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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036520/lung-specific-overexpression-of-constitutively-active-ikk2-induces-pulmonary-and-systemic-inflammations-but-not-hypothalamic-inflammation-and-glucose-intolerance
#1
Minjie Chen, Huifen Zhou, Yanyi Xu, Lianglin Qiu, Ziying Hu, Xiaobo Qin, Sufang Chen, Yuhao Zhang, Qi Cao, Yousef Abu-Amer, Zhekang Ying
The lung is constantly exposed to ambient pollutants such as ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5), making it one of the most frequent locations of inflammation in the body. Given the establishment of crucial role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic diseases, pulmonary inflammation is thus widely believed to be an important risk factor for cardiometabolic diseases. However, the causality between them has not yet been well established. To determine if pulmonary inflammation is sufficient to cause adverse cardiometabolic effects, SFTPC-rtTA+/-tetO-cre+/-pROSA-inhibitor κB kinase 2(IKK2)ca+/- (LungIKK2ca) and littermate SFTPC-rtTA+/-tetO-cre-/-pROSA-IKK2ca+/- wildtype (WT) mice were fed with doxycycline diet to induce constitutively active Ikk2 (Ikk2ca) overexpression in the lung and their pulmonary, systemic, adipose, and hypothalamic inflammations, vascular function, and glucose homeostasis were assessed...
July 28, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031729/point-mutation-of-ffar1-abrogates-fatty-acid-dependent-insulin-secretion-but-protects-against-hfd-induced-glucose-intolerance
#2
Sibylle Sabrautzki, Gabriele Kaiser, Gerhard K H Przemeck, Felicia Gerst, Estela Lorza-Gil, Madhura Panse, Tina Sartorius, Miriam Hoene, Susan Marschall, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Martin Hrabě de Angelis, Susanne Ullrich
OBJECTIVE: The fatty acid receptor 1 (FFAR1/GPR40) mediates fatty acid-dependent augmentation of glucose-induced insulin secretion (GIIS) in pancreatic β-cells. Genetically engineered Ffar1-knockout/congenic mice univocally displayed impaired fatty acid-mediated insulin secretion, but in vivo experiments delivered controversial results regarding the function of FFAR1 in glucose homeostasis and liver steatosis. This study presents a new coisogenic mouse model carrying a point mutation in Ffar1 with functional consequence...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031716/adipocyte-glucocorticoid-receptor-is-important-in-lipolysis-and-insulin-resistance-due-to-exogenous-steroids-but-not-insulin-resistance-caused-by-high-fat-feeding
#3
Yachen Shen, Hyun Cheol Roh, Manju Kumari, Evan D Rosen
OBJECTIVE: The critical role of adipose tissue in energy and nutrient homeostasis is influenced by many external factors, including overnutrition, inflammation, and exogenous hormones. Prior studies have suggested that glucocorticoids (GCs) in particular are major drivers of physiological and pathophysiological changes in adipocytes. In order to determine whether these effects directly require the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) within adipocytes, we generated adipocyte-specific GR knockout (AGRKO) mice...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031711/lorcaserin-improves-glycemic-control-via-a-melanocortin-neurocircuit
#4
Luke K Burke, Emmanuel Ogunnowo-Bada, Teodora Georgescu, Claudia Cristiano, Pablo B Martinez de Morentin, Lourdes Valencia Torres, Giuseppe D'Agostino, Christine Riches, Nicholas Heeley, Yue Ruan, Marcelo Rubinstein, Malcolm J Low, Martin G Myers, Justin J Rochford, Mark L Evans, Lora K Heisler
OBJECTIVE: The increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and associated morbidity and mortality emphasizes the need for a more complete understanding of the mechanisms mediating glucose homeostasis to accelerate the identification of new medications. Recent reports indicate that the obesity medication lorcaserin, a 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) 2C receptor (5-HT2CR) agonist, improves glycemic control in association with weight loss in obese patients with T2D. Here we evaluate whether lorcaserin has an effect on glycemia without body weight loss and how this effect is achieved...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030961/overproduction-of-mcl-pha-with-high-3-hydroxydecanoate-content
#5
Jie Gao, Minh T Vo, Juliana A Ramsay, Bruce A Ramsay
Methods of producing medium-chain-length poly-3-hydroxyalkanoate (mcl-PHA) with high content of the dominant subunit, 3-hydroxydecanoate (HD), were examined with an emphasis on a high yield of polymer from decanoic acid. High HD content was achieved by using a β-oxidation knockout mutant of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 (designated as P. putida DBA-F1) or by inhibiting β-oxidation with addition of acrylic acid to wild type P. putida KT2440 in carbon-limited, fed-batch fermentations. At a substrate feed ratio of decanoic acid and acetic acid to glucose (DAA:G) of 6:4 g/g, P...
October 14, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029017/region-specific-suppression-of-hypothalamic-responses-to-insulin-to-adapt-to-elevated-maternal-insulin-secretion-during-pregnancy
#6
S R Ladyman, D R Grattan
As part of the adaptation of maternal glucose regulation during pregnancy to ensure glucose provision to the fetus, maternal insulin concentrations become elevated. However, increased central actions of insulin, such as suppression of appetite, would be maladaptive during pregnancy. We hypothesized that central nervous system targets of insulin become less responsive during pregnancy to prevent overstimulation by the increased circulating insulin concentrations. To test this hypothesis, we have measured insulin-induced phosphorylation of Akt (pAkt) in specific hypothalamic nuclei as an index of hypothalamic insulin responsiveness...
September 29, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027041/increased-hepatic-fatty-acid-polyunsaturation-precedes-ectopic-lipid-deposition-in-the-liver-in-adaptation-to-high-fat-diets-in-mice
#7
Ana Francisca Soares, João M N Duarte, Rolf Gruetter
OBJECTIVE: We monitored hepatic lipid content (HLC) and fatty acid (FA) composition in the context of enhanced lipid handling induced by a metabolic high-fat diet (HFD) challenge and fasting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mice received a control diet (10% of kilocalories from fat, N = 14) or an HFD (45% or 60% of kilocalories from fat, N = 10 and N = 16, respectively) for 26 weeks. A subset of five mice receiving an HFD (60% of kilocalories from fat) were switched to the control diet for the final 7 weeks...
October 12, 2017: Magma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024237/sterol-content-in-the-artificial-diet-of-mythimna-separata-affects-the-metabolomics-of-arma-chinensis-fallou-as-determined-by-proton-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#8
Yi Guo, Chen-Xi Liu, Li-Sheng Zhang, Meng-Qing Wang, Hong-Yin Chen
Insects cannot synthesize sterols and must obtain them from plants. Therefore, reducing plant sterol content or changing sterol type might be an effective pest control strategy. However, the impacts of these changes on pests' natural predators remain unknown. Here, we fed artificial diets with reduced sterol content to Mythimna separata (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and investigated the effects on its natural predator, Arma chinensis (Fallou) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Reduced sterol content in M. separata (MS1, MS2, and MS5) was achieved by feeding them artificial diets prepared from a feed base subjected to one, two, or five cycles of sterol extractions, respectively...
October 11, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019279/leucine-and-resistance-training-improve-hyperglycemia-white-adipose-tissue-loss-and-inflammatory-parameters-in-an-experimental-model-of-type-1-diabetes
#9
Henrique Quintas Teixeira Ribeiro, Audrey Yule Coqueiro, Vanessa Batista de Sousa Lima, Carlos Eduardo Carvalho Martins, Julio Tirapegui
BACKGROUND: Loss of white adipose tissue (WAT), associated with type 1 diabetes (DM1), contributes to increased chronic systemic inflammation. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of leucine supplementation and resistance training (RT) in attenuating WAT loss and improving inflammatory parameters and glucose metabolism in DM1 rats. METHODS: Thirty-two male Wistar rats were distributed into four groups: DA (sedentary and supplemented with non-essential amino acids (NEAA)), DL (sedentary and supplemented with leucine), DTA (submitted to RT and supplemented with NEAA) and DTL (submitted to RT and supplemented with leucine)...
January 1, 2017: Nutrition and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018245/transient-postnatal-overfeeding-causes-liver-stress-induced-premature-senescence-in-adult-mice
#10
Catherine Yzydorczyk, Na Li, Hassib Chehade, Dolores Mosig, Mickael Bidho, Basile Keshavjee, Jean Baptiste Armengaud, Katya Nardou, Benazir Siddeek, Mohamed Benahmed, Catherine Vergely, Umberto Simeoni
Unbalanced nutrition early in life is increasingly recognized as an important factor in the development of chronic, non-communicable diseases at adulthood, including metabolic diseases. We aimed to determine whether transient postnatal overfeeding (OF) leads to liver stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) of hepatocytes in association with liver structure and hepatic function alterations. Litters sizes of male C57BL/6 mice were adjusted to 9 pups (normal feeding, NF) or reduced to 3 pups during the lactation period to induce transient postnatal OF...
October 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017944/immunological-responses-and-disease-resistance-of-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-juveniles-following-dietary-administration-of-stinging-nettle-urtica-dioica
#11
Mohammad Reza Saeidi Asl, Milad Adel, Christopher Marlowe A Caipang, Mahmoud A O Dawood
The present study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on growth performance, skin mucus, immune response and disease resistance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed with diets supplemented with U. dioica at 0, 1, 2 and 3%. After 8 weeks of feeding, the addition of U. dioica at 3% level resulted in improved weight gain, specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio significantly when compared to the other groups (P < 0.05). Hematological responses including: hematocrit (Htc), hemoglobin (Hb), lymphocyte and neutrophil populations enhanced significantly in fish fed 3% of stinging nettle when measured after 4 weeks; while, total red blood cells, white blood, Htc, Hb, lymphocyte and neutrophil populations significantly increased after 8 weeks in the same group (P < 0...
October 7, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991997/substituting-ground-woody-plants-for-cottonseed-hulls-in-lamb-feedlot-diets-growth-performance-blood-serum-chemistry-and-rumen-fluid-parameters
#12
T R Whitney, J L Glasscock, J P Muir, W C Stewart, E J Scholljegerdes
Effects of using ground woody plants in Rambouillet wether lamb feedlot diets on growth performance, blood serum, and rumen parameters were evaluated. A randomized design study was used with 2 feeding periods (70% concentrate diet from d 0 to 27 [Period 1] and 86% concentrate diet from d 28 to 57 [Period 2]); the concentrate portion of the diets mainly consisted of dried distiller's grains with solubles and sorghum grain. Lambs were individually fed 6 diets that differed only by roughage source ( = 8 animals/treatment; 32...
September 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991180/robust-regression-analysis-of-gcms-data-reveals-differential-rewiring-of-metabolic-networks-in-hepatitis-b-and-c-patients
#13
Cedric Simillion, Nasser Semmo, Jeffrey R Idle, Diren Beyoğlu
About one in 15 of the world's population is chronically infected with either hepatitis virus B (HBV) or C (HCV), with enormous public health consequences. The metabolic alterations caused by these infections have never been directly compared and contrasted. We investigated groups of HBV-positive, HCV-positive, and uninfected healthy controls using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of their plasma and urine. A robust regression analysis of the metabolite data was conducted to reveal correlations between metabolite pairs...
October 8, 2017: Metabolites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990324/involvement-of-stanniocalcins-in-the-deregulation-of-glycaemia-in-obese-mice-and-type-2-diabetic-patients
#14
José Javier López, Isaac Jardín, Carlos Cantonero Chamorro, Manuel Luis Duran, María José Tarancón Rubio, Maria Reyes Panadero, Francisca Jiménez, Rocio Montero, María José González, Manuel Martínez, María Jose Hernández, José María Brull, Antonio Jesús Corbacho, Elena Delgado, María Purificación Granados, Luis Gómez-Gordo, Juan Antonio Rosado, Pedro Cosme Redondo
Stanniocalcins are expressed in the pancreas tissue, and it was suggested a direct correlation between circulating insulin and STC2 concentrations in human. Here, we show a significant correlation between STC1 and both glycaemia and glycosylated haemoglobin among DM2 patients, while DM2 patients who present the greatest glycosylated haemoglobin values exhibited the lowest STC2 expression. However, treatment of patients with antiglycaemic drugs does not significantly modify the expression of both STCs. On the other hand, STC2(-/-) mice that exhibited neonatal and adult overweight further presented deregulated glycaemia when they were feed with a hypercaloric diet (breeding pellet, BP)...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990224/evaluation-of-haematological-serum-biochemical-and-histopathological-parameters-of-growing-rabbits-fed-amaranthus-dubius
#15
E Molina, P González-Redondo, R Moreno-Rojas, K Montero-Quintero, N Chirinos-Quintero, A Sánchez-Urdaneta
Amaranthus dubius is an alternative source of fibre and protein for the feed formulation for growing rabbits, although its effects on their health status are yet unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of three dietary levels (0, 160 and 320 g/kg) of A. dubius on haematological, serum biochemical and histopathological parameters of fattening rabbits. One hundred and thirteen New Zealand White rabbits were fed ad libitum from weaning (35 days) to slaughter (87 days). The health status of the animals was monitored, and mortality was recorded...
October 8, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988560/effects-of-replacement-of-moringa-oleifera-for-berseem-clover-in-the-diets-of-nubian-goats-on-feed-utilisation-and-milk-yield-composition-and-fatty-acid-profile
#16
A E Kholif, G A Gouda, O A Olafadehan, M M Abdo
Replacement of conventional feedstuffs with cheap non-conventional ingredients may improve livestock performance and the quality of their products, particularly milk. The study considered the effects of Moringa oleifera (MO) foliage in replacement of berseem clover (BC) on feed utilisation and lactational performance in Nubian goats. A total of 16 lactating Nubian does, weighing 36.2±0.8 kg, were randomly assigned to four experimental treatments containing 0, 125, 250 and 375 g of MO per kg diet to replace 0 (M0), 25 (M25), 50 (M50) and 75% (M75) of BC (on dry matter (DM) basis) in a quadruplicated 4×4 Latin square design...
October 9, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988221/cocos-nucifera-water-improves-metabolic-functions-in-offspring-of-high-fat-diet-fed-wistar-rats
#17
Olufadekemi T Kunle-Alabi, Opeyemi O Akindele, Yinusa Raji
BACKGROUND: Maternal high fat diet has been implicated in the aetiology of metabolic diseases in their offspring. The hypolipidaemic actions of Cocos nucifera water improve metabolic indices of dams consuming a high fat diet during gestation. This study investigated the effects of C. nucifera water on metabolism of offspring of dams exposed to high fat diet during gestation. METHODS: Four groups of pregnant Wistar rat dams (n=6) were treated orally from Gestation Day (GD) 1 to GD 21 as follows: standard rodent feed+10 mL/kg distilled water (Control), standard rodent feed+10 mL/kg C...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988119/glucocorticoid-treatment-facilitates-development-of-a-metabolic-syndrome-in-ovariectomized-macaca-mulatta-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#18
Linzhao Li, Guang Yang, Guangneng Liao, Jie Mei, Lan Li, Chengshi Wang, Yujia Yuan, Yujun Shi, Jingping Liu, Zhihui Zhong, Jingqiu Cheng, Yanrong Lu, Iain J Clarke, Younan Chen
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is characterized by a cluster of key features, which include abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of elevated glucocorticoid levels on the development of MetS in middle-aged female rhesus monkeys (Macaca Mulatta) after ovariectomy. Six female ovariectomized rhesus monkeys (9-13 years) were randomly assigned to either a control group (normal diet, n=3) or a group in which MetS was facilitated (n=3). The MetS group fed with HFD (15% fat) and received oral prednisone acetate treatment (50 mg/day)...
October 4, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987595/acylated-apelin-13-amide-analogues-exhibit-enzyme-resistance-and-prolonged-insulin-releasing-glucose-lowering-and-anorexic-properties
#19
Finbarr P M O'Harte, Vadivel Parthsarathy, Christopher Hogg, Peter R Flatt
The adipokine, apelin has many biological functions but its activity is curtailed by rapid plasma degradation. Fatty acid derived apelin analogues represent a new and exciting avenue for the treatment of obesity-diabetes. This study explores four novel fatty acid modified apelin-13 analogues, namely, (Lys(8)GluPAL)apelin-13 amide, pGlu(Lys(8)GluPAL)apelin-13 amide, Lys(8)GluPAL(Tyr(13))apelin-13 and Lys(8)GluPAL(Val(13))apelin-13. Fatty acid modification extended the half-life of native apelin-13 to >24 h in vitro...
October 4, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987591/a-dynamic-model-to-simulate-potassium-balance-in-dairy-cows
#20
M Berg, J Plöntzke, S Leonhard-Marek, K E Müller, S Röblitz
High-performing dairy cows require a particular composition of nutritional ingredients, adapted to their individual requirements and depending on their production status. The optimal dimensioning of minerals in the diet, one being potassium, is indispensable for the prevention of imbalances. Potassium balance in cows is the result of potassium intake, distribution in the organism, and excretion, and it is closely related to glucose and electrolyte metabolism. In this paper, we present a dynamical model for potassium balance in lactating and nonlactating dairy cows based on ordinary differential equations...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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