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Muscle and nerve

Kyoung-Sim Jung, Jin-Hwa Jung, Tae-Sung In, Hwi-Young Cho
This study investigated the effects of weight-shifting exercise (WSE) combined with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), applied to the erector spinae and external oblique (EO) muscles, on muscle activity and trunk control in patients with hemiparetic stroke. Sixty patients with stroke were recruited to this study and randomly distributed into three treatment groups: (1) WSE + TENS, (2) WSE + placebo TENS, and (3) control. All participants underwent 30 sessions of training (30 minutes five times per week for 6 weeks) and received 1 hour of conventional physical therapy five times per week for 6 weeks...
October 17, 2016: Occupational Therapy International
Ashraf Raslan, Gerd Fabian Volk, Martin Möller, Vincent Stark, Nikolas Eckhardt, Orlando Guntinas-Lichius
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To examine by intraoperative electric stimulation which peripheral facial nerve (FN) branches are functionally connected to which facial muscle functions. STUDY DESIGN: Single-center prospective clinical study. METHODS: Seven patients whose peripheral FN branching was exposed during parotidectomy under FN monitoring received a systematic electrostimulation of each branch starting with 0.1 mA and stepwise increase to 2 mA with a frequency of 3 Hz...
October 18, 2016: Laryngoscope
D Francomano, A Ilacqua, A Cortese, G Tartaglia, A Lenzi, M Inghilleri, A Aversa
PURPOSE: Men affected by multiple sclerosis often experience neurogenic overactive bladder (OAB), lower urinary tract symptoms and erectile dysfunction (ED). The aim of the study was to investigate modifications of urinary and sexual functions after administration of daily tadalafil (TAD) 5 mg. METHODS: Twenty men were enrolled in a single-blind, 4-week prospective study while 10 men without treatment served as controls. Primary outcomes were changes from baseline of International Prostate Symptom (IPSS), OAB questionnaire (OAB-q-short form) and International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) scores...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
Sandeep Kumar, Gerald Pflueger
Femoral nerve neuropathy after total hip arthroplasty is rare but catastrophic complication. Pain and quadriceps muscle weakness caused by this complication can significantly affect the functional outcome. Here we present a case report, describing delayed onset femoral nerve palsy associated with iliopsoas hematoma following pseudoaneurysm of a branch of profunda femoris artery after 3 months of primary total hip arthroplasty in an 80-year-old female patient with single kidney. Hip arthroplasty was done for painful primary osteoarthritis of left hip...
2016: Case Reports in Orthopedics
Susana Pinto, Pedro Alves, Michael Swash, Mamede de Carvalho
AIMS OF THE STUDY: To compare the assessment of respiratory decline with conventional tests, measurement of diaphragm compound muscle action potential (CMAP) to phrenic nerve stimulation and diaphragm thickness to ultrasound (US) investigation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients followed for a short period of time. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We evaluated in 40 consecutive ALS patients, the clinical functional scale (ALSFRS-R), forced vital capacity (FVC), maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV), maximal inspiratory (MIP) and expiratory (MEP) pressures, sniff nasal inspiratory pressure (SNIP), Diaphragm-CMAP (latency and amplitude) and diaphragm US (maximal and minimal diaphragm thickness during full inspiration and expiration, respectively)...
October 14, 2016: Neurophysiologie Clinique, Clinical Neurophysiology
Fariba Eslamian, Bina Eftekharsadat, Arash Babaei-Ghazani, Fateme Jahanjoo, Mojgan Zeinali
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to compare the clinical and electrodiagnostic efficacy of ultrasound (US) guided vs. landmark (LM) guided steroid injections in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). METHODS: This randomized clinical trial included 47 patients (60 affected hands) with moderate CTS (30 hands in each group). All clinically suspected CTS patients who met the inclusion criteria confirmed by electrodiagnostic tests were enrolled. The subjects received 40mg of methylprednisolone either with the US-guide or the LM -guide injection technique...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Alon Abraham, Aaron Izenberg, Dubravka Dodig, Vera Bril, Ari Breiner
PURPOSE: Neuralgic amyotrophy is characterized by acute or subacute onset of shoulder and arm pain, followed by muscle atrophy and weakness, and variable sensory abnormalities. Historically, the site of inflammation has been localized to the brachial plexus, although the involvement of individual nerve branches has been well recognized. METHODS: We describe ultrasound findings in two cases with a clinical presentation suggestive of neuralgic amyotrophy, involving individual peripheral nerves, correlating with clinical and electrophysiological findings...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Paulo Domingos Ribeiro-Junior, Ricardo Alexandre Galdioli Senko, Gabriel Cury Batista Mendes, Fernando Gianzanti Peres
Facial nerve has great functional and aesthetic importance to the face, and damage to its structure can lead to major complications. This article reports a clinical case of neuroanastomosis of the facial nerve after facial trauma, describing surgical procedure and postoperative follow-up. A trauma patient with extensive injury cut in right mandibular body causing neurotmesis of the VIIth cranial nerve and mandibular angle fracture right side was treated. During surgical exploration, the nerve segments were identified and a neuroanastomosis was performed using nylon 10-0, after reduction and internal fixation of the mandibular fracture...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Akshansh Gupta, Dhirendra Kumar
A brain computer interface (BCI) is a communication system by which a person can send messages or requests for basic necessities without using peripheral nerves and muscles. Response to mental task-based BCI is one of the privileged areas of investigation. Electroencephalography (EEG) signals are used to represent the brain activities in the BCI domain. For any mental task classification model, the performance of the learning model depends on the extraction of features from EEG signal. In literature, wavelet transform and empirical mode decomposition are two popular feature extraction methods used to analyze a signal having non-linear and non-stationary property...
September 3, 2016: Brain Informatics
Aris Koryllos, Astrid Althaus, Marcel Poels, Robin Joppich, Rolf Lefering, Frank Wappler, Wolfram Windisch, Corinna Ludwig, Erich Stoelben
BACKGROUND: Thoracotomy leads to chronic neuropathic pain in up to 50% of patients and is responsible for an impaired quality of life. Intercostal nerve injury has been suggested to be responsible for this pain. In the present study the impact of paravertebral intercostal neurectomy on post thoracotomy pain was assessed. METHODS: In this single center parallel-group randomized controlled trial patients underwent muscle sparing anterolateral thoracotomy and anatomical lung resection for lung cancer...
September 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Abdurrahman Emir, Yıldıray Kalkan, Habib Bostan
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the histopathological effects of metamizole sodium (MS) on the sciatic nerve. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was performed using 48 adult male Wistar albino rats. Ten groups were constituted with 6 rats in each group. MS injection into the sciatic nerve (group 1), MS injection into the muscle [group 3 (50 mg/kg, 0.4 ml) and group 5 (50 mg/kg, 0.8 ml)], MS injection into the muscle cavity in the vicinity of the sciatic nerve [group 2 (50 mg/kg, 0...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Andrea Marchi, Vlasta Bari, Beatrice De Maria, Murray Esler, Elisabeth Lambert, Mathias Baumert, Alberto Porta
We propose a sympathetic baroreflex (sBR) sequence method for characterizing sBR from spontaneous beat-to-beat fluctuations of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and diastolic arterial pressure (DAP). The method exploits a previously defined MSNA variability quantifying the fluctuations of MSNA burst rate. The method is based on the detection of MSNA and DAP sequences characterized by the contemporaneous DAP increase and MSNA decrease or vice versa. The percentage of sBR sequences (SEQ%sBR) was taken as an indication of the degree of sBR solicitation and the average slope of the regression lines in the (DAP, MSNA) plane was taken as sBR sensitivity (sBRSSEQ) and expressed in bursts(...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Athanasios Raikos, Thomas English, Omar Khalid Yousif, Mandeep Sandhu, Allan Stirling
PURPOSE: The great auricular point (GAP) marks the exit of the great auricular nerve at the posterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM). It is a key landmark for the identification of the spinal accessory nerve, and its intraoperative localization is vital to avoid neurological sequelae. This study delineates the topography and surface anatomy landmarks that used to localize the GAP. METHODS: Thirty cadaveric heminecks were dissected on a layer-by-layer approach...
October 15, 2016: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Joana F Sacramento, Maria J Ribeiro, Tiago Rodrigues, Elena Olea, Bernardete F Melo, Maria P Guarino, Rui Fonseca-Pinto, Cristiana R Ferreira, Joana Coelho, Ana Obeso, Raquel Seiça, Paulo Matafome, Sílvia V Conde
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We recently described that carotid body (CB) over-activation is involved in the aetiology of insulin resistance and arterial hypertension in animal models of the metabolic syndrome. Additionally, we have demonstrated that CB activity is increased in animal models of insulin resistance, and that carotid sinus nerve (CSN) resection prevents the development of insulin resistance and arterial hypertension induced by high-energy diets. Here, we tested whether the functional abolition of CB by CSN transection would reverse pre-established insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, obesity, autonomic dysfunction and hypertension in animal models of the metabolic syndrome...
October 16, 2016: Diabetologia
Maarika Liik, Anna Rostedt Punga
OBJECTIVE: We assessed the diagnostic pattern of repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS) test and concentric electrode (CNE) jitter analysis between patients with generalized myasthenia gravis (GMG) with acute versus slow onset. METHODS: All examinations that established the diagnosis of GMG at the department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Uppsala University Hospital, were retrospectively analyzed from January 2012 to December 2014. Patients were grouped according to disease duration at neurophysiological evaluation: acute onset (<4weeks) or slow onset (⩾4weeks)...
October 3, 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Y S Prakash
Airway structure and function are key aspects of normal lung development, growth and aging, as well as of lung responses to the environment and the pathophysiology of important diseases such as asthma, COPD and fibrosis. In this regard, the contributions of airway smooth muscle (ASM) are both functional, in the context of airway contractility and relaxation, as well as synthetic, involving production and modulation of extracellular components, modulation of the local immune environment, cellular contribution to airway structure, and finally, interactions with other airway cell types such as epithelium, fibroblasts and nerves...
October 14, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Hideki Urano, Katsuyuki Iwatsuki, Michiro Yamamoto, Tetsuro Ohnisi, Shigeru Kurimoto, Nobuyuki Endo, Hitoshi Hirata
We developed a novel hydrogel derived from sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) in which phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) was introduced into the carboxyl groups of CMC to prevent perineural adhesions. This hydrogel has previously shown excellent anti-adhesive effects even after aggressive internal neurolysis in a rat model. Here, we confirmed the effects of the hydrogel on morphological and physiological recovery after nerve decompression. We prepared a rat model of chronic sciatic nerve compression using silicone tubing...
2016: PloS One
Eva Placheta, Ines Tinhofer, Melanie Schmid, Lukas F Reissig, Igor Pona, Wolfgang Weninger, Thomas Rath, David Chwei-Chin Chuang, Chieh-Han John Tzou
INTRODUCTION: Facial reanimation surgery is performed in severe cases of facial palsy to restore facial function. In a 1-stage procedure, the spinal accessory nerve can be used as a donor nerve to power a free gracilis muscle transplant for the reanimation of the mouth. The aim of this study was to describe the surgical anatomy of the spinal accessory nerve, provide a guide for reliable donor nerve dissection, and analyze the available donor axon counts. METHODS: Dissections were performed on 10 nonembalmed cadavers (measurements of 20 nerves)...
October 6, 2016: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Bethel C A Osuagwu, Leslie Wallace, Mathew Fraser, Aleksandra Vuckovic
OBJECTIVE: To compare neurological and functional outcomes between two groups of hospitalised patients with subacute tetraplegia. APPROACH: Seven patients received 20 sessions of brain computer interface (BCI) controlled functional electrical stimulation (FES) while five patients received the same number of sessions of passive FES for both hands. The neurological assessment measures were event related desynchronization (ERD) during movement attempt, Somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) of the ulnar and median nerve; assessment of hand function involved the range of motion (ROM) of wrist and manual muscle test...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
Kai Hou, Huiyi Wang, Yunyin Lin, Shaohua Chen, Shengyuan Yang, Yanhua Cheng, Benjamin S Hsiao, Meifang Zhu
Hydrogel microfibers have been considered as a potential biomaterial to spatiotemporally biomimic 1D native tissues such as nerves and muscles which are always assembled hierarchically and have anisotropic response to external stimuli. To produce facile hydrogel microfibers in a mathematical manner, a novel dynamic-crosslinking-spinning (DCS) method is demonstrated for direct fabrication of size-controllable fibers from poly(ethylene glycol diacrylate) oligomer in large scale, without microfluidic template and in a biofriendly environment...
October 14, 2016: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
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