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Dysfunctional beliefs

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712431/the-mediating-role-of-sleep-related-metacognitive-processes-in-trait-and-pre-sleep-state-hyperarousal-in-insomnia-disorder
#1
Laura Palagini, Jason C Ong, Dieter Riemann
OBJECTIVE: Trait predisposition to hyperarousal and pre-sleep state hyperarousal are considered key factors in insomnia, but research also supports the role of cognitive and metacognitive processes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between unhelpful sleep-related beliefs, sleep-related metacognition and trait/pre-sleep state arousal in insomnia disorder. METHOD: Sixty-eight subjects with insomnia disorder (DSM-5) and 36 good sleepers were evaluated with a set of questionnaires that included Dysfunctional Beliefs about Sleep scale (DBAS), Metacognitions Questionnaire - Insomnia (MCQI), Arousal Predisposition Scale (APS), and Pre-sleep Arousal Scale (PSAS)...
August 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709059/negative-trust-and-depression-among-female-sex-workers-in-western-china-the-mediating-role-of-thwarted-belongingness
#2
Hong Chen, Xu Li, Bingbing Li, Ailong Huang
Female sex workers are at high risk for depression in China but they are understudied and underserved. Based on cognitive models of depression, dysfunctional beliefs about oneself and others may act as vulnerability factors for depression. However, the association between negative trust and depression is still under debate. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that negative trust positively relates to depression through thwarted belongingness among female sex workers. Four hundred and fifty-seven participants completed measures of negative trust, thwarted belongingness, and depression...
June 12, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693753/direct-and-indirect-associations-between-dysfunctional-attitudes-self-stigma-hopefulness-and-social-inclusion-in-young-people-experiencing-psychosis
#3
Clio Berry, Kathryn Greenwood
OBJECTIVE: Social inclusion and vocational activity are central to personal recovery for young people with psychosis. Studies with people experiencing long term psychosis suggest negative self-beliefs are important, but less is known about whether this association is present for young service users or about the potential influence of positive self-beliefs such as hopefulness. The aim of the current paper was to investigate the direct and indirect associations between dysfunctional attitudes, self-stigma, hopefulness, social inclusion and vocational activity for young people with psychosis...
July 7, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686560/-hoarding-disorder-in-dsm-5-clinical-description-and-cognitive-approach
#4
L Kalogeraki, I Michopoulos
Hoarding disorder is characterized by difficulty discarding or parting with possessions regardless their actual value as well as, in most cases, persistent acquisition of objects. Possessions are accumulated in large numbers that fill up and clutter active living space to the extent that its intended use is no longer possible resulting to significant functional impairment and/or distress. Saving and difficulty discarding appear to be associated to subjective beliefs about the instrumental, sentimental or intrinsic value of objects...
April 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675859/indirect-task-instructions-better-reveal-theory-of-mind-impairment-independent-of-executive-dysfunction-in-schizophrenia
#5
Robyn Langdon, Michael Connors, Emily Connaughton
Theory of mind (TOM) impairments associate significantly with executive deficits in schizophrenia, consistent with the proposal that executive abilities can limit TOM task performance, and confounding identification of those patients who would benefit most from targeted mentalising interventions. 50 schizophrenia patients and 30 healthy controls completed an executive battery and four TOM tasks that were alike with regards generating overt measures of causal false-belief reasoning, but differed with regards using indirect (vs...
June 17, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667898/experiential-avoidance-and-dysfunctional-beliefs-in-the-prediction-of-body-image-disturbance-in-a-nonclinical-sample-of-women
#6
Shannon M Blakey, Lillian Reuman, Jennifer L Buchholz, Jonathan S Abramowitz
Body image disturbance (BID) refers to persistent dissatisfaction, distress, and dysfunction related to some aspect(s) of one's physical appearance. Cognitive models of BID highlight the importance of dysfunctional beliefs in maintaining BID. Relational Frame Theory (RFT), in contrast, posits that psychological distress is sustained by the unwillingness to experience aversive internal experiences (i.e., experiential avoidance [EA]). The present study tested the hypothesis that both dysfunctional beliefs and EA uniquely predict BID even after accounting for general distress...
June 28, 2017: Body Image
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642871/promoting-mental-health-in-italian-middle-and-high-school-a-pilot-study
#7
Franco Veltro, Valentina Ialenti, Manuel Alejandro Morales García, Emiliana Bonanni, Claudia Iannone, Marinella D'Innocenzo, Antonella Gigantesco
AIM: In Italy, a handbook has been developed based on the principles of cooperative learning, life skills, self-effectiveness, and problem-solving at high school level. Early studies have shown the handbook's effectiveness. It has been hypothesized that the revised handbook could be more effective in middle schools. METHOD: The study design is a "pre- and posttest" that compares the results obtained from 91 students of the high schools with those of the 38 students from middle schools...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639605/-the-definition-of-sepsis-25-year-experience-of-concept-development
#8
V P Sazhin, A M Karsanov, S S Maskin, O V Remizov
The review, presented in chronological order the stages of formation of the modern definition of sepsis syndrome, since the recommendations of the conciliation conference ACCP/SCCM (1991), the experience of the practical use of which has been extensively critically assessed in future studies. As a result, it formed a strong opinion that the global challenge of early diagnosis of sepsis, under the previously proposed definitive categories have not been solved, moreover, in the scientific community formed a firm belief in the need to make fundamental changes in the definition of the term 'sepsis'...
2017: Khirurgiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635348/hope-coping-skills-and-the-prefrontal-cortex-in-alcohol-use-disorder-recovery
#9
Spencer D Bradshaw, Sterling T Shumway, Cynthia M Dsauza, Neli Morris, Nicholas D Hayes
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorders adversely affect individual and societal health. These disorders are a chronic brain disease, and protective factors against relapse should be studied. Prefrontal cortex (PFC) dysfunction is evident in alcohol use disorders, and research that explores recovery of the PFC in alcohol use disorders is needed, specifically in regard to how psychological and behavioral factors can augment medicalized treatments and protect against relapse. For example, hope or a belief that recovery is possible is an important cognitive construct-thought to precede behavioral action-that has been associated with relapse...
September 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626295/restoring-effective-sleep-tranquility-rest-a-feasibility-and-pilot-study
#10
Aaron M Eakman, Arlene A Schmid, Kimberly L Henry, Natalie R Rolle, Catherine Schelly, Christine E Pott, Joshua E Burns
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this pilot study was to establish the feasibility of completing a future controlled trial of a multi-component cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia program for military veterans with sleep disturbance. METHOD: This was a single-arm feasibility and pilot study. Participants were United States post-9/11 veterans with service-connected injuries, university students, and had self-reported sleep disturbances. Restoring Effective Sleep Tranquility was a multi-component cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia intervention consisting of seven sessions of group therapy and eight 1:1 sessions delivered by occupational therapists...
June 2017: British Journal of Occupational Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619038/the-experiences-of-women-with-maternal-near-miss-and-their-perception-of-quality-of-care-in-kelantan-malaysia-a-qualitative-study
#11
Mohd Noor Norhayati, Nik Hussain Nik Hazlina, Ab Razak Asrenee, Zaharah Sulaiman
BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality has been the main way of ascertaining the outcome of maternal and obstetric care. However, maternal morbidities occur more frequently than maternal deaths; therefore, maternal near miss was suggested as a more useful indicator for the evaluation and improvement of maternal health services. Our study aimed to explore the experiences of women with maternal near miss and their perception of the quality of care in Kelantan, Malaysia. METHODS: A qualitative phenomenological approach with in-depth interview method was conducted in two tertiary hospitals in Kelantan, Malaysia...
June 15, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615651/cognitive-and-metacognitive-mechanisms-of-change-in-metacognitive-training-for-depression
#12
Lena Jelinek, Niels Van Quaquebeke, Steffen Moritz
Metacognitive Training for Depression (D-MCT), a low-threshold group intervention, has been shown to improve depressive symptoms. It aims at the reduction of depression by changing dysfunctional cognitive as well as metacognitive beliefs. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the mechanisms of change in D-MCT are cognitive (and thus primarily concern the content of cognition) or metacognitive in nature. Eighty-four outpatients with depression were included in a randomized controlled trial comparing D-MCT to an active control intervention...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612089/the-intensive-care-delirium-research-agenda-a-multinational-interprofessional-perspective
#13
REVIEW
Pratik P Pandharipande, E Wesley Ely, Rakesh C Arora, Michele C Balas, Malaz A Boustani, Gabriel Heras La Calle, Colm Cunningham, John W Devlin, Julius Elefante, Jin H Han, Alasdair M MacLullich, José R Maldonado, Alessandro Morandi, Dale M Needham, Valerie J Page, Louise Rose, Jorge I F Salluh, Tarek Sharshar, Yahya Shehabi, Yoanna Skrobik, Arjen J C Slooter, Heidi A B Smith
Delirium, a prevalent organ dysfunction in critically ill patients, is independently associated with increased morbidity. This last decade has witnessed an exponential growth in delirium research in hospitalized patients, including those critically ill, and this research has highlighted that delirium needs to be better understood mechanistically to help foster research that will ultimately lead to its prevention and treatment. In this invited, evidence-based paper, a multinational and interprofessional group of clinicians and researchers from within the fields of critical care medicine, psychiatry, pediatrics, anesthesiology, geriatrics, surgery, neurology, nursing, pharmacy, and the neurosciences sought to address five questions: (1) What is the current standard of care in managing ICU delirium? (2) What have been the major recent advances in delirium research and care? (3) What are the common delirium beliefs that have been challenged by recent trials? (4) What are the remaining areas of uncertainty in delirium research? (5) What are some of the top study areas/trials to be done in the next 10 years? Herein, we briefly review the epidemiology of delirium, the current best practices for management of critically ill patients at risk for delirium or experiencing delirium, identify recent advances in our understanding of delirium as well as gaps in knowledge, and discuss research opportunities and barriers to implementation, with the goal of promoting an integrated research agenda...
June 13, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604073/-fear-and-avoidance-beliefs-in-chronic-pain-the-translation-and-validation-of-the-hungarian-version-of-the-fabq-questionnaire
#14
Eszter Simoncsics, Adrienne Stauder
INTRODUCTION: Chronic low back pain is one of the top reasons for seeking medical advice. In the background of the dysfunction besides the somatic pain dysfunctional thinking, negative emotional states, or interpersonal problems can be identified as well. One of the most important factors making the rehabilitation difficult is the fear and avoidance of physical activity. AIM: The aim of the study was to adapt and validate the Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ-H) in Hungarian...
June 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601112/the-role-of-dysfunctional-myths-in-a-decision-making-process-under-bounded-rationality-a-complex-dynamical-systems-perspective
#15
Dimitrios Stamovlasis, Julie Vaiopoulou
The present study examines the factors influencing a decision-making process, with specific focus on the role of dysfunctional myths (DM). DM are thoughts or beliefs that are rather irrational, however influential to people's decisions. In this paper a decision-making process regarding the career choice of university students majoring in natural sciences and education (N=496) is examined by analyzing survey data taken via Career Decision Making Difficulties Questionnaire (CDDQ). The difficulty of making the choice and the certainty about one's decision were the state variables, while the independent variables were factors related to the lack of information or knowledge needed, which actually reflect a bounded rationality...
July 2017: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577801/an-update-on-the-pathophysiology-of-atopic-dermatitis
#16
REVIEW
Kunal Malik, Kerry D Heitmiller, Tali Czarnowicki
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is increasingly recognized as a complex, inflammatory skin disease involving interplay of multiple elements. This article notes key advances in understanding of immune dysregulation, skin barrier dysfunction, environmental, genetic, and microbial influences orchestrating disease pathogenesis, and the relevance of therapeutic interventions in each area. Accumulating evidence and the discovery of new T-cell subsets has matured AD as a multiple-cytokine-axes-driven disorder, evolved from the widely held belief of it being a biphasic Th1/Th2 disease...
July 2017: Dermatologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571165/the-study-of-cognitive-change-process-on-depression-during-aerobic-exercises
#17
Kheirollah Sadeghi, Seyed Mojtaba Ahmadi, Arash Parsa Moghadam, Aliakbar Parvizifard
INTRODUCTION: Several studies have shown that aerobic exercise is effective in treating the depression and improving the mental health. There are various theories which explains why aerobic exercise is effective in the treatment of depression and improve mental health, but there are limited studies to show how cognitive components and depression improve during aerobic exercises. AIM: The current study was carried out to investigate the cognitive change process during aerobic exercises in depressed students...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472528/internet-and-in-person-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-insomnia-in-military-personnel-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#18
Daniel J Taylor, Alan L Peterson, Kristi E Pruiksma, Stacey Young-McCaughan, Karin Nicholson, Jim Mintz
Study Objectives: Compare in-person and unguided Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTi) with a minimal contact control condition in military personnel. Methods: A three-arm parallel randomized clinical trial of 100 active duty US Army personnel at Fort Hood, Texas. Internet and in-person CBTi were comparable, except for the delivery format. The control condition consisted of phone call assessments. Results: Internet and in-person CBTi performed significantly better than the control condition on diary-assessed sleep efficiency (d = 0...
June 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469590/dysfunctional-metacognitive-beliefs-are-associated-with-decreased-executive-control
#19
Brage Kraft, Rune Jonassen, Tore C Stiles, Nils I Landrø
Dysfunctional metacognitive beliefs ("metacognitions") and executive control are important factors in mental disorders such as depression and anxiety, but the relationship between these concepts has not been studied systematically. We examined whether there is an association between metacognitions and executive control and hypothesized that decreased executive control statistically predicts increased levels of metacognitions. Two hundred and ninety-nine individuals recruited from the general population and outpatient psychiatric clinics completed the Metacognitions Questionnaire-30 and three subtests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery corresponding to the three-component model of executive functions...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459272/a-longitudinal-study-of-the-aftermath-of-rape-among-rural-south-african-women
#20
Gail E Wyatt, Mashudu Davhana-Maselesele, Muyu Zhang, Lauren H Wong, Fiona Nicholson, Alissa Der Sarkissian, Lufuno Makhado, Hector F Myers
OBJECTIVE: Sexual assaults against women are a global health crisis, with alarmingly high rates in South Africa. However, we know very little about the circumstances and the aftermath of these experiences. Further, there is limited information about how factors specific to the rape (e.g., fighting back) versus those that are specific to the individual-and potentially modifiable-influence mental health outcomes. This study examined how situational characteristics of rape as well as individual and situational factors confer risk for symptoms of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and dysfunctional sexual behavior at 12-month follow-up...
May 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
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