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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571892/omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-and-cardiovascular-health-a-comprehensive-review
#1
REVIEW
Andrew Elagizi, Carl J Lavie, Keri Marshall, James J DiNicolantonio, James H O'Keefe, Richard V Milani
The potential cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD) benefits of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (OM3) have been intensely studied and debated for decades. Initial trials were performed in patients with low use of maximal medical therapy for CVD, and reported significant mortality benefits with the use of 1 g/day OM3 intervention following myocardial infarction (MI). More recent studies, including cohorts of patients receiving modern guideline directed medical therapy for CVD, have often not shown similar benefits with OM3 use...
March 20, 2018: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553422/publication-patterns-on-occupied-palestine-in-four-key-medical-journals-1990-2016-a-descriptive-study
#2
Mads Gilbert
BACKGROUND: The atrocities in Syria have been covered in the four general medical weekly journals in the USA and the UK. Medical journal articles addressing political determinants of public health have rightly described and criticised the international community's failure to enforce humanitarian law while urging global bodies of power to ensure protection of civilians and civilian infrastructure and medical services. Discussions of the political influences on health of people in the occupied Palestinian territory (West Bank and Gaza Strip) seem to be considered politically out-of-bounds by some medical journals...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527075/home-institution-bias-in-the-new-england-journal-of-medicine-a-noninferiority-study-on-citation-rates
#3
Alberto Falk Delgado, Anna Falk Delgado
Recently, in the four top journals of humanities, an institutional bias towards publication of authors from Harvard and Yale was shown. The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) is today the highest ranked general medical journal. It is unknown if there exists institutional bias favoring publication of articles originating from Harvard University, since the NEJM is produced by the Massachusetts Medical Society with close connections to the Harvard University. We examined if studies originating from the Harvard University published in the NEJM were noninferior in terms of citation rates compared to articles with an origin outside Harvard University...
2018: Scientometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516231/a-call-for-improved-transparency-in-financial-aspects-of-clinical-trials-a-case-study-of-the-create-x-trial-in-the-new-england-journal-of-medicine
#4
Akihiko Ozaki, Morihito Takita, Tetsuya Tanimoto
Introduction Globally, laws and guidelines for managing conflict of interest are increasingly implemented to achieve transparency in financial ties between physicians and pharmaceutical and medical device industries, yet little information is available regarding the limitations of the current frameworks for disclosing these financial ties. Case In June 2017, the Capecitabine for Residual Cancer as Adjuvant Therapy (CREATE-X) trial was published in the New England Journal of Medicine. In this study, which suggested the post-surgery addition of capecitabine would improve survival of high-risk breast cancer patients, the cost of capecitabine for off-label use was illegally claimed to the Japanese public health insurance system, rather than being covered by the research budget...
March 8, 2018: Investigational New Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496500/update-in-outpatient-general-internal-medicine-practice-changing-evidence-published-in-2017
#5
REVIEW
Mark L Wieland, Jason H Szostek, Majken T Wingo, Jason A Post, Karen F Mauck
Clinicians are challenged to identify new practice changing articles in the medical literature. To identify the practice-changing articles published in 2017 most relevant to outpatient general internal medicine, five internists reviewed the following sources: 1) titles and abstracts from internal medicine journals with the 7 highest impact factors, including New England Journal of Medicine, Lancet, Journal of the American Medical Association, British Medical Journal, Public Library of Science Medicine, Annals of Internal Medicine, and JAMA-Internal Medicine; 2) synopses and syntheses of individual studies, including collections in American College of Physicians Journal Club, Journal Watch, and Evidence-Based Medicine; 3) databases of synthesis, including Evidence Updates and the Cochrane Library...
February 26, 2018: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463308/reproducibility-of-clinical-research-in-critical-care-a-scoping-review
#6
Daniel J Niven, T Jared McCormick, Sharon E Straus, Brenda R Hemmelgarn, Lianne Jeffs, Tavish R M Barnes, Henry T Stelfox
BACKGROUND: The ability to reproduce experiments is a defining principle of science. Reproducibility of clinical research has received relatively little scientific attention. However, it is important as it may inform clinical practice, research agendas, and the design of future studies. METHODS: We used scoping review methods to examine reproducibility within a cohort of randomized trials examining clinical critical care research and published in the top general medical and critical care journals...
February 21, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412437/an-international-position-statement-on-the-management-of-frailty-in-diabetes-mellitus-summary-of-recommendations-2017
#7
A J Sinclair, A Abdelhafiz, T Dunning, M Izquierdo, L Rodriguez Manas, I Bourdel-Marchasson, J E Morley, M Munshi, J Woo, B Vellas
AIM: The International Position Statement provides the opportunity to summarise all existing clinical trial and best practice evidence for older people with frailty and diabetes. It is the first document of its kind and is intended to support clinical decisions that will enhance safety in management and promote high quality care. METHODS: The Review Group sought evidence from a wide range of studies that provide sufficient confidence (in the absence of grading) for the basis of each recommendation...
2018: Journal of Frailty & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382668/the-relation-between-publication-rate-and-financial-conflict-of-interest-among-physician-authors-of-high-impact-oncology-publications-an-observational-study
#8
Victoria Kaestner, Jonathan B Edmiston, Vinay Prasad
BACKGROUND: Despite the abundant research on financial conflict of interest regarding provider behaviour and the interpretation and results of research, little is known about the relation between these conflicts in academia and the trajectory of one's academic career. We performed a study to examine whether the presence of financial ties to drug makers among academics is associated with research productivity. METHODS: We hand-searched 3 high-impact general medical journals ( New England Journal of Medicine , JAMA and The Lancet ) and 3 high-impact oncology journals that publish original science ( The Lancet Oncology , Journal of Clinical Oncology and Journal of the National Cancer Institute ) to identify physicians based in the United States who were first or last authors on original papers on hematologic or oncologic topics that appeared in 2015...
January 30, 2018: CMAJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306063/many-randomized-clinical-trials-may-not-be-justified-a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-the-ethics-and-science-of-randomized-clinical-trials
#9
Julie De Meulemeester, Mark Fedyk, Lucas Jurkovic, Michael Reaume, Dar Dowlatshahi, Grant Stotts, Michel Shamy
OBJECTIVE: We have proposed that three scientific criteria are important for the ethical justification of randomized clinical trials (RCTs): (1) they should be designed around a clear hypothesis; (2) uncertainty should exist around that hypothesis; (3) that uncertainty should be as established through a systematic review. We hypothesized that the majority of a sample of recently published RCTs would not explicitly incorporate these criteria, therefore rendering them potentially unjustified on scientific grounds...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281975/a-survey-of-prevalence-of-narrative-and-systematic-reviews-in-five-major-medical-journals
#10
Clovis Mariano Faggion, Nikolaos P Bakas, Jason Wasiak
BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews may provide less biased evidence than narrative reviews because they observe a strict methodology, similarly to primary studies. Hence, for clinical research questions, systematic reviews should be the study design of choice. It would be important to evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of narrative and systematic reviews published in prominent medical journals. Researchers and clinicians give great value to articles published in such scientific journals...
December 28, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275030/testosterone-and-cardiovascular-health
#11
REVIEW
Andrew Elagizi, Tobias S Köhler, Carl J Lavie
There is an ongoing debate in the medical community regarding the effects of testosterone on cardiovascular (CV) health. For decades, there has been conflicting evidence regarding the association of endogenous testosterone levels and CV disease (CVD) events that has resulted in much debate and confusion among health care providers and patients alike. Testosterone therapy has become increasingly widespread, and after the emergence of studies that reported increased CVD events in patients receiving testosterone therapy, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) released a warning statement about testosterone and its potential risk regarding CV health...
January 2018: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239150/gender-differences-in-septic-intensive-care-unit-patients
#12
Francesco Campanelli, Giovanni Landoni, Luca Cabrini, Alberto Zangrillo
BACKGROUND: The world population is mostly male at birth, although there is a shift in predominance over 55 years of age with more females than males. Male gender was recently hypothesized to be a risk factor for sepsis and septic shock; the reasons and the consequences of this odd discrepancy are yet a matter of debate. We investigated the percentage of males and females in a large number of trials performed on septic adult patients admitted to Intensive Care Units. METHODS: We analysed all the multicentre randomized controlled trials ever published in peer-reviewed Journals reporting a significant effect on mortality in intensive care unit septic adult patients; furthermore, we retrieved all the manuscripts dealing with sepsis or septic shock patients published in the last 3 years in the three medical Journals with the highest impact factor...
December 13, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221458/a-cohort-examination-to-establish-reporting-of-the-remit-and-function-of-trial-steering-committees-in-randomised-controlled-trials
#13
Elizabeth J Conroy, Barbara Arch, Nicola L Harman, J Athene Lane, Steff C Lewis, John Norrie, Matthew R Sydes, Carrol Gamble
BACKGROUND: The DAMOCLES project established a widely used Data Monitoring Committee (DMC) Charter for randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Typically, within the UK, the DMC is advisory and recommends to another executive body; the Trial Steering Committee (TSC). Despite the executive role of the TSC, the CONSORT Statement does not explicitly require reporting of TSC activity, although is included as an example of good reporting. A lack of guidance on TSC reporting can impact transparency of trial oversight, ultimately leading to a misunderstanding regarding role and, subsequently, further variation in practice...
December 8, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993088/hip-and-knee-arthroplasty-orthopedic-literature-in-medical-journals-is-it-negatively-biased
#14
Ronald E Delanois, Chukwuweike U Gwam, Nicolas S Piuzzi, Morad Chughtai, Arthur L Malkani, Peter M Bonutti, Michael A Mont
BACKGROUND: Healthcare policy is often determined by well-designed studies most often published in high-impact medical journals. However, concern about the presence of publication bias against lower-extremity arthroplasty-related studies has called into question some of the validity of certain reports. There are only a few studies investigating the presence of the bias in high-impact medical journals against lower-extremity arthroplasty intervention, particularly in the Journal of American Medical Association (JAMA), New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM), and the Lancet...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954803/temporal-trends-in-use-of-composite-end-points-in-major-cardiovascular-randomized-clinical-trials-in-prominent-medical-journals
#15
Nigel S Tan, Sammy H Ali, Gerald Lebovic, Muhammad Mamdani, Andreas Laupacis, Andrew T Yan
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular mortality has decreased over the past 5 decades, making it increasingly difficult to demonstrate significant benefits of new therapies in randomized clinical trials. We sought to determine whether the use of composite end points in major cardiovascular trials has changed over time and examine temporal trends in the clinical importance of individual components of these composite end points. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using a validated search strategy, we searched MEDLINE for randomized trials of therapies for primary or secondary cardiovascular prevention published in New England Journal of Medicine, The Lancet, and the Journal of the American Medical Association between 1986 and 2015...
October 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757260/comparison-between-publicly-accessible-publications-registries-and-protocols-of-phase-iii-trials-indicated-persistence-of-selective-outcome-reporting
#16
REVIEW
Sheng Zhang, Fei Liang, Wenfeng Li
OBJECTIVES: The decision to make protocols of phase III randomized controlled trials (RCTs) publicly accessible by leading journals was a landmark event in clinical trial reporting. Here, we compared primary outcomes defined in protocols with those in publications describing the trials and in trial registration. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We identified phase III RCTs published between January 1, 2012, and June 30, 2015, in The New England Journal of Medicine, The Lancet, The Journal of the American Medical Association, and The BMJ with available protocols...
November 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749016/trends-in-study-design-and-the-statistical-methods-employed-in-a-leading-general-medicine-journal
#17
M Gosho, Y Sato, K Nagashima, S Takahashi
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Study design and statistical methods have become core components of medical research, and the methodology has become more multifaceted and complicated over time. The study of the comprehensive details and current trends of study design and statistical methods is required to support the future implementation of well-planned clinical studies providing information about evidence-based medicine. Our purpose was to illustrate study design and statistical methods employed in recent medical literature...
February 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718304/the-role-of-surgery-in-low-grade-gliomas-do-timing-and-extent-of-resection-matter
#18
Hugues Duffau
Hugues Duffau is a Professor and Chairman of the Neurosurgery Department in the Montpellier University Medical Center and Head of the INSERM 1051 Team "plasticity of the central nervous system, human stem cells and glial tumors" at the Institute for Neurosciences of Montpellier (France). He is an expert in the awake cognitive neurosurgery of slow-growing brain tumors, such as low-grade gliomas, a routine which he has developed since 20 years. His fundamental approach is centered on the concepts of the brain connectomics and neuroplasticity, breaking with the traditional localizationist view of cerebral processing...
July 18, 2017: CNS Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659198/-henry-beecher-and-medical-science-the-50th-anniversary-of-a-famous-article
#19
N Jacobs, F G Huisman
In 2016, it had been exactly half a century ago that Henry Beecher published his article 'Ethics and clinical research' in The New England Journal of Medicine. Today, this article is considered a turning point in the history of medical research ethics. On the occasion of the fiftieth anniversary of this famous article, we are looking back on this turbulent period in the history of medicine.
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580651/data-fabrication-and-other-reasons-for-non-random-sampling-in-5087-randomised-controlled-trials-in-anaesthetic-and-general-medical-journals
#20
J B Carlisle
Randomised, controlled trials have been retracted after publication because of data fabrication and inadequate ethical approval. Fabricated data have included baseline variables, for instance, age, height or weight. Statistical tests can determine the probability of the distribution of means, given their standard deviation and the number of participants in each group. Randomised, controlled trials have been retracted after the data distributions have been calculated as improbable. Most retracted trials have been written by anaesthetists and published by specialist anaesthetic journals...
August 2017: Anaesthesia
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