhao, Lindsay A Farrer, Henry R Kranzler, Joel Gelernter
We previously mapped loci for the genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genome-wide gene-by-alcohol dependence interaction (GW-GxAD) analyses of risky sexual behaviors (RSB). This study extends those findings by analyzing the ancestry- and sex-specific AD-stratified effects on RSB. We examined the concordance of findings for the AD-stratified GWAS and the GW-GxAD analysis of RSB, with concordance defined as genome-wide significance in one analysis and at least nominal significance in the second analysis...
October 9, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990246/excited-delirium-a-systematic-review
#19
Philippe Gonin, Nicolas Beysard, Bertrand Yersin, Pierre-Nicolas Carron
STUDY OBJECTIVE: We aimed to clarify the definition, epidemiology, and pathophysiology of excited delirium syndrome (ExDS) and to summarize evidence-based treatment recommendations. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature search of MEDLINE, Ovid, Web of Knowledge, and Cochrane Library for articles published to March 18, 2017. We also searched the grey literature (Google Scholar) and official police or medical expert reports to complete specific epidemiological data...
October 9, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990159/neuro-psychiatric-comorbidity-among-psoriatic-adolescents
#20
E Galili, A Barzilai, R Shreberk-Hassidim, I Merdler, T Caspi, N Astman
BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a known risk factor for neuro-psychiatric diseases among adults. Less is known regarding adolescents. OBJECTIVE: Investigating the association between psoriasis and neuro-psychiatric comorbidity and social skills among adolescents. METHODS: A population based cross-sectional study between January 1(st) , 1999 and January 1(st) , 2014 was conducted. The study included 1746 and 1366 adolescents (aged 16 to 18) with mild and moderate to severe psoriasis, respectively...
October 8, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
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