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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094782/cocaine-enhances-dc-to-t-cell-hiv-1-transmission-by-activating-dc-sign-larg-lsp1-complex-and-facilitating-infectious-synapse-formation
#1
Anil Prasad, Rutuja Kulkarni, Shuxian Jiang, Jerome E Groopman
DC-SIGN is a dendritic cell surface structure which participates in binding and transmission of HIV-1. Here, for the first time we demonstrate that cocaine induces over expression of DC-SIGN and significantly enhances virus transfer from DCs to T-cells by increasing the binding and internalization of HIV-1 in DCs. We found that cocaine activates a DC-SIGN mediated 'signalosome' complex by enhancing its association with LARG and LSP1. Further, LARG was observed to participate in DC-SIGN mediated internalization of HIV-1 in DCs...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091804/baseline-results-from-the-uk-signify-study-a-whole-body-mri-screening-study-in-tp53-mutation-carriers-and-matched-controls
#2
Sibel Saya, Emma Killick, Sarah Thomas, Natalie Taylor, Elizabeth K Bancroft, Jeanette Rothwell, Sarah Benafif, Alexander Dias, Christos Mikropoulos, Jenny Pope, Anthony Chamberlain, Ranga Gunapala, Louise Izatt, Lucy Side, Lisa Walker, Susan Tomkins, Jackie Cook, Julian Barwell, Vicki Wiles, Lauren Limb, Diana Eccles, Martin O Leach, Susan Shanley, Fiona J Gilbert, Helen Hanson, David Gallagher, Bala Rajashanker, Richard W Whitehouse, Dow-Mu Koh, S Aslam Sohaib, D Gareth Evans, Rosalind A Eeles
In the United Kingdom, current screening guidelines for TP53 germline mutation carriers solely recommends annual breast MRI, despite the wide spectrum of malignancies typically seen in this group. This study sought to investigate the role of one-off non-contrast whole-body MRI (WB MRI) in the screening of asymptomatic TP53 mutation carriers. 44 TP53 mutation carriers and 44 population controls were recruited. Scans were read by radiologists blinded to participant carrier status. The incidence of malignancies diagnosed in TP53 mutation carriers against general population controls was calculated...
January 16, 2017: Familial Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089486/molecular-genetics-of-human-obesity-a-comprehensive-review
#3
Rajan Kumar Singh, Permendra Kumar, Kulandaivelu Mahalingam
Obesity and its related health complications is a major problem worldwide. Hypothalamus and their signalling molecules play a critical role in the intervening and coordination with energy balance and homeostasis. Genetic factors play a crucial role in determining an individual's predisposition to the weight gain and being obese. In the past few years, several genetic variants were identified as monogenic forms of human obesity having success over common polygenic forms. In the context of molecular genetics, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) approach and their findings signified a number of genetic variants predisposing to obesity...
January 12, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086767/quantifying-traditional-chinese-medicine-patterns-using-modern-test-theory-an-example-of-functional-constipation
#4
Minxue Shen, Yuanwu Cui, Ming Hu, Linyong Xu
BACKGROUND: The study aimed to validate a scale to assess the severity of "Yin deficiency, intestine heat" pattern of functional constipation based on the modern test theory. METHODS: Pooled longitudinal data of 237 patients with "Yin deficiency, intestine heat" pattern of constipation from a prospective cohort study were used to validate the scale. Exploratory factor analysis was used to examine the common factors of items. A multidimensional item response model was used to assess the scale with the presence of multidimensionality...
January 13, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081005/mechanical-properties-and-failure-behavior-of-phosphorene-with-grain-boundaries
#5
V Sorkin, Y W Zhang
Using the density-functional tight-binding method, we studied the effect of grain boundaries on the mechanical properties and failure behavior of phosphorene. We found that the high-angle tilt boundaries with a higher density of (5∣7) defect pairs (oriented along the armchair direction) are stronger than the low-angle tilt boundaries with a lower defect density, and similarly the high-angle boundaries with a higher density of (4∣8) defect pairs (oriented along the zigzag direction) are stronger than the low-angle boundaries with a lower defect density...
January 12, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079146/nitrosative-stress-induced-disruption-of-baroreflex-neural-circuits-in-a-rat-model-of-hepatic-encephalopathy-a-dti-study
#6
Ching-Yi Tsai, Chia-Hao Su, Julie Y H Chan, Samuel H H Chan
The onset of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) in liver failure is associated with high mortality; the underlying mechanism is undecided. Here we report that in an acute liver failure model employing intraperitoneal administration of thioacetamide in Sprague-Dawley rats, diffusion weighted imaging revealed a progressive reduction in apparent diffusion coefficient in the brain stem. Diffusion tensor imaging further showed that the connectivity between nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS), the terminal site of baroreceptor afferents in brain stem and rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), the origin of sympathetic innervation of blood vessels, was progressively disrupted until its disappearance, coincidental with the irreversible cessation of baroreflex-mediated sympathetic vasomotor tone signifying clinically the occurrence of brain death...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078538/the-sleep-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-what-we-know-until-now
#7
REVIEW
Maryam Moosavi, Gholam Reza Hatam
Sleep, as one of the most important requirements of our brain, has a mystical nature. Despite long-standing studies, the molecular mechanisms and physiological properties of sleep have not been defined well as the complexity of the mammals' brain make it difficult to investigate the mechanisms and properties of sleep. Although some features of sleep have changed during evolution, its existence in such a simple animal, Caenorhabditis elegans, not only signifies the importance of sleep in even simple animals, but also allows the scientist to assess the core mechanism and biological events in an uncomplicated organism...
January 11, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077713/reversible-disruption-of-neuronal-mitochondria-by-ischemic-and-traumatic-injury-revealed-by-quantitative-two-photon-imaging-in-the-neocortex-of-anesthetized-mice
#8
Mikhail Kislin, Jeremy Sword, Ioulia V Fomitcheva, Deborah Croom, Evgeny Pryazhnikov, Eero Lihavainen, Dmytro Toptunov, Heikki Rauvala, Andre S Ribeiro, Leonard Khiroug, Sergei A Kirov
: Mitochondria play a variety of functional roles in cortical neurons, from metabolic support and neuroprotection to the release of cytokines that trigger apoptosis. In dendrites, mitochondrial structure is closely linked to their function, and fragmentation (fission) of the normally elongated mitochondria indicates loss of their function under pathological conditions, such as stroke and brain trauma. Using in vivo two-photon microscopy in mouse brain, we quantified mitochondrial fragmentation in a full spectrum of cortical injuries, ranging from severe to mild...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071634/place-of-birth-and-risk-of-gallbladder-cancer-in-india
#9
S S Mhatre, R T Nagrani, A Budukh, S Chiplunkar, R Badwe, P Patil, M Laversanne, P Rajaraman, F Bray, R Dikshit
CONTEXT: Within India, the incidence of gallbladder cancer (GBC) is characterized by marked geographical variation; however, the reasons for these differences are unclear. AIMS: To evaluate the role of place of birth, length of residence, and effect of migration from high- to low-risk region on GBC development. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Population-based cancer registries (PBCRs); case-control study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Data of PBCRs were used to demonstrate geographical variation in GBC incidence rates...
April 2016: Indian Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069534/genetic-spatial-structure-of-an-anchialine-cave-annelid-indicates-connectivity-within-but-not-between-islands-of-the-great-bahama-bank
#10
Brett C Gonzalez, Alejandro Martínez, Elizabeth Borda, Thomas M Iliffe, Diego Fontaneto, Katrine Worsaae
Land-locked anchialine blue holes are karstic sinkholes and caves with tidally influenced, vertically stratified water bodies that harbor endemic fauna exhibiting variable troglomorphic features. These habitats represent island-like systems, which can serve to elucidate evolutionary and biogeographic processes at local scales. We investigated whether the 'continuous spelean corridor' hypothesis may elucidate the biogeographical distributions of the stygobitic annelid Pelagomacellicephala iliffei (Polynoidae) collected from the Great Bahama and Caicos Banks of the Bahamas Archipelago...
January 6, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069521/validity-of-simplified-versus-standard-self-report-measures-of-pain-intensity-in-preschool-aged-children-undergoing-venipuncture
#11
Anthony Emmott, Nicholas West, Guohai Zhou, Dustin Dunsmuir, Carolyne J Montgomery, Gillian R Lauder, Carl L von Baeyer
: There is inadequate age-specific data to support the use of current self-report pain scales in 3- and 4-year-old children. Most preschool-aged children also lack the necessary cognitive development to use standard scales. We aimed to evaluate the validity and feasibility of two novel simplified scales (Simplified Faces Pain Scale, S-FPS; Simplified Concrete Ordinal Scale, S-COS) for preschool-aged children. These simplified scales used a two-step self-report method: children were first asked whether they have pain (yes/no); only if yes, then pain intensity was self-reported using a 3-point scale with visual aids signifying mild/moderate/severe...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068879/electrospun-template-architecture-and-composition-regulate-neutrophil-netosis-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#12
Allison E Fetz, Indira Neeli, Isaac A Rodriguez, Marko Z Radic, Gary Bowlin
Mounting evidence indicates that neutrophils, first responders to an implanted biomaterial, prime the microenvironment for recruited immune cells by secreting factors and releasing neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) through NETosis. In this study, we investigated the role of electrospun template architecture and composition in regulating NETosis. Electrospun polydioxanone (PDO), collagen type I (COL), and blended PDO-COL templates (PC) were fabricated with small (0.25-0.35µm) and large (1.0-2.00µm) diameter fibers...
January 9, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061483/amphiphilic-copolymers-reduce-aggregation-of-unfolded-lysozyme-more-effectively-than-polyethylene-glycol
#13
Jaemin Chin, Devkumar Mustafi, Michael Poellmann, Raphael Lee
Certain amphiphilic block copolymers are known to prevent aggregation of unfolded proteins. To better understand the mechanism of this effect, the optical properties of heat-denatured and dithiothreitol (DTT) reduced lysozyme were evaluated with respect to controls using UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and circular dichroism (CD) measurements. Then, the effects of adding Polyethylene Glycol (8000 Da), the triblock surfactant Poloxamer 188 (P188), and the tetrablock copolymer Tetronic 1107 (T1107) to the lysozyme solution were compared...
January 6, 2017: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060885/antibodies-targeting-closely-adjacent-or-minimally-overlapping-epitopes-can-displace-one-another
#14
Yasmina Noubia Abdiche, Andy Yik Yeung, Irene Ni, Donna Stone, Adam Miles, Winse Morishige, Andrea Rossi, Pavel Strop
Here we describe how real-time label-free biosensors can be used to identify antibodies that compete for closely adjacent or minimally overlapping epitopes on their specific antigen via a mechanism of antibody displacement. By kinetically perturbing one another's binding towards their antigen via the formation of a transient trimolecular complex, antibodies can displace one another in a fully reversible and dose-dependent manner. Displacements can be readily identified when epitope binning assays are performed in a classical sandwich assay format whereby a solution antibody (analyte) is tested for binding to its antigen that is first captured via an immobilized antibody (ligand) because an inverted sandwiching response is observed when an analyte displaces a ligand, signifying the antigen's unusually rapid dissociation from its ligand...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060538/persistent-albuminuria-as-a-surrogate-marker-of-chronic-kidney-damage-among-newly-diagnosed-hypertensives-prevalence-and-risk-factors-in-an-urban-population-in-karachi-pakistan
#15
Muslima Ejaz, Ejaz Ahmed, Muhammed Mubarak, Juanita Hatcher, Tazeen Jaffar
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a major public health problem worldwide and a key factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD). Detection and treatment of CKD is of paramount importance. Albuminuria is one of the earliest screening markers recommended in patients at increased risk for CKD. OBJECTIVE: We conducted this study to determine the prevalence of persistent albuminuria (PA) in newly diagnosed hypertensive subjects and to study its associated risk factors. METHODS: A total of 173 (72%) of 240 subjects among 1340 newly diagnosed hypertensive subjects from an ongoing community-based cohort study who had been screened once for the presence of albuminuria were retested for the presence of PA in this study...
January 6, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050775/neuroprotective-efficacy-of-mitochondrial-antioxidant-mitoq-in-suppressing-peroxynitrite-mediated-mitochondrial-dysfunction-inflicted-by-lead-toxicity-in-the-rat-brain
#16
Arpan Kumar Maiti, Nimai Chandra Saha, Sunil S More, Ashish Kumar Panigrahi, Goutam Paul
Lead (Pb) is one of the most pollutant metals that accumulate in the brain mitochondria disrupting mitochondrial structure and function. Though oxidative stress mediated by reactive oxygen species remains the most accepted mechanism of Pb neurotoxicity, some reports suggest the involvement of nitric oxide ((•)NO) and reactive nitrogen species in Pb-induced neurotoxicity. But the impact of Pb neurotoxicity on mitochondrial respiratory enzyme complexes remains unknown with no relevant report highlighting the involvement of peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) in it...
January 3, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050501/assessment-of-dental-nutrition-knowledge-among-nutrition-dietetics-students
#17
Salil Bapat, Kailash Asawa, Nagesh Bhat, Mridula Tak, Vivek V Gupta, Pulkit Chaturvedi, Hemasha Daryani, Kushal Shinde
INTRODUCTION: Diet and nutrition plays an important role in signifying the health of an individual. Oral health is the most important aspect of the body when it comes to food intake and its health benefits. It is important for the nutrition/dietetics students to be aware of the health modalities related to oral aspect. AIM: The aim of the present study was to assess knowledge towards the effect of diet and nutrition on oral health among nutrition/dietetics students of Udaipur city, Rajasthan, India...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050357/evaluation-of-biochemical-markers-serum-amylase-and-serum-lipase-for-the-assessment-of-pancreatic-exocrine-function-in-diabetes-mellitus
#18
Mahesh Basavaraj Madole, Chandrashekhar M Iyer, Mamatha Thimmanna Madivalar, Satish Kishanrao Wadde, Deepak Sadashiv Howale
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes mellitus (DM), a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycaemia, associated with deficiency or resistance to insulin indicates endocrinal abnormality of the pancreas. Amylase and lipase are enzymes secreted by the exocrine portion of the pancreas. Endocrinal derangement observed in diabetes may interfere with the exocrine function of the pancreas. AIM: To estimate the levels of fasting blood sugar, serum lipase, serum amylase in patients of type 1 and type 2 DM...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046427/su-g-jep3-13-use-of-volumetric-indices-to-study-the-viability-of-respiratory-gating-in-conjunction-with-abdominal-compression-in-the-management-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-tumors-using-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-under-the-conditions-of-controlled
#19
H Malhotra, J Gomez
PURPOSE: AAPM TG-76 report advises lung patients experiencing tumor motion >5mm to use some form of motion management with even smaller limit for complex/special procedures like SBRT. Generally, either respiratory gating or abdominal compression is used for motion management. In this retrospective study, we are using an innovative index, Volumetric Indices (VI) = (GTVnn AND GTV50+ Xmm)/(GTVnn) to quantify how much of the tumor remains within 1, 2, and 3mm margins throughout the breathing cycle using GTV50+ Xmm margin on GTV50 [nn=0,10,20,…90]...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045259/structure-of-mixtures-of-water-and-methanol-derived-from-their-cohesive-energy-densities-and-internal-pressures-from-subambient-temperatures-to-473-k
#20
Yizhak Marcus
The cohesive energy densities, ced, and the internal pressures, Pint, of aqueous methanol mixtures are calculated from literature data for the entire composition range over a temperature range of 273-473 K, at saturation pressures up to 373 K and at 7.0 MPa above this temperature. Ratios Pint/ced are measures of the "structuredness" of the studied fluids, and the small values noted signify "tight" structures, due to hydrogen bonding. The "tighter" the structure, the larger is the surface tension of the mixtures (at 298...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
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