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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650582/synergistic-modulation-of-inflammatory-but-not-metabolic-effects-of-high-fat-feeding-by-ccr2-and-cx3cr1
#1
Hanrui Zhang, Christine C Hinkle, Sean M O'Neill, Jianting Shi, Jennifer Caughey, Emma Lynch, Gina Lynch, Mark Gerelus, Andrew S D Tsai, Rachana Shah, Jane F Ferguson, Rexford S Ahima, Muredach P Reilly
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to explore the impact of dual targeting of C-C motif chemokine receptor-2 (CCR2) and fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) on the metabolic and inflammatory consequences of obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). METHODS: C57BL/6J wild-type, Cx3cr1(-/-) , Ccr2(-/-) , and Cx3cr1(-/-) Ccr2(-/-) double-knockout male and female mice were fed a 45% HFD for up to 25 weeks starting at 12 weeks of age. RESULTS: All groups gained weight at a similar rate and developed a similar degree of adiposity, hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, and impairment of insulin sensitivity in response to HFD...
June 26, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649594/specific-macronutrients-exert-unique-influences-on-the-adipose-liver-axis-to-promote-hepatic-steatosis-in-mice
#2
Caroline C Duwaerts, Amin M Amin, Kevin Siao, Chris Her, Mark Fitch, Carine Beysen, Scott M Turner, Amanda Goodsell, Jody L Baron, James P Grenert, Soo-Jin Cho, Jacquelyn J Maher
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The factors that distinguish metabolically healthy obesity from metabolically unhealthy obesity are not well understood. Diet has been implicated as a determinant of the unhealthy obesity phenotype, but which aspects of the diet induce dysmetabolism are unknown. The goal of this study was to investigate whether specific macronutrients or macronutrient combinations provoke dysmetabolism in the context of isocaloric, high-energy diets. METHODS: Mice were fed 4 high-energy diets identical in calorie and nutrient content but different in nutrient composition for 3 weeks to 6 months...
September 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647180/helianthus-tuberosus-jerusalem-artichoke-tubers-improve-glucose-tolerance-and-hepatic-lipid-profile-in-rats-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#3
Naoto Okada, Shinya Kobayashi, Kouta Moriyama, Kohsuke Miyataka, Shinji Abe, Chiemi Sato, Kazuyoshi Kawazoe
OBJECTIVES: To analyze the effects of feeding Helianthus tuberosus (HT) tubers on glucose tolerance and lipid profile in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). METHODS: A normal HFD or HFD including 10 w/w% HT tubers (HFD + HT) was fed to F334/Jcl rats. After 10 weeks, organ weights, glucose tolerance, and lipid profile were analyzed. RESULTS: The body weight, liver weight, and epidermal fat content in the HFD group were higher than those of the normal group, and similar to those of the HFD + HT group...
May 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645790/vitamin-e-deficiency-during-embryogenesis-in-zebrafish-causes-lasting-metabolic-and-cognitive-impairments-despite-refeeding-adequate-diets
#4
Melissa McDougall, Jaewoo Choi, Lisa Truong, Robert Tanguay, Maret G Traber
Vitamin E (α-tocopherol; VitE) is a lipophilic antioxidant required for normal embryonic development in vertebrates, but the long-term effects of embryonic VitE deficiency, and whether they are ameliorated by feeding VitE-adequate diets, remain unknown. We addressed these questions using a zebrafish (Danio rerio) model of developmental VitE deficiency followed by dietary remediation. Adult zebrafish maintained on VitE-deficient (E-) or sufficient (E+) diets were spawned to obtained E- and E+ embryos, respectively, which we evaluated up to 12 days post-fertilization (dpf)...
June 20, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645580/chemostat-studies-of-bacteriophage-m13-infected-escherichia-coli-jm109-for-continuous-ssdna-production
#5
Benjamin Kick, Karl Lorenz Behler, Timm Steffen Severin, Dirk Weuster-Botz
Steady state studies in a chemostat enable the control of microbial growth rate at defined reaction conditions. The effects of bacteriophage M13 infection on maximum growth rate of Escherichia coli JM109 were studied in parallel operated chemostats on a milliliter-scale to analyze the steady state kinetics of phage production. The bacteriophage infection led to a decrease in maximum specific growth rate of 15 % from 0.74 h(-1) to 0.63 h(-1). Under steady state conditions, a constant cell specific ssDNA formation rate of 0...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644716/the-effects-of-acute-carbohydrate-and-caffeine-feeding-strategies-on-cycling-efficiency
#6
Matthew Cole, James G Hopker, Jonathan D Wiles, Damian A Coleman
To assess the effect of carbohydrate and caffeine on gross efficiency (GE), 14 cyclists (V̇O2max 57.6 ± 6.3 ml.kg(-1.)min(-1)) completed 4 × 2-hour tests at a submaximal exercise intensity (60% Maximal Minute Power). Using a randomized, counter-balanced crossover design, participants consumed a standardised diet in the 3-days preceding each test and subsequently ingested either caffeine (CAF), carbohydrate (CHO), caffeine+carbohydrate (CAF+CHO) or water (W) during exercise whilst GE and plasma glucose were assessed at regular intervals (~30 mins)...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642078/experimental-tests-on-commercial-sweet-product-residue-spr-as-a-suitable-feed-for-anaerobic-bioenergy-h2-ch4-production
#7
Andrea C Luongo Malavè, Debora Fino, Carlos E Gómez Camacho, Bernardo Ruggeri
Food stores can find themselves in the position of having to dispose of different types of products, such as snacks, confectionery, prepackaged food, drinks and others, Sweet Product Residue (SPR), which presents a great opportunity to produce energy through Anaerobic Digestion (AD), due to its high sugar, carbohidrate and fat contents. In order to valorise SPR, this paper takes into consideration the all necessary treatments; owing the fact that the refuses are constitute by an organic part and packaging (plastic, paper and their combinations), a pretreatment able to remove the latter is necessary...
June 19, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641602/milk-replacers-supplemented-with-either-l-arginine-or-l-carnitine-potentially-improve-muscle-maturation-of-early-reared-low-birth-weight-piglets-from-hyperprolific-sows
#8
J G Madsen, S Mueller, M Kreuzer, M B Bigler, P Silacci, G Bee
As a result of the selection for genotypes with greater sow prolificacy, litter size increased and, concomitantly, average litter birth weight and early postnatal survival rates of low birth weight (L-BtW) offspring decreased. This study compared the impact of l-carnitine (CAR) and l-arginine (ARG) supplemented with a milk replacer and fed to L-BtW piglets born from large litters from days 7 to 28 of age on growth performance, carcass composition, organ and Semitendinosus muscle (STM) development. A total of 30 female and castrated Swiss Large White piglets weaned at 7 days of age were assigned to three milk replacer diets containing either no supplement (CON), CAR (0...
June 23, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640445/ubiquitin-ligases-and-posttranslational-regulation-of-energy-in-the-heart-the-hand-that-feeds
#9
David I Brown, Traci L Parry, Monte S Willis
Heart failure (HF) is a costly and deadly syndrome characterized by the reduced capacity of the heart to adequately provide systemic blood flow. Mounting evidence implicates pathological changes in cardiac energy metabolism as a contributing factor in the development of HF. While the main source of fuel in the healthy heart is the oxidation of fatty acids, in the failing heart the less energy efficient glucose and glycogen metabolism are upregulated. The ubiquitin proteasome system plays a key role in regulating metabolism via protein-degradation/regulation of autophagy and regulating metabolism-related transcription and cell signaling processes...
June 18, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640233/metabolic-effects-of-high-glycaemic-index-diets-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-feeding-studies-in-mice-and-rats
#10
REVIEW
Grace J Campbell, Alistair M Senior, Kim S Bell-Anderson
Low glycaemic index (LGI) diets are often reported to benefit metabolic health, but the mechanism(s) responsible are not clear. This review aimed to systematically identify studies investigating metabolic effects of high glycaemic index (HGI) versus LGI diets in mice and rats. A meta-analysis was conducted to calculate an overall effect size, Hedge's standardised mean differences (hereafter d), for each trait, with moderator variables considered in subsequent meta-regressions. Across 30 articles, a HGI diet increased five of the seven traits examined: body weight (d = 0...
June 22, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639176/combined-or-individual-effects-of-dietary-probiotic-pedicoccus-acidilactici-and-nucleotide-on-growth-performance-intestinal-microbiota-hemato-biochemical-parameters-and-innate-immune-response-in-goldfish-carassius-auratus
#11
Nooshin Mehdinejad, Mohammad Reza Imanpour, Valiollah Jafari
This study investigated the effect of dietary supplementation of probiotic Pedicoccus acidilactici and nucleotide (separately or combined) on growth performance, intestinal microbiota, hemato-immunological parameters, and immunity response in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Fish (average weight 5-6 g) were acclimatized and divided into eight experimental diets supplemented with P. acidilactici of different concentrations (0.1, 0.2, and 0.3% diet) and nucleotides (0 and 0.5% diet) for 6 months. Fish fed with experimental diets showed significant differences in terms of final weight, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, daily growth rate, and condition factor when compared to control diet (P < 0...
June 21, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638713/the-behavioral-and-physiological-effects-of-high-fat-diet-and-alcohol-consumption-sex-differences-in-c57bl6-j-mice
#12
Rachel R Gelineau, Nicole L Arruda, Jasmin A Hicks, Isabella Monteiro De Pina, Aikaterini Hatzidis, Joseph A Seggio
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Animal studies can be a great tool to investigate sex differences in a variety of different ways, including behavioral and physiological responses to drug treatments and different "lifestyle variables" such as diets. Consumption of both high-fat diets and alcohol is known to affect anxiety behaviors and overall health. This project investigated how high-fat diet and alcohol access and its combination affected the behavior and physiology of male and female C57BL/6J mice...
June 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638091/the-cannabinoid-ligand-lh-21-reduces-anxiety-and-improves-glucose-handling-in-diet-induced-obese-pre-diabetic-mice
#13
Silvana Y Romero-Zerbo, Inmaculada Ruz-Maldonado, Vanesa Espinosa-Jiménez, Alex Rafacho, Ana I Gómez-Conde, Lourdes Sánchez-Salido, Nadia Cobo-Vuilleumier, Benoit R Gauthier, Francisco J Tinahones, Shanta J Persaud, Francisco J Bermúdez-Silva
LH-21 is a triazol derivative that has been described as a low-permeant neutral CB1 antagonist, though its pharmacology is still unclear. It has been associated with anti-obesity actions in obese rats. However, its role in preventing type 2 diabetes (T2D) onset have not been studied yet. Given CB1 receptors remain as potential pharmacological targets to fight against obesity and T2D, we wanted to explore the metabolic impact of this compound in an animal model of obesity and pre-diabetes as well as the lack of relevant actions in related central processes such as anxiety...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637994/anti-diabetic-activities-of-traditional-chinese-herbal-medicine-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#14
Tomoko Nozaki, Jun Minaguchi, Kazushige Takehana, Hiromi Ueda
Zhen Qi Hypoglycemic Capsules (ZQHC) is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine containing medical activities by ougi (Astragalus membranaceus) and ousei (Polygonatum rhizome). Although ZQHC has been traditionally utilized as an anti-diabetic medicine in China, there is no evidence. Therefore, this study investigated the beneficial effects of ZQHC against diabetes using streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats by biochemical and morphological methods. Eight-week old male Fisher strain rats were intraperitoneally injected with STZ (50 mg/kg of B...
2017: Okajimas Folia Anatomica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636830/attenuation-of-hepatic-steatosis-by-purple-sweet-potato-color-is-associated-with-blocking-src-erk-c-ebp%C3%AE-signalling-in-high-fat-diet-treated-mice
#15
Xin Wang, Zi-Feng Zhang, Gui-Hong Zheng, Ai-Min Wang, Chun-Hui Sun, Su-Ping Qin, Juan Zhuang, Jun Lu, Dai-Fu Ma, Yuan-Lin Zheng
Our previous work showed that purple sweet potato color (PSPC), a class of naturally occurring anthocyanins, effectively improved hepatic glucose metabolic dysfunction in high-fat diet (HFD)-treated mice. This study investigated the effects of PSPC on HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and the signalling events associated with these effects. Mice were divided into four groups: Control group, HFD group, HFD+PSPC group and PSPC group. PSPC was administered daily for 20 weeks at oral doses of 700 mg/kg/day. Our results showed that PSPC significantly improved obesity and related metabolic parameters, as well as liver injury in HFD-treated mice...
June 21, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630491/chronic-high-fat-feeding-restricts-islet-mrna-translation-initiation-independently-of-er-stress-via-dna-damage-and-p53-activation
#16
Masayuki Hatanaka, Emily Anderson-Baucum, Alexander Lakhter, Tatsuyoshi Kono, Bernhard Maier, Sarah A Tersey, Yukio Tanizawa, Carmella Evans-Molina, Raghavendra G Mirmira, Emily K Sims
Under conditions of high fat diet (HFD) consumption, glucose dyshomeostasis develops when β-cells are unable to adapt to peripheral insulin demands. Few studies have interrogated the molecular mechanisms of β-cell dysfunction at the level of mRNA translation under such conditions. We sought to address this issue through polyribosome profile analysis of islets from mice fed 16-weeks of 42% HFD. HFD-islet analysis revealed clear trends toward global reductions in mRNA translation with a significant reduction in the polyribosome/monoribosome ratio for Pdx1 mRNA...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629187/suppression-of-ghrelin-exacerbates-hfcs-induced-adiposity-and-insulin-resistance
#17
Xiaojun Ma, Ligen Lin, Jing Yue, Chia-Shan Wu, Cathy A Guo, Ruitao Wang, Kai-Jiang Yu, Sridevi Devaraj, Peter Murano, Zheng Chen, Yuxiang Sun
High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is widely used as sweetener in processed foods and soft drinks in the United States, largely substituting sucrose (SUC). The orexigenic hormone ghrelin promotes obesity and insulin resistance; ghrelin responds differently to HFCS and SUC ingestion. Here we investigated the roles of ghrelin in HFCS- and SUC-induced adiposity and insulin resistance. To mimic soft drinks, 10-week-old male wild-type (WT) and ghrelin knockout (Ghrelin(-/-)) mice were subjected to ad lib. regular chow diet supplemented with either water (RD), 8% HFCS (HFCS), or 10% sucrose (SUC)...
June 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628674/hepatic-microvascular-dysfunction-and-increased-advanced-glycation-end-products-are-components-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#18
Evelyn Nunes Goulart da Silva Pereira, Raquel Rangel Silvares, Edgar Eduardo Ilaquita Flores, Karine Lino Rodrigues, Isalira Peroba Ramos, Igor José da Silva, Marcelo Pelajo Machado, Rosiane Aparecida Miranda, Carmen Cabanelas Pazos-Moura, Cassiano F Gonçalves-de-Albuquerque, Hugo Caire de Castro Faria-Neto, Eduardo Tibiriça, Anissa Daliry
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the pathophysiology of hepatic microcirculatory dysfunction in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: In Wistar rats, NAFLD model was induced by 20 weeks of high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. Rolling and adhesion of leukocytes and tissue perfusion in hepatic microcirculation were examined using in vivo microscopic and laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), respectively. Oxidative stress and inflamatory parameters were analysed by TBARs, catalase enzyme activity, RT-PCR and ELISA...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627064/effects-of-isoenergetic-quantities-of-a-low-starch-muesli-feed-high-in-fat-and-fibre-vs-oat-grains-on-the-glycemic-and-insulinemic-responses-and-feed-intake-patterns-in-sport-ponies
#19
M Bochnia, C Schürer, J Gottschalk, A Einspanier, D Hillegeist, M Wensch-Dorendorf, J M Greef, M Glatter, A Zeyner
Aim of this study was to compare glycemic and insulinemic responses and feed intake patterns in sport ponies after feeding isoenergetic quantities of low-starch muesli feed high in fat and fibre (FF) or oat grains (OG). Six sport ponies were randomly assigned to one of these two treatment groups for 2 × 3 weeks according to a crossover-design. Ponies received two equal meals/day of either semi-crushed OG (1 g starch/kg bwt*meal(-1) ) or an isoenergetic quantity of FF. Hay was also given in two equal meals/day and provided the remaining metabolisable energy up to 1...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627061/glycaemic-and-insulinaemic-responses-of-adult-healthy-warm-blooded-mares-following-feeding-with-jerusalem-artichoke-meal
#20
M Glatter, M Bochnia, F Goetz, J Gottschalk, G Koeller, N Mielenz, D Hillegeist, J M Greef, A Einspanier, A Zeyner
This study aimed to investigate the impact of the supplementation of a pre-biotic compound [Jerusalem artichoke meal (JAM)] on the glycaemic and insulinaemic response in healthy, non-obese warm-blooded horses. Six adult mares [mean body weight (bwt) 529 ± 38.7 kg; body condition score 5.1 ± 0.49/9] were used. In two equal meals per day, the horses received crushed oat grains (1 g starch/kg bwt per day) and meadow hay (2 kg/100 kg bwt per day) which together were likely to meet the energy recommendation for light work (GfE, )...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
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