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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214558/small-heterodimer-partner-shp-contributes-to-insulin-resistance-in-cardiomyocytes
#1
Ricardo Rodríguez-Calvo, Dipanjan Chanda, Yvonne Oligschlaeger, Marie Miglianico, Will A Coumans, Emma Barroso, Marta Tajes, Joost Jfp Luiken, Jan Fc Glatz, Manuel Vázquez-Carrera, Dietbert Neumann
Small heterodimer partner (SHP) is an atypical nuclear receptor expressed in heart that has been shown to inhibit the hypertrophic response. Here, we assessed the role of SHP in cardiac metabolism and inflammation. Mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) displayed glucose intolerance accompanied by increased cardiac mRNA levels of Shp. In HL-1 cardiomyocytes, SHP overexpression inhibited both basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and impaired the insulin signalling pathway (evidenced by reduced AKT and AS160 phosphorylation), similar to insulin resistant cells generated by high palmitate/high insulin treatment (HP/HI; 500μM/100nM)...
February 15, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213327/visualizing-bpa-by-molecularly-imprinted-ratiometric-fluorescence-sensor-based-on-dual-emission-nanoparticles
#2
Hongzhi Lu, Shoufang Xu
Construction of ratiometric fluorescent probe often involved in tedious multistep preparation or complicated coupling or chemical modification process. The emergence of dual emission fluorescent nanoparticles would simplify the construction process and avoids the tedious chemical coupling. Herein, we reported a facile strategy to prepare ratiometric fluorescence molecularly imprinted sensor based on dual emission nanoparticles (d-NPs) which comprised of carbon dots and gold nanoclusters for detection of Bisphenol A (BPA)...
February 11, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213136/systematic-development-of-a-two-stage-fed-batch-process-for-lipid-accumulation-in-rhodotorula-glutinis
#3
Eric Lorenz, Dennis Runge, Anna-Maria Marbà-Ardébol, Maximilian Schmacht, Ulf Stahl, Martin Senz
The application of oleaginous yeast cells as feed supplement, for instance in aqua culture, can be a meaningful alternative for fish meal and oil additives. Therefore, a two-stage fed-batch process split into growth and lipogenesis phase was systematically developed to enrich the oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula glutinis Rh-00301 with high amounts of lipids at industrial relevant biomasses. Thereby, the different carbon sources glucose, sucrose and glycerol were investigated concerning their abilities to serve as a suited raw material for growth and/or lipid accumulation...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211103/impaired-learning-and-memory-in-rats-induced-by-a-high-fat-diet-involvement-with-the-imbalance-of-nesfatin-1-abundance-and-copine-6-expression
#4
Zheng Chen, Ya-Yun Xu, Rui Wu, Yin-Xiu Han, Yue Yu, Jin-Fang Ge, Fei-Hu Chen
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease, resulting not only in liver dysfunction, glucose and lipid metabolism disorder, but also in neuropsychiatric damage. In the present study, a NAFLD rat model was established via feeding of a high-fat diet, and the behavior was observed via the open field test (OFT), the sucrose preference test (SPT), the elevated plus maze (EPM), the forced swimming test (FST), and the Morris water maze (MWM). The plasma concentrations of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), glucose, free fatty acid (FFA), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were detected using chemiluminescence technique...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209896/hawkmoths-use-nectar-sugar-to-reduce-oxidative-damage-from-flight
#5
E Levin, G Lopez-Martinez, B Fane, G Davidowitz
Nectar-feeding animals have among the highest recorded metabolic rates. High aerobic performance is linked to oxidative damage in muscles. Antioxidants in nectar are scarce to nonexistent. We propose that nectarivores use nectar sugar to mitigate the oxidative damage caused by the muscular demands of flight. We found that sugar-fed moths had lower oxidative damage to their flight muscle membranes than unfed moths. Using respirometry coupled with δ(13)C analyses, we showed that moths generate antioxidant potential by shunting nectar glucose to the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), resulting in a reduction in oxidative damage to the flight muscles...
February 17, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209214/effects-of-concentrate-type-and-chromium-propionate-on-insulin-sensitivity-productive-and-reproductive-parameters-of-lactating-dairy-cows-consuming-excessive-energy
#6
T Leiva, R F Cooke, A P Brandão, U Pardelli, R O Rodrigues, F N Corrá, J L M Vasconcelos
This experiment compared insulin sensitivity parameters, milk production and reproductive outcomes in lactating dairy cows consuming excessive energy, and receiving in a 2×2 factorial arrangement design: (1) concentrate based on ground corn (CRN; n=13) or citrus pulp (PLP; n=13), and (2) supplemented (n=14) or not (n=12) with 2.5 g/day of chromium (Cr)-propionate. During the experiment (day 0 to 182), 26 multiparous, non-pregnant, lactating Gir×Holstein cows (initial days in milk=80±2) were offered corn silage for ad libitum consumption, and individually received concentrate formulated to allow diets to provide 160% of their daily requirements of net energy for lactation...
March 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196832/gpr55-a-new-promising-target-for-metabolism
#7
Eva Tuduri, Monica Imbernon, Rene Bautista, Marta Tojo, Johan Fernø, Carlos Diéguez, Rubén Nogueiras
GPR55 is a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) that has been identified as a new cannabinoid receptor. Given the wide localization of GPR55 in brain and peripheral tissues, this receptor has emerged as a regulator of multiple biological actions. Lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) is generally accepted as the endogenous ligand of GPR55. In this review, we will focus on the role of GPR55 in energy balance and glucose metabolism. We will summarize its actions on feeding, nutrient partitioning, gastrointestinal motility and insulin secretion in preclinical models and the scarce data available in humans...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194156/integrated-management-strategies-increase-cottonseed-oil-and-protein-production-the-key-role-of-carbohydrate-metabolism
#8
Hongkun Yang, Xinyue Zhang, Binglin Chen, Yali Meng, Youhua Wang, Wenqing Zhao, Zhiguo Zhou
Cottonseed, oil, and protein, as the by-products of cotton production, have the potential to provide commodities to meet the increasing demand of renewable bio-fuels and ruminant feed. An increase in crop yield per unit area requires high-yielding cultivar management with an economic nitrogen (N) rate, an optimal N application schedule, high-yielding plant populations and strong seedlings. Whether the integration of these agronomic practices into a coherent management system can increase the productivity of cotton fiber, embryo oil and protein requires experimental elucidation...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193789/enriching-islet-phospholipids-with-eicosapentaenoic-acid-reduces-prostaglandin-e2-signaling-and-enhances-diabetic-%C3%AE-cell-function
#9
Joshua C Neuman, Michael D Schaid, Allison L Brill, Rachel J Fenske, Carly R Kibbe, Danielle A Fontaine, Sophia M Sdao, Harpreet K Brar, Kelsey M Connors, Haley N Wienkes, Kevin W Eliceiri, Matthew J Merrins, Dawn B Davis, Michelle E Kimple
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is derived from arachidonic acid, while PGE3 is derived from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) using the same downstream metabolic enzymes. Little is known about the impact of EPA and PGE3 on β-cell function, particularly in the diabetic state. In this work, we determined PGE3 elicits a 10-fold weaker reduction in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion through the EP3 receptor as compared to PGE2 We tested the hypothesis that enriching pancreatic islet cell membranes with EPA, thereby reducing arachidonic acid abundance, would positively impact β-cell function in the diabetic state...
February 13, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191311/supplemental-smartamine-m-in-higher-energy-diets-during-the-prepartal-period-improves-hepatic-biomarkers-of-health-and-oxidative-status-in-holstein-cows
#10
Mario Vailati-Riboni, Johan S Osorio, Erminio Trevisi, Daniel Luchini, Juan J Loor
BACKGROUND: Feeding higher-energy prepartum is a common practice in the dairy industry. However, recent data underscore how it could reduce performance, deepen negative energy balance, and augment inflammation and oxidative stress in fresh cows. We tested the effectiveness of rumen-protected methionine in preventing the negative effect of feeding a higher-energy prepartum. Multiparous Holstein cows were fed a control lower-energy diet (CON, 1.24 Mcal/kg DM; high-straw) during the whole dry period (~50 d), or were switched to a higher-energy (OVE, 1...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190874/maternal-consumption-of-a-cafeteria-diet-during-lactation-in-rats-leads-the-offspring-to-a-thin-outside-fat-inside-phenotype
#11
C A Pomar, R van Nes, J Sánchez, C Picó, J Keijer, A Palou
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The suckling period is a critical phase of development, in which maternal over-nutrition may program the susceptibility of developing chronic diseases and disorders, such as obesity and metabolic alterations, in adult life. Here, we questioned whether the consumption of a cafeteria diet throughout lactation in rats affects the macronutrient composition of milk and whether it results in permanent metabolic effects in the offspring. METHODS: Nursing rats were fed a control diet or a cafeteria diet during lactation...
February 13, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185379/feed-degradability-rumen-fermentation-and-blood-metabolites-in-response-to-essential-oil-addition-to-fistulated-non-lactating-dairy-cow-diets
#12
Wisitiporn Suksombat, Atitthan Nanon, Chayapol Meeprom, Pipat Lounglawan
The effects of essential oils (EOs) on ruminal nutrient disappearance, rumen fermentation and blood metabolites in fistulated non-lactating dairy cows were studied. Four fistulated non-lactaing dairy cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design; the experiment consisted of four periods of 21 days in each period, with the first 14 days for adaptation followed by 7 days of measurement period. Animals were fed 3 kg/day of 21% crude protein (CP) concentrate and ad libitum corn silage. Treatments were: (i) control; (ii) 2 mL Allicin/cow/day; (iii) 2 mL zingiberene/cow/day; and (iv) 2 mL citral/cow/day...
February 9, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185377/feeding-corn-distillers-grains-as-an-energy-source-to-gestating-and-lactating-beef-heifers-impact-of-excess-protein-on-feedlot-performance-glucose-tolerance-carcass-characteristics-and-longissimus-muscle-fatty-acid-profile-of-steer-progeny
#13
Patrick J Gunn, Glen A Bridges, Ronald P Lemenager, Jon P Schoonmaker
This study was conducted to determine the impact of dried distiller's grain with solubles (DDGS) from 192 days of gestation through 118 days of lactation on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, Longissimus muscle (LM) fatty acids and glucose tolerance of male progeny (n = 36). Angus-Simmental heifer dams were fed diets that contained either DDGS (DG) or not (CON) formulated to provide similar daily net energy for gain but differing crude protein. In the feedlot, male progeny were fed a diet devoid of DDGS...
February 9, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183820/sarcolipin-expression-is-not-required-for-the-mitochondrial-enzymatic-response-to-physical-activity-or-diet
#14
Daniel Gamu, Anton Trinh, Val A Farjado, Eric Bombardier, A Russell Tupling
In mice, transgenic manipulation of Ca(2+)-handling proteins is sufficient to alter the metabolic phenotype of muscle. We have previously shown that ablation of sarcolipin (SLN), a regulatory protein and uncoupler of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPases, leads to excessive diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance in mice. However, it is unclear how loss of SLN per se affects muscle oxidative capacity and the ability of mitochondria to adapt to physiological stimuli such as exercise training or calorie overload...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183447/acute-low-dose-endotoxin-treatment-results-in-improved-whole-body-glucose-homeostasis-in-mice
#15
Joseph R Stevens, Ryan P McMillan, Justin T Resendes, Shannon K Lloyd, Mostafa M Ali, Madlyn I Frisard, Stefan Hargett, Susanna R Keller, Matthew W Hulver
BACKGROUND: Obese individuals present with an increased inflammatory tone as compared to healthy, normal-weight individuals, which is associated with insulin resistance. One factor hypothesized to contribute to increased inflammation in obese and diabetic states is elevated blood endotoxin levels, a condition known as metabolic endotoxemia. In non-obese and insulin sensitive individuals, circulating endotoxin concentrations fluctuate over the course of the day with elevations in the post-prandial state that return to baseline levels in the post-absorptive state...
March 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183170/physico-chemical-properties-of-late-incubation-egg-amniotic-fluid-and-a-potential-in-ovo-feed-supplement
#16
Apeh A Omede, Momenuzzaman M Bhuiyan, Fakrul A Islam, Paul A Iji
This study explored the physico-chemical properties of late-incubation egg amniotic fluid and a potential in ovo feed (IOF) supplement. Amniotic fluid was collected from broiler breeders (Ross 308, 51 weeks and Cobb 500, 35 weeks) on day 17 after incubation. A mixture of high-quality soy protein supplement - Hamlet Protein AviStart (HPA) was serially diluted in MilliQ water to obtain solutions ranging from 150 to 9.375 mg/ml. The mixtures were heat-treated (0, 30, 60 minutes) in a waterbath (80 oC) and then centrifuged to obtain supernatants...
January 26, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180061/kinase-suppressor-of-ras-2-ksr2-expression-in-the-brain-regulates-energy-balance-and-glucose-homeostasis
#17
Lili Guo, Diane L Costanzo-Garvey, Deandra R Smith, Beth K Neilsen, Richard G MacDonald, Robert E Lewis
OBJECTIVE: Kinase Suppressor of Ras 2 (KSR2) is a molecular scaffold coordinating Raf/MEK/ERK signaling that is expressed at high levels in the brain. KSR2 disruption in humans and mice causes obesity and insulin resistance. Understanding the anatomical location and mechanism of KSR2 function should lead to a better understanding of physiological regulation over energy balance. METHODS: Mice bearing floxed alleles of KSR2 (KSR2(fl/fl)) were crossed with mice expressing the Cre recombinase expressed by the Nestin promoter (Nes-Cre) to produce Nes-CreKSR2(fl/fl) mice...
February 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179267/obesity-and-pregnancy-mechanisms-of-short-term-and-long-term-adverse-consequences-for-mother-and-child
#18
REVIEW
Patrick M Catalano, Kartik Shankar
Obesity is the most common medical condition in women of reproductive age. Obesity during pregnancy has short term and long term adverse consequences for both mother and child. Obesity causes problems with infertility, and in early gestation it causes spontaneous pregnancy loss and congenital anomalies. Metabolically, obese women have increased insulin resistance in early pregnancy, which becomes manifest clinically in late gestation as glucose intolerance and fetal overgrowth. At term, the risk of cesarean delivery and wound complications is increased...
February 8, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179223/substituting-whole-grains-for-refined-grains-in-a-6-wk-randomized-trial-favorably-affects-energy-balance-metrics-in-healthy-men-and-postmenopausal-women
#19
J Philip Karl, Mohsen Meydani, Junaidah B Barnett, Sally M Vanegas, Barry Goldin, Anne Kane, Helen Rasmussen, Edward Saltzman, Pajau Vangay, Dan Knights, C-Y Oliver Chen, Sai Krupa Das, Satya S Jonnalagadda, Simin N Meydani, Susan B Roberts
Background: The effect of whole grains on the regulation of energy balance remains controversial.Objective: We aimed to determine the effects of substituting whole grains for refined grains, independent of body weight changes, on energy-metabolism metrics and glycemic control.Design: The study was a randomized, controlled, parallel-arm controlled-feeding trial that was conducted in 81 men and postmenopausal women [49 men and 32 women; age range: 40-65 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): <35.0]. After a 2-wk run-in period, participants were randomly assigned to consume 1 of 2 weight-maintenance diets for 6 wk...
February 8, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179004/understanding-the-interplay-of-carbon-and-nitrogen-supply-for-ectoines-production-and-metabolic-overflow-in-high-density-cultures-of-chromohalobacter-salexigens
#20
María J Salar-García, Vicente Bernal, José M Pastor, Manuel Salvador, Montserrat Argandoña, Joaquín J Nieto, Carmen Vargas, Manuel Cánovas
BACKGROUND: The halophilic bacterium Chromohalobacter salexigens has been proposed as promising cell factory for the production of the compatible solutes ectoine and hydroxyectoine. This bacterium has evolved metabolic adaptations to efficiently grow under high salt concentrations by accumulating ectoines as compatible solutes. However, metabolic overflow, which is a major drawback for the efficient conversion of biological feedstocks, occurs as a result of metabolic unbalances during growth and ectoines production...
February 8, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
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