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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645175/perturbation-to-cholesterol-at-the-neuromuscular-junction-confers-botulinum-neurotoxin-a-sensitivity-to-neonatal-mice
#1
Baskaran Thyagarajan, Joseph G Potian, Joseph J McArdle, Padmamalini Baskaran
Botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) cleaves SNAP25 at the motor nerve terminals (MNT) and inhibits stimulus evoked acetylcholine release (SEAR). This causes skeletal muscle paralysis. However, younger neonatal mice (<P7; less than 7 days old) are resistant to the neuroparalytic effects of BoNT/A. That is, in vivo injection of BoNT/A at the innervations of Extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle in the hindlimbs inhibited the toe spread reflex within 24 hours following BoNT/A injection in adult mouse and in older (> P7) neonatal mice younger than 7 days-age remained unaffected by BoNT/A injection...
June 22, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644548/repetitive-peripheral-magnetic-stimulation-for-activities-of-daily-living-and-functional-ability-in-people-after-stroke
#2
REVIEW
Ryo Momosaki, Naoki Yamada, Erika Ota, Masahiro Abo
BACKGROUND: Repetitive peripheral magnetic stimulation (rPMS) is a form of therapy that creates painless stimulation of deep muscle structures to improve motor function in people with physical impairment from brain or nerve disorders. Use of rPMS for people after stroke has been identified as a feasible approach to improve activities of daily living and functional ability. However, no systematic reviews have assessed the findings of available trials. The effect and safety of this intervention for people after stroke currently remain uncertain...
June 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644430/the-clinical-landscape-for-sma-in-a-new-therapeutic-era
#3
REVIEW
K Talbot, E F Tizzano
Despite significant advances in basic research, the treatment of degenerative diseases of the nervous system remains one of the greatest challenges for translational medicine. The childhood onset motor neuron disorder spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) has been viewed as one of the more tractable targets for molecular therapy, due to a detailed understanding of the molecular genetic basis of the disease. In SMA, inactivating mutations in the SMN1 gene can be partially compensated for by limited expression of SMN protein from a variable number of copies of the SMN2 gene, which provides both a molecular explanation for phenotypic severity and a target for therapy...
June 23, 2017: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643890/anatomical-evaluation-of-the-thoracolumbar-nerves-related-to-the-transversus-abdominis-plane-block-technique-in-the-dog
#4
F E Castañeda-Herrera, E F Buriticá-Gaviria, D F Echeverry-Bonilla
Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) is a fascial plane containing the thoracolumbar nerve branches that innervate the abdominal wall. Limited information is available on the anatomical organization of these nerve branches in the dog, which is of great importance for the success of the TAP block anaesthetic technique. The aim of this study was to describe the origin and conformation of thoracolumbar nerves running through the TAP in 20 hemi-abdominal walls of 10 adult mongrel dog cadavers with an average body weight of 12...
June 23, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643050/application-of-transoral-continuous-intraoperative-neuromonitoring-in-natural-orifice-transluminal-endoscopic-surgery-for-thyroid-disease-a-preliminary-study
#5
Han-Kun Chen, Chun-Liang Chen, Kuo-Shan Wen, Yi-Feng Lin, Kai-Yuan Lin, Yih-Huei Uen
BACKGROUND: The novel concept of continuous intraoperative neuromonitoring (Cont-IONM) through stimulation of the vagal nerve has been used in thyroidectomies to prevent imminent injury of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN). This article reports on this technology and the results of using transoral Cont-IONM in natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery for thyroid disease. METHODS: Cont-IONM of the RLN was achieved through automatic cyclical stimulation of the vagal nerve using a C2 monitor and delta stimulating electrode...
June 22, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642652/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-posterior-interosseous-nerve-entrapment-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Marco Aurélio DE Moraes, Rubens Guilherme Gonçalves, João Baptista Gomes Dos Santos, João Carlos Belloti, Flávio Faloppa, Vinícius Ynoe DE Moraes
Compressive syndromes of the radial nerve have different presentations. There is no consensus on diagnostic and therapeutic methods. The aim of this review is to summarize such methods. Eletronic searches related terms, held in databases (1980-2016): Pubmed (via Medline), Lilacs (via Scielo) and Google Scholar. Through pre-defined protocol, we identified relevant studies. We excluded case reports. Aspects of diagnosis and treatment were synthesized for analysis and tables. Quantitative analyzes were followed by their dispersion variables...
January 2017: Acta Ortopedica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642614/ultrasound-mediated-piezoelectric-differentiation-of-neuron-like-pc12-cells-on-pvdf-membranes
#7
Marcus Hoop, Xiang-Zhong Chen, Aldo Ferrari, Fajer Mushtaq, Gagik Ghazaryan, Theo Tervoort, Dimos Poulikakos, Bradley Nelson, Salvador Pané
Electrical and/or electromechanical stimulation has been shown to play a significant role in regenerating various functionalities in soft tissues, such as tendons, muscles, and nerves. In this work, we investigate the piezoelectric polymer polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as a potential substrate for wireless neuronal differentiation. Piezoelectric PVDF enables generation of electrical charges on its surface upon acoustic stimulation, inducing neuritogenesis of PC12 cells. We demonstrate that the effect of pure piezoelectric stimulation on neurite generation in PC12 cells is comparable to the ones induced by neuronal growth factor (NGF)...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642160/a-novel-missense-variant-gln220arg-of-gnb4-encoding-guanine-nucleotide-binding-protein-subunit-beta-4-in-a-japanese-family-with-autosomal-dominant-motor-and-sensory-neuropathy
#8
Shiroh Miura, Takuya Morikawa, Ryuta Fujioka, Kazuhito Noda, Kengo Kosaka, Takayuki Taniwaki, Hiroki Shibata
Dominant intermediate Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease F (CMTDIF) is an autosomal dominant hereditary form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) caused by variations in the guanine nucleotide-binding protein, subunit beta-4 gene (GNB4). We examined two Japanese familial cases with CMT. Case 1 was a 49-year-old male whose chief complaint was slowly progressive gait disturbance and limb dysesthesia that appeared at the age of 47. On neurological examination, he showed hyporeflexia or areflexia, distal limb muscle weakness, and distal sensory impairment with lower dominancy...
June 19, 2017: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640120/working-hand-syndrome-a-new-definition-of-non-classified-polyneuropathy-condition
#9
Gökhan Özdemir
The aim of this paper was to define an unexplained non-classified polyneuropathy condition as a new neurological disease. This new diagnosis of occupation related polyneuropathy has been named as "WORKING HAND SYNDROME (WHS)."This study collected and compared clinic and electrophysiological analyze data from healthy controls, WHS patients, carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patients and polyneuropathy patients. The WHS patients presented to the clinic with pain, numbness, tingling, and burning sensations in their hands that increased significantly during rest and nighttime...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640016/h2o2-induces-muscle-nociception-via-transient-receptor-potential-ankyrin-1-receptors
#10
Daisuke Sugiyama, Sinyoung Kang, Nicholas Arpey, Preeyaphan Arunakul, Yuriy M Usachev, Timothy J Brennan
BACKGROUND: H2O2 has a variety of actions in skin wounds but has been rarely studied in deep muscle tissue. Based on response to the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 antagonists after plantar incision, we hypothesized that H2O2 exerts nociceptive effects via the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 in muscle. METHODS: Nociceptive behaviors in rats (n = 269) and mice (n = 16) were evaluated after various concentrations and volumes of H2O2 were injected into the gastrocnemius muscle or subcutaneous tissue...
June 21, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639940/genetic-specification-of-left-right-asymmetry-in-the-diaphragm-muscles-and-their-motor-innervation
#11
Camille Charoy, Sarah Dinvaut, Yohan Chaix, Laurette Morlé, Isabelle Sanyas, Muriel Bozon, Karine Kindbeiter, Bénédicte Durand, Jennifer M Skidmore, Lies De Groef, Motoaki Seki, Lieve Moons, Christiana Ruhrberg, James F Martin, Donna M Martin, Julien Falk, Valerie Castellani
The diaphragm muscle is essential for breathing in mammals. Its asymmetric elevation during contraction correlates with morphological features suggestive of inherent left-right (L/R) asymmetry. Whether this asymmetry is due to L versus R differences in the muscle or in the phrenic nerve activity is unknown. Here, we have combined the analysis of genetically modified mouse models with transcriptomic analysis to show that both the diaphragm muscle and phrenic nerves have asymmetries, which can be established independently of each other during early embryogenesis in pathway instructed by Nodal, a morphogen that also conveys asymmetry in other organs...
June 22, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638932/-treatment-of-recurrent-laryngeal-nerve-paralysis
#12
A H Müller
Whereas static vocal fold medialization or lateralization are currently the standard procedures, new dynamic treatment methods such as reinnervation and laryngeal pacing focus on better toning and remobilization of the paralyzed vocal folds. End-to-end or jump anastomoses of the recurrent laryngeal nerve can preserve muscle mass and avoid atrophy, thus enabling subsequent dynamic therapeutic options. Prognostic evaluation and the time point of therapeutic intervention are important issues in the management of patients with recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis...
June 20, 2017: HNO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638701/reinnervation-of-denervated-muscle-by-implantation-of-nerve-muscle-endplate-band-graft-to-the-native-motor-zone-of-the-target-muscle
#13
Liancai Mu, Stanislaw Sobotka, Jingming Chen, Themba Nyirenda
INTRODUCTION: Motor endplate reinnervation is critical for restoring motor function of the denervated muscle. We developed a novel surgical technique called nerve-muscle-endplate band grafting (NMEG) for muscle reinnervation. METHODS: Experimentally denervated sternomastoid muscle in the rat was reinnervated by transferring a NMEG from the ipsilateral sternohyoid muscle to the native motor zone (NMZ) of the target muscle. A NMEG pedicle contained a block of muscle (~ 6 × 6 × 3 mm), a nerve branch with axon terminals, and a motor endplate band with numerous neuromuscular junctions...
June 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637996/the-localization-of-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-in-the-human-trigeminal-ganglion-and-masseter-muscle
#14
Yuri Azuma, Iwao Sato
The localization of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is similar to that of a neurotransmitter which indicates masticatory muscle pain in the area of the masseter fascia. CGRP is released from the trigeminal ganglion (TG). The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution of CGRP in the fascia of the masseter muscle (FMM) and TG in a morphometric manner, with respect to the location and density of CGRP-immunopositive reaction fiber (CGRP-IRF). A higher number of the CGRP-IRF were mainly found located around elongated blood vessels and small nerves on the origin side of the middle zone FMM in the O group (presented with occlusion)...
2017: Okajimas Folia Anatomica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637976/coordinated-control-of-the-tongue-during-suckling-like-activity-and-respiration
#15
Tomio Inoue, Kiyomi Nakayama, Yoshiaki Ihara, Satoshi Tachikawa, Shiro Nakamura, Ayako Mochizuki, Koji Takahashi, Takehiko Iijima
The tongue can move freely and is important in oral motor functions. Tongue movement must be coordinated with movement of the hyoid, mandible, and pharyngeal wall, to which it is attached. Our previous study using isolated brainstem-spinal cord preparations showed that application of N-methyl-D-aspartate induces rhythmic activity in the hypoglossal nerve that is coincident with rhythmic activity in the ipsilateral trigeminal motor nerve. Partial or complete midline transection of the preparation only abolishes activity in the trigeminal motor nerve; therefore, the neuronal network contributing to coordinated activity of the jaw/tongue muscles is located on both sides of the preparation and sends motor commands to contralateral trigeminal motoneurons...
2017: Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637788/the-effects-of-neuromodulation-in-a-novel-obese-prone-rat-model-of-detrusor-underactivity
#16
Eric J Gonzalez, Warren M Grill
Obesity is a global epidemic associated with an increased risk for lower urinary tract dysfunction. Inefficient voiding and urinary retention may arise in late-stage obesity when the expulsive force of the detrusor smooth muscle cannot overcome outlet resistance. Detrusor underactivity (DUA) and impaired contractility may contribute to the pathogenesis of non-obstructive urinary retention. We used cystometry and electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves (pudendal and pelvic n.) to characterize and improve bladder function in urethane-anesthetized obese-prone (OP) and obese-resistant (OR) rats following diet-induced obesity (DIO)...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635523/long-term-paired-associative-stimulation-enhances-motor-output-of-the-tetraplegic-hand
#17
Aleksandra Tolmacheva, Sarianna Savolainen, Erika Kirveskari, Pantelis Lioumis, Linda Kuusela, Nina Maria Brandstack, Aarne Ylinen, Jyrki Mäkelä, Anastasia Shulga
A large proportion of spinal cord injuries are incomplete. Even in clinically complete injuries, silent nonfunctional connections can be present. Therapeutic approaches that can strengthen transmission in weak neural connections to improve motor performance are needed. Our aim was to determine whether long-term delivery of paired associative stimulation (PAS, a combination of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS)) can enhance motor output in the hands of patients with chronic traumatic tetraplegia, and to compare this technique with long-term PNS...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635099/effects-of-electronic-device-overuse-by-university-students-in-relation-to-clinical-status-and-anatomical-variations-of-the-median-nerve-and-transverse-carpal-ligament
#18
Eugenia Hoi Chi Woo, Peter White, Christopher Wai Keung Lai
INTRODUCTION: This study investigates the results of a questionnaire, provocative tests, and ultrasonographic measurements of carpal tunnel morphological parameters in intensive and nonintensive electronic device users. METHODS: Forty-eight university students (equal numbers of intensive and nonintensive users, ≥5 h/day and <5 h/day of electronic device usage, respectively) were randomly selected after questionnaire responses were received and evaluated clinically and by ultrasonography...
June 21, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634514/cystic-lesions-of-peripheral-nerves-are-we-missing-the-diagnosis-of-the-intraneural-ganglion-cyst
#19
Jyoti Panwar, Anil Mathew, Binu P Thomas
AIM: To highlight the salient magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of the intraneural ganglion cyst (INGC) of various peripheral nerves for their precise diagnosis and to differentiate them from other intra and extra-neural cystic lesions. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the magnetic resonance (MR) images of a cohort of 245 patients presenting with nerve palsy involving different peripheral nerves was done. MR images were analyzed for the presence of a nerve lesion, and if found, it was further characterized as solid or cystic...
May 28, 2017: World Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632904/ngf-and-fgf-2-promote-reinnervation-by-nerve-muscle-endplate-grafting
#20
Liancai Mu, Stanislaw Sobotka, Jingming Chen, Themba Nyirenda
INTRODUCTION: This study was designed to test whether exogenous application of nerve growth factor (NGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) to muscles reinnervated with nerve-muscle-endplate band grafting (NMEG) could promote specific outcomes. METHODS: The right sternomastoid muscle in adult rats was experimentally denervated and immediately reinnervated by implanting a NMEG pedicle from the ipsilateral sternohyoid muscle. A fibrin sealant containing NGF and FGF-2 was focally applied to the implantation site...
June 20, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
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