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Dysfunctional beliefs

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635348/hope-coping-skills-and-the-prefrontal-cortex-in-alcohol-use-disorder-recovery
#1
Spencer D Bradshaw, Sterling T Shumway, Cynthia M Dsauza, Neli Morris, Nicholas D Hayes
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorders adversely affect individual and societal health. These disorders are a chronic brain disease, and protective factors against relapse should be studied. Prefrontal cortex (PFC) dysfunction is evident in alcohol use disorders, and research that explores recovery of the PFC in alcohol use disorders is needed, specifically in regard to how psychological and behavioral factors can augment medicalized treatments and protect against relapse. For example, hope or a belief that recovery is possible is an important cognitive construct-thought to precede behavioral action-that has been associated with relapse...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626295/restoring-effective-sleep-tranquility-rest-a-feasibility-and-pilot-study
#2
Aaron M Eakman, Arlene A Schmid, Kimberly L Henry, Natalie R Rolle, Catherine Schelly, Christine E Pott, Joshua E Burns
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this pilot study was to establish the feasibility of completing a future controlled trial of a multi-component cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia program for military veterans with sleep disturbance. METHOD: This was a single-arm feasibility and pilot study. Participants were United States post-9/11 veterans with service-connected injuries, university students, and had self-reported sleep disturbances. Restoring Effective Sleep Tranquility was a multi-component cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia intervention consisting of seven sessions of group therapy and eight 1:1 sessions delivered by occupational therapists...
June 2017: British Journal of Occupational Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619038/the-experiences-of-women-with-maternal-near-miss-and-their-perception-of-quality-of-care-in-kelantan-malaysia-a-qualitative-study
#3
Mohd Noor Norhayati, Nik Hussain Nik Hazlina, Ab Razak Asrenee, Zaharah Sulaiman
BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality has been the main way of ascertaining the outcome of maternal and obstetric care. However, maternal morbidities occur more frequently than maternal deaths; therefore, maternal near miss was suggested as a more useful indicator for the evaluation and improvement of maternal health services. Our study aimed to explore the experiences of women with maternal near miss and their perception of the quality of care in Kelantan, Malaysia. METHODS: A qualitative phenomenological approach with in-depth interview method was conducted in two tertiary hospitals in Kelantan, Malaysia...
June 15, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615651/cognitive-and-metacognitive-mechanisms-of-change-in-metacognitive-training-for-depression
#4
Lena Jelinek, Niels Van Quaquebeke, Steffen Moritz
Metacognitive Training for Depression (D-MCT), a low-threshold group intervention, has been shown to improve depressive symptoms. It aims at the reduction of depression by changing dysfunctional cognitive as well as metacognitive beliefs. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the mechanisms of change in D-MCT are cognitive (and thus primarily concern the content of cognition) or metacognitive in nature. Eighty-four outpatients with depression were included in a randomized controlled trial comparing D-MCT to an active control intervention...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612089/the-intensive-care-delirium-research-agenda-a-multinational-interprofessional-perspective
#5
REVIEW
Pratik P Pandharipande, E Wesley Ely, Rakesh C Arora, Michele C Balas, Malaz A Boustani, Gabriel Heras La Calle, Colm Cunningham, John W Devlin, Julius Elefante, Jin H Han, Alasdair M MacLullich, José R Maldonado, Alessandro Morandi, Dale M Needham, Valerie J Page, Louise Rose, Jorge I F Salluh, Tarek Sharshar, Yahya Shehabi, Yoanna Skrobik, Arjen J C Slooter, Heidi A B Smith
Delirium, a prevalent organ dysfunction in critically ill patients, is independently associated with increased morbidity. This last decade has witnessed an exponential growth in delirium research in hospitalized patients, including those critically ill, and this research has highlighted that delirium needs to be better understood mechanistically to help foster research that will ultimately lead to its prevention and treatment. In this invited, evidence-based paper, a multinational and interprofessional group of clinicians and researchers from within the fields of critical care medicine, psychiatry, pediatrics, anesthesiology, geriatrics, surgery, neurology, nursing, pharmacy, and the neurosciences sought to address five questions: (1) What is the current standard of care in managing ICU delirium? (2) What have been the major recent advances in delirium research and care? (3) What are the common delirium beliefs that have been challenged by recent trials? (4) What are the remaining areas of uncertainty in delirium research? (5) What are some of the top study areas/trials to be done in the next 10 years? Herein, we briefly review the epidemiology of delirium, the current best practices for management of critically ill patients at risk for delirium or experiencing delirium, identify recent advances in our understanding of delirium as well as gaps in knowledge, and discuss research opportunities and barriers to implementation, with the goal of promoting an integrated research agenda...
June 13, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604073/-fear-and-avoidance-beliefs-in-chronic-pain-the-translation-and-validation-of-the-hungarian-version-of-the-fabq-questionnaire
#6
Eszter Simoncsics, Adrienne Stauder
INTRODUCTION: Chronic low back pain is one of the top reasons for seeking medical advice. In the background of the dysfunction besides the somatic pain dysfunctional thinking, negative emotional states, or interpersonal problems can be identified as well. One of the most important factors making the rehabilitation difficult is the fear and avoidance of physical activity. AIM: The aim of the study was to adapt and validate the Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ-H) in Hungarian...
June 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601112/the-role-of-dysfunctional-myths-in-a-decision-making-process-under-bounded-rationality-a-complex-dynamical-systems-perspective
#7
Dimitrios Stamovlasis, Julie Vaiopoulou
The present study examines the factors influencing a decision-making process, with specific focus on the role of dysfunctional myths (DM). DM are thoughts or beliefs that are rather irrational, however influential to people's decisions. In this paper a decision-making process regarding the career choice of university students majoring in natural sciences and education (N=496) is examined by analyzing survey data taken via Career Decision Making Difficulties Questionnaire (CDDQ). The difficulty of making the choice and the certainty about one's decision were the state variables, while the independent variables were factors related to the lack of information or knowledge needed, which actually reflect a bounded rationality...
July 2017: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577801/an-update-on-the-pathophysiology-of-atopic-dermatitis
#8
REVIEW
Kunal Malik, Kerry D Heitmiller, Tali Czarnowicki
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is increasingly recognized as a complex, inflammatory skin disease involving interplay of multiple elements. This article notes key advances in understanding of immune dysregulation, skin barrier dysfunction, environmental, genetic, and microbial influences orchestrating disease pathogenesis, and the relevance of therapeutic interventions in each area. Accumulating evidence and the discovery of new T-cell subsets has matured AD as a multiple-cytokine-axes-driven disorder, evolved from the widely held belief of it being a biphasic Th1/Th2 disease...
July 2017: Dermatologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571165/the-study-of-cognitive-change-process-on-depression-during-aerobic-exercises
#9
Kheirollah Sadeghi, Seyed Mojtaba Ahmadi, Arash Parsa Moghadam, Aliakbar Parvizifard
INTRODUCTION: Several studies have shown that aerobic exercise is effective in treating the depression and improving the mental health. There are various theories which explains why aerobic exercise is effective in the treatment of depression and improve mental health, but there are limited studies to show how cognitive components and depression improve during aerobic exercises. AIM: The current study was carried out to investigate the cognitive change process during aerobic exercises in depressed students...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472528/internet-and-in-person-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-insomnia-in-military-personnel-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#10
Daniel J Taylor, Alan L Peterson, Kristi E Pruiksma, Stacey Young-McCaughan, Karin Nicholson, Jim Mintz
Study Objectives: Compare in-person and unguided Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTi) with a minimal contact control condition in military personnel. Methods: A three-arm parallel randomized clinical trial of 100 active duty US Army personnel at Fort Hood, Texas. Internet and in-person CBTi were comparable, except for the delivery format. The control condition consisted of phone call assessments. Results: Internet and in-person CBTi performed significantly better than the control condition on diary-assessed sleep efficiency (d = 0...
June 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469590/dysfunctional-metacognitive-beliefs-are-associated-with-decreased-executive-control
#11
Brage Kraft, Rune Jonassen, Tore C Stiles, Nils I Landrø
Dysfunctional metacognitive beliefs ("metacognitions") and executive control are important factors in mental disorders such as depression and anxiety, but the relationship between these concepts has not been studied systematically. We examined whether there is an association between metacognitions and executive control and hypothesized that decreased executive control statistically predicts increased levels of metacognitions. Two hundred and ninety-nine individuals recruited from the general population and outpatient psychiatric clinics completed the Metacognitions Questionnaire-30 and three subtests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery corresponding to the three-component model of executive functions...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459272/a-longitudinal-study-of-the-aftermath-of-rape-among-rural-south-african-women
#12
Gail E Wyatt, Mashudu Davhana-Maselesele, Muyu Zhang, Lauren H Wong, Fiona Nicholson, Alissa Der Sarkissian, Lufuno Makhado, Hector F Myers
OBJECTIVE: Sexual assaults against women are a global health crisis, with alarmingly high rates in South Africa. However, we know very little about the circumstances and the aftermath of these experiences. Further, there is limited information about how factors specific to the rape (e.g., fighting back) versus those that are specific to the individual-and potentially modifiable-influence mental health outcomes. This study examined how situational characteristics of rape as well as individual and situational factors confer risk for symptoms of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and dysfunctional sexual behavior at 12-month follow-up...
May 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450708/elevated-free-triiodothyronine-may-lead-to-female-sexual-dysfunction-in-chinese-urban-women-a-hospital-based-survey
#13
Han Luo, Hongliu Yang, Wanjun Zhao, Qianqian Han, Li Zeng, Huairong Tang, Jingqiang Zhu
Research on female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is limited, especially in China, due to conservative culture and beliefs. There has been a dearth of FSD screening research in China since the optimal cutoff value of the Chinese version of the Female Sexual Function Index (CVFSFI) was determined in 2014. At the same time, the relationship between thyroid hormones and FSD has seldom been explored in Chinese women. Therefore, hospital-based research was conducted to elucidate FSD frequency and risk factors. Women who underwent a check-up at the Health Promotion Center were approached to participate and, if consented, were enrolled in the study...
April 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448827/dopamine-cognitive-biases-and-assessment-of-certainty-a-neurocognitive-model-of-delusions
#14
REVIEW
Annabel Broyd, Ryan P Balzan, Todd S Woodward, Paul Allen
This paper examines the evidence that delusions can be explained within the framework of a neurocognitive model of how the brain assesses certainty. Here, 'certainty' refers to both low-level interpretations of one's environment and high-level (conscious) appraisals of one's beliefs and experiences. A model is proposed explaining how the brain systems responsible for assigning certainty might dysfunction, contributing to the cause and maintenance of delusional beliefs. It is suggested that delusions arise through a combination of perturbed striatal dopamine and aberrant salience as well as cognitive biases such as the tendency to jump to conclusions (JTC) and hypersalience of evidence-hypothesis matches...
April 18, 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429623/schema-therapy-for-personality-disorders-in-older-adults-a-multiple-baseline-study
#15
Arjan C Videler, Sebastiaan P J van Alphen, Rita J J van Royen, Christina M van der Feltz-Cornelis, Gina Rossi, Arnoud Arntz
OBJECTIVE: No studies have been conducted yet into the effectiveness of treatment of personality disorders in later life. This study is a first test of the effectiveness of schema therapy for personality disorders in older adults. METHOD: Multiple-baseline design with eight cluster C personality disorder patients, with a mean age of   69. After a baseline phase with random length, schema therapy was given during the first year, followed by follow-up sessions during six months...
April 21, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424054/an-unusual-delusion-of-duplication-in-a-patient-affected-by-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#16
Paolo Solla, Gioia Mura, Antonino Cannas, Gianluca Floris, Davide Fonti, Gianni Orofino, Mauro Giovanni Carta, Francesco Marrosu
BACKGROUND: Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is the second most frequent diagnosis of progressive degenerative dementia in older people. Delusions are common features in DLB and, among them, Capgras syndrome represents the most frequent disturbance, characterized by the recurrent and transient belief that a familiar person, often a close family member or caregiver, has been replaced by an identical-looking imposter. However, other delusional conditions near to misidentification syndromes can occur in DLB patients and may represent a major psychiatric disorder, although rarely studied systematically...
April 19, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423044/the-long-term-outcome-of-micturition-defecation-and-sexual-function-after-spinal-surgery-for-cauda-equina-syndrome
#17
Nina S Korse, Anna B Veldman, Wilco C Peul, Carmen L A Vleggeert-Lankamp
BACKGROUND: Cauda equina syndrome (CES) is a rare neurologic complication of lumbar herniated disc for which emergency surgical decompression should be undertaken. Despite the common belief that the restoration of functions that are affected by CES can take several years postoperatively, follow up seldom exceeds the first year after surgery. Long term outcome of especially micturition, defecation and sexual function-which are by definition affected in CES-are unknown. The aim of this study is to evaluate 1) postoperative long term outcome of micturition, defecation and sexual function in CES patients 2) attitude of patients towards received hospital care with regard to (recovery of) these functions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400355/mobile-phone-delivered-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-insomnia-a-randomized-waitlist-controlled-trial
#18
Corine Hg Horsch, Jaap Lancee, Fiemke Griffioen-Both, Sandor Spruit, Siska Fitrianie, Mark A Neerincx, Robbert Jan Beun, Willem-Paul Brinkman
BACKGROUND: This study is one of the first randomized controlled trials investigating cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) delivered by a fully automated mobile phone app. Such an app can potentially increase the accessibility of insomnia treatment for the 10% of people who have insomnia. OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to investigate the efficacy of CBT-I delivered via the Sleepcare mobile phone app, compared with a waitlist control group, in a randomized controlled trial...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392697/comparing-the-ability-of-cognitive-and-affective-theory-of-mind-in-adolescent-onset-schizophrenia
#19
Dandan Li, Xiaosi Li, Fengqiong Yu, Xingui Chen, Long Zhang, Dan Li, Qiang Wei, Qing Zhang, Chunyan Zhu, Kai Wang
BACKGROUND: Evidence in the literature suggests that there is an impairment of social cognition in schizophrenia. Theory of Mind (ToM) is defined as one's ability to understand others' wishes, beliefs, intentions, and other psychological states and thereby to judge others' behavior, as an essential component of social cognition. However, there have been limited studies on social cognition, especially ToM in adolescent onset schizophrenia (AOS). The current study aims to investigate ToM abilities in adolescent schizophrenia according to various ToM subcomponents (cognitive ToM and affective ToM) and various ToM orders (first order and second order)...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382469/mesenchymal-stem-cell-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-heart-failure-caused-by-ischemic-or-non-ischemic-cardiomyopathy-immunosuppression-and-its-implications
#20
Michael J Lipinski, Dror Luger, Stephen E Epstein
HF patients with signs and symptoms of worsening heart failure (HF), despite optimal medical therapy, have a poor prognosis. The pathways contributing to HF are multiple, probably accounting, in part, for current treatment approaches not being more effective. Stem cells, particularly mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), have a broad range of activities, making them particularly interesting candidates for a new HF therapeutic. This review presents an overview of the studies examining the efficacy of stem cell studies administered to HF patients, focusing mainly on MSCs...
April 6, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
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