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Dysfunctional beliefs

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472528/internet-and-in-person-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-insomnia-in-military-personnel-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#1
Daniel J Taylor, Alan L Peterson, Kristi E Pruiksma, Stacey Young-McCaughan, Karin Nicholson, Jim Mintz
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Compare in-person and unguided Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTi) with a minimal contact control condition in military personnel. METHODS: A 3-arm parallel randomized clinical trial of 100 active duty US Army personnel at Fort Hood, Texas. Internet and in-person CBTi were comparable, except for the delivery format. The control condition consisted of phone call assessments. RESULTS: Internet and in-person CBTi both performed significantly better than the control condition on diary-assessed sleep efficiency (d = 0...
May 4, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469590/dysfunctional-metacognitive-beliefs-are-associated-with-decreased-executive-control
#2
Brage Kraft, Rune Jonassen, Tore C Stiles, Nils I Landrø
Dysfunctional metacognitive beliefs ("metacognitions") and executive control are important factors in mental disorders such as depression and anxiety, but the relationship between these concepts has not been studied systematically. We examined whether there is an association between metacognitions and executive control and hypothesized that decreased executive control statistically predicts increased levels of metacognitions. Two hundred and ninety-nine individuals recruited from the general population and outpatient psychiatric clinics completed the Metacognitions Questionnaire-30 and three subtests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery corresponding to the three-component model of executive functions...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459272/a-longitudinal-study-of-the-aftermath-of-rape-among-rural-south-african-women
#3
Gail E Wyatt, Mashudu Davhana-Maselesele, Muyu Zhang, Lauren H Wong, Fiona Nicholson, Alissa Der Sarkissian, Lufuno Makhado, Hector F Myers
OBJECTIVE: Sexual assaults against women are a global health crisis, with alarmingly high rates in South Africa. However, we know very little about the circumstances and the aftermath of these experiences. Further, there is limited information about how factors specific to the rape (e.g., fighting back) versus those that are specific to the individual-and potentially modifiable-influence mental health outcomes. This study examined how situational characteristics of rape as well as individual and situational factors confer risk for symptoms of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and dysfunctional sexual behavior at 12-month follow-up...
May 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450708/elevated-free-triiodothyronine-may-lead-to-female-sexual-dysfunction-in-chinese-urban-women-a-hospital-based-survey
#4
Han Luo, Hongliu Yang, Wanjun Zhao, Qianqian Han, Li Zeng, Huairong Tang, Jingqiang Zhu
Research on female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is limited, especially in China, due to conservative culture and beliefs. There has been a dearth of FSD screening research in China since the optimal cutoff value of the Chinese version of the Female Sexual Function Index (CVFSFI) was determined in 2014. At the same time, the relationship between thyroid hormones and FSD has seldom been explored in Chinese women. Therefore, hospital-based research was conducted to elucidate FSD frequency and risk factors. Women who underwent a check-up at the Health Promotion Center were approached to participate and, if consented, were enrolled in the study...
April 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448827/dopamine-cognitive-biases-and-assessment-of-certainty-a-neurocognitive-model-of-delusions
#5
REVIEW
Annabel Broyd, Ryan P Balzan, Todd S Woodward, Paul Allen
This paper examines the evidence that delusions can be explained within the framework of a neurocognitive model of how the brain assesses certainty. Here, 'certainty' refers to both low-level interpretations of one's environment and high-level (conscious) appraisals of one's beliefs and experiences. A model is proposed explaining how the brain systems responsible for assigning certainty might dysfunction, contributing to the cause and maintenance of delusional beliefs. It is suggested that delusions arise through a combination of perturbed striatal dopamine and aberrant salience as well as cognitive biases such as the tendency to jump to conclusions (JTC) and hypersalience of evidence-hypothesis matches...
April 18, 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429623/schema-therapy-for-personality-disorders-in-older-adults-a-multiple-baseline-study
#6
Arjan C Videler, Sebastiaan P J van Alphen, Rita J J van Royen, Christina M van der Feltz-Cornelis, Gina Rossi, Arnoud Arntz
OBJECTIVE: No studies have been conducted yet into the effectiveness of treatment of personality disorders in later life. This study is a first test of the effectiveness of schema therapy for personality disorders in older adults. METHOD: Multiple-baseline design with eight cluster C personality disorder patients, with a mean age of   69. After a baseline phase with random length, schema therapy was given during the first year, followed by follow-up sessions during six months...
April 21, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424054/an-unusual-delusion-of-duplication-in-a-patient-affected-by-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#7
Paolo Solla, Gioia Mura, Antonino Cannas, Gianluca Floris, Davide Fonti, Gianni Orofino, Mauro Giovanni Carta, Francesco Marrosu
BACKGROUND: Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is the second most frequent diagnosis of progressive degenerative dementia in older people. Delusions are common features in DLB and, among them, Capgras syndrome represents the most frequent disturbance, characterized by the recurrent and transient belief that a familiar person, often a close family member or caregiver, has been replaced by an identical-looking imposter. However, other delusional conditions near to misidentification syndromes can occur in DLB patients and may represent a major psychiatric disorder, although rarely studied systematically...
April 19, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423044/the-long-term-outcome-of-micturition-defecation-and-sexual-function-after-spinal-surgery-for-cauda-equina-syndrome
#8
Nina S Korse, Anna B Veldman, Wilco C Peul, Carmen L A Vleggeert-Lankamp
BACKGROUND: Cauda equina syndrome (CES) is a rare neurologic complication of lumbar herniated disc for which emergency surgical decompression should be undertaken. Despite the common belief that the restoration of functions that are affected by CES can take several years postoperatively, follow up seldom exceeds the first year after surgery. Long term outcome of especially micturition, defecation and sexual function-which are by definition affected in CES-are unknown. The aim of this study is to evaluate 1) postoperative long term outcome of micturition, defecation and sexual function in CES patients 2) attitude of patients towards received hospital care with regard to (recovery of) these functions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400355/mobile-phone-delivered-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-insomnia-a-randomized-waitlist-controlled-trial
#9
Corine Hg Horsch, Jaap Lancee, Fiemke Griffioen-Both, Sandor Spruit, Siska Fitrianie, Mark A Neerincx, Robbert Jan Beun, Willem-Paul Brinkman
BACKGROUND: This study is one of the first randomized controlled trials investigating cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) delivered by a fully automated mobile phone app. Such an app can potentially increase the accessibility of insomnia treatment for the 10% of people who have insomnia. OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to investigate the efficacy of CBT-I delivered via the Sleepcare mobile phone app, compared with a waitlist control group, in a randomized controlled trial...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392697/comparing-the-ability-of-cognitive-and-affective-theory-of-mind-in-adolescent-onset-schizophrenia
#10
Dandan Li, Xiaosi Li, Fengqiong Yu, Xingui Chen, Long Zhang, Dan Li, Qiang Wei, Qing Zhang, Chunyan Zhu, Kai Wang
BACKGROUND: Evidence in the literature suggests that there is an impairment of social cognition in schizophrenia. Theory of Mind (ToM) is defined as one's ability to understand others' wishes, beliefs, intentions, and other psychological states and thereby to judge others' behavior, as an essential component of social cognition. However, there have been limited studies on social cognition, especially ToM in adolescent onset schizophrenia (AOS). The current study aims to investigate ToM abilities in adolescent schizophrenia according to various ToM subcomponents (cognitive ToM and affective ToM) and various ToM orders (first order and second order)...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382469/mesenchymal-stem-cell-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-heart-failure-caused-by-ischemic-or-non-ischemic-cardiomyopathy-immunosuppression-and-its-implications
#11
Michael J Lipinski, Dror Luger, Stephen E Epstein
HF patients with signs and symptoms of worsening heart failure (HF), despite optimal medical therapy, have a poor prognosis. The pathways contributing to HF are multiple, probably accounting, in part, for current treatment approaches not being more effective. Stem cells, particularly mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), have a broad range of activities, making them particularly interesting candidates for a new HF therapeutic. This review presents an overview of the studies examining the efficacy of stem cell studies administered to HF patients, focusing mainly on MSCs...
April 6, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382117/fibrotic-tissue-and-middle-turbinate-exhibit-similar-mechanical-properties-is-fibrosis-a-solution-in-nasal-polyposis
#12
Luciano Gregório, Rogério Pezato, Rafael Souza Felici, Eduardo Macoto Kosugi
Introduction Nasal polyposis (NP) is a chronic inflammatory condition of the upper airway characterized by overgrowth of nasal mucosa. Recent studies have shown a mechanical dysfunction in the nasal polyp tissue. Objective This study aims to evaluate the mechanical properties of nasal fibrotic tissue. Method This study was an institutional review board approved translational study in 20 participants (8 patients with NP, 7 patients with nasal synechiae, and 5 subjects without sinus disease (control group)...
April 2017: International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366324/trouble-sleeping-inside-a-cross-sectional-study-of-the-prevalence-and-associated-risk-factors-of-insomnia-in-adult-prison-populations-in-england
#13
Lindsay H Dewa, Lamiece Hassan, Jenny J Shaw, Jane Senior
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of insomnia and identify associated demographic, clinical and forensic risk factors in adult prisoners in England. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 237 prisoners aged 18-72 years, across two male prisons and one female prison in North England. We used the Sleep Condition Indicator to measure probable DSM-V insomnia disorder (ID) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index to examine sleep quality. Multiple demographic, sleep, clinical and forensic self-reported measures were recorded to identify any associations with insomnia...
April 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346472/can-group-based-reassuring-information-alter-low-back-pain-behavior-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Pernille Frederiksen, Aage Indahl, Lars L Andersen, Kim Burton, Rasmus Hertzum-Larsen, Tom Bendix
BACKGROUND: Low back pain (LBP) is common in the population and multifactorial in nature, often involving negative consequences. Reassuring information to improve coping is recommended for reducing the negative consequences of LBP. Adding a simple non-threatening explanation for the pain (temporary muscular dysfunction) has been successful at altering beliefs and behavior when delivered with other intervention elements. This study investigates the isolated effect of this specific information on future occupational behavior outcomes when delivered to the workforce...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344675/believing-is-doing-emotion-regulation-beliefs-are-associated-with-emotion-regulation-behavioral-choices-and-subjective-well-being
#15
Catherine Nicole Marie Ortner, Esther Lydia Briner, Zdravko Marjanovic
Research in emotion regulation has begun to examine various predictors of emotion regulation choices, including individual differences and contextual variables. However, scant attention has been paid to the extent to which people's beliefs about the specific consequences of emotion regulation strategies for the components of an emotional response and long-term well-being predict their behavioral regulatory choices and, in turn, their subjective well-being. Participants completed measures to assess their beliefs about the consequences of functional and dysfunctional strategies, behavioral choices of emotion regulation strategies in negative scenarios, and subjective well-being...
March 2017: Europe's journal of psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321516/validation-of-the-german-version-of-the-short-form-of-the-dysfunctional-beliefs-and-attitudes-about-sleep-scale-dbas-16
#16
Christin Lang, Serge Brand, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler, Uwe Pühse, Flora Colledge, Markus Gerber
Research shows that dysfunctional sleep-related cognitions play an important role in the development, maintenance and exacerbation of insomnia. This study examines the factorial validity, psychometric properties and both concurrent and predictive validity of the German version of the 16-item DBAS (dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep) scale. Data was collected in 864 vocational students from the German-speaking part of Switzerland (43% females, M age = 17.9 years). Data collection took place twice within a 10-month interval...
March 20, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261139/assessment-of-dysfunctional-cognitions-in-binge-eating-disorder-factor-structure-and-validity-of-the-mizes-anorectic-cognitions-questionnaire-revised-mac-r
#17
Isabelle Carrard, Stephane Rothen, Maaike Kruseman, Yasser Khazaal
Background: Dysfunctional cognitions regarding weight and shape and their implications for self-esteem are considered core features of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. However, they have also been associated with the severity of binge eating disorder (BED). Therefore, they should be screened with appropriate instruments to tailor treatment to individual patient needs. The Mizes Anorectic Cognitions-Revised (MAC-R) is a self-report questionnaire that lists dysfunctional cognitions related to three hypothesized core beliefs typical of the psychopathology of eating disorders: weight and eating as the basis of approval from others; the belief that rigid self-control is fundamental to self-worth; and the rigidity of weight- and eating-regulation efforts...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259502/development-and-initial-validation-of-the-beliefs-about-sexual-functioning-scale-a-gender-invariant-measure
#18
Patrícia M Pascoal, Maria-João Alvarez, Cicero Roberto Pereira, Pedro Nobre
BACKGROUND: Past research on cognitive models of sexual functioning has focused on sexual beliefs as an important vulnerability factor for sexual dysfunction. However, the existing measurements of sexual beliefs are lengthy and entangle beliefs about sexual functioning with moral beliefs and ideas about sexuality. Furthermore, they have female and male versions, which does not allow for sex comparisons or dyadic research with heterosexual couples. AIM: To describe the development and validation of the Beliefs About Sexual Functioning Scale (BASEF), which assesses beliefs about sexual functioning in men and women...
April 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245678/abnormal-illness-behavior-and-internet-addiction-severity-the-role-of-disease-conviction-irritability-and-alexithymia
#19
Giuseppe Scimeca, Antonio Bruno, Manuela Crucitti, Claudio Conti, Diego Quattrone, Gianluca Pandolfo, Rocco Antonio Zoccali, Maria Rosaria Anna Muscatello
Background and aims While the association between health anxiety and maladaptive Internet use is a well-established finding, no studies have been performed to examine the possible effect of abnormal illness behavior (AIB). AIB is a maladaptive manner of experiencing, evaluating, or acting in response to health and illness that is disproportionate to evident pathology. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between AIB and Internet addiction (IA) severity in a sample of Italian University students...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238684/-macho-beliefs-moderate-the-association-between-negative-sexual-episodes-and-activation-of-incompetence-schemas-in-sexual-context-in-gay-and-heterosexual-men
#20
Maria Manuela Peixoto, Pedro Nobre
BACKGROUND: Despite the existence of conceptual models of sexual dysfunction based on cognitive theory, few studies have tested the role of vulnerability factors such as sexual beliefs as moderators of the activation of cognitive schemas in response to negative sexual events. AIM: To test the moderator role of dysfunctional sexual beliefs in the association between the frequency of negative sexual episodes and the activation of incompetence schemas in gay and heterosexual men...
April 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
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