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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580651/data-fabrication-and-other-reasons-for-non-random-sampling-in-5087-randomised-controlled-trials-in-anaesthetic-and-general-medical-journals
#1
J B Carlisle
Randomised, controlled trials have been retracted after publication because of data fabrication and inadequate ethical approval. Fabricated data have included baseline variables, for instance, age, height or weight. Statistical tests can determine the probability of the distribution of means, given their standard deviation and the number of participants in each group. Randomised, controlled trials have been retracted after the data distributions have been calculated as improbable. Most retracted trials have been written by anaesthetists and published by specialist anaesthetic journals...
June 4, 2017: Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493948/gender-bias-in-clinical-case-reports-a-cross-sectional-study-of-the-big-five-medical-journals
#2
Pascale Allotey, Caitlin Allotey-Reidpath, Daniel D Reidpath
BACKGROUND: Gender bias in medical journals can affect the science and the benefit to patients. It has never been investigated in clinical case reports. The oversight is important because of the role clinical case reports play in hypothesis generation and medical education. We investigated contemporary gender bias in case reports for the highest ranked journals in general and internal medicine. METHODS: PubMed case reports data from 2011 to 2016 were extracted for the Annals of Internal Medicine, British Medical Journal, the Journal of the American Medical Association, The Lancet, and New England Journal of Medicine...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400294/the-distribution-of-p-values-in-medical-research-articles-suggested-selective-reporting-associated-with-statistical-significance
#3
Thomas V Perneger, Christophe Combescure
OBJECTIVES: Published P-values provide a window into the global enterprise of medical research. The aim of this study was to use the distribution of published P-values to estimate the relative frequencies of null and alternative hypotheses and to seek irregularities suggestive of publication bias. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: This cross-sectional study included P-values published in 120 medical research articles in 2016 (30 each from the BMJ, JAMA, Lancet, and New England Journal of Medicine)...
April 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367203/the-50-most-cited-articles-in-gastroenterology-and-hepatology-from-mainland-china
#4
Sun-Kuan Hu, Jie Huang, Wan-Dong Hong, Xiao-Jing Du, Rong Jin, Tie-Su Lin
OBJECTIVE: To identify and analyze the 50 most-cited gastroenterology and hepatology articles originating from mainland China. METHODS: We utilized the 2015 edition of Journal Citation Reports and PubMed to determine the 50 most-cited gastroenterology and hepatology articles from 75 professional journals and four leading journals in clinical medicine, which are The New England Journal of Medicine, The Lancet, The Journal of the American Medical Association, and The British Medical Journal...
January 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349275/the-100-most-influential-papers-in-the-field-of-thrombolytic-therapy-a-bibliometric-analysis
#5
Tariq Jamal Siddiqi, Muhammad Shariq Usman, Muhammad Shahzeb Khan, Kaneez Fatima, Alexander Norbash, Adnan Iqbal Qureshi, Abdur Rahman Khan, Faisal Khosa
BACKGROUND: Bibliometric analyses are used by researchers and research funding agencies to help determine areas of greatest interest, and consequently which topics and domains warrant increased research attention. Bibliometric analyses have similarly been published in a number of clinical subspecialties concerning areas of specific medical interest; however, a thorough literature search revealed that such a study has been absent in the field of thrombolytics to date. To bridge this gap, we conducted a citation analysis of the 100 most influential articles on thrombolytics...
March 27, 2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325713/two-decades-of-cardiovascular-trials-with-primary-surrogate-endpoints-1990-2011
#6
Behnood Bikdeli, Natdanai Punnanithinont, Yasir Akram, Ike Lee, Nihar R Desai, Joseph S Ross, Harlan M Krumholz
BACKGROUND: Surrogate endpoint trials test strategies more efficiently but are accompanied by uncertainty about the relationship between changes in surrogate markers and clinical outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified cardiovascular trials with primary surrogate endpoints published in the New England Journal of Medicine, Lancet, and JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association from 1990 to 2011 and determined the trends in publication of surrogate endpoint trials and the success of the trials in meeting their primary endpoints...
March 21, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292317/the-association-of-funding-source-on-effect-size-in-randomized-controlled-trials-2013-2015-a-cross-sectional-survey-and-meta-analysis
#7
Alberto Falk Delgado, Anna Falk Delgado
BACKGROUND: Trials financed by for-profit organizations have been associated with favorable outcomes of new treatments, although the effect size of funding source impact on outcome is unknown. The aim of this study was to estimate the effect size for a favorable outcome in randomized controlled trials (RCTs), stratified by funding source, that have been published in general medical journals. METHODS: Parallel-group RCTs published in The Lancet, New England Journal of Medicine, and JAMA between 2013 and 2015 were identified...
March 14, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289452/hot-topics-from-the-assemblies
#8
(no author information available yet)
Syncope is a transient loss of consciousness typically due to cerebral hypoperfusion with many causes, including pulmonary embolism. The prevalence of pulmonary embolism in patients with syncope is unknown; hence, in a prospective study, Prandoni et al. and the PESIT investigators report in the New England Journal of Medicine the prevalence of pulmonary embolism in 560 patients admitted for a first episode of syncope at 11 medical centres in Italy.
March 2017: Breathe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210564/more-misinformation-on-breast-cancer-screening
#9
COMMENT
Daniel B Kopans
Unfortunately, a great deal of misinformation has accumulated in the breast cancer screening literature that is based on flawed analyses in an effort to reduce access to screening. Quite remarkably, much of this has come from publications in previously highly respected medical journals. In several papers the intervention (mammography screening) is faulted yet the analyses provided no data on who participated in mammography screening, and which cancers were detected by mammography screening. It is remarkable that a highly respected journal can fault an intervention with no data on the intervention...
February 2017: Gland Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107475/review-and-analysis-of-publication-trends-over-three-decades-in-three-high-impact-medicine-journals
#10
Alexander Ivanov, Beata A Kaczkowska, Saadat A Khan, Jean Ho, Morteza Tavakol, Ashok Prasad, Geetha Bhumireddy, Allan F Beall, Igor Klem, Parag Mehta, William M Briggs, Terrence J Sacchi, John F Heitner
CONTEXT: Over the past three decades, industry sponsored research expanded in the United States. Financial incentives can lead to potential conflicts of interest (COI) resulting in underreporting of negative study results. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that over the three decades, there would be an increase in: a) reporting of conflict of interest and source of funding; b) percentage of randomized control trials c) number of patients per study and d) industry funding...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103591/searching-the-footprints-of-pioneers-on-neurology-a-bibliometric-analysis
#11
Kang Min Park, Jee-Eun Kim, Yerim Kim, Si Eun Kim, Dae Young Yoon, Jong Seok Bae
BACKGROUND: We identify the most cited articles that have influenced the clinical practices of neurologists. METHODS: We first analyzed the top 100 cited articles published in 50 neurology journals with high impact factors. We collected all of the original articles on clinical neurology published in all 554 medical journals. The Institute for Scientific Information Web of Science search tools were used to identify the top 100 cited articles in the database of Journal Citation Reports since 1950, which were then manually reviewed to discover their contents...
2017: European Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093443/impact-of-advanced-autonomous-non-medical-practitioners-in-emergency-care-protocol-for-a-scoping-study
#12
Mark Sujan, Hannah Howard-Franks, Garry Swann, Kirsti Soanes, Catherine Pope, Robert Crouch, Sophie Staniszewska, Elaine Maxwell, Huayi Huang, Matthew Cooke
INTRODUCTION: Emergency care services are looking for new models of care delivery to deal with changing patient demographics and increased pressures. It has been suggested that advanced non-medical practitioners might be valuable for delivering such new models of care. However, it is not clear what the impact of the deployment of advanced non-medical practitioners in emergency care is. This scoping study addresses the following research question: What is known from the literature about the different types of impact of the deployment of advanced (autonomous) non-medical practitioners in emergency care? METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A scoping study will be undertaken to examine and map the impact of the deployment of advanced non-medical practitioners in emergency care...
January 16, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979724/a-peer-reviewed-instructional-video-is-as-effective-as-a-standard-recorded-didactic-lecture-in-medical-trainees-performing-chest-tube-insertion-a-randomized-control-trial
#13
Tomas J Saun, Scott Odorizzi, Celine Yeung, Marjorie Johnson, Glen Bandiera, Shelly P Dev
OBJECTIVE: Online medical education resources are becoming an increasingly used modality and many studies have demonstrated their efficacy in procedural instruction. This study sought to determine whether a standardized online procedural video is as effective as a standard recorded didactic teaching session for chest tube insertion. DESIGN: A randomized control trial was conducted. Participants were taught how to insert a chest tube with either a recorded didactic teaching session, or a New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) video...
May 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898350/cronkhite-canada-syndrome-complicated-by-pulmonary-embolism-a-case-report
#14
Neha L Nemade, Urvi B Shukla, Gajanan D Wagholikar
INTRODUCTION: Cronkhite Canada Syndrome (CCS) is a rare syndrome, described in 1955 by Americans, Leonard Wolsey Cronkhite and Wilma Jeanne Canada in the New England Journal of Medicine [1]. About 450 cases have been reported. Complications, like malignant transformation, unprovoked thromboembolism is known. Since there is wide variability in medical presentation, no definitive diagnostic and treatment protocol s have been set. The mortality remains at 55%. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a 50 year old male patient presenting with diarrhea, weight loss, abdominal pain, ectodermal features...
November 17, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858205/statistical-inference-in-abstracts-of-major-medical-and-epidemiology-journals-1975-2014-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Andreas Stang, Markus Deckert, Charles Poole, Kenneth J Rothman
Since its introduction in the twentieth century, null hypothesis significance testing (NHST), a hybrid of significance testing (ST) advocated by Fisher and null hypothesis testing (NHT) developed by Neyman and Pearson, has become widely adopted but has also been a source of debate. The principal alternative to such testing is estimation with point estimates and confidence intervals (CI). Our aim was to estimate time trends in NHST, ST, NHT and CI reporting in abstracts of major medical and epidemiological journals...
January 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855102/non-inferiority-trials-are-they-inferior-a-systematic-review-of-reporting-in-major-medical-journals
#16
Sunita Rehal, Tim P Morris, Katherine Fielding, James R Carpenter, Patrick P J Phillips
OBJECTIVE: To assess the adequacy of reporting of non-inferiority trials alongside the consistency and utility of current recommended analyses and guidelines. DESIGN: Review of randomised clinical trials that used a non-inferiority design published between January 2010 and May 2015 in medical journals that had an impact factor >10 (JAMA Internal Medicine, Archives Internal Medicine, PLOS Medicine, Annals of Internal Medicine, BMJ, JAMA, Lancet and New England Journal of Medicine)...
October 7, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852915/levels-of-influence-habituation-and-the-prevalence-of-declared-conflicts-of-interest
#17
REVIEW
Jillian R H Bernstein, George Maliha, Jaimo Ahn, Joseph Bernstein
BACKGROUND: The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors has devised a system of mandatory disclosure, under which authors are required to disclose all conflicts of interest and the sources of support for the submitted research. Because payments from industry to physicians generally are common, it is likely that many authors of medical manuscripts will have information to disclose. As a result, the signal-to-noise ratio of such declarations may be low, thereby undermining the effectiveness of disclosure...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757242/no-difference-found-in-time-to-publication-by-statistical-significance-of-trial-results-a-methodological-review
#18
L Jefferson, C Fairhurst, E Cooper, C Hewitt, T Torgerson, L Cook, P Tharmanathan, S Cockayne, D Torgerson
OBJECTIVE: Time-lag from study completion to publication is a potential source of publication bias in randomised controlled trials. This study sought to update the evidence base by identifying the effect of the statistical significance of research findings on time to publication of trial results. DESIGN: Literature searches were carried out in four general medical journals from June 2013 to June 2014 inclusive (BMJ, JAMA, the Lancet and the New England Journal of Medicine)...
October 2016: JRSM Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651214/commercial-conflict-of-interest-and-medical-publication-what-should-the-practising-physician-do-about-it
#19
Prem Pais
I read with interest the comment by Mark Wilson, which deals with possible conflict of interest (CoI) affecting publications in academic medical journals. This comment has specifically targeted the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) and its editor-in-chief Jeffrey Drazen on the "Vioxx scandal" which broke 15 years ago. Wilson's comment seems to be in response to a blog by Natarajan on CoI in medical publications. In the blog Natarajan writes of commercial CoI biasing publication of clinical trials and cites, among other examples, a publication in the NEJM on trials of voriconazole...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650969/chromosomal-microarray-testing-in-adults-with-intellectual-disability-presenting-with-comorbid-psychiatric-disorders
#20
Kate Wolfe, André Strydom, Deborah Morrogh, Jennifer Carter, Peter Cutajar, Mo Eyeoyibo, Angela Hassiotis, Jane McCarthy, Raja Mukherjee, Dimitrios Paschos, Nagarajan Perumal, Stephen Read, Rohit Shankar, Saif Sharif, Suchithra Thirulokachandran, Johan H Thygesen, Christine Patch, Caroline Ogilvie, Frances Flinter, Andrew McQuillin, Nick Bass
Chromosomal copy-number variations (CNVs) are a class of genetic variants highly implicated in the aetiology of neurodevelopmental disorders, including intellectual disabilities (ID), schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Yet the majority of adults with idiopathic ID presenting to psychiatric services have not been tested for CNVs. We undertook genome-wide chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) of 202 adults with idiopathic ID recruited from community and in-patient ID psychiatry services across England...
January 2016: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
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