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Dysfunctional beliefs

Calum Munro, Louise Randell, Stephen M Lawrie
: The need for novel approaches to understanding and treating anorexia nervosa (AN) is well recognized. The aim of this paper is to describe an integrative bio-psycho-social theory of maintaining factors in AN. We took a triangulation approach to develop a clinically relevant theory with face validity and internal consistency. We developed theoretical ideas from our clinical practice and reviewed theoretical ideas within the eating disorders and wider bio-psycho-social literature. The synthesis of these ideas and concepts into a clinically meaningful framework is described here...
October 13, 2016: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
Ivan S K Thong, Gabriel Tan, Tammy Y C Lee, Mark P Jensen
OBJECTIVES:  Research examining the importance of pain beliefs and coping strategies to chronic pain adjustment has been performed almost exclusively using Western populations. The purpose of this study was to examine empirically the generalizability of this research to Singapore. METHODS:  Employing a cross-sectional design, measures assessing pain beliefs, coping strategies, pain intensity, pain interference, and depressive symptoms were administered to 101 patients with chronic pain from Singapore...
October 2, 2016: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
Maryam Derogar, Hanna Dahlstrand, Stefan Carlsson, Anders Bjartell, Jonas Hugosson, Elin Axén, Eva Johansson, Mikael Lagerkvist, Tommy Nyberg, Johan Stranne, Thordis Thorsteinsdottir, Anna Wallerstedt, Eva Haglind, Peter Wiklund, Gunnar Steineck
BACKGROUND: Many clinicians believe that preparedness before surgery for possible post-surgery side effects reduces the level of bother experienced from urinary incontinence and decreased sexual health after surgery. There are no published studies evaluating this belief. Therefore, we aimed to study the level of preparedness before radical prostatectomy and the level of bother experienced from urinary incontinence and decreased sexual health after surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We prospectively collected data from a non-selected group of men undergoing radical prostatectomy in 14 centers between 2008 and 2011...
August 16, 2016: Acta Oncologica
Anna E Kunze, Jaap Lancee, Nexhmedin Morina, Merel Kindt, Arnoud Arntz
BACKGROUND: Recurrent nightmares can effectively be treated with cognitive-behavioral techniques such as imagery rehearsal therapy, which involves imagery rescripting (IR) of nightmares, and imaginal exposure (IE) therapy. However, the underlying mechanisms of these treatments remain largely unknown. To investigate this, we identified a number of variables that might mediate the therapeutic effect of rescripting-based and/or exposure-based therapies. Also, to control for the possible confounding influence of (other) treatment components, we designed two stripped-down treatment protocols, which primarily consist of either (1) rescripting of, or (2) exposure to, the nightmare content...
September 26, 2016: Trials
Atefe Abdolmanafi, Richard Glynn Owens, Sam Winter, Reza Ghorban Jahromi, Maria Manuela Peixoto, Pedro Nobre
INTRODUCTION: Recent studies have demonstrated the role of sexual dysfunctional beliefs, negative automatic thoughts, and emotional responses in relation to sexual functioning. Nevertheless, no studies seem to have evaluated the role of these cognitive-emotional factors in determining sexual dissatisfaction. AIM: To test a cognitive-emotional model of sexual dissatisfaction in women. METHODS: In total, 207 women answered questionnaires assessing sexual dissatisfaction and cognitive and emotional variables that might affect sexual dissatisfaction...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Maartje S Vroling, Klaske A Glashouwer, Wolf-Gero Lange, Esther Allart-van Dam, Peter J de Jong
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Research shows that people tend to consider believable conclusions as valid and unbelievable conclusions as invalid (belief bias). When applied to anxiogenic beliefs, this belief bias could well hinder the correction of dysfunctional convictions. Previous work has shown that high socially anxious students indeed display such fear-confirming, belief biased, reasoning. A critical next question is whether these findings translate to a clinical population of people with social anxiety disorder (SAD)...
December 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Narjes Bahri, Robab Latifnejad Roudsari, Mozhgan Azimi Hashemi
OBJECTIVE: In the menopausal transition sexual problems are an important issue and one of the most frequently presented health concerns of women attending menopause clinics. This study aimed to explore the ways of managing sexual dysfunctions during the menopausal transition among Iranian women. METHODS: This exploratory qualitative study was conducted in Iran, from May 2013 to April 2015. Twenty-one women in three stages of menopausal transition, aged 42-55 years old, were purposively selected from urban health centers in Mashhad and Gonabad, Iran...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Paul Richard Kauffman
There are many historical examples of people who heard voices or saw visions but were not classified as having a mental illness and who were supported by a religious community. The article offers a perspective for effective psychosocial supports for schizophrenia. The author analyzes data on 95 people who experienced verifiable persistent non-drug-assisted hallucinations in Europe, North America, and Australasia and discusses the life outcomes of 39 subjects. They include founders of religions, dysfunctional monarchs, persons with cosmological beliefs, and mental health workers...
September 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Elly Vandermeulen, Stijn E Verleden, Hannelore Bellon, David Ruttens, Elise Lammertyn, Sandra Claes, Jennifer Vandooren, Estafania Ugarte-Berzal, Dominique Schols, Marie-Paule Emonds, Dirk E Van Raemdonck, Ghislain Opdenakker, Geert M Verleden, Robin Vos, Bart M Vanaudenaerde
BACKGROUND: Recently, antibody mediated rejection (AMR) has been associated with a higher incidence of chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) and mortality after lung transplantation (LTx). We investigated markers related to AMR and matrix remodeling in CLAD, with special attention for its two phenotypes being bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) and restrictive CLAD (rCLAD). METHODS: Immunoglobulins (IgA, IgE, IgG1-IgG4, total IgG and IgM) and complement (C4d and C1q) were quantified in lung lavage samples at the moment of BOS (n=15) or RAS (n=16) diagnosis; and were compared to stable transplant patients who served as control (n=14)...
September 2016: Transplant Immunology
Guillaume Airagnes, Antoine Pelissolo, Mélanie Lavallée, Martine Flament, Frédéric Limosin
Benzodiazepine (BZD) inappropriate use (i.e., misuse and overuse) is a worldwide public health problem. Despite current knowledge about increased sensitivity to side effects in the elderly, that should lead to more caution, only a third of BZD prescriptions in this age group are considered appropriate. The most frequent inadequate situations are excessive duration and/or dosage of a medical prescription or self-medication, especially in a context where it would be contraindicated, e.g., long-acting BZD in the elderly...
October 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
Nicole Lovato, Leon Lack, David J Kennaway
STUDY OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the efficacy of a brief group-based program of cognitive-behavior therapy for insomnia (CBTi) for older adults suffering from chronic insomnia with short objective sleep relative to those with long sleep duration. METHOD: Ninety-one adults (male = 43, mean age = 63.34, standard deviation (SD) = 6.41) with sleep maintenance insomnia were selected from a community-based sample. The participants were classified as short sleepers (SS; <6 h total sleep time) or long sleepers (LS; ≥6 h total sleep time) based on one night of home-based polysomnography...
June 2016: Sleep Medicine
Jihui Wang, Qinling Wei, Xiaoli Wu, Zhiyong Zhong, Guanying Li
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of brief behavioral treatment for insomnia (BBTI) in treating patients with treatment-resistant insomnia. METHODS: Seventy-nine adults with treatment-resistant insomnia were randomly assigned to receive either individualized BBTI (delivered in two in-person sessions and two telephone "booster" sessions, n=40) or sleep hygiene education (n=39). The primary outcome was subjective (sleep diary) measures of self-report symptoms and questionnaire measures of Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), insomnia severity index (ISI), Epworth sleeping scale (ESS), and dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep scale (DBAS)...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Yejin Kim, Jo-Eun Jeong, Hyun Cho, Dong-Jin Jung, Minjung Kwak, Mi Jung Rho, Hwanjo Yu, Dai-Jin Kim, In Young Choi
The purpose of this study was to identify personality factor-associated predictors of smartphone addiction predisposition (SAP). Participants were 2,573 men and 2,281 women (n = 4,854) aged 20-49 years (Mean ± SD: 33.47 ± 7.52); participants completed the following questionnaires: the Korean Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale (K-SAPS) for adults, the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System questionnaire (BIS/BAS), the Dickman Dysfunctional Impulsivity Instrument (DDII), and the Brief Self-Control Scale (BSCS)...
2016: PloS One
Aarid Liland Olsen, Liv Inger Strand, Liv Helvik Skjaerven, Mary-Anne Sundal, Liv Heide Magnussen
BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with pain, dysfunction and reduced quality of life. Patient education (PE) followed by 12 weekly sessions of Basic Body Awareness Therapy (BBAT) was offered to patients with hip OA, aiming to strengthen their ability to move and act functionally in daily life. AIM: To explore how patients described their experiences and outcome from participating in PE and BBAT. METHOD: Individual, semi-structured interviews with five patients, aged 52-78 years, were performed after PE and BBAT at four and ten months...
August 5, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
Michiyo Hirai, Laura L Vernon, George A Clum
The psychometric properties of the paper-pencil and online versions of the Beliefs Toward Mental Illness Scale (BTMI) were examined in two studies with Latina/o individuals. In Study 1, 316 Latina/o participants completed the BTMI in a paper-pencil mode. The original three-factor model was found to be a poor fit model for the sample. Subsequent exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses identified a four-factor model as the best fitting model for the sample. The identified factors were Dangerousness, Social Dysfunction, Incurability, and Embarrassment...
July 28, 2016: Assessment
Antônio Tonete Bafi, Daniere Yurie Vieira Tomotani, Flávio Geraldo Rezende de Freitas
The growing population of solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients is at a significantly increased risk for developing infections. In some patients, the infection can lead to a dysregulated systemic inflammatory response with acute organ dysfunction. SOT recipients with sepsis tend to have less fever and leukocytosis instances. Moreover, they have diminished symptoms and attenuated clinical and radiologic findings. The current management of sepsis is similar to general patients. It relies mainly on early recognition and treatment, including appropriate administration of antibiotics and resuscitation with intravenous fluids and vasoactive drugs when needed...
July 21, 2016: Shock
Esther F Afolalu, Corran Moore, Fatanah Ramlee, Claire E Goodchild, Nicole K Y Tang
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep is a cognitive-behavioral factor central to the development and perpetuation of insomnia. Previous works to unravel the complex interrelationship between pain and insomnia have not explored the role of inflexible beliefs about the sleep-pain interaction, possibly due to a lack of a valid instrument for doing so. The current study evaluated the psychometric and functional properties of a 10-item Pain-Related Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep (PBAS) scale...
2016: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Elizabet Silva, Patrícia M Pascoal, Pedro Nobre
INTRODUCTION: Dysfunctional beliefs about body appearance and cognitive distraction from body appearance during sexual activity have been associated with sexual problems, particularly in women. However, there are no studies examining the interplay between these dimensions and the mechanisms by which they affect sexual functioning. AIM: To examine the mediating role of cognitive distraction with body appearance on the relation between beliefs about appearance and sexual functioning...
September 2016: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Clare M Eddy, Andrea E Cavanna, Hugh E Rickards, Peter C Hansen
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by tics, repetitive movements and vocalizations which are prompted by a sensory-cognitive premonitory urge. Complex tics include environmentally dependent social behaviors such as echoing of other people's speech and actions. Recent studies have suggested that adults with TS can show differences to controls in Theory of Mind (ToM): reasoning about mental states (e.g. beliefs, emotions). In this study, twenty-five adults with uncomplicated TS (no co-morbid disorders, moderate tic severity), and twenty-five healthy age and gender matched controls were scanned with fMRI during an established ToM task...
October 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Tommy H Ng, Ka-Fai Chung, Ting-Kin Ng, Chit-Tat Lee, Man-Sum Chan
OBJECTIVES: Sleep-wake disturbances, such as sleep irregularity, are common in bipolar disorder. Early studies suggest that sleep irregularity is associated with mood symptoms in bipolar disorder, but little research has been conducted to identify other correlates of sleep irregularity. We investigated the relationship between sleep irregularity and sleep quality, social rhythms, eveningness, sleep-related cognitions and behaviors, and past and future mood episodes in 84 patients with inter-episode bipolar I or II disorder...
August 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
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